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# LECTURE THREE : MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM

## 3.1 MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Magnetic materials are classified based on the property of permeability as
(a) Diamagnetic materials
(b) Paramagnetic materials
(c) Ferromagnetic materials
Diamagnetic materials
These are materials whose permeability is below unity. They are repelled by a magnet for instance Lead,
gold, mercury, glass, copper

Paramagnetic materials
These are materials whose permeability is above unity. The force of attraction by a magnet towards these
materials is low for instance copper sulphate, platinum, aluminium

Ferromagnetic materials
These are materials whose permeability is thousand of times more than paramagnetic materials. These are
very much attracted for instance iron, nickel, cobalt

## 3.2 MAGNETIC FIELDS

The lines of magnetic flux have no physical existence; they are purely imaginary and were introduced by
Michael Faraday as a means of visualizing the distribution and density of a magnetic field. It is
important to realize that the magnetic flux permeates the whole of the space occupied by that flux. This
compares with the electric field lines.

## 3.2.1 Direction of magnetic field

The direction of a magnetic field is taken as that in which the north-seeking pole of a magnet points when
the latter is suspended in the field.
The lines of magnetic flux are assumed to pass through the magnet, emerge from the N pole and return to
the S pole.

## 3.2.2 Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux

Lines of magnetic flux are assumed to have the following properties
1. The direction of a line of magnetic flux at any point in a non-magnetic medium, such as air, is that
of the north-seeking pole of a compass needle placed at that point.

2. Each line of magnetic flux forms a closed loop, as shown by the dotted lines. This means that a line of
flux emerging from any point at the N-pole end of a magnet passes through the surrounding space back to
the S-pole end and is then assumed to continue through the magnet to the point at which it emerged at the
N-pole end.

3. Lines of magnetic flux never intersect. This follows from the fact that if a compass needle is placed in
a magnetic field, its north-seeking pole will point in one direction only, namely in the direction of the
magnetic flux at that point.

4. Unlike poles attract each other, like poles repel each other

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## 3.2.3 Magnetic field due to an electric current

When a conductor carries an electric current, a magnetic field is produced around that conductor. Thus it
is found that if we look along the conductor and if the current is flowing away from us, as shown by the
cross inside the conductor in Fig. below, the magnetic field has a clockwise direction and the lines of
magnetic flux can be represented by concentric circles around the wire.

The method of deriving this relationship is to grip the conductor with the
right hand, with the thumb outstretched parallel to the conductor and pointing
in the direction of the current; the fingers then point in the direction of the
magnetic flux around the conductor. This is known as the Right-hand screw
rule.

## 3.2.4 Magnetic field of a solenoid

If a coil is wound on a steel rod, as in Fig. below, and connected to a battery, the steel becomes
magnetized and behaves like a permanent magnet. The magnetic field of the electromagnet is represented
by the dotted lines and its direction by the arrowheads.

## The direction of the magnetic field produced by a current in a solenoid

may be deduced by applying either the screw or the grip rule.
If the axis of the screw is placed along that of the solenoid and if the
screw is turned in the direction of the current, it travels in the direction
of the magnetic field inside the solenoid, namely towards the right in
Fig. on the left.

The grip rule can be expressed thus: if the solenoid is gripped with the
right hand, with the fingers pointing in the direction of the current, i.e.
conventional current, then the thumb outstretched parallel to the axis of
the solenoid points in the direction of the magnetic field inside the
solenoid.

## 3.2.5 Force on a current-carrying conductor

A conductor carrying a current can produce a force on a magnet situated in the vicinity of the conductor.
By Newton’s third law of motion, namely that to every force there must be an equal and opposite force, it
follows that the magnet must exert an equal force on the conductor.
The mechanical force exerted by the conductor always acts in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the
conductor and the magnetic field direction. The direction is given by the Fleming's left-hand rule.

## The force on a conductor carrying a current at right angles to a

magnetic field is increased (a) when the current in the conductor is
increased, and (b) when the magnetic field is made stronger by
bringing the magnet nearer to the conductor.

## If F is the force on conductor in newtons, I the current through

conductor in amperes and l the length, in metres, of conductor at right angles to magnetic field
F [newtons] ∝ flux density × l [metres] × I [amperes]

The unit of flux density is taken as the density of a magnetic field such that a conductor carrying 1
ampere at right angles to that field has a force of 1 newton per metre acting upon it. This unit is termed a
tesla* (T).
Magnetic flux density Symbol: B Unit: tesla (T)

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For a magnetic field having a cross-sectional area of A square metres and a uniform flux density of B
teslas, the total flux in webers (Wb) is represented by Φ (phi).
Magnetic flux Symbol: Φ Unit: weber (Wb)
2
It follows that, Φ [webers] = B [teslas] × A [metres ]

Example 1: A conductor carries a current of 800 A at right angles to a magnetic field having a density of
0.5 T. Calculate the force on the conductor in newtons per metre length.

Example 2: A rectangular coil measuring 200 mm by 100 mm is mounted such that it can be rotated
about the midpoints of the 100 mm sides.
The axis of rotation is at right angles to a magnetic field of uniform flux density 0.05 T. Calculate the flux
in the coil for the following conditions:
(a) the maximum flux through the coil and the position at which it occurs;
(b) the flux through the coil when the 100 mm sides are inclined at 45° to the direction of the flux

## 3.2.6 Electromagnetic induction

Michael Faraday discovered a method of obtaining an electric current with the aid of magnetic flux i.e.
electromagnetic induction. An electric current could be produced by the movement of magnetic flux
relative to a coil. The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic
flux passed through the coil is varied.

Alternatively, we can say that, when a conductor cuts or is cut by magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is generated in
the conductor and the magnitude of the generated e.m.f. is proportional to the rate at which the conductor
cuts or is cut by the magnetic flux.
There are two methods are available for deducing the direction of the induced or generated e.m.f., namely
(a) Fleming’s right-hand rule
(b) Lenz’s law

## Fleming’s right-hand rule

If the first finger of the right hand is pointed in the direction of the
magnetic flux, and if the thumb is pointed in the direction of motion of
the conductor relative to the magnetic field, then the second finger, held
at right angles to both the thumb and the first finger, represents the
direction of the e.m.f.

Lenz’s law
The direction of an induced e.m.f. is always such that it tends to set up a current opposing the motion or
the change of flux responsible for inducing that e.m.f.

Let us consider the application of Lenz’s law to the ring shown above. By applying either the screw or the
grip rule, we find that when S is closed and the battery has the polarity shown, the direction of the
magnetic flux in the ring is clockwise. Consequently, the current in C must be such as to try to produce a
flux in an anticlockwise direction, tending to oppose the growth of the flux due to A, namely the flux
which is responsible for the e.m.f. induced in C. But an anticlockwise flux in the ring would require the

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current in C to be passing through the coil from X to Y. Hence, this must also be the direction of the e.m.f.
induced in C

## 3.2.7 Magnitude of the generated or induced e.m.f

The e.m.f., in volts, generated in a conductor is equal to the rate (in webers per
second) at which the magnetic flux is cutting or being cut by the conductor

Hence the weber may therefore be defined as that magnetic flux which, when cut at a uniform rate by a
conductor in 1 s, generates an e.m.f. of 1 V.
In general, if a conductor cuts or is cut by a flux of dΦ webers in dt seconds, e.m.f. generated in
conductor = dΦ/dt volts

## 3.2.8 Magnitude of e.m.f. induced in a coil

The induced e.m.f. circulates a current tending to oppose the increase of flux through the coil, hence the
average e.m.f. induced in one turn is Φ/t volts; which is the average rate of change of flux in webers per
second,
and the average e.m.f. induced in coil is NΦ/t volts which is the average rate of change of flux-linkages
per second
Flux linkage Symbol: Ψ (psi) Unit: weber (Wb)
Ψ = NΦ
It follows that instantaneous value of e.m.f., in volts, induced in a coil is the rate of change of flux-
linkages, in weber-turns per second, or

and

Hence we can also define the weber as that magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, induces in
it an e.m.f. of 1 V when the flux is reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 s.

Example 3: A magnetic flux of 400 μWb passing through a coil of 1200 turns is reversed in 0.1 s.
Calculate the average value of the e.m.f. induced in the coil.

## 3.3 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

One of the characteristics of lines of magnetic flux is that each line forms a closed loop. For instance, in
Fig. below, the dotted lines represent the flux set up within a ring made of steel.
The complete closed path followed by any group of magnetic flux lines is
referred to as a magnetic circuit. One of the simplest forms of magnetic
circuit is the ring shown where the steel ring provides the space in which the
magnetic flux is created. Most rings are made like anchor rings in that their
cross-section is circular – such a ring is called a toroid

## 3.3.1 Magnetomotive force and magnetic field strength

In an electric circuit, the current is due to the existence of an electromotive force. By analogy, we may say
that in a magnetic circuit the magnetic flux is due to the existence of a magnetomotive force (m.m.f.)
caused by a current flowing through one or more turns. The value of the m.m.f. is proportional to the
current and to the number of turns, and is descriptively expressed in ampere-turns; but for the purpose of
dimensional analysis, it is expressed in amperes, since the number of turns is dimensionless. Hence the
unit of magnetomotive force is the ampere.
Magnetomotive force Symbol: F Unit: ampere (A)

If a current of I amperes flows through a coil of N turns, as shown in Fig. above, the magnetomotive force

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F is the total current linked with the magnetic circuit, namely IN amperes.
If the magnetic circuit is of uniform cross-sectional area, the magnetomotive force per metre length of the
magnetic circuit is termed the magnetic field strength and is represented by the symbol H.
Thus, if the mean length of the magnetic circuit of Fig. above is l metres,
H = IN/l amperes per metre
Magnetic field strength Symbol: H Unit: ampere per metre (A/m)

## 3.3.2 Permeability of free space or magnetic constant

The ratio B/H is termed the permeability of free space and is represented by the symbol μ0. Thus
Permeability of free space Symbol: μ0 Unit: henry per metre (H/m)

## μ0= 4π × 10−7 H/m

Example 4: A coil of 200 turns is wound uniformly over a wooden ring having a mean circumference of
600 mm and a uniform cross-sectional area of 500 mm2. If the current through the coil is 4.0 A, calculate
(a) the magnetic field strength
(b) the flux density
(c) the total flux.

Example 5: Calculate the magnetomotive force required to produce a flux of 0.015 Wb across an airgap
2.5 mm long, having an effective area of 200 cm2.

## 3.3.3 Relative permeability

This is the ratio of the flux density produced in a material to the flux density produced in a vacuum (or in
a non-magnetic core) by the same magnetic field strength. It is denoted by the symbol μr

From expression B = μ0H for a non-magnetic material; hence, for a material having a relative
permeability μr, B = μ 0 μr H

3.3.4 Reluctance
Let us consider a ferromagnetic ring having a cross-sectional area of A square metres and a mean
circumference of l metres, wound with N turns carrying a current I amperes, then total flux (Φ) = flux
density × area
∴ Φ = BA …...................(i)
and m.m.f. (F) = magnetic field strength × length.
∴ F = Hl …..................(ii)
Dividing equation (i) by (ii), we have

F = ΦS and

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If the current through a coil having an inductance of 0.5 H is reduced from 5 A to 2 A in 0.05 s, calculate
the mean value of the e.m.f. induced in the coil.

It is useful to compare the calculation of the reluctance of a magnetic circuit with the calculation of the
resistance of an electric circuit. The resistance of a conductor of length l, cross-sectional area A and
resistivity ρ is given by R = ρl/A
Since electrical conductivity σ = 1/ρ, the expression for R can be rewritten as: R = l/σA

This is very similar indeed to equation for the reluctance S, except permeability μ (= μ0μr) replaces σ. For
both electrical and magnetic circuits, increasing the length of the circuit increases the opposition to the
flow of electric current or magnetic flux. Similarly, decreasing the cross-sectional area of the electric or
magnetic circuit decreases the opposition to the flow of electric current or magnetic flux.

## 3.3.5 Ohm’s law for a magnetic circuit’

F = ΦS can thus be regarded as ‘Ohm’s law for a magnetic circuit’, since the m.m.f. (F ), the total number
of ampere-turns (= NI) acting on the magnetic circuit.
m.m.f. = flux × reluctance
F = ΦS
or
NI = ΦS
It is clear that m.m.f. (F ) is analogous to e.m.f. (E ) and flux (Φ) is analogous to current (I ) in a d.c.
resistive circuit, where e.m.f. = current × resistance
E = IR
The laws of resistors in series or parallel also hold for reluctances. However, a big difference between
electrical resistance R and magnetic reluctance S is that resistance is associated with an energy loss (the
rate is I2R) whereas reluctance is not. Magnetic fluxes take leakage paths whereas electric currents
normally do not.

Example 6: A mild-steel ring having a cross-sectional area of 500 mm 2 and a mean circumference of 400
mm has a coil of 200 turns wound uniformly around it. Given that relative permeability of mild steel is
(a) the reluctance of the ring;
(b) the current required to produce a flux of 800 μWb in the ring.

Example 7: A magnetic circuit comprises three parts in series, each of uniform cross-sectional area
(c.s.a.). They are:
(a) a length of 80 mm and c.s.a. 50 mm2,
(b) a length of 60 mm and c.s.a. 90 mm2,
(c) an airgap of length 0.5 mm and c.s.a. 150 mm2.
A coil of 4000 turns is wound on part (b), and the flux density in the airgap is 0.30 T. Assuming that all
the flux passes through the given circuit, and that the relative permeability μr is 1300, estimate the coil
current to produce such a flux density.

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3.4 INDUCTORS
Any circuit in which a change of current is accompanied by a change of flux, and therefore by an induced
e.m.f., is said to be inductive or to possess self-inductance or merely inductance. It is impossible to have
a perfectly non- inductive circuit, i.e. a circuit in which no flux is set up by a current; but for most
purposes a circuit which is not in the form of a coil may be regarded as being practically non-inductive.

The unit of inductance is termed the henry. A circuit has an inductance of1 henry (or 1 H) if an e.m.f. of
1 volt is induced in the circuit when the current varies uniformly at the rate of 1 ampere per second.

If either the inductance or the rate of change of current is doubled, the induced e.m.f. is doubled. Hence
if a circuit has an inductance of L henrys and if the current increases from i 1to i2 amperes in t seconds the
average rate of change of current is i2 − i1/t amperes per second
and average induced e.m.f. is

volts

## Self-inductance Symbol: L Unit: henry (H)

Considering instantaneous values, if di = increase of current, in amperes, in time dt seconds, rate of
change of current is di/dt amperes per second and e.m.f. induced in circuit is

Example: If the current through a coil having an inductance of 0.5 H is reduced from 5 A to 2 A in 0.05 s,
calculate the mean value of the e.m.f. induced in the coil.

## 3.4.1 Types of inductor and inductance

Inductors are generally made to have a fixed value of inductance, but some are
variable. The symbols for fixed and variable inductors are shown below.

Inductance is the ratio of flux-linkages to current, i.e. the flux linking the turns
through which it appears to pass.
Any circuit must comprise at least a single turn, and therefore the current in the
circuit sets up a flux which links the circuit itself. It follows that any circuit has
inductance. However, the inductance can be negligible unless the circuit
includes a coil so that the number of turns ensures high flux-linkage or the
circuit is large enough to permit high flux-linkage.

## Inductors always involve coils of conductor wire.

Inductors fall into two categories – those with an air core and those with a
ferromagnetic core. The air core has the advantage that it has a linear B/H
characteristic which means that the inductance L is the same no matter what

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current is in the coil. However, the relative permeability of air being 1 means
that the values of inductance attained are very low.
The ferromagnetic core produces very much higher values of inductance, but the B/H characteristic is not
linear and therefore the inductance L varies indirectly with the current.
There are also variable inductors in which the core is mounted on a screw so that it can be made to move
in and out of the coil, thus varying the inductance.

## 3.4.1 Energy storage in an inductor

Lenz's law states that the direction of an induced e.m.f. is always such that it tends to set up a current
opposing the motion or the change of flux responsible for inducing that e.m.f.
Hence if you try to start current flowing in a wire, the current will set up a magnetic field that opposes the
growth of current. It will take more energy than you expect to get the current flowing. This additional
energy isn't lost - it is stored, in the magnetic field established by the current.

Some people find it helpful to think of this as a back e.m.f. opposing the e.m.f. This voltage is
proportional to the rate of change of flux, which in turn is proportional to the rate of change of current.

3.4.2 Chokes
A choke is an inductor used to block higher-frequency alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit,
while passing lower-frequency or direct current (DC). A choke usually consists of a coil of insulated wire
often wound on a magnetic core
Chokes are divided into three types broad classes
(a) Audio frequency chokes (AFC)
(c) Common-mode choke

## Audio frequency and power supply filter chokes

Designed to block audio and power line frequencies while allowing DC to pass. Audio frequency (AF)
chokes usually have ferromagnetic cores to increase their inductance. They are often constructed similarly
to transformers, with laminated iron cores. A major use in the past was in power supplies to produce
direct current (DC), where they were used in conjunction with large electrolytic capacitors as filters to
remove the alternating current (AC) ripple at the output of rectifiers. However, modern electrolytic
capacitors and voltage regulators that remove more power supply ripple than chokes could, have
eliminated heavy, bulky chokes from mains frequency power supplies.

RF chokes
These are designed to block radio frequencies while allowing audio and DC to pass Chokes for higher
frequencies often have iron powder or ferrite cores. A modern form of choke used for eliminating digital
RF noise from lines is the ferrite bead. These are often seen on computer cables.

Common-mode choke
Common-mode chokes, where two coils are wound on a single core, are useful for prevention of
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) from power supply lines and
for prevention of malfunctioning of electronic equipment