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Well Testing Course Sylabes

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Well Testing Course Sylabes

© All Rights Reserved

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Spring 2004

Instructor:

Instructor: Dr. Tom Blasingame (Section 501)

Office: RICH 815

Lecture: MWF 11:30-12:20 a.m. RICH 302

Office Hours: tba (or by appointment)

Phone: (979) 845-2292

e-mail: t-blasingame@tamu.edu

Texts: (Available at MSC Bookstore, can also be ordered directly from SPE (probably at reduced rates), you must be an SPE member — SPE

(800) 456-6863)

1. Lee, W.J.: Well Testing, (1st edition) SPE (1982).

2. Lee, W.J. and Wattenbarger, R.A.: Gas Reservoir Engineering, SPE (1996).

Reference Materials:

1. Course materials for this semester are located at:

http://pumpjack.tamu.edu/~t-blasingame/P324_04A/

2. An extensive compilation of reference notes, old exams, homeworks, etc. are located at:

http://pumpjack.tamu.edu/~t-blasingame/P324_reference/

Note: The most materials are in given in .pdf files and some of these files are quite large — you should not open these files on the

server, but rather, you should DOWNLOAD the .pdf to your local computer.

3. Journal articles (to be made available in electronic formats)

4. Other text materials:

a. Horne, R.N.: Modern Well Test Analysis: A Computer-Aided Approach (1995). (available at SPE)

b. Dake, L. P.: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, Elsevier (1978). (available at SPE)

c. Dake, L. P.: The Practice of Reservoir Engineering, Elsevier (1994). (available at SPE)

Basis for Grade: Blasingame (501)

Homework................................................................................................................ 25%

Quizzes..................................................................................................................... 10%

Examinations (3) ...................................................................................................... 45%

Final Examination .................................................................................................... 15%

Class Participation ................................................................................................. 5%

total = 100%

Grade Cutoffs: (Percentages)

A: > 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: < 59.99

Policies and Procedures:

1. Students are expected to attend class every session.

2. Policy on Grading

a. It shall be the general policy for this course that homework, quizzes, and exams shall be graded on the basis of answers only —

partial credit, if given, is given solely at the discretion of the instructor.

b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit.

c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final.

3. Policy on Regrading

a. Only in very rare cases will exams be considered for regrading; e.g., when the total number of points deducted is not consistent

with the assigned grade. Partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal.

b. Work which, while possibly correct, but cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect — and will not be considered for a

grade change.

c. Grades assigned to homework problems will not be considered for regrading.

d. If regrading is necessary, the student is to submit a letter to the instructor explaining the situation that requires consideration for

regrading, the material to be regraded must be attached to this letter. The letter and attached material must be received within

one week from the date returned by the instructor.

4. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date.

If a student comes to class after homework has been turned in and after class has begun, the student's homework will be considered

late and given a grade of zero. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any

assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted.

5. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. In particular,

anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically allowed will be

removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course.

2

Course Description, Prerequisites by Topic, and Course Topics

Spring 2004

Course Description

The purpose of this course is to provide the student with a working knowledge of the current methodologies used in well testing—

including, but not limited to, single and multi-rate testing, single and multiwell testing, homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs,

infinite and finite-acting reservoir behavior.

Specific topics to be studied include: steady-state and pseudosteady-state flow behavior, derivation of the diffusivity equation; solution

of the diffusivity equation; analysis of pressure drawdown and buildup tests; wellbore storage and skin effects; behavior of vertically

fractured wells; behavior of dual porosity reservoir systems; analysis of production performance; rate forecasting using semi-analytical;

empirical; and IPR methods; deliverability testing.

Prerequisites by Topic: Differential and integral calculus., ordinary and partial differential equations, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and heat

transfer, reservoir fluid properties, and Reservoir petrophysics.

Course Topics (see reference notes and lecture materials on the website)

Module 1: Introductory Materials

z Course Introduction/Review of Syllabus

z Objectives of well testing: Review of petrophysics, review of fluid properties, reservoir models (and properties that can be obtained)

z Orientation—plots used in well testing (Cartesian, semilog, and log-log plots)

Module 2: Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media

z Material balance concepts: Undersaturated and solution gas drive oil cases, and dry gas/abnormally-pressured gas reservoir cases.

z Steady-state flow concepts: (w/pressure distributions for linear and radial systems)

— Liquid systems (pressure case)

— Gas systems (pseudopressure and pressure-squared cases)

— Development of the radial flow skin factor

z Pseudosteady-state flow concepts: (w/pressure distributions for radial systems)

— Derivation of (pr-pwf), ( p -pwf), and (pi-p(r,t)) relations

— Example applications, analysis of boundary-dominated flow data

z Development of the diffusivity equation for the "slightly compressible liquid" and "real gas" cases

Module 3: Solutions/Models for Well Test Analysis

z Transient flow concepts:

— E1(x) and log approximation solutions (and various permutations)

— Illustration of pressure distributions in linear and radial flow systems

z Flow Solutions: (basic relations — dimensionless and field unit formulations)

— Dimensionless variables—radial flow diffusivity equation

— Solution of the radial flow diffusivity equation (various cases)

— Variable-rate convolution: (superposition)

— Wellbore phenomena: Well completions (as these pertain to well testing) and wellbore storage models and analysis of data

Module 4: Well Test Analysis

z "Conventional" analysis of well test data (single and multirate pressure drawdown and buildup tests)

z Type curve analysis of well test data:

— Radial flow case:

Wellbore storage and skin case: "Bourdet-Gringarten" type curve

Faulted reservoir case: "Stewart" type curve

Radial composite reservoir case: "Tang and Brigham" type curve

— Vertically fractured well case: "Economides" type curve

— Dual porosity reservoir case: "Onur-Satman-Reynolds" type curve

— Analysis of gas well tests

z Design of well tests and software for the analysis and interpretation of well test data

Module 5: Analysis and Modelling of Production Data (In preparation)

z Analysis of production data: ("decline" curve analysis)

— Data acquisition, cataloging, and retrieval

— Empirical analysis of production data: Arps' equations, other models

— Fetkovich-McCray decline type curve analysis

z Rate forecasting: Semi-analytical methods and inflow performance relations (IPR)

z Deliverability testing: Simplified 4-point testing and isochronal testing

z Software for the analysis and interpretation of production data

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

3

Course Objectives

Spring 2004

Course Objectives

The student should be able to:

z Describe the concepts of porosity and permeability and be able to relate their respective influences on fluid

flow in porous media.

z Estimate oil, gas, and water properties pertinent for well test or production data analysis using industry

accepted correlations and/or laboratory data.

z Sketch pressure versus time trends and pressure versus distance trends for a reservoir system which exhibits

transient, pseudosteady-state, and steady-state flow behavior.

z Derive the material balance relation for a slightly compressible liquid (oil) in the presence of other phases

(gas and water), as well as the material balance relation for a dry gas.

z Derive the steady-state flow equations for horizontal linear and radial flow of liquids and gases, including the

pseudopressure and pressure-squared formulations.

z Develop and apply relations for pseudosteady-state flow in closed black oil or dry gas reservoir systems.

z Derive the "skin factor" variable from the steady-state flow equation and be able to describe the conditions of

damage and stimulation using this skin factor.

z Derive and manipulate the diffusivity equations for the radial and linear flow of single and multiphase fluids

(liquids and gases) through porous media.

z Define and use dimensionless variables and dimensionless solutions to illustrate the generic performance of a

particular reservoir model. Given a particular set of parameters for a specified reservoir model, the student

should be able to use dimensionless solutions to predict the performance of the specified reservoir system.

z Derive the analysis and interpretation methodologies (i.e., "conventional" plots and type curve analysis) for

pressure drawdown and pressure buildup tests, for liquid, gas, and multiphase flow systems.

z Apply dimensionless solutions ("type curves") and field variable solutions ("specialized plots") for the

following cases:

— Unfractured and fractured wells in infinite and finite-acting, homogeneous and dual porosity reservoirs,

for constant rate and constant pressure cases.

— Variable-rate convolution and multi-well superposition.

z Define and apply the pseudopressure and pseudotime concepts for the analysis of well test and production

data from dry gas and solution-gas drive oil reservoir systems.

z Design and implement a well test sequence, as well as a long-term production/injection surveillance program.

z Analyze production data (rate-time or pressure-rate-time data) to obtain reservoir volume and estimates of

reservoir properties for gas and liquid reservoir systems. The student should also be able to make per-

formance forecasts for such systems.

z Analyze and interpret flow-after-flow (4-point) and isochronal flow tests.

z Demonstrate the capability to integrate, analyze, and interpret well test and production data to characterize a

reservoir in terms of reservoir properties and performance potential (field study project).

In addition to the specific objectives given above, the student should also be able to use modern, industry-

accepted software for the analysis of well test and production data — as well as to being able to perform such

analyses using "hand" (or computer-aided) calculations.

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

4

Course Outline

Spring 2004 (Spring Break: 15-19 March 2004)

Date Topic Reading — "Old Notes"

Module 1 Introductory Materials

January 21 W Course Introduction/Review of Syllabus (Syllabus — Spring 2004)

23 F Objectives of Well Tests — Review of petrophysics/Review of fluid properties Mod1_01, Mod1_02, Mod1_03

26 M Discussion of reservoir models and properties that can be obtained Mod1_03

28 W Plots used in well testing (Cartesian, semilog, and log-log plots) Mod1_03

Module 2 Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media

30 F Material balance concepts (constant compressibility and dry gas systems) Mod2_01

02 M Steady-state flow concepts: Liquid and gas systems Mod2_02

04 W Steady-state flow concepts: Development of the radial flow skin factor Mod2_02

06 F Pseudosteady-state flow concepts: Derivation of (pr-pwf), ( p -pwf), and (pi-p(r,t)) relations Mod2_03

February 09 M Pseudosteady-state flow concepts: Example applications Mod2_03

11 W Development of the diffusivity equation: Liquid and gas systems Mod2_04, Mod2_05

13 F Examination 1 (in class)

Module 3 Solutions/Models for Well Test Analysis

16 M Transient flow concepts: E1(x) and log approximation solutions, other non-radial solutions,

and reservoir pressure distributions (steady-state, pseudosteady-state, and transient radial flow) (text reading)

18 W Dimensionless variables — radial flow diffusivity equation Mod3_01

20 F Solutions of the diffusivity equation (various cases — concept of "type curves") Mod3_02

23 M Variable-rate convolution: general case Mod3_03

25 W Wellbore Phenomena: Well completions (as these pertain to well testing) handouts

27 F Wellbore Phenomena: Derivation of wellbore storage models/example analysis applications Mod3_04

March 01 M Variable-rate convolution: Single-rate pressure drawdown case Mod3_03

Module 4 Well Test Analysis

03 W Variable-rate convolution: Single-rate pressure buildup case Mod3_03, Mod4_01

05 F Well test analysis: Conventional analysis of pressure drawdown/buildup test data Mod3_03, Mod3_04, Mod4_01

08 M Well test analysis: Conventional analysis of pressure drawdown/buildup test data Mod3_03, Mod3_04, Mod4_01

10 W Well test analysis: Conventional analysis of pressure drawdown/buildup test data Mod3_03, Mod3_04, Mod4_01

12 F Examination 2 (in class)

Spring Break: 15-19 March 2004

22 M Well test analysis: Analysis of gas well tests Mod2_05

24 W Well test analysis: Radial flow case ("Bourdet-Gringarten" type curve) Mod4_02

26 F Well test analysis: Radial flow case ("Bourdet-Gringarten" type curve) Mod4_02

29 M Well test analysis: Radial flow case (Faulted reservoir case: "Stewart" type curve) Mod4_03

31 W Well test analysis: Radial flow case (Radial composite case: "Tang and Brigham" type curve) Mod4_03

April 02 F Well test analysis: Fractured wells (dimensionless conductivity and penetration) Mod4_04

05 M Well test analysis: Fractured wells (type curve analysis) Mod4_04

07 W Well test analysis: Dual porosity reservoir case (introduction) Mod4_05

09 F Reading Day (No Classes — Good Friday)

12 M Well test analysis: Dual porosity reservoir case (type curve analysis) Mod4_05

14 W Design of well tests/Software for the analysis of well test data (text reading)

16 F Examination 3 (in class)

Module 5 Analysis and Modelling of Production Data (in preparation)

19 M Analysis of production data: Introduction Mod5_01

21 W Analysis of production data: Empirical analysis/forecasting of production data Mod5_01

23 F Analysis of production data: Inflow Performance Relationships (IPR) (handouts)

26 M Analysis of production data: Deliverability testing Mod5_02

28 W Analysis of production data: Fetkovich-McCray decline type curve analysis (theory) Mod5_03

30 F Analysis of production data: Fetkovich-McCray decline type curve analysis (practice) Mod5_04

May 3 M (dead day) Software for the analysis of production data (handouts)

4 T (redefined day ("Friday")) Software for the analysis of production data (handouts)

May 12 W Final Exam Sec 501 - RICH 302 from 10:30 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. (MWF 11:30 a.m. - 12:20 p.m.)

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

5

Notes/Text Reading Assignments

Spring 2004 (Spring Break: 15-19 March 2004)

Lee Text Lee/Wattenbarger Dake Text Dake Text

Date "Old Notes" (Lee) text (LW) (Dake-1) (Dake-2)

Module 1 Introductory Materials

January 21 W (Syllabus — Spring 2004)

23 F Mod1_01, 02, 03 App. D Ch. 1, App. A Ch. 1, 2 Ch. 1, 2

26 M Mod1_03 Ch. 1 Ch. 5 Ch. 5, 6 Ch. 2

28 W Mod1_03 Ch. 1-4 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 (and 8) Ch. 4

Module 2 Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media

30 F Mod2_01 --- Ch. 10 (gas) Ch. 1, 3 Ch. 3, 6

February 02 M Mod2_02 Ch. 5 Ch. 7 Ch. 4, 5 ---

04 W Mod2_02 Ch. 1 Ch. 5 --- ---

06 F Mod2_03 Ch. 1, 5 Ch. 5, 7 Ch. 6 Ch. 2

09 M Mod2_03 Ch. 1, 5 Ch. 5, 7; App. H Ch. 6 Ch. 2

11 W Mod2_04, 05 App. A Ch. 5 Ch. 7, 8 Ch. 4

13 F Examination 1 (in class)

Module 3 Solutions/Models for Well Test Analysis

16 M (text reading) Ch. 1 Ch. 5 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

18 W Mod3_01 App. B Ch. 5 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

20 F Mod3_02 Ch. 1 Ch. 5; App. D, E Ch. 7 Ch. 4

23 M Mod3_03 Ch. 1 Ch. 5 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

25 W handouts --- --- --- ---

27 F Mod3_04 Ch. 1, 4 Ch. 5 --- Ch. 4

March 01 M Mod3_03 Ch. 3 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

Module 4 Well Test Analysis

03 W Mod3_03, 4_01 Ch. 2 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

05 F Mod3_03, 3_04, 4_01 Ch. 2 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

08 M Mod3_03, 3_04, 4_01 Ch. 2 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

10 W Mod3_03, 3_04, 4_01 Ch. 2 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

12 F Examination 2 (in class)

Spring Break: 15-19 March 2004

22 M Mod2_05 Ch. 5 Ch. 6 Ch. 8 ---

24 W Mod4_02 Ch. 4 Ch. 6 --- Ch. 4

26 F Mod4_02 Ch. 4 Ch. 6 --- Ch. 4

29 M Mod4_03 --- --- --- Ch. 4

31 W Mod4_03 --- --- --- ---

April 02 F Mod4_04 --- Ch. 6 --- ---

05 M Mod4_04 --- Ch. 6 --- ---

07 W Mod4_05 --- Ch. 6 --- ---

09 F Reading Day (No Classes — Good Friday)

12 M Mod4_05 --- Ch. 6 --- ---

14 M (text reading) --- Ch. 8 Ch. 7 Ch. 4

16 F Examination 3 (in class)

Module 5 Analysis and Modelling of Production Data (in preparation)

19 M Mod5_01 --- --- --- ---

21 W Mod5_01 --- Ch. 9 --- ---

23 F handouts --- --- --- ---

26 M Mod5_02 Ch. 5 Ch. 7 --- ---

28 W Mod5_03 --- --- --- ---

30 F Mod5_04 --- --- --- ---

May 03 M handouts --- --- --- ---

04 T handouts --- --- --- ---

Lee, W.J.: Well Testing, (1st edition) SPE (1982).

Lee, W.J. and Wattenbarger, R.A.: Gas Reservoir Engineering, SPE (1996).

Dake, L. P.: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, Elsevier (1978). ("Dake-1")

Dake, L. P.: The Practice of Reservoir Engineering, Elsevier (1994). ("Dake-2")

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

6

Reference Reading Assignments

Spring 2004 (Spring Break: 10-14 March 2003)

Date Reference Articles

Module 1 Introductory Materials

January 21 W Course Introduction/Review of Syllabus

— Course syllabus (Spring 2004)

23 F Objectives of Well Tests — Review of petrophysics/Review of fluid properties

— P324_Mod1_01_Nelson_(Log_Analyst_May_June_1994).pdf

— P324_Mod1_02_Blasingame_(PVT_Properties_1988).pdf

— P324_Mod1_02_McCain_(SPE_18571).pdf

— P324_Mod1_02_Velarde_(CIM_97_93).pdf

26 M Discussion of reservoir models and properties that can be obtained

— P324_Mod1_03_Barnum_(SPE_13184).pdf

28 W Plots used in well testing (Cartesian, semilog, and log-log plots)

— P324_Mod1_03_Ehlig_Economides_(SPE_18594).pdf

— P324_Mod1_03_Ershagi_(SPE_12305).pdf

Module 2 Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media

30 F Material balance concepts (constant compressibility and dry gas systems)

— P324_Mod2_01_Fetkovich_(SPE_22921).pdf

— P324_Mod2_01_Havalena_Odeh_(JPT_Aug_1963).pdf

— P324_Mod2_01_Humphreys_(SPE_21514).pdf

— P324_Mod2_01_Moran_Sameniego_(SPE_71522)_(Add).pdf

— P324_Mod2_01_Pletcher_(SPE_75354)_(Add).pdf

February 02 M Steady-state flow concepts: Liquid and gas systems

— P324_Mod2_02_Cornell_Katz_(In_Eng_Chm_Oct_1953).pdf

— P324_Mod2_02_Firoozabadi_Katz_(SPE_06827).pdf

04 W Steady-state flow concepts: Development of the radial flow skin factor

— P324_Mod2_02_Hawkins_(Tech_Note_AIME_Trans_1956)_(Add).pdf

06 F Pseudosteady-state flow concepts: Derivation of (pr-pwf), ( p -pwf), and (pi-p(r,t)) relations

— P324_Mod2_03_Dietz_(SPE_01156).pdf

— P324_Mod2_03_Blasingame_(SPE_15028).pdf

09 M Pseudosteady-state flow concepts: Example applications

— P324_Mod2_03_PSS_Rate_Relation_Der_pwf_constant_(Add).pdf

— P324_Mod2_03_PSS_Rate_Relation_Der_dpdt_constant_(Add).pdf

11 W Development of the diffusivity equation: Liquid and gas systems

— P324_Mod2_04_Russell_et_al_(SPE_01242).pdf

— P324_Mod2_04_Al_Hussainy_et_al_(SPE_01243).pdf

— P324_Mod2_05_Lee_Holditch_(SPE_09888).pdf

13 F Examination 1 (in class)

Module 3 Solutions/Models for Well Test Analysis

16 M Transient flow concepts: E1(x) and log approximation solutions, other non-radial solutions,

and reservoir pressure distributions (steady-state, pseudosteady-state, and transient radial flow)

18 W Dimensionless variables — radial flow diffusivity equation

20 F Solutions of the diffusivity equation (various cases — concept of "type curves")

— P324_Mod3_02_Van_Everdingen_Hurst_(AIME_Trans_1949).pdf

— P324_Mod3_02_Transient_Radial_Flow_Soln.pdf

23 M Variable-rate convolution: general case

— P324_Mod3_03_Horner_(3rd_World_Petro_Congress).pdf

— P324_Mod3_03_Van_Everdingen_Meyer_(SPE_02864).pdf

— P324_Mod3_03_Whitson_Sognesand_(SPE_15482).pdf

25 W Wellbore Phenomena: Well completions (as these pertain to well testing)

27 F Wellbore Phenomena: Derivation of wellbore storage models/example analysis applications

— P324_Mod3_04_Agarwal_(SPE_02466).pdf

March 01 M Variable-rate convolution: Single-rate pressure drawdown case

— P324_Mod3_03_Odeh_Jones_(Trans_AIME_1965)_(Add).pdf

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

7

Reference Reading Assignments — Continued

Spring 2004 (Spring Break: 10-14 March 2003)

Date Reference Articles

Module 4 Well Test Analysis

March 03 W Variable-rate convolution: Single-rate pressure buildup case

— P324_Mod3_03_Horner_(3rd_World_Petro_Congress).pdf

05 F Well test analysis: Conventional analysis of pressure drawdown/buildup test data

08 M Well test analysis: Conventional analysis of pressure drawdown/buildup test data

10 W Well test analysis: Conventional analysis of pressure drawdown/buildup test data

12 F Examination 2 (in class)

Spring Break: 15-19 March 2004

22 M Well test analysis: Analysis of gas well tests

— P324_Mod4_01_Meunier_et_al_(SPE_13082)_(Add).pdf

24 W Well test analysis: Radial flow case ("Bourdet-Gringarten" type curve)

— P324_Mod4_02_Bourdet_et_al_(World_Oil)_(Add).pdf

26 F Well test analysis: Radial flow case ("Bourdet-Gringarten" type curve)

29 M Well test analysis: Radial flow case (Faulted reservoir case: "Stewart" type curve)

— (to be assigned)

31 W Well test analysis: Radial flow case (Radial composite case: "Tang and Brigham" type curve)

— (to be assigned)

April 02 F Well test analysis: Fractured wells (dimensionless conductivity and penetration)

— P324_Mod4_04_Cinco_et_al_(SPE_06014).pdf

— P324_Mod4_04_Cinco_Sameniego_(SPE_10179).pdf

— P324_Mod4_04_Gringarten_et_al_(SPE_04051).pdf

05 M Well test analysis: Fractured wells (type curve analysis)

— P324_Mod4_04_Lee_Holditch_(SPE_09975)_(Add).pdf

07 W Well test analysis: Dual porosity reservoir case (introduction)

— P324_Mod4_05_Warren_Root_(Trans_AIME_1963).pdf

— P324_Mod4_05_DeSwaan_(SPE_05346).pdf

— P324_Mod4_05_Najurieta_(SPE_06017).pdf

09 F Reading Day (No Classes — Good Friday)

12 M Well test analysis: Dual porosity reservoir case (type curve analysis)

— P324_Mod4_05_Warren_Root_(Trans_AIME_1963).pdf

14 W Design of well tests/Software for the analysis of well test data

16 F Examination 3 (in class)

Module 5 Analysis and Modelling of Production Data (in preparation)

19 M Analysis of production data: Introduction

— P324_Mod5_01_Fetkovich_(SPE_04629)_(DTCA).pdf

— P324_Mod5_01_Blasingame_(SPE_15018)_(DCA).pdf

— P324_Mod5_01_Fetkovich_et_al_(SPE_13169)_(Case_Hist).pdf

21 W Analysis of production data: Empirical analysis/forecasting of production data

— P324_Mod5_01_Arps_(Trans_AIME_1943).pdf

23 F Analysis of production data: Inflow Performance Relationships (IPR)

26 M Analysis of production data: Deliverability testing

— (to be assigned)

28 W Analysis of production data: Fetkovich-McCray decline type curve analysis (theory)

— P324_Mod5_03_Doublet_(SPE_28688)_(Radial_Flow).pdf

— P324_Mod5_03_Agarwal_(SPE_57916).pdf

30 F Analysis of production data: Fetkovich-McCray decline type curve analysis (practice)s

— P324_Mod5_03_Doublet_(SPE_35205)_(Frac_Well).pdf

— P324_Mod5_03_Marhaendrajana_(SPE_71517)_(Mult_Well).pdf

May 03 M (dead day) Software for the analysis of production data

04 T (redefined day ("Friday")) Software for the analysis of production data

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

8

Homework Format Guidelines

Spring 2004

Homework Topics: (These are intended topics, addition and/or deletion of certain problems may occur as other problems become available.

Multiple assignments from each topic are possible.)

z Petrophysics, fluid properties, and reservoir models. z Development of the diffusivity equation: liquid and gas systems.

z Plots used in well testing (Cartesian, semilog, and log-log). z Variable-rate convolution.

z Material balance concepts. z Analysis and interpretation of oil and gas well test data

z Steady-state flow concepts. — Unfractured wells (radial flow),

z Pseudosteady-state flow concepts. — Vertically fractured well, and

z Transient flow concepts. — Dual porosity reservoirs.

z Wellbore Phenomena: Wellbore storage models. z Well test design

z Wellbore Phenomena: Calculation of bottomhole pressures. z Analysis and interpretation of oil and gas well production data.

— Rate forecasting (including IPR),

— Analysis and interpretation of deliverability tests.

— Analysis and interpretation of long-term production performance.

Computing Topics: In general, some programming (spreadsheet/Visual Basic) assignments may be required. For such assignments, students

must develop their own codes unless otherwise instructed.

Homework Format Guidelines:

I. General Instructions: You must use engineering analysis paper or lined notebook paper, and this paper must measure 8.5 inches in width by

11 inches in height

1. You must only write on the front of the page.

2. Number all pages in the upper right-hand corner and staple all pages together in upper left hand corner. You must also put your name (or

initials) in the upper right corner of each page next to the page number (e.g. John David Doe (JDD) page 4/6).

3. Fold inward lengthwise.

4. Place the following identification on the outside:

Name: (printed)

Course: Petroleum Engineering 324 (Section 501)/Spring 2004

Date: 23 January 2004

Assignment: (Specific)

II. Homework Format

1. Given: (Statement of Problem and Problem Data)

2. Required: (Problem Objectives)

3. Solution: (Methodology)

A. Sketches and Diagrams C. Formulas and Definitions of Symbols (Including Units)

B. Assumption, Working Hypotheses, References D. Calculations (Including Units)

4. Results

5. Conclusions: Provide a short summary that discusses the problem results.

Instructor Responsibilities

The instructor is responsible for

1. A learning environment where students of all skills levels are appropriately challenged.

2. Showing respect and consideration to the students.

3. Being prepared for class and keeping on schedule with the syllabus.

4. Preparing exercises that follow the course objectives.

5. Covering the material that will be tested on exams.

The instructor is not responsible for

1. Work missed by absent students (unless a University-excused absence is provided).

2. Poor performance by unattentative or disinterested students. This is a fundamental course in Reservoir Engineering, one that you will use

actively in your career as a reservoir or production engineer.

3. Personal issues — if you have personal issues that impair your performance in this course, you are encouraged to discuss these problems

with your instructor for possible remedies. However, the instructor is responsible for assigning your grade based solely on your

performance and is not at liberty to allow personal appeals to influence your grade.

Student Responsibilities

The student is responsible for

1. Class attendance. Students should attend all scheduled class meetings.

2. Being prepared for class. In-class quizzes will be given. Always bring your books, course notes, and calculator to each class meeting.

3. Being prepared for exams. The instructor or TA may choose to review materials prior to exams, but do not rely on this review as your

only exam preparation—nor should you rely on old exams for your exam preparation. The best preparation for exams is to stay current

with the class, rework assignments, and get plenty of rest the night before the exam.

4. Showing respect and consideration to his classmates and the instructor. Do not talk excessively with your neighbors during class. Do not

take up class time for discussions with the instructor that should be held outside of class. Students who disrupt the class will be asked to

leave.

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

9

2004 ABET Course Review Information — Relationship of Course to Program Outcomes

Spring 2004

Specific Course Objectives Learning Outcome Program Outcome

1. Describe the concepts of porosity and Describe the relationships of porosity and 17.Competency in characterization and evaluation

permeability and be able to relate their permeability and explain the influence of each of subsurface geological formations and their

respective influences on fluid flow in porous parameter on reservoir flow behavior. resources using geoscientific and engineering

media. methods.

2. Estimate oil, gas, and water properties Demonstrate the ability to estimate/calculate and 15.Competency in mathematics through

pertinent for well test or production data plot the various fluid property variables as differential equations, probability and

analysis using industry accepted correlations functions of pressure. Also demonstrate an statistics, fluid mech-anics, strength of

and/or laboratory data. understanding of laboratory data. materials, and thermodynam-ics.

3. Sketch pressure—time and pressure— Demonstrate via hand and/or computer plots (as 11.An ability to use the techniques, skills, and

distance trends for a reservoir system which appropriate) the graphical relations for pressure, modern engineering tools necessary for

exhibits transient, pseudosteady-state, and distance, and time — for the pre-scribed flow engineering practice.

steady-state flow behavior. regimes.

4. Derive the material balance relations for a Demonstrate the derivation and application of 19.Competency in application of reservoir engi-

slightly compressible liquid (oil), as well as the common material balance relations. neering principles and practices for optimizing

the material balance relations for a dry gas. Demonstrate use of field data. resource development and management.

5. Derive the steady-state flow equations for Demonstrate the derivation and application of 15.Competency in mathematics through

horizontal linear and radial flow of liquids the prescribed relations. Describe the differential equations, probability and

and gases (including the pseudopressure and applicability of each solution, and explain the statistics, fluid mech-anics, strength of

pressure-squared forms). influence of "non-Darcy effects. materials, and thermodynam-ics.

6. Develop and apply relations for pseudo- Demonstrate the derivation, application, and 19.Competency in application of reservoir engi-

steady-state flow in a black oil or dry gas interpretation of pseudosteady-state flow neering principles and practices for optimizing

reservoir system. relations — black oil and dry gas systems. resource development and management.

7. Derive the "skin factor" variable from the Demonstrate the calculation of the skin factor 16.Competency in design and analysis of well

steady-state flow equation and be able to using the steady-state flow model. Explain systems and procedures for drilling and

describe the conditions of damage and extensions of the general "skin factor" concept completing wells.

stimulation using this skin factor. for transient radial flow behavior.

8. Develop and apply inflow performance Demonstrate the derivation/development and 16.Competency in design and analysis of well

relations (IPRs) for black-oil and gas application of IPR functions. Estimate/predict systems and procedures for drilling and

condensate reservoir systems. the flowrate at some future time. completing wells.

9. Derive and manipulate the diffusivity Demonstrate an understanding of the basic 15.Competency in mathematics through

equations for the radial and linear flow of relations for mass continuity and motion — differential equations, probability and

single and multiphase fluids (liquids and derive the diffusivity relations for the liquid and statistics, fluid mech-anics, strength of

gases) through porous media. dry gas cases (all details). materials, and thermodynam-ics.

10. Define and use dimensionless variables and Explain the rationale for using dimensionless 5. An ability to identify, formulate, and solve

dimensionless solutions to illustrate and/or variables and demonstrate the derivation of engi-neering problems.

predict the generic performance of a particular dimensionless variables for the transient radial

reservoir model. flow case.

11. Develop the analysis and interpretation Demonstrate the development, construction, and 19.Competency in application of reservoir engi-

methodologies (i.e., "conventional" plots and application of specialized Cartesian, semi-log, neering principles and practices for optimizing

type curve analysis) for pressure tests (for oil, and log-log plots used for "conventional" well resource development and management.

gas, and multiphase flow). test analysis.

12. Apply dimensionless solutions ("type curves") Demonstrate the construction and application or 19.Competency in application of reservoir engi-

and field variable solutions ("specialized "type curves" (dimensionless solutions) for the neering principles and practices for optimizing

plots") for constant rate behavior in an analysis of pressure transient test data (log-log resource development and management.

infinite-acting homogeneous reservoir. plot format).

13. Define and apply the pseudopressure and Demonstrate the appropriate use of the 15.Competency in mathematics through

pseudotime concepts for the analysis of well pseudopressure and pseudotime transformations differential equations, probability and

test and production data from dry gas and for analysis of well test and production data. statistics, fluid mech-anics, strength of

solution-gas drive oil reservoir systems. The gas case must be demonstrated via analysis materials, and thermodynam-ics.

of field data.

14. Design and implement a well test sequence, as Demonstrate the proper design of a well test 2. An ability to design and conduct experiments,

well as a long-term production/injection sequence using currently accepted practices and as well as to analyze and interpret data

surveillance program. equipment.

15. Analyze production data to obtain reservoir Demonstrate the estimation of reservoir 19.Competency in application of reservoir engi-

volume and estimates of reservoir properties properties using "decline curve" techniques — neering principles and practices for optimizing

— the student should also be able to make and be able to estimate/extrapolate future resource development and management.

performance forecasts. performance using simplified rate models.

16. Analyze and interpret deliverability test data. Demonstrate the analysis of "4-point" and 16.Competency in design and analysis of well

"isochronal" production test data using current systems and procedures for drilling and

techniques. completing wells.

17. Demonstrate the capability to integrate, Provide an example case of a "performance- 21.An ability to deal with the high level of

analyze, and interpret well test and production based reservoir characterization" — specifically uncertainty in petroleum reservoir problems in

data to characterize a reservoir in terms of the integration of well performance, well problem definition and solution.

reservoir properties and performance potential completion, geological, and petrophysical data.

(field study project).

Course Syllabus

T.A. Blasingame — Spring 2004

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