You are on page 1of 7

2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

Figures of Merit for Active Antenna Enabled 5G


Communication Networks
Jan M. McKinnis Dr. Ian Gresham Randy Becker
Ball Aerospace Anokiwave, Inc Keysight Technologies
Westminster, CO, USA Billerica, MA, USA Santa Rosa, CA, USA
jmckinni@ball.com ian.gresham@anokiwave.com randy_becker@keysight.com

Abstract—Active antennas enable novel spatial techniques Active antennas are software-enabled, adaptive systems
and beam-forming technology crucial to overcoming millimeter that combine antenna capabilities with a number of transceiver
wave propagation challenges for fifth generation (5G) functions. These active antenna systems will fundamentally
communication systems. At millimeter wave frequencies, a large alter the relationship between antenna and radio, requiring
effective aperture can be accommodated in a physically small novel over-the-air (OTA) test methods and performance
area to overcome the high channel loss in these spectrum bands. metrics. New 5G active antenna figures of merit (FoMs) are
The ability to dynamically steer and shape active antenna required to allow comparison of various solutions and predict
beam(s) to track users, overcome changing channel conditions, system performance.
and focus the radiated energy into the desired direction provides
additional degrees of flexibility and enables better performance
for 5G radio system designs. To provide an over-the-air interface II. 5G MARKET DEMANDS
for previous generations of radio access networks, traditional The communication industry and the 3rd Generation
architectures have relied upon separate, passive antennas Partnership Project (3GPP) are actively planning for a new,
connected by radio frequency cables to active radio transceivers.
wirelessly connected 5G world [1] [2] [3] [4]. Previous
Active antenna systems, also known as phased array antenna
wireless applications have primarily focused on connecting
systems, are an advancement from these previous radio access
architectures. To implement an active antenna, a array of active
people and allowing users mobile access to the internet. The
radiating elements is utilized to combine passive antenna 5G vision of the future dramatically expands on these past
functions with active amplification and signal conditioning efforts to develop systems that will also rapidly and reliably
capabilities. Active antennas are an enabling technology for connect an extremely large number of things to other things
millimeter wave 5G communication systems that create a (also referred to as machine-to-machine communication).
fundamental architecture shift requiring new Figures of Merit Novel wireless applications and verticals are being developed
(FoMs). The 5G active antenna FoMs defined in this paper to implement concepts such as connected cars, massive mobile
provide methods for antenna performance comparisons and broadband, virtual and augmented reality, Internet of Things
wireless system evaluation. (IoT), remote manufacturing, and remote health care. These
new markets will demand reducing latency and increasing data
Keywords—Active antennas, phased arrays, planar rates by orders of magnitude. The requirement for significantly
electronically steered arrays (ESA), 5G, New Radio (NR), Figures more data capacity is driving 5G radio access technologies into
of Merit, spatial techniques, beam steering, beam forming, error the higher frequency millimeter wave spectrum to access the
vector magnitude (EVM), millimeter wave, radio networks, mobile large amount of bandwidth available. Operating in the
communications millimeter wave spectrum presents technical challenges.
Higher transmission losses due to blockage, non-line of sight
I. INTRODUCTION conditions, and increased atmospheric, material (e.g., foliage,
To support a wide variety of new applications and market buildings), and weather-related propagation losses will require
opportunities, fifth generation (5G) wireless systems must beam-forming antennas to achieve robust and flexible
provide far higher data rates than previous communication coverage.
networks. Unlocking more bandwidth and improving The wireless industry has announced near-term plans for
efficiency is required to deliver these higher data rates. commercial 5G deployments utilizing millimeter wave
Bandwidth is available in the millimeter wave spectrum, but spectrum. The industry is aggressively evaluating innovative
propagation challenges at these frequencies will compel the solutions, and millimeter wave active antennas are rapidly
wireless industry to implement innovative technologies. becoming an essential, enabling technology for next-generation
For the next-generation, millimeter wave, multi-gigabit base stations, small cells, customer premise equipment (CPE),
networks, it is essential for radio access technologies to use and supporting channel sounding test equipment.
new spatial techniques. Dynamic beam management and beam-
forming active phased array antenna systems are revolutionary
changes that are rapidly coming to the wireless industry.

XXX-X-XXXX-XXXX-X/XX/$XX.00 ©20XX IEEE

978-1-5386-4584-0/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE


2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

III. ACTIVE ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY AND BENEFITS transmitter and therefore the feasible maximum for the EIRP.
Active phased array antennas have been widely used for a However, the saturated output power level is strongly
variety of purposes ranging from medical imaging to military technology and design dependent, whereas the output 1dB
applications. Active antennas are composed of an array of compression point is a standard, unambiguous reference point
active radiating elements. By controlling the signal phase at that facilitates comparison of various systems that will likely
each element, a combined, highly directive beam can be operate at different transmit back-off values from OP1dB. Care
created. The resulting beam is electronically steered, so it can should be taken in drawing comparative values since either
be rapidly pointed from one desired direction to the next PSAT or OP1dB could be used in the definition of available
without mechanical motion. To support 5G applications, active EIRP. PSAT is often considered more relevant for transmitter
antennas will integrate phase and amplitude control stages for systems where some form of pre-distortion algorithm is used to
both transmit and receive paths. An active antenna’s radiation reduce the required level of output power back-off (OBO).
performance is determined by a combination of the hardware
implementation choices and its commanding software. EIRP = Pt + Gt + 10*log10 (N) – L (1)
Active phased array antenna technology provides numerous
advantages [5] [6] [7]. Electronic beam steering supports fast, Pt: Conducted power per element (OP1dB in dBm)
agile, and accurate beam pointing to meet the low latency determined with a continuous wave (CW) stimulus
requirements of 5G. Array technology is scalable to meet Gt: Total antenna array directivity due to spatial power
various connectivity demands. Increasing the number of combining of all radiating elements (dBi)
radiating elements will improve receive sensitivity and increase
transmitted radiated power. By properly applying amplitude N: Total number of radiating elements
and phase tapers across the radiating elements, active phased L: Total losses from element amplifier output to radiating
array antennas can be software controlled to generate narrower surface (includes path loss after signal amplification, through
beam widths for individual data channels and wider beam radome losses)
widths for control channels. Focused narrow beams will
control interference and maximize a user’s signal-to-noise ratio Larger EIRP values enable higher data throughputs and
to improve data throughput and thus optimize network better link quality at the edge of cell coverage. This can
performance. Wider beams allow flexibility for the control translate directly into both cell size and data throughput to the
channels, which are required to maintain radio links, to be operator and therefore has a direct link to remuneration.
broadcast to the many users in a serving cell’s coverage area.
Table 1 provides measured P1dB EIRP values for two
Array tapers can also be applied to control sidelobe levels to
product classes of 28GHz active antenna developed jointly by
reduce radiation outside the desired main beam. Sidelobe
Ball Aerospace and Anokiwave.
control can be used to decrease network-level interference,
resulting in improved link quality, increased wireless channel
availability, and improved system capacity. At millimeter wave TABLE I. MEASURED TRANSMIT PERFORMANCE FOR 28GHZ ACTIVE
frequencies, active antennas are compact, lightweight, and easy ANTENNAS

to install. Their small physical volume provides an easier path P1dB EIRP TXeff
to satisfying site installation restrictions and the various local 28GHz Active Antenna
(dBm) (1/cm^3)
planning laws and regulatory board requirements. Higher 64 Element 50 0.015
reliability is made possible since active antennas have a 256 Element 60 0.007
distributed amplifier architecture. Active antennas support 5G
beam management and network densification requirements to A second, equally important measure is Linear EIRP,
maximize the reuse of spectrum, provide spatial reuse, and which is defined by the amount of OBO from OP1dB required
enable higher performance communication systems utilizing to meet an error vector magnitude (EVM) threshold. The
greater bandwidths. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
waveforms specified by 5G New Radio (NR) have large crest
IV. 5G ACTIVE ANTENNA FIGURES OF MERIT factors (8 to 15 dB) because they are composed of many
orthogonal sub-carriers. Since most active systems with
A set of 5G active antenna FoMs is defined below to amplifiers will start to compress approximately 5 to 10 dB
provide for objective performance comparisons across various below OP1dB, applying OFDM signals above these OBO
active antenna technologies and facilitate performance levels will result in distortion and EVM degradation.
evaluation of wireless networks employing these antennas. Determining Linear EVM is reflective of operational usage and
A. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) requires the precise definition of the signal waveform and
modulation; channel bandwidth; and relative constellation error
For an active antenna, P1dB EIRP can be defined as power contributions of other signal chain sources of error. These
transmitted with the main beam scanned to boresight and the concepts are shown in Fig. 1.
antenna’s power level specified at the output referenced 1dB
compression point (OP1dB). Saturated output power (PSAT) is
B. Transmit Efficiency (TXeff)
another power term used in wireless link budgets as a measure
of available radiated power from the antenna aperture. PSAT A second active antenna transmit FoM that is as important
influences the upper limit for available signal power from the as the level of radiated power (P1dB EIRP and Linear EIRP),
2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

is the efficiency with which the radiated power is generated is a Base Band Unit (BBU) that generates formatted baseband
relative to the required DC supply power and aperture area. 5G NR channels. The data sink is the physical air interface for
radiated transmission of 5G NR millimeter wave signals.
Optimization of the overall RRHU system efficiency considers
the contribution of both signal path and non-signal path devices
(including devices such as control circuitry and power supply
and distribution). Non-signal path devices may contribute
substantially to the mass (volume) of the unit, especially with
increased size required for Power Supply Units (PSU)
associated with inefficient device supply signal conditioning.
The transmit efficiency of the RRHU active antenna system as
a whole captures how efficiently the system generates
transmitted millimeter wave signals relative to the required DC
supply power and total antenna volume.

TXeff = EIRP / (Pdiss * VolAnt) (2)

EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (Watts) at output


reference P1dB. Value defined (1) converted from dBm to
Watts
Fig. 1. Reference Power Levels for Linear EIRP definition Pdiss: DC supply power required by active antenna system
in transmit mode to create a beam with EIRP (Watts)
Active antenna systems incorporated into a Remote Radio
Head Unit (RRHU) are thermally limited systems and are VolAnt: Total active antenna system volume including
required to operate for extended periods (>10 years) in a aperture, electronics and thermal management (cm^3)
reliable manner without active thermal management. This A higher value of TXeff indicates: lower DC power supply
means excess energy generated within the RRHU is expected requirements, higher reliability due to less required thermal
to be dissipated through convection and radiation methods dissipation, and smaller physical size of the active antenna.
only, without forced air cooling systems requiring moving These factors reduce operating costs for the radio access
mechanical parts. This requirement is also reflected in the network and facilitate simple RRHU active antenna system
objective for 5G systems to form the basis of sustainable green installations meeting regulatory deployment constraints. Table
networking through the increased deployment of small cells 1 includes TXeff values for two rapid-prototype 28GHz active
and enhanced energy efficiency gain [4] [8]. Deployment array designs that have not yet been optimized to reduce
regulatory requirements and the nature of small-cell network volume.
implementations will set an upper limit on the allowable
volume of the RRHU. The efficiency of heat transfer to the If we wish to inspect the transmit efficiency performance of
environment through surface heat flux as a function of heat the millimeter wave circuitry more directly, then we can
transfer modes has been long established, and a given unit consider the active antenna subarray network shown in Fig.
volume implies a maximum allowable power dissipation to 2(b). A hybrid beam-forming approach implemented using
meet reliability – Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF) or
Failure in Time (FIT) requirements [9].
One of the distinguishing capabilities of an active antenna
is that EIRP is generated using many radiated elements to
create array aperture gain along with distributed signal
conditioning and electronic amplification in each of the
element signal paths. This approach significantly diverges from
the traditional transmit signal chain architecture where the
efficiency of signal generation is dominated by a single power
amplifier and a FoM such as Power Added Efficiency (PAE)
could be utilized to characterize performance. To correctly
characterize the distributed architectures of active antenna
systems, more comprehensive transmitter efficiency FoMs
must be considered. A useful vehicle for doing so is the notion
of Consumption Factor theory whereby the energy efficiency
of a system is considered at a more holistic level [10].
Fig. 2 illustrates how the notion of Consumption Factor
may be applied to (a) the Remote Radio Head Unit (RRHU) Fig. 2. Figurative representation of (a) the RRHU [10] and (b) an Active
and (b) an Active Antenna subsystem. The RRHU data source Antenna sub array
2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

multiple subarrays may be selected for the millimeter wave


RRHU active antenna systems to generate multiple
independent beams radiating from the overall combined
system. Each subarray in the system will consist of N-elements
(where N typically ranges from 16 to 256) and will require
separate frequency conversion and baseband circuitry to
generate the independent data streams. The overall power
dissipation of the RRHU active antenna system includes
contributions from each subarray. To create a subarray
component metric for the efficiency of RF signal conditioning
network at the subarray level, TXSAeff can therefore be
determined by:

TXSAeff = EIRP / (PSAdiss * N) (3)

PSAdiss: DC supply power required by all components in the


active antenna RF subarray signal path (not including
frequency conversion)
N: Number of elements in sub-array
EIRP follows a 20log10 (N) relationship for active array
antennas where N is the number of elements in the array. This
20log10 (N) relationship includes two terms: 10log10 (N) for
array aperture gain and 10log10 (N) due to the inclusion of
conducted millimeter wave power amplifiers for every
radiating element. The efficiency of the subarray is therefore
normalized by the number of elements in the subarray.

C. Transmit and Receive Error Vector Magnitude (EVMTX ,


EVMRX) over Beam Scan Volume
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) is a comprehensive signal
quality metric used to quantify the performance of transmitters
(EVMTX) and receivers (EVMRX) used in digital wireless
communication networks. EVM measurements include the
signal degradation effects of component impairments
(distortion, phase noise, carrier leakage, etc.) throughout the Fig. 3. Measured 28GHz Active Antenna EVM performance over scan
radio network and are used to determine link quality and volume (a) Transmit EVM for 64-element beam (b) Receive EVM for 64-
expected data handling capabilities of wireless systems. element beam
Specific 5G NR reference signals and test models will need to
be defined along with unambiguous test methods to generate beam was scanned. These over-the-air EVM measurements
EVM measurements for active antenna enabled networks. To were conducted in an office environment to provide
quantify performance for active antennas, measurements of representative data for realistic channel environments.
EVMTX and EVMRX will need to be conducted as beams are
For the high-order, digitally modulated signals being
steered over scan volume.
defined for 5G NR, EVM is a comprehensive measurement of
Fig. 3 displays measured EVM data for a 28GHz, 256- how an active antenna will impact the signal quality of the
element active antenna developed by Ball Aerospace and signals it receives and transmits for the wireless network.
Anokiwave. Performance features of this 5G active antenna
include: operating with a single 256-element beam or four D. Azimuth and Elevation Beam Scan (BSAZ, BSEL)
independent 64-element beams; TX/RX half duplex function; Active antennas electronically steer their main beam to
full two-dimensional electronic beam steering and point in different directions without mechanically moving the
programmable beam widths. EVM data was measured using antenna. Two useful FoMs to define an active antenna’s scan
Keysight Technologies 5G Testbed for Design Validation volume are Beam Scan over Azimuth (BSAZ) and Beam Scan
(including the M9383A PXIe microwave vector signal over Elevation (BSEL). These FoMs measure the angular extent
generator and M9393A PXIe microwave vector signal off boresight that a beam can be scanned in the Azimuth and
analyzer). A 3GPP 5G NR waveform with 256 QAM and a Elevation planes without grating lobes occurring in the field of
single 100 MHz component carrier was used as the test signal regard.
for these EVM measurements. To conduct these tests, the
active antenna was mechanically rotated to maintain direct For most 5G NR radio access networks, active antennas
pointing link to test system’s standard gain horn as the active typically need to be able to scan their beams across the horizon
2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

(Azimuth plane) to a greater range than they are required to directions from boresight to 60 degrees off of boresight.
scan above and below the horizon (Elevation plane). Typical
required values for BSAZ are +60 degrees to -60 degrees to F. Beam Steer Execution Time (BSET)
allow beam coverage over a 120-degree sector. Requirements Beam Steer Execution Time (BSET) defines how rapidly
for BSEL often only range from +30 degrees to -30 degrees or the active antenna can transition its beam to point in a new
less. One exception would be for active antenna RRHU serving direction to complete the previously issued beam steer
urban areas with tall buildings. To provide service for the command. BSET is the duration of time that the beam is not
higher stories of buildings in urban areas, full two-dimensional available as it is actively transitioning from one beam state to
beam steering may be required where both BSAZ and BSEL must the next. It is critical for wireless networks that active antennas
provide larger angular ranges (typically +60 degrees to -60 minimize the time spent in an active beam transition state since
degrees). The 5G NR 28GHz active antenna described for the channel served by the beam will be unavailable during this
Fig. 3 provides full two-dimension beam steering over a wide time. To best support 5G beam acquisition and refinement
scan volume (BSAZ and BSEL both +/- 60 degrees). requirements, an active antenna’s BSET should be less than the
cyclic prefix duration. At the beginning of a symbol period (or
E. Beam Scan Loss (BSLTX) earlier), the 5G NR network can send a command to transition
An active antenna’s main beam peak power will decrease the active antenna beam to a new direction during the
as the beam is scanned from boresight to the outer edge of the following symbol’s cyclic prefix duration. Once the cyclic
antenna scan volume. This is known as scan loss and is defined prefix duration is completed, an active antenna’s beam should
here for antenna transmit performance. be pointed in the correct direction and available for use during
the remainder of the symbol period. For the 5G NR supported
numerologies, a sub-carrier spacing of 240 kHz results in a
BSLTX = EIRPPeak – EIRPScan (4) cyclic prefix duration of only 290 nanoseconds.
EIRPPeak: EIRP of main beam scanned to boresight in dBm 5G applications will require precise control over when a
beam changes state. For example, to support hybrid beam
EIRPScan: EIRP of main beam scanned to edge of array forming, beam commanding must accurately align beam steer
scan volume in dBm changes of multiple subarrays’ beams. Active antennas must
BSLTX (scan loss) defines how much coverage is available provide rapid and precise beam steer execution to allow the
from the active antenna. Higher values of scan loss result in radio access network to optimize data throughput.
lower available transmit power (EIRP) as the beam is steered
off boresight. Lower EIRP reduces link robustness and data G. Number and Polarization of Beams (Nb,Polb)
throughput. More independent data channels in the wireless network
Scan loss can similarly be defined for active antenna in allow for higher system capacity, increased data throughput,
receive mode. Fig. 4 provides measured beam scan and more reliable radio links. Multiple beams can be produced
performance for the 28GHz rapid-prototype, 64-element active by 5G NR active antennas, but these beams must provide
antennas jointly developed by Ball and Anokiwave. Radiation sufficiently low correlation to support simultaneous operation
patterns are shown for seven beam positions generated by of multiple, independent data channels. Techniques to reduce
programming the antenna to point the main beam in seven beam correlation include spatial diversity, orthogonal
polarizations, separation of beam pointing direction, and
adaptive radiation patterns. Envelope Correlation Coefficient
(ECC) is an antenna radiation pattern correlation metric that
can be used to characterize how independent two active
antenna beams are.
To facilitate determining the number of independent data
channels that may be supported, joint FoMs specifying
Number of Beams (Nb) and Number of Orthogonal Beam
Polarizations (Polb) are useful. An active antenna supplying a
larger number of individual beams with orthogonal polarization
will be better able to support a larger number of independent
data channels. Currently, various 5G NR field trials are
evaluating systems with multiple beams supporting orthogonal
slant +/- 45-degree polarization (Polb =2).

H. Radiated Pattern Management


Active antennas must be able to rapidly optimize beam
widths by software commanding to meet channel conditions. In
addition to controlling the scan angle (pointing direction) of an
active antenna system’s main radiated beam, other radiation
Fig. 4. Measured 28GHz, 64-element Active Antenna Beam Scanning pattern characteristics can be software commanded by
2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

adjusting the phases and amplitudes in each of the system’s A reduction of the SLL of the radiated antenna pattern can
radiating element paths. Two key radiation pattern be achieved by imposing a taper across the array elements
characteristics for 5G NR networks are antenna Beam Width where the relative magnitudes of the signals in the radiating
Control (BWC) and Side Lobe Suppression (SLS). BWC is the element paths are weighted against each other to effect a
ability of an active antenna to create narrow-to-wide beam reduction in the energy summation in the far field. Beam 2 in
widths to support both data and control channels. Radiated SLS Fig. 5 illustrates the effect of imposing a 25 dB (nominal) taper
is the ratio of the peak of the far field radiation pattern main on the first sidelobe of the pattern, and the overall energy
beam to that of the maximum sidelobe level. This quantity is a contribution of the sidelobes can be seen to be significantly
measure of an active antenna’s ability to control sidelobe levels reduced across the entire azimuth plane. The associated cost of
to reduce radiation outside the desired main beam. this taper is a reduction in the peak gain and a slight
broadening of the half-power beam width of the main lobe,
thereby also reducing the available signal power from the
SLS = Βp / SLp (5) antenna aperture in the desired pointing direction.
Bp: Peak of main beam scanned to boresight in dBi Beam 3 and Beam 4 in Fig. 5 illustrate active antenna
BWC. Beam spreading amplitude and phase tapers were
SLp: Peak of sidelobes with main beam scanned to applied to create wider beam width radiation patterns
boresight in dBi compared to the narrower beam shown for Beam 1.
Lower sidelobes will decrease network-level interference,
resulting in improved link quality, increased wireless channel I. Additional Active Antenna Design Considerations
availability, and improved system capacity. There are additional active antenna design considerations
Fig. 5 illustrates some examples of these characteristics in that are vital to evaluate for optimizing 5G NR network
the measured performance of a Ball Anokiwave 28GHz, 256- performance. Over the next few years as millimeter wave 5G
element array. Measurements of radiated antenna patterns are networks are implemented and performance is assessed, active
shown as a function of the Azimuthal plane angle for the active antenna system requirements will mature and be further
antenna programmed into four different radiated pattern defined.
configurations. The active antenna performance is software For previous wireless access networks constructed with
enabled with rapid commanding of the programmable vector passive antennas, the far-field radiation patterns could not be
modulators in the radiating element paths. The highest gain software controlled to point beams and change beam widths.
response pattern, labeled Beam 1, shows the antenna beam Since passive antennas have static radiation patterns, 3GPP
steered to boresight and stimulated with a Uniform used receiver metrics such as Block Error Rate (BLER) and
Illumination (UI) array taper. In this condition, each of the throughput to characterize system receive sensitivity and
signal path vector modulators is programmed to their performance without requirements to additionally define
maximum amplitude setting, and the resulting pattern displays associated beam states for the test models. To establish
the expected nominal -13dBc first sidelobe level (SLL). UI comprehensive and unambiguous receive performance
provides the maximum gain available from the radiating characterizations for active antenna enabled 5G NR networks,
antenna aperture, and it is commonly used in many transmitter test models and methods will need to be further refined to
applications to maximize the EIRP. The relatively high specify beam management and active spatial components.
sidelobe level in this setting may violate the stringent demands
of telecommunications regulatory requirements, although Other key parameters for active antennas that must be
spatial radiation energy restrictions are still in a state of defined over the antenna’s scan volume include beam pointing
definition. accuracy, cross polarization isolation, adjacent channel leakage
ratio (ACLR), intermodulation performance, and spatial
interference rejection. For example, to support two-layer
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) with orthogonal data
streams on each polarization of an orthogonally polarized
active antenna, acceptable cross polarization leakage as the
beam is scanned must be defined.
Another area of vigorous discussion has focused on
whether there is a need for active antenna calibration
requirements. Calibration activities, if needed, will likely
impact many areas, including time to market, production yield,
performance stability, and active antenna cost.

V. CONCLUSION
A comprehensive set of 5G active antenna figures of merit
is required to allow comparison of various active antenna
Fig. 5. Measured radiation patterns of a 256-element array operating at solutions and predict network system performance. To
28GHz under different beam-configuration settings overcome the challenges of operating in millimeter wave
2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

channels, active antennas are an enabling technology that will architecture,” 2017 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves,
assist with unlocking the full potential and supporting the Antennas, Communications and Electronic Systems (COMCAS) 2017.
diversity of new 5G applications. The FoMs defined in this [6] S. Kutty and D. Sen, “Beamforming for millimeter wave
communications: an inclusive survey,” IEEE Commun. Surveys &
paper facilitate objective assessments for active antennas Tutorials vol. 18 no. 2 pp. 949-73, 2016.
enabling 5G wireless communication networks, and support [7] E. Onggosanusi et al. "Modular and high-resolution channel state
the wireless industry goals to accelerate the deployment of 5G information and beam management for 5G new radio," IEEE Commun.
and grow the connectivity markets. Mag. vol. 56 no. 3, March 2018.
[8] M. Yao, M. M. Sohul, X. Ma, V. Marojevic, and J. H. Reed,
REFERENCES “Sustainable green networking: exploiting degrees of freedom towards
energy-efficient 5G systems,” Wireless Networks Journal, Springer US,
[1] T. S. Rappaport et al. “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G Nov. 2017.
cellular: It will work!” IEEE Access vol. 1 pp. 335-349 2013. [9] A. D. Kraus and A. Bar-Cohen, “Thermal Analysis and Control of
[2] 3GPP TR 38.802 v14.2.0, “Study on new radio access technology, Electronic Equipment,” McGraw-Hill, January 1983.
physical layer aspects.” [10] J. N. Murdock and T. S. Rappaport, “Consumption factor and power-
[3] 3GPP TR 38.913 v14.3.0, “Study on scenarios and requirements for next efficiency factor: a theory for evaluating the energy efficiency of
generation access technologies.” cascaded communication systems,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
[4] P. Nikolich et al. “Standards for 5G and beyond: their use cases and Communications, February 2014.
applications,” IEEE 5G Tech Focus: Volume 1, Number 2, June 2017.
[5] R. McMorrow, D. Corman, and A. Crofts, “All Silicon mmW planar
active antennas: the convergence of technology, applications, and