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PAST PRESENT FUTURE

SIMPLE + S + V2 S + (V1 + [s/es]) S + shall/will + V1

- S + did + not + V1 S + do/does + not + V1 S + shall/will + not + V1

? did + S + V1 do/does + S + V1 shall/will + S + V1

CONTI- + S + (were/was) + (V1+ing) S + (am,are,is) + (VI+ing) S + shall/will + be + (V1+ing)


NUOUS

- S + (were/was) + not + (VI+ing) S + (am,are,is) + not + (V1+ing) S + shall/will + not + be + (V1+ing)

? (were/was) + S + (V1+ing) (am,are,is) + S + (V1+ing) (shall/will) + S + be + (V1+ing)

PERFECT + S + had + V3 S + (have/has) + V3 S + (shall/will) + have + V3

- S + had + not + V3 S + (have/has) + not + V3 S + (shall/will) + not + have + V3

? had + S + V3 (have/has) + S + V3 (shall/will) + S + V3

PERFECT CONTI- + S + had + been + (V1+ing) S + (have/has) + been + (V1+ing) S + shall/will + have + been + (V1+ing)
NUOUS

- S + had + not + been + (V1+ing) S + (have/has) + not + been + (V1+ing) S + shall/will + not + have + been + (V1+ing)

? had + S + been + (V1+ing) (have/has) + S + been + (V1+ing) shall/will + S + have + been + (V1+ing)
PAST PRESENT FUTURE

Ex : Jimmy ate all the apples on the bowl. Function :


+ No verb => 1. kebiasaan sehari-hari (i get up early in the morning) Bentuk ini digunakan jika kita membicarakan suatu kejadian
Subject + Be (was/were) + Complements 2. pekerjaan yang sering dilakukan (he often comes to yang akan terjadi.
Ex : Ken was a football player before the accident. late) Keterangan waktu yang biasa dipakai adalah: tomorrow, next
Function : 3. kebenaran umum (the earth goes rount the sun) week, next year, soon, dan lain-lain
4. suatu peryataan pada saat sekarang (he likes coffee) Ex : We shall (or we will) probably go to Los Angeles in June.
SIMPLE - 2.1. Kata
menyatakan suatu kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau.
keterangan waktu : last, ago, yesterday, just now, last Bentuk present digabungkan subjek orang ketiga tunggal Notes : to be going to = akan
year, two days ago, etc. maka ditambah akhiran s/es. Ex : • We are going to be late.
3. used to => suatu kebiasaan di waktu lampau yang sekarang Adverb of time : misalnya every day, every week, today, Pemakaian will bisa jadi hanya sekadar perkiraan tetapi to be
tidak dilakukan lagi. tonight, this week, dan lain-lain. going to sudah pasti akan dilaksanakan
? ex : When I was young I used to go school on foot. Adverb of frequency : often, always, generally, usually,
seldom, sometimes, dan lain-lain.
+ Function : Ex : They are playing football. Function :
1. Dua kejadian yang terjadi di waktu lampau. Satu kejadian Function : untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sedang untuk menyatakan suatu rencana yang sudah pasti akan
- sedang berlangsung sewaktu kejadian yang lain terjadi. Ex : I dilaksanakan.
CONTI- berlangsung pada saat sekarang.
Ex :
was watching TV when he phoned me. Keterangan waktu yang dipakai: now, at present, at this
NUOUS 2. Dua kejadian yang terjadi secara bersamaan di waktu lampau. moment, dan lain-lain. Don’t come to my house at 3 o’clock in the afternoon, because
? Ex : While my father was reading a newspaper, my mother I’ll be playing tennis.
was cooking in the kitchen.
Ex :
1. My father has just gone home.
+ 2. Jerry has never eaten strawberries before.
Funtion : 3. We have just finished watching the game.
Funtion :
menyatakan dua kejadian yang terjadi di waktu lampau, dimana Function :
menyatakan suatu rencana yang sudah pasti selesai dikerjakan
satu kejadian sudah selesai dikerjakan sewaktu kejadian yang lain 1. menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah selesai
- terjadi. Ex : pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.
dilakukan dan hasil pekerjaan itu dapat dilihat pada
Ex :
PERFECT 1. She had just come after he got there. saat sekarang.
1. I will have bought a new car, when you come here again
2. I had finished my work when the letter came. 2. Bentuk ini juga dapat digunakan ketika kita
next week.
Kata keterangan yang biasa dipakai yaitu before, after, as soon as, membicarakan sesuatu kejadian yang dimulai
just, already. dikerjakan pada masa lampau dan hingga sekarang 2. By the time I come back from London, I hope Tina will
masih berlangsung. have grown up.
?
3. Kata keterangan yang sering digunakan adalah: for,
since, today, recently, lately, already, just now, yet, so
far, dan lain-lain

+ Function : menyatakan berapa lama suatu kejadian berlangsung Bentuk kalimat ini digunakan jika membicarakan berapa lama
Ex : suatu kejadian berlangsung sampai dengan waktu yang telah
sebelum kejadian lainnya terjadi.
1. I have been working on the paper for three hours. ditentukan di waktu yang akan datang.
PERFECT Ex :
Contoh:
1. They had been playing foot ball for two hours when there was a 2. Sam has been waiting for you since this morning.
CONTI- - 3. We have been living in this town since 1997. 1. Betty will have been playing tennis for 7 hours by the end
terrible storm.
Function : menyatakan suatu kejadian yang dikerjakan di of this day.
NUOUS 2. I had been living in Bandung for there years when the war
2. The Brows will have been living in this new house for 18
broke out. waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung.
Kata keterangan yang sering digunakan adalah: since, for. months next September.
?