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Water Quality and Habitat Status in Three Rivers of Bukidnon

Researchers:
Kathleen O. Adajar
Maria Angela L. Melendez
Beatrix Madeline Tanquion

Bukidnon National High School


Science and Technology Engineering
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CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this Research Paper contains no material which has been

accepted for any award in any competitions. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge

and belief, this research paper contains no material previously published or written by

another person except when reference is made in text of this research paper

KATHLEEN O. ADAJAR

MARIA ANGELA L. MELENDEZ

BEATRIX MADELINE TANQUION


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Bukidnon National High School


Malaybalay City

Approval Sheet

The research paper of Kathleen O. Adajar, Maria Angela L. Melendez, and


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion entitled: “Water Quality and Habitat Status in Three Rivers
of Bukidnon” submitted in the fulfillment of the subject Research II.
In Bukidnon National High School, City of Malaybalay, has been approved by the
Research Committee:

IRENE G. ESCRUPULO
Research Teacher

EMILIE JOY P. IDULSA


Member

ETHEL M. GAYONA
Member

RUBY B. DAHILOG
Member

SUSAN S. OLANA, PhD MARY GRACE G. CRISPO


Secondary Principal IV Science and Technology Department Chair
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ABSTRACT

The physicochemical and habitat status of Alanib River, Manupali River and Pulangi
River were assessed and compared. The water temperature, depth, substrate, width, odor,
color, current, pH, pH in millivolts, oxidation reduction potential, conductivity, turbidity,
dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, salinity and flow were the physicochemical
parameters considered. Biotic and abiotic evaluation were evaluated for habitat
assessment. The results revealed that the water temperature fluctuates from 23.37C° to
26.36C°. The depth of the rivers ranges from 0.37m to 0.63m, with a width of 17.6m to
234.34m. The current of the three rivers ranges from 0.27m/s to 0.306m/s. The pH levels
ranges from 7.3 to 7.17 with a pH in millivolts ranges from -5.45 to -7.78. The oxidation
reduction potential ranges from 270.33 to 318.22. The ranges of conductivity is from
0.11µs/cm to 0.193µs/cm while the turbidity ranges from 5.93NTU to 45.58NTU. The
dissolved oxygen ranges from 13.13mg/L to 26.1mg/L. The ranges of total dissolved
solids is from 74.33mg/L to 193.67mg/L. Salinity of the rivers ranges from 0.1 to 0.3.
The flow of the three rivers ranges from 2.29m3/s to 27.09m3/s. The evaluation of the
rapid habitat assessment of the abiotic parameters in Alanib River had a mean grade of
97.33 indicating a sub-optimal condition. Manupali River had a man grade of 81.23
showing a marginal condition while Pulangi River shows a marginal condition with a
mean grade of 70.33. For the rapid habitat assessment of the biotic parameters in Alanib
River had a mean grade of 79.52 indicating a marginal condition. Manupali River had a
mean grade of 78.9 showing a marginal condition while Pulangi River shows a marginal
condition with a mean grade of 60.78. Both Alanib River and Manupali River failed on
dissolved oxygen while all three River failed on turbidity. There is a significant
differences on the physicochemical parameters and habitat condition.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

CERTIFICATION ii

APPROVAL SHEET iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

ABSTRACT v

LIST OF TABLES vi

LIST OF FIGURES vii

I. INTRODUCATION 1

A. Background of the Study 1

B. Statement of the Problem 2

C. Statement of the Hypotheses 3

D. Significance of the Study 3

E. Scopes and Limitations of the Study 3

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 5

III. METHODOLOGY 14

A. Establishment of the Sampling Sites 14

B. Entry Protocol 14

C. Research Materials 15

D. Methods of the Study 15

E. Physicochemical Parameters 16

F. Habitat Status 16

G. Interpretation of Data 16
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IV. RESULTS AND FINDINGS 18

V. DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 38

A. Discussion 38

B. Summary 41

C. Conclusion 42

D. Recommendations 42

VI. LITERATURE CITED 43

VII. APPENDICES 45

A. Appendix A 46

B. Appendix B 55

C. Appendix C 62

D. Appendix D 61
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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE:

1. Location and elevation of the selected study sites 14

2. Summary of the Mean Values of Physicochemical parameters of 19

Alanib River

3. Summary of the Mean Values of Physicochemical Parameters of 21

Manupali River

4. Summary of the Mean Values of Physicochemical Parameters of 22

Pulangi River

5. Summary of the mean Score of the Three Rivers 23

6. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Abiotic Parameters in Alanib River 25

7. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Biotic Parameters in Alanib River 26

8. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Abiotic Parameters in Manupali River 28

9. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Biotic Parameters in Manupali River 29

10. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Abiotic Parameters in Pulangi River 31

11. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Biotic Parameters in Pulangi River 32

12. Summary of the Mean Values of the Habitat Status (Abiotic) in 34

Three Rivers

13. Summary of the Mean Values of the Habitat Status (Biotic) in 34

Three Rivers

14. Pearson Correlation of Habitat Status and Physicochemical Parameters 36

15. Raw Data of Alanib River 97

16. Raw Data of Manupali River 98


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17. Raw Data of Pulangi River 99

18. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River 100-105

(Songco)

19. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River 106-111

(Songco)

20. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River 112-117

(Alanib)

21. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River 118-123

(Alanib)

22. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River 124-129

(Balila)

23. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River 130-135

(Balila)

24. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River 136-141

(Basac)

25. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River 142-147

(Basac)

26. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River 148-153

(Balila)

27. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River 154-159

(Balila)

28. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River 160-165

(Colonia)

29. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River 166-171
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(Colonia)

30. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River 172-177

(Zamboanguita)

31. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River 178-183

(Zamboanguita)

32. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River 184-189

(Sugod)

33. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River 190-195

(Sugod)

34. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River 196-207

(Dologon)

35. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River 208-213

(Dologon)

36. DENR Administrative Order no. 34 Series of 1990. 215


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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE:

1. Flow Chart 17

2. Map of the Alanib River (Songco) sampling area 55

3. Map of the Alanib River (Alanib) sampling area 55

4. Map of the Alanib River (Balila) sampling area 56

5. Map of the Manupali River (Basac) sampling area 56

6. Map of the Manupali River (Balila) sampling area 57

7. Map of the Manupali River (Colonia) sampling area 57

8. Map of the Pulangi River (Zamboanguita) sampling area 58

9. Map of the Pulangi River (Sugod) sampling area 58

10. Map of the Pulangi River (Dologon) sampling area 59

11. The location of the three Rivers 59

12. Map of the Philippines with the location of the Province of Bukidnon 60

13. Materials 61

14A. Sampling in Alanib River Upstream (Songco) 62

14B. Sampling in Alanib River Upstream (Songco) 63

15A. Alanib River Midstream (Alanib). 64

15B. Alanib River Midstream (Alanib). 65

16A. Alanib River Downstream (Balila). 66

16B. Alanib River Downstream (Balila). 67

17A. Manuplai River Upstream (Basac) 68

17B. Manuplai River Upstream (Basac) 69

18A. Manuplai River Midstream (Balila) 70


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18B. Manuplai River Midstream (Balila) 71

19A. Manupali River Downstream (Colonia) 72

19B. Manupali River Downstream (Colonia) 73

20A. Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita) 74

20B. Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita) 75

21A. Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod) 76

21B. Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod) 77

22A. Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon) 78

22B. Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon) 79

23A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,

midstream, and downstream. 80

23B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,

midstream, and downstream. 81

24A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,

midstream, and downstream. 82

24B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,

midstream, and downstream. 83

25A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,

midstream, and downstream. 84

25B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,

midstream, and downstream. 85

26A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River, Manupali River

and Pulangi River 86


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26B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River, Manupali River

and Pulangi River 87

27A. Alanib River One-way ANOVA 88

27B. Alanib River One-way ANOVA 89

28A. Manupali River One-way ANOVA 90

28B. Manupali River One-way ANOVA 91

29A. Pulangi River One-way ANOVA 92

29B. Pulangi River One-way ANOVA 93

30A. Alanib River, Manupali River, and Pulangi River One-way ANOVA 94

30B. Alanib River, Manupali River, and Pulangi River One-way ANOVA 95

31. Pearson Correlation of Habitat Status and Physicochemical Parameters 96

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Water is the most essential and prime necessity of life. Surface water generally

available in Rivers, Lakes, Ponds, and Dams is used for drinking, irrigation and power

supply. The usual source of drinking water is from streams, rivers, wells, and boreholes

which are usually not treated (Gupta et al, 2013). As cited by Opiso et al (2014), the

composition of surface and underground depends on natural factors and anthropogenic

activities which have significant effects on water quality. Some of these effects are the

result of hydrological changes, such as the building of dams, draining of wetlands and

diversion of flow. Polluting activities such as the discharge of domestic, industrial, urban
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and other wastewaters into the watercourse are also some obvious factors affecting water

quality (Meghla et al, 2013).

Wang et al (1994) mentioned that a river considered a good habitat has high flow

gradient, not channelized and with rocky substrates. Moreover, high urban land use leads

to poor habitat quality. Habitat quality is essential for aquatic fauna because they have

very specific habitat requirements which are independent to water-quality composition

(Barbour et al, 1996).

Pulangi, Manupali, and Alanib River extremely need water quality and habitat

status analysis because these rivers are very beneficial to the people of Bukidnon. Alanib

River is nearby resided; people used the river for recreational activities and agricultural

purposes; there were flow obstructions in the river like culverts and paved stream

crossing. Manupali River is one of the major tributaries of Pulangi, various anthropogenic

disturbances such as slash and burn, and cultivation of agricultural lands, domestic

animals like cows and horses were observed in the river; there were also dams, weirs, and

other landscape and hydrologic condition stressors in the river. The headwater of Alanib

and Manupali River are located in Mount Kitanglad which is one of the Mindanao Long

Term Ecological Research according to the Center of Biodiversity Research and

Extension in Mindanao (CEBREM) Pulangi River is and extensive river system in

Mindanao and it is the receiving water of all the rivers and streams in Bukidnon

(Dacumas, 2012).

Due to increasing population, industrialization, and intensive agriculture, a big

change happened and impacted these rivers for the past years. There were some related

studies and similar sampling sites shown in Chapter 3 that guided the researchers in

conducting the study; however, those studies are in the past, and so the researchers
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assessed the present water quality and habitat status of Pulangi, Manupali, and Alanib

River in Bukidnon.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to assess the water quality and habitat status of the three rivers in

Bukidnon.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the physicochemical characteristics of the three rivers?

2. What are the differences between the physicochemical characteristics of the three

rivers?

3. What is the the habitat status of the three rivers?

4. What are the differences of the habitat condition of the three rivers.

Hypothesis of the Study

Ho: There is no significant difference in the water quality between the three rivers

in Bukidnon.

HA: There is a significant difference in the water quality between the three rivers

in Bukidnon.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the physicochemical and habitat

status of the three rivers

HA: There is a significant relationship between the physicochemical and habitat

status of the three rivers


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Significance of the Study

Results of the study will provide specific baseline information on the current

water quality and habitat status of the three rivers of Bukidnon.

Scope and Limitations

The physicochemical parameters and habitat status analysis was conducted in-situ

for three consecutive days. On the 9th of July 2016, the researchers went to the upper,

middle, and downstream of Alanib River to conduct the study. On the 10th of July 2016,

the upper, middle, and downstream of Manupali River was assessed; then on the 11th of

July 2016, the researchers evaluated the upper, middle, and downstream of Pulangi River.

This study was limited only to the water quality and habitat status of Alanib, Manupali,

and Pulangi River; the upstream of Alanib River, was in Songco, Lantapan, middle

stream was in Alanib, Lantapan, and downstream was in Balila, Lantapan, Bukidnon. The

second river is Manupali River, its upstream was in Basac, Lantapan, middle stream was

in Balila, Lantapan, and downstream was in Colonia, Valencia City. The third river is

Pulangi River, the upstream was in Zamboanguita, Malaybalay City, middle stream was

in Sugod, Valencia City, and downstream was in Dologon, Maramag, Bukidnon. The

researchers tested the water quality of the rivers with the physical and chemical

parameters, and the habitat status with its abiotic and biotic factor. Most of the

information for the physicochemical parameters was obtained with the use of HORIBA

water quality analyzer and the habitat status was evaluated using Rapid Bio-assessment

Protocol for use in Wadeable Stream and Rivers (Barbour et al, 1996) and the

documented species and the adjacent areas of the rivers.


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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The following Review of Literature is a description of researches that is related to

Water Quality and Habitat Status in Three Rivers of Bukidnon that inspired and guided

this study. Included are the finding and related studies that investigated about the

assessment of the water quality and Habitat Status.

Water Quality

According to Evans et al (2012) water pollution in Asia, the uncontrolled release

of sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural run-off continue to affect Asia. Although

many Asian countries are getting closer to meeting the improved sanitation targets, much
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of the waste remains untreated. Comprehensive databases are rarely available and

national data indicate that the water quality situation is serious. However, there are many

signs of hope. The efforts of basin agencies, such as the Mekong River Commission,

could lead the way to Tran’s boundary or even regional assessments. Many regulatory

and economics options are being tested for pollution control, but institutional and social

challenges remain in particular those related to population growth and the various ways it

is affecting water quality across the region. This study assesses water quality and finds

solutions for the problems and has a bigger coverage compared to the researchers’ study

which only involves three regional rivers and doesn’t look for a solution to the problem.

In the study of Dinh (2007) a wireless sensor network was designed for

monitoring water quality, e.g. salinity, and has been collecting water quality and flow

measurements, e.g. water flow rate and water flow tricks for over one month. Real time

water quality measurements were collected together with the amount of water being

pumped out in the area, and it investigated the impact of current irrigation practice on the

environments, in particular underground water salivation. Wide geographic area coverage

was featured. It is proven in the study that the wireless sensor network is a promising

solution to deploying a sustainable irrigation system, e.g. maximizing the amount of

water pumped out from an area with minimum impact on water quality.

The studies on physicochemical parameters to assess the water quality of river

Ganga for drinking purpose in Haridwar District of Joshi et al. (2009) indicates that the

water excessed in some of the physicochemical parameters like pH, total dissolved solids,

turbidity, and sodium, therefore, it is not suitable for drinking purposes. The analysis was

done for two consecutive years 2007 and 2008, the sampling was conducted during
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winter (November to February), summer (March to June), and rainy (July to October)

season. Ninety samples from five sampling stations were collected and analyzed for

physico-chemical parameters (temp, velocity, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, C.O.D.,

B.O.D., Carbonate, Bicarbonate, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved

solids, total suspended solids).

Manjare et al. (2009), Analysis of Water Quality Using Physicochemical

Parameters in Tamdalge Tank in Kolhaapur District, Maharashtra. It is revealed in the

study that all the parameters such as water temperature, transparency, turbidity, total

dissolved solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, phosphate and

nitrates were within the permissible limits. The water was monitored for one year, the

sampling started on the first of January and ended on the thirty-first of December, 2009.

The results indicate that the tank is non-polluted and can be used for domestic, irrigation,

and pisciculture.

In the study of Shittu et al. (2008) a study for physicochemical and bacteriological

analyses of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in Abeokuta, Nigeria was

conducted. The analyses were carried out on well water, stream water, river water used

for drinking and swimming purpose in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The results obtained were

compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking and recreational water. All of the

watersheds were within the standards set for pH, color, total solids, total dissolved solids,

acidity, total hardness, chloride, and iron except for Sokori Stream which did not comply

with turbidity and magnesium. None of the samples complied with the bacteriological

standards as total coliform counts generally exceeded 1,600 MPN/ml, and pathogen count

such as Salmonella-Shigella counts and Vibrio cholera counts were very high.
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Physicochemical Parameters

Knowing water’s physical, chemical and biological characteristics allows experts

to determine whether it is suitable for aquatic life or human consumption. In the United

States, agricultural runoff and urban and wastewater discharges contribute to the

contamination of water resources. (Florida State Department. 2009). Temperature is a

very important part of a stream’s ecology. The water’s temperature affects the dissolved

oxygen capacity of the water. The pH of water is important to aquatic life. If the pH falls

below 4 or above 9, all life forms die. The pH is a measurement of the acid/base activity

in a solution. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14; a pH measurement of 7 is neutral. A pH

less than 7 is acidic and greater than 7 represents alkalinity. A pH range of 6 to 8.5 is

common for natural waters. Its levels can also be affected by wastewater discharge,

runoff from mining operations, and the types of rock naturally found in the area. (Gada.

2010). Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) measures the ability of a lake or river to

cleanse itself or break down waste products, such as contaminants and dead plants and

animals. When the ORP value is high, there is lots of oxygen present in the water. ORP

depends on the amount of dissolved oxygen that is in the water, as well as the amount of

other elements that function similarly to oxygen (Wetzel. 1983). When ORP is low,

dissolved oxygen is low, toxicity of certain metals and contaminants can increase, and

there is lots of dead and decaying material in the water that cannot be cleared or

decomposed. This is obviously not a healthy environment for fish or bugs. In healthy

waters, ORP should read high between 300 and 500 millivolts (Horne & Goldman. 1994).

Conductivity is the basis of most salinity and total dissolved solids calculation, it

is an early indicator of change in a water system. A sudden increase or decrease in

conductivity in a body of water can indicate pollution. Agricultural runoff or sewage leak
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will increase conductivity due to additional chloride, phosphate, and nitrate ions

(FONDRIES Environmental 2010). Dissolved oxygen is an important parameter

assessing water quality because of its influence on the organisms living within a body of

water; if its level is too high or too low can harm aquatic life and affect water quality.

Low DO can cause fish kill and too high DO can cause Gas Bubble Disease in fish and

invertebrates (FONDRIES Environmental 2010). Velocity of the water flow also

influences levels of dissolved oxygen. During dry seasons, water levels decline and the

flow rate of the water slows down, so dissolved oxygen levels drop. (University of

Colorado at Boulder 2009). Buildup of organic wastes is the major factor contributing to

changes in dissolved oxygen levels. Oxygen tends to be less soluble as the temperature of

the water increases (Murphy 2009).

Turbidity is an important indicator of the amount of suspended sediment in water,

which can have many negative effects on aquatic life. The suspended sediments that

cause turbidity can block light to aquatic plants, smother aquatic organisms, and carry

contaminants and pathogens such as lead, mercury, and bacteria (FONDRIES

Environmental 2010). Salinity is the total concentration of all dissolve salts in water. It is

important as it affects dissolved oxygen solubility. The higher the salinity level, the lower

the dissolve oxygen concentration. On the solubility of DO is due to Henry’s Law; the

constant used will change based on ion contractions (FONDRIES Environmental 2010).

It is generally agreed that the total dissolved solids concentration of good,

palatable drinking water should not exceed 500 mg/L. However, higher concentrations

may be consumed without harmful physiological effects and may indeed even be more

beneficial. This limit was primarily set on the basis of taste thresholds. Livestock and

wildlife may be injured by drinking water that contains excessive dissolved solids.
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Continuous use of such water may cause a general loss of condition, weakness, scouring,

reduced production, bone degeneration and death (Gordon 2013). Total dissolved solids

are important to aquatic life by keeping cell density balanced. Conductivity and salinity

have a strong correlation; as conductivity is easier to measure, it is used in algorithms

estimating salinity and TDS, both which affect water quality and aquatic life

(FONDRIES Environmental 2010).

Habitat Status

It is revealed on the study of Tewari et al. (2013) on population studies, habitat

assessment and threat categorization of Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) Allion in Kumuan

Himalaya that the density of individuals and area occupied were low as compared to

other species of the region, indicating habitat loss and heavy exploitation. Status was

determined on a site-to-site basis for the entire Kumuan region. The researchers of this

study focused on the Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) Allion count and status in Kumuan

while the researchers will check the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the rivers and will

not identify and focus on species. This study focused on a specific organism’s population

on a certain place while the researchers on took up the biotic and abiotic factors affecting

the rivers of Bukidnon.

In the study of Pȃrvulescu, Pacioglu, and Hamchevici (2010) on the assessment

and water quality requirements of the stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) and

noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) species in the Rivers from the Anina Mountains (SW

Romania), it is opined that the anthropogenic impacts registered in some of the sampling

sites (e.g. organic pollution and river bed modification) might have triggered the

disappearance of both species from the of the watersheds situated downstream and towns,
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deforestation sites, and sewage treatment plants. Physical-chemical indicators were

measured on site.

According to Barbour et al. (1999) on “rapid bioassessment protocols for use in

streams and wadeable rivers: periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish”, an

evaluation of habitat status is critical to any assessment of ecological integrity and should

be performed at each site. In the truest sense, “habitat” incorporates all aspects of

physical and chemical constituents along with the biotic interactions. In these protocols,

the definition of “habitat” is narrowed to the quality of the instream and riparian habitat

that influences the structure and function of the aquatic community in a stream. The

presence of an altered habitat structure is considered one of the major stressors of aquatic

systems. The habitat quality evaluation can be accomplished by characterizing selected

physicochemical parameters in conjunction with a systematic assessment of physical

structure. Through this approach, key features can be rated or scored to provide a useful

assessment of habitat quality.

Alanib River

In the study of Amoroso et al. (2014) on assessment of biodiversity and water

quality in association with land use in the Alanib River, Mt. Kitangland Range Park,

Philippines, inventory and assessment of aquatic biodiversity were conducted in Alanib

River in Mt. Kitangland, Bukidnon, which is one of the Long Term Ecological Research

(LTER) sites in Mindanao. The species richness and abundance of fishes, macro-

invertebrates, plankton and also vascular plants in the riparian vegetation were evaluated

in relation to the influence of land use, water quality and elevation. The researchers

studied the upper part of the site. Results showed that the surrounding land uses and
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human activities along the river were found to have significant impact on overall water

quality and biodiversity of the aquatic biota and riparian vegetation of Alanib River. The

increasing human population and agricultural intensification at the lower section of the

river contributed to the relatively lower water quality, presence of pollution tolerant

phytoplankton and macro-invertebrate groups as well as invasive species of vascular

plants. Hence, the overall results of this study revealed that the integrity of Alanib River

in terms of its biophysical and chemical condition is severely threatened especially in the

downstream section due to various anthropogenic activities which can degrade its overall

environment quality.

Manupali River

In the study of Lantican (2003), the impacts of soil erosion in the upper Manupali

watershed and the sequent sedimentation in the plains on the productivity of the

Manupali River Irrigation System’s (ManRIS) service area of 4,422 ha were assessed.

Land-use changes in the watershed for the past two decades caused soil erosion and the

consequent increasing trend of canal siltation at ManRIS. This resulted in a significant

decline in the productivity and income of the farmers. Rice yields in forms that were

heavily affected by siltation had decrease by 27% from 1990 to 1995. Furthermore, in

addition to the regular operation maintenance (O and M) costs, the ManRIS management

incurred desilting costs in its operation. To cope with the siltation problem, the ManRIS

management and farmers made adjusts in the water delivery schedule, cropping pattern
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and land allocation to various crops. However, it is expected that the siltation in the

ManRIS canal network and the consequent decline in crop yield and income will

continue in the coming years. Drastic measures are needed to remedy the soil erosion

problem in the upper Manupali Watershed.

Pulangi River

According to Quimpang (1989), Bukidnon Sugar mill wastes which are mainly

organic wastes in Pulangi River did not pollute the river. The values on water quality

parameters fell under the values set for non-polluted water. The fast flow rate of Pulangi

River which averaged to 1,519.05 cm/sec. may have been important factor in dispersing

pollutant sources, facilitated gaseous exchange and controlled phytoplankton population.

Thus, the following studies are similar to the researchers’ study but will differ

only on the places, parameters, methods used, time, and objectives. Moreover, the

mentioned related studies guided the researchers in conducting the study.


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METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes and presents the entry protocol, research materials,

methods of the study, habitat status, interpretation of data and documentation.

Establishment of Sampling Sites

The study was conducted in three different rivers of Bukidnon: Alanib, Manupali,

Pulangi River (Table 1).

Table 1. Location and elevation of the selected study sites


Site Elevation Location

(masl) Longitude Latitude


Alanib River
AL1 1052.607 124˚57’04.2’’ 8˚02’35.1’’
AL2 808.479 124˚58’51.3’’ 8˚01’42.4’’
AL3 633.917 125˚00’39.1’’ 7˚59’58.9’’
Manupali River
MN1 1048.504 124˚52’09.7’’ 8˚02’03.3’’
MN2 630.911 125˚00’32.4’’ 7˚59’23.5’’
MN3 320.228 125˚07’53.0’’ 7˚59’15.5’’
Pulangi River
PL1 503.000 125˚17’22.0’’ 8˚12’32.4’’
PL2 304.919 125˚07’33.1’’ 7˚56’22.1’’
PL3 286.730 125˚02’57.3’’ 7˚49’08.9’’
Alanib River: (AL1) upstream, (AL2) midstream, (AL3) downstream; Manupali River:
(MN1) upstream, (MN2) midstream, (MN3) downstream; Pungi River: (PL1) upstream,
(PL2) midstream, (PL3) downstream

Entry Protocol

The researchers asked permission to the Barangay Officials of the following

barangays: Zamboanguita, Sugod, Dologan, Basac, Balila, Colonia, Songco, and Alanib.
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Research Materials

The researchers used HORIBA water quality analyzer, a portable apparatus used

to measure the physicochemical parameters such as; temperature, pH, potential of

hydrogen in millivolts, oxidation reduction potential, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved

oxygen, total dissolved solids, and salinity. A laser pro was used in getting the width of

the rivers. Meter stick was used for measuring the depth of the rivers. For the current,

pingpong balls, stop watch and 10 meter straw were used. And for the habitat status

assessment, everything that surrounds the rivers was documented with the use of a digital

camera.

Methods of the study

1. Current- In measuring the current, two pingpong balls were left flowing with the water

and the amount of time it reached from the first point of the 10 meter plastic rope to

another was recorded. Ten meters was divided by the time in seconds, the final result was

in meter per second.

2. Width- Laser Pro was used in measuring the width of the river.

3. Flow – The flow of the river is equal to the product of the depth and current times the

width.

4. Type of Substrate – in-situ ocular inspection was done to check the bottom part of the

river if it is with mud, sand, silt, clay, granule, pebble, cobble, or boulder.

5. Color – in-situ ocular inspection was done to identify the color of the river.

6. Odor – in-situ sensory evaluation technique was used.

7. Depth – The final depth is the average of the initial and final recording of the depth using

a meter stick.
28

Physicochemical Parameters

HORIBA water quality analyzer was used to assess the following

physicochemical parameters: water temperature, pH, potential of hydrogen in millivolts,

oxidation- reduction potential, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total

dissolved solids. First, the HORIBA was stabilized by dipping its sensor into a basin

filled distilled with water, then the sensor was placed in the rivers, after one to five

minutes, the results were recorded.

Habitat Status

The biotic and abiotic parameters of the status of habitat are evaluated using

Rapid Bio-assessment Protocol for use in Wadeable Stream and Rivers (Barbour et al,

1996).

Interpretation of Data

Statistical significance of the gathered raw data was tested using One-way

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson Correlation through Minitab 15.


29

Establishment of Sampling Sites

Entry Protocol

Research Materials

Research Method

Physicochemical Parameters
Habitat Status

Physical Chemical Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors

Temperature, pH,
Canopy cover
pH in millivolts, shading,
Depth,
Hydrologic Bank vegetative
Oxidation reduction connectivity, protection,
Current,
potential, Landscape condition Streamside cover,
stressor, Riparian vegetable
Width,
Dissolve oxygen, Hydrologic zone width,
condition stressor, Native riparian
Flow,
Alkalinity, Physicochemical vegetation,
parameter, Invasive exotic
Type of substrate,
Conductivity, Bottom plant species
substrate/instream cover,
Color,
Total dissolved solids, cover, Biotic condition
Embeddedness, stressor,
Odor,
Salinity Channel alteration, Vegetation
Bank stability horizontal patch,
Turbidity
Vegetation
vertical patch

Documentation

Interpretation of Data

Fig 1. Flowchart of Methodology


30

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

This section presents, analyze, and interpret the results and findings of the data

obtained from Water Quality and Habitat Status in Three Rivers of Bukidnon. The

presentation of results is organized based on the order of the specific problems stated in

chapter one: (1) determine the physicochemical characteristics of the three rivers; (2)

compare the physicochemical characteristics of the three rivers; (3) assess the habitat

status of the three rivers; (4) compare the habitat status of the three rivers; (5) there is no

significant difference between the physicochemical characteristics and habitat status of

the rivers.

Description of the Physicochemical Characteristics of Alanib River

The data presented in Table 2 shows the overall mean scores of the

physicochemical parameters in Alanib River. The range of temperature in Alanib River is

from 20.9 to 26.24 with an overall mean of 23.84, the depth of the river reaches from

0.27 to 0.43 meters with an average score of 0.37 meters. The width of the river ranges

from 9.2 to 27 meters with an average of 17.6 meters while the current is form 0.24 to

0.39 m/s with an average of 0.306 m/s. Both up and middle stream have a boulder

substrate and the water is clear with dead leaves, downstream has a muddy, rocky, and

silt substrate and it is brownish blue green in color. The odor of the up and down stream

is normal while the midstream is anaerobic, the pH of the aforesaid river ranges from

7.25 to 8.13 with an overall mean of 7.6, while its pH in millivolts (pHmV) is from -

30.33 to -83.67 and the average is -49.8. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) reaches

from 311.33 to 323.67 mV with a mean of 318.22 mV, the conductivity ranges from

0.135 to 0.2 mS/cm with an average of 0.16 mS/cm. The turbidity of the river is from 2.9
31

to 10.4 NTU with an overall mean of 5.93 NTU while the dissolved oxygen (DO) count

reached from 13.62 to 17.29 mg/L with an average of 15.52 mg/L. The amount of the

total dissolved solids (TDS) of the river ranges from 90 to 361 mg/L with a mean of

193.67 mg/L, salinity has an overall mean of 0.1 mg/L, and the flow of the river ranges

from 0.95 to 4.6 m3/s with an average score of 2.29 m3/s.

Furthermore, pH, pHmV, ORP, conductivity, DO, TDS, and salinity are within

the permissible limits of DAO 34 guideline for Class D watercourse, however; the

turbidity of Alanib River failed to pass the recommendable score for the Class D

watercourse; and DO shows that there is no significant difference across three stations.

Table 2: Summary of Mean Values of the Physicochemical Parameters in Alanib River


DAO 34 Upstream Midstream Downstream Overall
Parameters Class D (Songco) (Alanib) (Balila) Mean
Class Remarks
Temperature (˚C) 26-30 20.9a 24.37b 26.24 c
23.84 D Passed
Depth (m) -- 0.43 0.27 0.42 0.37 D --
Width (m) -- 9.2 16.6 27 17.6 D --
Current (m/s) -- 0.24 ns 0.29ns 0.39 no 0.306 D --
Muddy,
Substrate -- Boulder Boulder
rocky, silt
-- D --
Odor -- Normal Anaerobic Normal -- D --
Clear with Clear with Brownish
Color --
dead leaves dead leaves blue green
-- D --
pH 6.5-8.5 7.25a 7.32b 8.13 c
7.6 D Passed
Potential Hydrogen
28.57-
in millivolts current (-85.7)
-30.33a -35.33b -83.67c -49.8 D Passed
(pHmV)
Oxidation
Reduction Potential 500-300 323.67a 319.67b 311.33b 318.22 D Passed
(mV)
Conductivity
0-1500 0.2a 0.135b 0.14c 0.16 D Passed
(mS/cm)
Turbidity (NTU) 5 2.9a 4.5b 10.4c 5.93 D Failed
Dissolved Oxygen
4-15mg/L 17.29ns 13.62ns 15.65ns 15.52 D Failed
(mg/L)
500-1000
Total Dissolved
mg/L 130a 90b 361c 193.67 D Passed
Solids (mg/L)
< 0.5
Salinity (mg/L) mg/L
0.1a 0.1b 0.1c 0.1 D Passed
Flow ( m3/s ) -- 0.95 1.33 4.6 2.29 D --
Legend (abc) significant difference; (ns) no significant difference
32

Description of the Physicochemical Characteristics of Manupali River

The data presented in Table 3 shows that the mean of the physicochemical

parameters (pH, potential hydrogen in millivolts, oxidation reduction potential,

conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, turbidity and salinity) are within

the limits of DAO 34 guidelines for water quality Class D. The temperature of Manupali

River ranges from 20.16 to 26.03 with an average mean of 23.37; while the pH is from

7.11 to 7.46 with an overall mean of 7.3. The pH in millivolts has an average mean of

-5.45 and ranged from -37 to 43.33. Moreover, the oxidation reduction potential has a

range of 283.33 to 318.33 and a mean of 299.22. Conductivity has a mean of 0.11 from

and ranges from 0.1 to 0.16. The mean of turbidity is 8.67 that is from 4.5to 14.17; while

dissolved oxygen flaunt an average of 26.1 from the showed range of 23.53 to 30.03.

Total dissolved solids averaged 74.33 and ranges from 50 to 103; and lastly, salinity

shows 0.03 as an average mean from its range of 0 to 0.1.

Furthermore, all the physicochemical parameters show significant difference

across the three stations except for the current and dissolved oxygen.
33

Table 3: Summary of Mean Values of the Physicochemical Parameters in Manupali River


DAO 34 Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters Mean Class Remarks
Class D (Basac) (Balila) (Colonia)
Temperature (˚C) 26-30 20.16 a 26.03b 23.91c 23.37 D Passed
Depth (m) -- 0.32 0.69 0.43 0.48 D --
Width (m) -- 22.3 27 21.6 23.63 D --
Current (m/s) -- 0.41ns 0.37 ns 0.61 ns 0.46 D --
Muddy,
Substrate -- Boulder Boulder -- D --
rocky, silt
Odor -- Normal Normal Normal -- D --
Clear with Clear with Brownish
Color -- -- D --
dead leaves dead leaves blue green
pH 6.5-8.5 7.11 a 7.34 b 7.46 c 7.3 D Passed
Potential Hydrogen in
28.57-
millivolts current -22.67 a -37 b 43.33 c -5.45 D Passed
(-85.7)
(pHmV)
Oxidtion Reductant
500-300 283.33 a 318.33 b 296 c 299.22 D Passed
Potential (mV)
Conductivity
0-1500 0.07 a 0.1 b 0.16 c 0.11 D Passed
(mS/cm)
Turbidity (NTU) 5 4.5 a 7.33 b 14.17 c 8.67 D Failed
Dissolved Oxygen
4-15 mg/L 24.73 ns 23.53 ns 30.03 ns 26.1 D Failed
(mg/L)

500-1000
Total Dissolved
mg/L 50 a 70 b 103 c 74.33 D Passed
Solids (mg/L)

< 0.5
Salinity (mg/L) 0a 0b 0.1 c 0.03 D Passed
mg/L
Flow (m3/s) -- 2.93 6.9 5.7 5.18 D --
Legend (abc) significant difference; (ns) no significant difference

Description of the Physicochemical Characteristics of Pulangi River

The Data presented in Table 4 shows that the mean of the physicochemical

parameters (pH, potential hydrogen in millivolts, oxidation reduction potential,

conductivity, dissolve oxygen, total dissolves solids and salinity) excluding turbidity of

Pulangi River have all passed the limits of DAO 34 guidelines for Class D watercourse.

The range of water temperature is from 25.45 to 26.72 with an overall mean of 26.26.

The pH has a range of 5.59 to 8.62 with an overall mean of 7.17; while the range of pH in

millivolts ranges from -35 to -112.33 with a mean of -71.78. Oxidation reduction
34

potential has a range of 220 to 314.67 and a mean of 279.33; conductivity ranges from

0.238 to 0.163 and averaged 0.193; moreover, turbidity ranges from 8.63 to 40.37 with an

overall mean of 45.58. Dissolved oxygen has a range of 4.46 to 18.28 with a mean of

13.13. The total dissolved solids ranged from 106 to 155 with an overall mean of 125.67.

The salinity averaged 0.1; while the flow ranges from 0.38 to 44.54 and has an overall

mean of 27.09.

Furthermore all physicochemical parameters show that there is no significant

difference across three stations of Pulangi River.

Table 4. Summary of Mean Values of the Physicochemical Parameters in Pulangi River


DAO 34 Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameter Mean Class Remarks
Class D (Zamboanguita) (Sugod) (Dologon)
a b
Temperature (°C) 26-30 25.45 26.91 26.72c 26.36 D Passed
Depth (m) 0.63 0.9 1.01 0.63 D --
fine sand,
3/4 stone,
Substrate -- stony muddy -- D --
gravel#1,
silt
Width (m) -- 2.3 101 600 234.43 D --
Odor -- normal musty musty -- D --
Color -- blue green brownish brownish -- D --
Current (m/s) -- 0.26 0.49 0.06 0.27 D --
pH 6.5-8.5 8.62a 7.31b 5.59c 7.17 D Passed
pH in millivolts 28.57-
-112.33 a -35b -68c -71.78 D Passed
(pHmV) (-85.7)
Oxidation
Reduction 300-500 220a 314.67b 303.33c 279.33 D Passed
Potential (mV)
Conductivity
0-1500 0.163a 0.238b 0.179c 0.193 D Passed
(mS/cm)
Turbidity
5 8.63a 40.37b 87.73c 45.58 D Failed
(NTU)
Dissolved 4-15
18.28a 16.65b 4.46c 13.13 D Passed
Oxygen (mg/L) mg/L
Total Dissolved 500/1000
106a 155b 116c 125.67 D Passed
Solids (mg/L) mg/L
<0.5
Salinity (mg/L) 0.1a 0.1b 0.1c 0.1 D Passed
mg/L
Flow (m3/s) -- 0.38 44.54 36.36 27.09 D --
Legend (abc) significant difference; (ns) no significant difference
35

Description of the Mean Score of the Physicochemical in Three Rivers

Table 5 presents the mean score of the physicochemical parameters of the three

rivers. The water temperature of Pulangi River (26.36 ˚C) is obviously higher than Alanib

River (23.84 ˚C) and Manupali River (23.37 ˚C), however, the three rivers are within the

permissible limits of DAO 34 Class D. Alanib River is 0.37 meters depth, while the

Manupali River is 0.48 meters and Pulangi River which is the deepest among the three is

0.63 meters deep. Pulangi River is the widest meters among these three rivers which has

234.34, Alanib River has 17.6 meters and Manupali River is 23.63 meters wide. The

current of these rivers is as follows: Alanib River (0.306 meters per second), Manupali

River (0.46 meters per second), and Pulangi River (0.27 meters per second). The pH of

the aforesaid rivers together with the pH in millivolts, oxidation reduction potential, and

conductivity did not have much difference in the mean score and these parameters are

within the limits of DAO 34 Class D. Moreover, none of the rivers passed with turbidity,

Alanib (5.93), Manupali (8.67), Pulangi (45.58); while only Pulangi River (13.13 mg/L)

passed for the dissolved oxygen parameter, Alanib (15.52 mg/L), Manupali (26.1 mg/L).

The total dissolved solids and salinity parameter of the rivers passed the DAO 34

guidelines. And the flow of the rivers differed, Alanib (2.29), Manupali (5.18), Pulangi

(27.09).
36

Table 5. Summary of the Mean Score of the Physicochemical Parameters in Three Rivers
DAO 34 Alanib Manupali Pulangi
Parameters
Class D River River River
Temperature ( ˚C) 26-30 23.84ns 23.37ns 26.36ns
a
Depth (m) -- 0.37 0.48b 0.63c
Width (m) -- 17.6a 23.63b 234.34c
Current (m/s) -- 0.306ns 0.46ns 0.27ns
ns
pH 6.5-8.5 7.6 7.3ns 7.17ns
Potential Hydrogen in 28.57-
-49.8ns -5.45ns -71.78ns
millivolts current (-85.7)
Oxidation Reduction
500-300 318.22ns 299.22ns 270.33ns
Potential (mV)
Conductivity (mS/cm) 0-1500 0.16ns 0.11ns 0.193ns
ns
Turbidity (NTU) 5 5.93 8.67ns 45.58ns
Dissolved Oxygen 4-15mg/L
15.52ns 26.1ns 13.13ns
(mg/L) (shallow)
Total Dissolved Solids 500-1000 mg/L
193.67ns 74.33ns 125.67ns
(mg/L)
Salinity (mg/L) < 0.5 mg/L 0.1ns 0.03ns 0.1ns
Legend (abc) significant difference; (ns) no significant difference

Description of Abiotic Component of Alanib River

Results of the total rapid assessment of the abiotic component in Alanib River is

sub-optimal as shown in Table 6. Hydrologic connectivity of the aforesaid river is rated

showing a sub-optimal condition which means that the watercourse has less frequent

inundation than fully connected streams, floodplain supporting riparian vegetation is

present. Landscape condition stressors like rural residential were observed in the river

and had a mean grade of 4.33 which means that it shows a poor condition. Hydrologic

condition stressors were also observed in the river, these stressors are non-point source

discharges (urban runoff, farm drainage), augmented flow diversions, dams (reservoirs)

flow obstructions (culvert), groundwater extraction. The stressors had a mean grade of

5.44 which means that it is of poor condition. Physicochemical parameters of the river

had a mean grade of 18 which means that it is in optimal condition. Thirty to fifty per
37

cent of the river was mixed with gravel and its habitat is stable and its mean grade is

14.33 which indicates a sub-optimal condition. In the embeddedness of the river, less

than 25% of the rocks were surrounded by fine sediment and its mean grade is 16.22

which shows an optimal condition. The river’s mean grade for channel alteration is 9.11,

it has a moderate deposition of new gravel, and coarse sand on old and new bars which

indicates that it is in marginal condition. The bank stability of both the left and right side

of the river shows a marginal condition, the mean grade of the left and right are 8.11 and

6.89 respectively.

Table 6. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Abiotic Parameters in Alanib River


Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters (Songco) (Alanib) (Balila) Mean Description
Hydrologic
14 10.33 13.33 12.9
Connectivity Sub-optimal
Landscape Condition
4 3.33 5.67 4.33
Stressor Poor
Hydrologic
4 5 7.33 5.44
Condition Stressor Poor
Physicochemical 17 17 17 17
Parameters Optimal
Bottom
Substrate/Instream 9.67 7.33 8 8.33
Cover Sub-optimal
Embeddedness 14 13.67 12 13.22 Marginal
Channel Alteration 4 4.67 7 5.22 Poor
Bank Left Bank 8.33 7.33 8.67
Stability 8.11 Marginal
Right Bank 4 5 6.67 6.89 Marginal
Total 79 73.66 85.67 79.77 Marginal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate
0-5 (Poor); 6-10 (Marginal); 11-15 (Sub-optimal); 16-200 (Optimal)- ratings of the
parameters
38

Description of Biotic Component of Alanib River

Total rapid habitat assessment of the biotic component of Alanib River (Table 7)

is marginal. Sub-optimal condition was observed in the canopy cover shading with an

overall mean of 14.89. The mean grade of the left and right side of the river for bank

vegetative protection are 4.55 and 3.89 consecutively. Riparian vegetable zone width in

the left bank had a mean grade of 1.66 and the right side had 1 as a mean grade. Both

bank vegetative protection and riparian vegetable zone width was in poor condition, only

less than 50% of the stream bank surfaces are covered by vegetation and its width is less

the 6 meters. The streamside cover and native riparian regeneration rating condition are

marginal showing that the mean grade is 10.43 and 9.33 successively which indicates that

the dominant vegetation is grasses and saplings are present but are less than 1% cover of

the river. Furthermore, the invasive exotic plant species cover and biotic stressors

condition are marginal and the mean grade is 9.33 and 6.33 in order showing that there is

5% to 10% key invasive species and Alanib River experiences excessive human

visitation, habitat destruction by livestock and pet predators, cutting of tress and removal

of woody debris by residents nearby, and more importantly residents nearby lack

vegetation management. The vegetative horizontal and vertical patch condition is

marginal showing a low degree of patch diversity and shrubs and herbaceous plants are

visible.
39

Table 7. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Biotic Parameters in Alanib River


Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters Mean Description
(Songco) (Alanib) (Balila)
Canopy Cover Shading 13.33 16 15.33 14.89 Sub-optimal
Bank Left Bank
6.33 3.33 4 4.55 Poor
Vegetative
Protection Right Bank 5.33 4 2.33 3.89 Poor
Streamside Cover 10.67 10.33 10.33 10.43 Marginal
Riparian Left Bank
1.33 2.33 1.33 1.66 Poor
Vegetable
Zone Width Right Bank 1.33 1 0.67 1 Poor
Native Riparian
9.67 8 10.33 9.33 Marginal
Regeneration Rating
Invasive Exotic Plant
9.67 7 8 9.33 Marginal
Species Cover
Biotic Condition Stressor 6.67 8 4.33 6.33 Marginal
Vegetation Horizontal Patch 11.67 10 8.67 10.11 Marginal

Vegetation Vertical Patch 7.67 8.33 8 8 Marginal


Total 83.67 78.32 73.32 79.52 Marginal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate
0-5 (Poor); 6-10 (Marginal); 11-15 (Sub-optimal); 16-200 (Optimal)- ratings of the
parameters

Description of Abiotic Component of Manupali River

Total results for the rapid assessment of the abiotic components in Manupali

River is sub-optimal as shown in Table 8. Hydrologic connectivity of the said river shows

a result of sub-optimal condition with an average mean of 12.78. Landscape condition

stressor was also observed in the rivers and had a mean grade of 5.89 which means that it

is in a marginal condition. Hydrologic condition stressors were also observed at the river,

these stressors includes augmented flow diversion and nonpoint source discharges (urban

runoff and drainage), and flow obstructions were observed in the downstream of the river

(Colonia) and it shows marginal condition and its mean are 7.78. The Physicochemical

parameters of the river had the same result of 14.67 which means that the mean grade of
40

the river is 14.67 and it shows a sub-optimal condition. Bottom substrate/ instream cover

shows a marginal condition with an average mean of 10.44. The Embeddedness-extent to

which rocks are buried by the sediments and channel alteration shows a marginal

condition with an average mean of 9.56. The bank stability of both the left and right side

of the river shows marginal condition and has the same average mean of 6.22.

Table 8. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Abiotic Parameters in Manupali River

Parameters Upstream Midstream Downstream Mean Description


Hydrologic
Connectivity 13.33 13.33 11.67 12.78 Sub-optimal
Landscape Condition
Stressor 6.67 8 3 5.89 Marginal
Hydrologic
Condition Stressor 9.67 7.67 6 7.78 Marginal
Physicochemical
Parameters 14.67 14.67 14.67 14.67 Sub-optimal
Bottom
Substrate/Instream
Cover 10.33 9 12 10.44 Marginal
Embeddedness 11.67 7.67 9.33 9.56 Marginal
Channel Alteration 9.33 5.67 8 7.67 Marginal
Bank Left Bank
Stability 7.67 6.67 4.33 6.22 Marginal
Right Bank
6 6.33 6.33 6.22 Marginal
Total 89.34 79.01 75.33 81.23 Sub-Optimal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate
0-5 (Poor); 6-10 (Marginal); 11-15 (Sub-optimal); 16-200 (Optimal)- ratings of the
parameters

Description of Biotic Component of Manupali River

Total of the rapid assessment of the biotic components of Manupali River shows

marginal condition as shown in Table 9. It has an average mean of 84.90. The canopy

cover shading shows a marginal condition with an average mean of 9.11. The left and
41

right bank also has a marginal condition when it comes to the bank vegetative protection

and has a mean of 7 for the left and 7.22 in the right.

The streamside cover condition is sub-optimal with a total mean of 13. Both the

left and the right side of the river have poor condition when it comes to Riparian

vegetable zone width because it only has 0.87 for its left side and 1.56 for right side.

Native riparian regeneration rating has an average mean of 11.78 with a sub-optimal

condition. The invasive exotic plant species cover shows marginal condition with a mean

of 8.56. Also, Vegetation horizontal patch and vegetation vertical patch have marginal

condition, the horizontal patch has an average mean of 7.89 and its vertical patch is 9.11.

Table 9. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Biotic Parameters in Manupali River


Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters Mean Description
(Basac) (Balila) (Colonia)
Canopy Cover Shading 13 4 10.33 9.11 Marginal
Bank Left Bank
6.67 7.33 7 7 Marginal
Vegetative
Protection Right Bank 8.67 7.33 5.67 7.22 Marginal
Sub-
Streamside Cover 13 11.67 13.67 13
optimal
Riparian Left Bank 1 1 0.66 0.87 Poor
Vegetable
Zone Width Right Bank 1 2 1.67 1.56 Poor
Native Riparian Sub-
12.33 11.33 11.67 11.78
Regeneration Rating optimal
Invasive Exotic Plant Species
10 8 7.67 8.56 Marginal
Cover
Biotic Condition Stressor 9.67 9 7.67 8.78 Marginal
Vegetation Horizontal Patch 8.33 7.67 7.67 7.89 Marginal
Vegetation Vertical Patch 7.67 10.67 9 9.11 Marginal
Total 92.01 80 82.68 84.9 Sub-Optimal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate
0-5 (Poor); 6-10 (Marginal); 11-15 (Sub-optimal); 16-200 (Optimal)- ratings of the
parameters
42

Description of Abiotic Component of Pulangi River

Result for the total rapid habitat assessment of the abiotic component in Pulangi

River is marginal as shown in Table 10. Hydrologic Connectivity of Pulangi River is

rated indicating marginal condition which means that the stream provides less hydrology

to utilize floodplain with over bankfull flows likely to inundate a broad area floodplain.

Hydrologic condition stressor were also observed at the river which include augmented

flow diversion and non-point source discharges (urban runoff and farm drainage) for

midstream and downstream. The stressors had a mean grade of 8 which shows marginal

condition. Landscape condition stressor is also present at the river. Common stressors of

landscape of three assessment areas of the river were rural residential and

industrial/commercial were also observed at the midstream and downstream assessment

area of Pulangi River. Landscape condition stressor has a mean of 5 which shows poor

condition. The physicochemical parameters were also observed and it has a mean grade

of 15 which shows sub-optimal condition. Bottom Substrate /Instream Cover is rated

indicating marginal condition which 10-30% mix of gravel or other stable habitat and

habitat availability is less than desirable. Embeddedness were also observed with a mean

grade of 8.78 which shows marginal condition. It refers to the extent to which rocks and

snags are covered or sunken into the silt, sand or mud of the stream bottom. Which is a

result of large-scale sediment movement and deposition (Barbour et al. 1999). Which it

surrounded by 50-75% of fine sediment. Channel alteration were also observed at the

river which it is used for flood control and irrigation purposes as shown in Fig. in

upstream and midstream. It has a mean grade of 5 indicating that it is at poor condition.

The bank stability score both left and right condition is poor indicating that the river are

unstable and has many eroded area.


43

Table 10. Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Abiotic Parameters in Pulangi River
Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters Mean Description
(Zamoanguita) (Sugod) (Dologon)
Hydrologic
8 10 13.33 10.44 Marginal
Connectivity
Landscape
8.67 3 3.33 5 Poor
Condition Stressor
Hydrologic
8 4.33 11.67 8 Marginal
Condition Stressor
Physicochemical Sub-
15 15 15 15
Parameters optimal
Bottom
Substrate/Instream 12.33 14.33 4 10.22 Marginal
Cover
Embeddedness 13.33 8 5 8.78 Marginal
Channel Alteration 7.67 5 6 6.22 Marginal
Bank Left Bank 0.67 5 4 3.22 Poor
Stability Right
6.33 1 3 3.44 Poor
Bank
Total 80 65.66 65.33 70.33 Marginal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate
0-5 (Poor); 6-10 (Marginal); 11-15 (Sub-optimal); 16-200 (Optimal)- ratings of the
parameters

Description of Biotic Component of Pulangi River

Rapid habitat assessment of the biotic components of Pulangi River showed

marginal condition (Table 11). Poor condition was observed in the canopy cover shading

with an overall mean grade of 4.67. It has a poor condition in both left and right side of

the river for bank vegetative protection with a mean grade of 3.45 and 2.44

consecutively. Riparian zone width in the left bank had a mean grade of 0.78 with a poor

condition and the right side had 5.33 with a marginal condition. Native riparian

regeneration rating condition is marginal showing that the dominant vegetation is grasses

and seedlings are present but is less than 1% cover of the river with a mean grade of 5.67.

Streamside cover had a mean grade of 4.44 that shows poor condition. Moreover, the

invasive exotic plant species cover had a mean grade of 8.56 and biotic stressors
44

condition with a mean grade of 8.56 which shows marginal condition showing that there

is 5% to 10% key invasive species and Pulangi river experience excessive human

visitation, grazing and habitat destruction by domestic livestock and pet predators, cutting

and burning of trees and removal of woody debris by residents nearby. Excessive organic

debris was also noted and more importantly lack of vegetation management from the

residents nearby. The vegetative horizontal patch had a mean grade of 6.89 and

vegetative vertical patch had a mean grade 10 that the condition is marginal indicating a

low degree of patch diversity and shrubs and herbaceous plants are visible.

Table 11.Rapid Habitat Assessment of the Biotic Parameters of Pulangi River


Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters Mean Description
(Zamoanguita) (Sugod) (Dologon)
Canopy Cover Shading 9 1.67 3.33 4.67 Poor
Bank Left Bank
1.67 0.67 8 3.45 Poor
Vegetative
Protection Right
0 0.33 7 2.44 Poor
Bank
Streamside Cover 3 2 8.33 4.44 Poor
Riparian Left Bank 0 1 1.33 0.78 Poor
Vegetable
Zone Width Right 6 5.67 4.33 5.33 Marginal
Bank
Native Riparian
5 3.33 8.67 5.67 Marginal
Regeneration Rating
Invasive Exotic Plant
14.67 4 7 8.56 Marginal
Species Cover
Biotic Condition
13.67 6 6 8.56 Marginal
Stressor
Vegetation Horizontal
6 7.33 7.33 6.89 Marginal
Patch
Vegetation Vertical
16.67 3 10.33 10 Marginal
Patch
Total 75.68 35 71.65 60.78 Marginal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate
0-5 (Poor); 6-10 (Marginal); 11-15 (Sub-optimal); 16-200 (Optimal) - ratings of the
parameters
45

Description of Abiotic Component of the Three Rivers

Result for the rapid assessment of the abiotic component in three rivers shown in

Table 12. Hydrologic Connectivity of Alanib River is higher than the two rivers with a

mean grade of 12.9 indicating marginal condition, while Manupali River has a mean

grade of 12.78 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 10.44 indicating a marginal

condition. Hydrologic condition stressor were also observed at the river which include

augmented flow diversion and non-point source discharges (urban runoff and farm

drainage). Pulangi has the highest grade for hydrologic condition stressor with a mean

grade of 8 indicating a marginal condition. While Alanib River has mean grade of 5.44

and Pulangi river with a mean grade of 7.78 indicating a marginal condition. Landscape

condition stressor is also present at the river. Manupali River has the highest mean grade

of 5.89 while Pulangi River has a mean grade of 5 and the lowest is the Alanib River with

the mean grade of 4.33 indicating a poor condition. The physicochemical parameters

were also observed and Alanib River has the highest mean grade of 18. While Pulangi

River has a mean grade of 15 and Manupali river has the lowest mean grade of 14.67.

Bottom Substrate /Instream Cover of Alnib River has the highest mean grade of 14.33,

Manupali with the mean grade of 10.44 and Pulangi river with the mean graded of 10.22

which is rated indicating marginal condition which 10-30% mix of gravel or other stable

habitat and habitat availability is less than desirable. Embeddedness was also observed

with a highest mean grade of 16.22 which is the Alanib River, Manupali River with a

mean grade of 9.56 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 8.78. Channel alteration was

observed at the river which it is used for flood control and irrigation purposes. Alanib

River has the highest mean grade of 9.11, Manupali River with a mean grade of 7.67 and
46

Pulangi River with a mean grade of 6.22. The bank stability score of Alanib River both

left and right has the highest mean grade of 8.11 and 6.89, Manupali River with a mean

grade of 6.22 and 6.22 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 3.22 and 3.44.

Table 12. Summary of the Mean Values of the Habitat Status (Abiotic) in Three Rivers

Parameters Alanib River Manupali River Pulangi River

Hydrologic Connectivity 12.9 12.78 10.44


Landscape Condition
4.33
Stressor 5.89 5
Hydrologic Condition
5.44
Stressor 7.78 8
Physicochemical
17
Parameters 14.67 15
Bottom Substrate/Instream
Cover 8.33 10.44 10.22
Embeddedness 13.22 9.56 8.78
Channel Alteration 5.22 7.67 6.22
Bank Left Bank 8.11 6.22 3.22
Stability
Right Bank 6.89 6.22 3.44
Total 79.77 81.23 70.33
Marginal Sub-Optimal Marginal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate

Description of Biotic Component of the Three River

Rapid assessment of the biotic components of Alanib Rivers has the highest mean

grade of 14.89, Manupali with a mean grade of 9.11 and Pulangi River with a mean grade

of 4.67 for the Canopy cover shading. Manupali River has mean grade 6 and 5.22, Alanib

River with a mean grade of 4.55 and 3.89 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 3.45

and 2.44 for the both left and right of bank vegetative protection. Riparian vegetative

zone width both the left and right has the highest mean grade of 1.66 and 1 for Alanib
47

and 0.87 and 1.56 for Manupali River. While Pulangi River has a mean grade of 0.78 and

5.33.

The streamside cover has the highest mean grade of 13 for Manupali River,

Alanib River with a mean grade of 10.43 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 4.44.

Native riparian regeneration has a highest mean grade 11.78 which is the Manupali River,

Alanib River with a mean grade of 9.33 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 5.67.

Moreover, the invasive exotic plant species cover has a highest mean grade of 9.33 which

has a marginal condition showing that there is 5% to 10% key invasive species. While

Manupali River has a mean grade of 9.89 and Pulangi River with amena grade of 8.56.

Biotic stressors condition has highest mean grade of 10.11 which is the Alanib River,

Manupali River with mean grade of 8.78 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 8.56.

The vegetative horizontal of Alanib River has a mean grade of 8, Manupali River with a

mean grade of 7.89 and Pulangi River with a mean grade of 6.89. The vegetative vertical

patch of Pulangi River has the highest mean graded of 10, Manupali River with a mean

grade of 9.11 and Alanib River with a mean grade of 8.


48

Table 13. Summary of the Mean Values of the Habitat Status (Biotic) in Three Rivers
Parameters Alanib River Manupali River Pulangi River
Canopy Cover Shading 14.89 9.11 4.67
Bank Left Bank 4.55 7 3.45
Vegetative
Right Bank 3.89 7.22 2.44
Protection
Streamside Cover 10.43 13 4.44
Riparian Left Bank 1.66 0.87 0.78
Vegetable
Right Bank 1 1.56 5.33
Zone Width
Native Riparian
9.33 11.78 5.67
Regeneration Rating
Invasive Exotic Plant
9.33 8.56 8.56
Species Cover
Biotic Condition Stressor 6.33 8.78 8.56
Vegetation Horizontal Patch 10.11 7.89 6.89
Vegetation Vertical Patch 8 9.11 10
79.52 84.88 60.78
Total
Marginal Sub-Optimal Marginal
0-45 (Poor); 46-80 (Marginal); 81-135 (Sub-optimal); 136-180 (Optimal)-total rate

Description of the Pearson Correlation of Habitat Status and Physicochemical Parameters

of the Three Rivers

Table 14 shows the Pearson correlation of Habitat Status and Physicochemical

Parameters of the Three Rivers. Alanib River with r-value of -0.538 with a verbal

interpretation of Moderate Correlation. Manupali River with r-value of 0.891 with a

verbal interpretation of High Correlation. Pulangi River with r-value of 0.560 with a

verbal interpretation of Moderate Correlation. The three rivers has a very high correlation

with r-value of 0.996.


49

Table 14. Pearson Correlation of Habitat Status and Physicochemical Parameters

r-value Verbal Interpretation

Alanib River 0.538 Moderate Correlation

Manupali River 0.891 High Correlation

Pulangi River 0.560 Moderate Correlation

Three Rivers 0.996 Very high Correlation


0.00 to ±0.20 slight correlation; ±0.21 to ±0.40 low correlation; ±0.41 to ±0.60 moderate
correlation; ±0.61 to ±0.80 high correlation; ±0.81 to ±1.00 very high correlation

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that some of the physicochemical parameters

of the three rivers are within the permissible limits of DAO 34 guidelines for Class D

streams but some parameters failed like the turbidity of Pulangi River (Table 4) and

Alanib River (Table 2). The three rivers differed significantly as shown in Figure 26 and

29, the asterisk sign (*) on the P-value (Fig 29) means that there is a significant

differences on the individual value plot of the three rivers. On the other hand, only Alanib

River has a sub-optimal condition in the abiotic component of habitat status while

Manupali and Pulangi River have a marginal condition. On the biotic component, all of

the three rivers are in marginal condition. It is also revealed in the study that there is a

significant difference between the physicochemical and habitat status in three rivers.
50

DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This section presents the discussion, summary, conclusion, and recommendations

of the study.

Discussion

The study was conducted to obtain continuing information on the current water

quality and habitat status of the three rivers in Bukidnon. The results acquired shows that

the rivers are of different water quality.

Alanib River is not suitable for drinking purposes as it excessed in some

physicochemical parameters like turbidity and dissolved oxygen in the standards of DAO

34 for Class D watercourse (Table 2), during the sampling, flow obstructions were

observed in the sampling stations, all the areas were also near the resided and people

were performing varied activities in the river. In the upstream (Songco), a paved stream

crossing (Fig 14a) and a riprap was observed (Fig 14b) which may have affected its

scores for the physicochemical parameters and habitat assessment; this claim is supported

by Barbour et al (1999) because the presence of altered habitat structure is considered one

of the major stressors of aquatic system. Large hoses were also seen (Fig 14h) and

according to one resident the the researchers have interviewed, more or less 45 farmers

use the river for agricultural purposes, which may have caused the diminution of the

water in the river. Domestic animal (Fig 15a), a culvert (Fig 15b) and civilians (Fig 15d)

were observed in the middle stream (Alanib); there were also rubbishes in the area (Fig

15g). In the downstream (Balila), there is also a culvert (Fig 16d) and it is nearby resided.
51

Moreover, Manupali River also failed in turbidity and dissolved oxygen (Table 3);

as observed by the researchers, the upstream (Basac) was far from the residents, the water

was so clear and the temperature is fluctuating from the upstream to the downstream

resulting to fluctuating dissolved oxygen count; this result is supported by Gada (2010); it

is also being covered by trees and bamboos. In the midstream (Balila), a weir was

observed (Fig 17d), residents living near the area called the river “hydro” a short term for

Hydro 2 Tailrace; there were also cottages because people go there for swimming and

other recreational activities (Fig 17g). Surrounding land use and human activities along

the river contribute to relatively lower water quality (Amoroso et al., 2014), nonetheless;

there was an ongoing construction (Fig 18i) when the researchers conducted in the

downstream (Colonia), the area is nearby resided (Fig 18b), domestic animals were

observed in the river bank (Fig 18e), and it has an armored channel bank (Fig 18c);

children were also observed swimming in the area (Fig 18g).

In Pulangi River, only turbidity did not pass the DAO 34 guidelines for Class D

watercourse (Table 4), however; its score for turbidity is supernumerary, which means

that it is too turbid especially in the downstream (Fig 21). The upstream (Zamboanguita)

is far from the residents, however; quarrying is present in the area (Fig 20i) and it is being

visited by civilians for recreational activities (Fig 20j). In the midstream (Sugod),

domestic animals can be observed (Fig 21h); it is also near resided and there are

community volunteers who are in charge of observing the depth of the river constantly

(Fig 21g). The downstream (Dologon) is very wide, it is near resided and the land is used

as a public cemetery; there were also domestic animals and fishermen observed in the

area (Fig 22a).


52

Temperature of the rivers is fluctuating, resulting to fluctuating dissolved oxygen

count; the rivers’ pH ranges from 7.17 to 7.6 showing that it is alkaline; these claims are

supported by Gada (2010). Oxidation reduction potential values are high, therefore the

DO count is also numerous, this agrees with the claim of Wetzel (1983). The rivers can

be a healthy environment for fish or bugs, which is confirmed by the statement of Horne

& Goldman (1994) that ORP should read high between 300 and 500 millivolts.

Conductivity is low resulting to low salinity and dissolved oxygen, this coincides the

statement of the FONDRIES Environmental (2010). The flow of the three rivers varied

influencing dissolved oxygen count, this claim is supported by the University of

Colorado at Boulder (2009) because the velocity of the water flow influences the levels

of dissolved oxygen. All sampling stations did not have much plants underwater which

may have been affected by the turbidity of the rivers because all the three rivers failed on

turbidity in the standards given by DAO 34 for Class D watercourse; this agrees with the

statement of the FONDRIES Environmental (2010). The salinity of the rivers were low

so dissolve oxygen count were high because of the Henry’s Law which says that the

constant used will change based on ion contractions; this claim is supported by

FONDRIES Environmental (2010). The total dissolved solids of the three rivers passed

the DAO 34 standards for Class D watercourse, however, these rivers are still not safe for

drinking purposes which agrees with the statement of Gordon (2013) that water that

exceed 500mg/L can be utilized as a source of drinking water for animals. High urban

land use leads to poor habitat quality (Wang et al. 1994); hence, these landscape and

hydrologic stressors have contributed to the scores of the rivers in physicochemical

parameters and habitat status.


53

Though many of the physicochemical parameters of Alanib, Manupali, and

Pulangi River passed the DAO 34 Class D guidelines and none of the rivers is in poor

condition of habitat status, it is still not befitting to state that the rivers are safe for human

consumption because the aforesaid rivers failed in turbidity which means that it is not

pure anymore and these rivers were already exploited by humans.

The findings reported support the significance of the study. Therefore, the null

hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference between the water quality

of the three rivers is accepted. As shown in Figure 29, all the three rivers differed

significantly in the physicochemical parameters and the water quality and habitat status

of the rivers have a very high correlation.

Summary

The researchers studied water quality and habitat status in three rivers of

Bukidnon to sought answers on the physicochemical characteristics of the three rivers,

and compare their characteristics; assess the habitat status of the three rivers, and

compare their condition; and the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant

difference between the water quality of the three rivers and the other hypothesis that says

that there is no significant relationship between the water quality and habitat status of the

rivers. The data was obtained by sampling in-situ with the use of HORIBA water quality

analyzer. Results revealed that there is a significant difference between the water quality

and habitat status of the three rivers in Bukidnon.

According to Evans et al. (2012), comprehensive database are rarely and national

data indicate that the water quality situations is serious. Today, population grows rapidly

and industrialization is transpiring anywhere at any time in Bukidnon; people seem to


54

forget the importance of nature and just use up anything in the environment for their own

benefits, one of the most affected sections is the watercourse, especially the rivers. Now,

specific baseline information on the current water quality and habitat status of the three

rivers is already obtained and this information can be used to solve the water pollution

problem in Alanib, Manupali, and Pulangi River, Bukidnon.

Conclusions

The following are concluded from the findings of the study:

1. The three rivers differ significantly in physicochemical characteristics.

2. The habitat condition of the three rivers differed.

3. The null hypothesis is accepted and the alternative hypothesis is rejected.

4. Water quality and habitat status of the three rivers have a very high

correlation.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion s of the study, the following

recommendations are presented:

1. A similar study with same sampling sites but different methods and more

parameters would be more advantageous.

2. Finding an easy yet secure solution for the water pollution problems in

Bukidnon will be a very big help not only to the people but also for the rest of

organisms existing in the province.

3. The Local Government Unit are engaged to monitor the condition of the rivers

in Bukidnon and look for solutions to maintain and keep the rivers healthy.
55

LITERATURE CITED

Amoroso, V.B, Quimpang, V.T, Opiso, E.M., Coritico, F.P., Leano, E., Galan, G.L.,
Acma, F.M., Bruna, A.G., Labadan, A., Forten, R.R. and Coquille, K.L. 2014.
Assessment of Biodiversity and water Quality in Association with Land Use in
the Alanib River, Mt. Kitangland Range Park, Philippines. Asian Journal of
Biodiversity. Vol. 5 no. 1.
Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Stribling, J.B. and Synder, B.D. 1999. Rapid Bioassessment
Protocols for use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic
Macroinvertebrates, and Fish, Second Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water; Washington. D.C.
Dinh, T.L, Hu, W., Sikka, P. Corke, P., Overs, L. and Brosnan, S. 2007. Design and
Deployment of a remote Robust Sensor Network: Experiences from an Outdoor
Water Quality Monitoring Network.
Evans, A.E, Hanjra, M.A, Jiang, Y.J, Qadir, M.Q. and Drechsel, P. 2012. Water Quality:
Assessment of Current Situation in Asia. International Journal of Water Resources
Development. 28(2).
Gupta, J., Dellapenna, J., Li, W. and Schmidt, F. 2013. Thinking about the Future of
Global Water Governance. Ecology and Society. 18(3):28.
Joshi, D.M, Kumar, A. and Agrawal, N. 2009. Studies on Physicochemical Parameters to
Assess the Water Quality of River Ganga for Drinking Purpose in Haridwar
District. Rasayan Journal Chemistry. (2) p. 195-203.

Lantican, M.A, Guerra, L.C. and Bhuiyan, S.I. 2003. Impacts of soil erosion in the upper
Manupali watershed on irrigated lowlands in the Philippines. Paddy and Water
Environment. (1) pp. 19-26.

Manjare. S.A., Vhanalakar, S.A. and Muley, D.V. 2009. Analysis of Water Quality Using
Physicochemical Parameters in Tamdalge Tank in Kolhapur District,
Maharashtra. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research.
1(2) pp. 115-119.
Meghla, N.T, Islam, S., Ali, M.A, Sultana, S. and Sultana, N. 2013. Assessment of
Physicochemical Properties of Water from the Turag River in Dhaka City,
Bangladesh. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences.
2(5): 110-122.
Opiso, E.M. & Alburoa, J.L. 2014. Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Sawaga River,
Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. Asian Scientific Journals. Vol. 10.
Pȃrvulescu, L., Pacioglu, O. and Hamchevici, C. 2010. The Assessment and Water
Quality Requirements of the Stone Crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) and
Noble Crayfish (Astacus astacus) Species in the Rivers from the Anina Mountains
(SW Romania). Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems.
56

Quimpang, V.T. & Famador, E. 1989. Effects of Bukidnon Sugar Mill Wastes in Pulangi
River. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Shittu, O., Olaitan J. and Amusa, T. 2008. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological
Analyses of Water used for Drinking and Swimming Purposes in Abeokuta,
Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research. Vol. 11 p. 205-290.
57

APPENDICES
58

APPENDIX A
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

APPENDIX B

AS1 AS3

AS2

Figure 2. Map of the Alanib River (Songco) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)

AA1 AA3

AA2

Figure 3. Map of the Alanib River (Alanib) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)
68

AB2
AB1

AB3

Figure 4. Map of the Alanib River (Balila) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)

MA2 MA1

MA3

Figure 5. Map of the Manupali River (Basac) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)
69

MB1 MB2

MB3

Figure 6. Map of the Manupali River (Balila) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)

MB3
MB2

MB1

Figure 7. Map of the Manupali River (Colonia) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)
70

PZ3 PZ1

PZ2

Figure 8. Map of the Pulangi River(Zambonguita) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow


box), replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)

PC1
PC2
PC3

Figure 9. Map of the Pulangi River (Sugod) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)
71

PD3 PD1

PD2

Figure 10. Map of the Pulangi River (Dologon) sampling area; replicate 1 (yellow box),
replicate 2 (orange box), replicate 3 (red box)

P1
A1 A2

M1 A3
P2
M2
M3

P3

Figure 11. The location of the three Rivers: Pulangi river (red box); Alanib River (orange
box); Manupali River (yellow box); Upperstream (1) Midstream (2); Downstream (2)
72

Figure 12. Map of the Philippines with the location of the Province of Bukidnon
73

APPENDIX C

Figure 13: Materials (a) laser pro, (b) HORIBA water quality analyzer, (c) pingpong ball
and plastic rope(d) meter stick
74

APPENDIX D

Figure 14A. Sampling in Alanib River Upstream (Songco). (a) paved stream crossing (b)
riprap (c) residents washing clothes (d) kids swimming (e) stony bank (f) invasive plants
75

Figure 14B. Sampling in Alanib River Upstream (Songco). (g) river bank (h) hoses (i)
river water (j) invasive plants (k) invasive plants (l) invasive plants
76

Figure 15A. Alanib River Midstream (Alanib). (a) goat (b) culvert (c) stony river bank
(d) residents (e) residents rinsing chicken in the river (f) dead leaves
77

Figure 15B. Alanib River Midstream (Alanib). (g) rubbishes (h) houses in the river bank
(i) kids swimming (j) invasive plant (k) invasive plant (l) invasive plant
78

Figure 16A. Alanib River Downstream (Balila). (a) stony bank (b) stony bank (c) rocks
(d) culvert (e) stony substrate (f) rocky substrate
79

Figure 16B. Alanib River Downstream (Balila). (g) rocky substrate (h) rocky river bank
(i) residents (j) rocky river bank (k) rocky substrate (l) invasive plant
80

Figure 17A. Manupali River Upstream (Basac). (a) rocky substrate (b) sampling (c) river
bank (d) bamboo grass (e) bamboo grass (f) bamboo grass
81

Figure 17B. Manupali River Upstream (Basac). (g) dead leaves (h) invasive plant (i)
invasive plant (j) makahiya plant (k bamboo grass) (l) invasive plant
82

Figure 18A. Manupali River Midstream (Balila). (a) river (b) river bank (c) bridge (d)
weir (e) bridge (f) vegetative vertical patch
83

Figure 18B. Manupali River Midstream (Balila). (g) cottage (h) vertical vegetative patch
(i) vertical vegetative patch (j) invasive plant (k) invasive plant (l) invasive plant
84

Figure 19A. Manupali River Downstream (Colonia). (a) bridge (b) river bank (c) armored
river bank (d) stony substrate (e) cow (f) kid swimming
85

Figure 19B. Manupali River Downstream (Colonia). (g) kids swimming (h) construction
site (i) construction site (j) invasive plant (k) invasive plant (l) invasive plant
86

Figure 20A. Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita). (a) vegetative vertical patch (b)
river (c) river bank (d) people swimming (e) stony substrate (f) vegetative vertical patch
87

Figure 20B. Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita). (g) silt substrate (h) (i) quarrying
(j) people swimming (k) riverbank (l) stony substrate
88

Figure 21A. Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod). (a) bridge (b) river bank (c) silt substrate
(d) stony substrate (e) carabao grass (f) bank
89

Figure 21B. Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod). (g) community volunteers (h) cow (i)
corn (j) cassava (k) gabi-gabi (l) tree
90

Figure 22A. Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon). (a) domestic animal (b) peanut (c)
trees (d) fishing (e) peanut (f) water lilies
91

Figure 22B. Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon). (g) snail’s egg (h) river (i) carabao
grass (j) corn (k) carabao manure (l) gabi-gabi
92

a b

d d

e f

Figure 23A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,


midstream, and downstream. (a) water temperature (b) pH (c) pH in millivolts (d)
oxidation reduction potential (e) conductivity (f) turbidity

- Replicates
93

g h

i j

Figure 23B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River in upstream,


midstream, and downstream. (g) dissolved oxygen (h) total dissolved solids (i) salinity (j)
current

- Replicates
94

a b

d
c

e f

Figure 24A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Manupali River in upstream,


midstream, and downstream. (a) water temperature (b) pH (c) pH in millivolts (d)
oxidation reduction potential (e) conductivity (f) turbidity

- Replicates
95

g h

i j

Figure 24B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Manupali River in upstream,


midstream, and downstream. (g) dissolved oxygen (h) total dissolved solids (i) salinity
(j) current

- Replicates
96

Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon) Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon)

27.00 9
a b
26.75

8
Water Temeprature

26.50

26.25

pH
7

26.00

25.75 6

25.50
5
Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon) Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon)

Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon) Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon)
-20 340
c

Oxidantion Reduction Potential (mV)


d
320
-40

300
pH in millivolts

-60
280

-80 260

240
-100
220

-120 200
Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon) Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon)

Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon) Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon)

0.24 120
e f
0.23
100

0.22
80
Conductivity

0.21
Turbidity

0.20 60

0.19
40
0.18
20
0.17

0.16 0
Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon) Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon)

Figure 25A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Pulangi River in upstream,


midstream, and downstream. (a) water temperature (b) pH (c) pH in millivolts (d)
oxidation reduction potential (e) conductivity (f) turbidity

- Replicates
97

Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon) Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon)
25 160

g h
150
20

Total Dissolved Solids


Dissolved Oxygen

140
15

130

10
120

5
110

0 100
Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon) Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon)

Individual Value Plot of Uptream (Zamboanguita), Midstream (Sugod), Downstream (Dologon) Individual Value Plot of Upstream (Zamboanguita); Midstream(Sugod); Downstream(Dologon)
0.7
0.150

i 0.6
j
0.125
0.5
Salinity

0.4
Curre nt

0.100
0.3

0.075 0.2

0.1

0.050
0.0
Uptream (Zamboanguita) Midstream (Sugod) Downstream (Dologon) Upstream (Zamboanguita) Midstream(Sugod) Downstream(Dologon)

Figure 25B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Pulangi River in upstream,


midstream, and downstream. (g) dissolved oxygen (h) total dissolved solids (i) salinity (j)
current

- Replicates
98

a b

c d

e f

Figure 26A. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River, Manupali River,
and Pulangi River. (a) water temperature (b) pH (c) pH in millivolts (d) oxidation
reduction potential (e) conductivity (f) turbidity

- Replicates
99

g h

i j

Figure 26B. Graph of the Physicochemical Parameters of Alanib River, Manupali River,
and Pulangi River. (g) dissolved oxygen (h) total dissolved solids (i) salinity (j) current

- Replicates
100

Water Temperature

pH

pH in millivolts

Oxidation Reduction Potential

Conductivity

Figure 27A. Alanib River One-way ANOVA: temp, pH, pHmV, ORP, conductivity
101

Turbidity

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Dissolved Solids

Salinity

Current

Figure 27B Alanib River One-way ANOVA: turbidity, DO,TDS, salinity, current
102

Water Temperature

pH

pH in millivolts

Oxidation Reduction Potential

Conductivity

Figure 28A. Manupali River One-way ANOVA: temp, pH, pHmV, ORP, conductivity
103

Turbidity

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Dissolved Solids

Salinity

Current

Figure 28B. Manupali River One-way ANOVA: turbidity, DO,TDS, salinity, current
104

Water Temperature

pH

pH in millivolts

Oxidation Reduction Potential

Conductivity

Figure 29A. Pulangi River One-way ANOVA: temp, pH, pHmV, ORP, conductivity
105

Turbidity

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Dissolved Solids

Salinity

Figure 29B. Pulangi River One-way ANOVA: turbidity, DO,TDS, salinity, current
106

Water Temperature

pH

pHmV

ORP

Conductivity

Figure 30A. Alanib River, Manupali River, and Pulangi River One-way ANOVA: temp,
pH, pHmV, ORP, conductivity
107

Turbidity

Dissolved Oxygen

TDS

Salinity

Current

Figure 30B. Alanib River, Manupali River, and Pulangi River One-way ANOVA:
turbidity, DO,TDS, salinity, current
108

Alanib River

Manupali River

Pulangi River

Three Rivers

Figure 31. Pearson Correlation of Habitat Status and Physicochemical Parameters


109

Table 15. Physicochemical Parameters Raw Data of Alanib River

Upstream (Songco) Midstream (Alanib) Downstream (Balila)


Parameters
AS1 AS 2 AS 3 AA 1 AA2 AA3 AB1 AB2 AB3
Temperature 26.2
21.07 20.85 20.79 24.55 24.54 24.02 26.24 26.22
(°C) 6
pH 6.9 7.74 7.1 7.24 7.18 7.53 8.2 8.45 7.73
pHmV -10 -59 -22 -31 -27 -48 -88 -103 -60
ORPmV 339 297 335 319 327 313 273 359 302
0.13
Conductivity 0.199 0.2 0.201 0.136 0.13 0.138 0.14 0.142
9
Turbidity
2.8 2.9 3 4.3 5 4.1 9.6 10.3 11.3
(NTU)
16.2
DO (mg/L) 15.35 23.08 13.44 11.63 14.05 15.18 13.87 16.8
8
TDS (mg/L) 0.129 0.13 0.13 0.089 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.091 0.092
Salinity
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
(mg/L)
Depth (m) 0.4 0.43 0.465 0.32 0.26 0.25 0.43 0.38 0.47
Current (m/s) 0.17 0.4 0.14 0.33 0.25 0.29 0.29 0.22 0.67
Substrate Boulder Boulder Muddy, rocky, silt
Time 8:15-9:00 AM 11:00-12:00 AM 1:45-2:30 PM
Season Partly cloudy Sunny Sunny
Odor Normal Anaerobic Normal
Color Clear with dead leaves Clear with dead leaves Brownish blue green
Width (m) 9.2 16.6 27
Flow (m3/s) 0.95 1.33 4.6
110

Table 16. Physicochemical Parameters Raw Data Manupali River

Upstream (Basac) Midstream (Balilla) Downstream (Colonia)


Parameters
AS1 AS 2 AS 3 AA 1 AA2 AA3 AB1 AB2 AB3
Temperature
(°C) 20.27 20.11 20.09 29.38 24.35 24.35 23.89 23.9 23.93
pH 7.17 7.11 7.05 7.26 7.39 7.38 7.49 7.48 7.42
pHmV -26 -23 -19 -32 -40 -39 -45 -44 -41
ORPmV 263 285 302 320 316 319 287 296 305
Conductivity 0.072 0.072 0.073 0.097 0.098 0.098 0.159 0.157 0.158
Turbidity
(NTU) 4.1 4.7 4.7 7.3 7.4 7.3 14.8 13.41 14.3
DO (mg/L) 28.46 23.69 22.03 20.6 27.01 22.99 27.81 32.64 29.63
TDS (mg/L) 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.063 0.064 0.069 0.103 0.102 0.103
Salinity
(mg/L) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1
Depth (m) 0.260 0.36 0.35 0.72 0.72 0.62 0.36 0.4 0.54
Current (m/s) 0.33 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.67 0.67
Substrate Boulder Boulder Muddy, rocky, silt
Time 8:15-9:00 AM 11:00-12:00 AM 1:45-2:30 PM
Season Cloudy Sunny Partly Cloudy
Odor Normal Normal Normal
Color Clear with dead leaves Clear with dead leaves brownish blue green
Width (m) 22.3 27 21.6
Flow (m3/s) 2.93 6.9 5.7
111

Table 17. Physicochemical Parameters Raw Data Pulangi River


Upstream Midstream Downstream
Parameters (Zamboanguita) (Sugod) (Dologon)
PZ1 PZ 2 PZ3 PS1 PS2 PS3 PD1 PD2 PD3
Temperature
(°C) 25.44 25.43 25.48 26.85 26.93 26.96 26.69 26.63 26.83
pH 8.52 8.71 8.63 7.21 7.46 7.26 5.39 5.64 5.74
pHmV -106 -118 -113 -29 -44 -32 80 65 59
ORPmV 210 217 233 314 307 323 289 324 297
Conductivity 0.162 0.163 0.163 0.238 0.239 0.238 0.167 0.184 0.185
Turbidity
(NTU) 7.8 9.7 8.4 38.1 39.8 43.2 43.2 117 103
DO () 14.12 23.09 17.64 23.98 15.01 10.97 4.44 3.52 5.43
TDS (mg/L) 0.106 0.106 0.106 0.155 0.156 0.155 0.108 0.12 0.12
Salinity
(mg/L) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Depth (m) 0.47 0.5 0.92 0.89 0.97 0.85 0.66 1.18 1.2
Current (m/s) 0.33 0.33 0.12 0.5 0.67 0.29 0.07 0.06 0.05
Fine sand, ¾ stone,
Substrate Stony Muddy
gravel #1, silt
Time 8:15-9:00 AM 11:00-12:00 AM 1:45-2:30 PM
Season Sunny Sunny Sunny
Odor Normal Musty Musty
Color Blue green Brownish Brownish
Width (m) 22.3 101 600
Flow (m3/s) 0.38 44.54 36.36
112

Table 18. Abiotic Rapid assessment field data sheet in Alanib River Upstream (Songco)

Alanib River Upstream (Songco)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
113
114

Alanib River Upstream (Songco)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
115
116

Alanib River Upstream (Songco)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
117
118

Table 19. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River (Songco)

Alanib River Upstream (Songco)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
119
120

Alanib River Upstream (Songco)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016

v
121
122

Alanib River Upstream (Songco)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016

v
123
124

Table 20. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River Midstream
(Alanib).

Paired T for Physicochemical Alanib - Abiotic Alanib

NAlanib River
Mean Midstream
StDev(Alanib)
SE Mean
Physicochemi 9 57.2 118.7 39.6
Abiotic Alan 9 Madeline
Beatrix 10.6
Tanquion 4.9 1.6 August 15, 2016
Difference 9 46.7 116.5 38.8

95% CI for mean difference: (-42.9, 136.2)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.20 P-Value =
0.264

Paired T for Physicochemical Alanib - Biotic Alanib

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi 9 57.2 118.7 39.6
Biotic Alani 9 8.2 3.9 1.3
Difference 9 49.0 120.6 40.2

95% CI for mean difference: (-43.7, 141.8)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.22 P-Value =
0.257

Paired T for Physicochemical Balila - Abiotic Balila

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi 9 48.2 97.2 32.4
Abiotic Bali 9 9.0 3.1 1.0
Difference 9 39.2 95.2 31.7

95% CI for mean difference: (-34.1, 112.4)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.23 P-Value =
0.252

Paired T for Physicochemical Manupali - Biotic Manupali

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemical 9 48.2 97.2 32.4
Biotic Manupali 9 8.5 3.3 1.1
Difference 9 39.7 100.1 33.4

95% CI for mean difference: (-37.2, 116.6)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.19 P-Value =
0.268
125
126

Alanib River Midstream (Alanib)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
127
128

Alanib River Midstream (Alanib)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
129
130

Table 21. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River (Alanib)

Alanib River Midstream (Alanib)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
131
132

Alanib River Midstream (Alanib)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016

v
133
134

Alanib River Midstream (Alanib)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016

v
135
136

Table 22. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River (Balila).

Paired T for Physicochemical Alanib - Abiotic Alanib

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi Alanib
9 River
57.2Downstream
118.7(Balila)39.6
Abiotic Alan Beatrix
9 Madeline
10.6 Tanquion
4.9 1.6 August 15, 2016
Difference 9 46.7 116.5 38.8

95% CI for mean difference: (-42.9, 136.2)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.20 P-Value =
0.264

Paired T for Physicochemical Alanib - Biotic Alanib

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi 9 57.2 118.7 39.6
Biotic Alani 9 8.2 3.9 1.3
Difference 9 49.0 120.6 40.2

95% CI for mean difference: (-43.7, 141.8)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.22 P-Value =
0.257

Paired T for Physicochemical Balila - Abiotic Balila

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi 9 48.2 97.2 32.4
Abiotic Bali 9 9.0 3.1 1.0
Difference 9 39.2 95.2 31.7

95% CI for mean difference: (-34.1, 112.4)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.23 P-Value =
0.252

Paired T for Physicochemical Manupali - Biotic Manupali

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemical 9 48.2 97.2 32.4
Biotic Manupali 9 8.5 3.3 1.1
Difference 9 39.7 100.1 33.4

95% CI for mean difference: (-37.2, 116.6)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.19 P-Value =
0.268
137
138

Alanib River Downstream (Balila)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
139
140

Alanib River Downstream (Balila)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
141
142

Table 23. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Alanib River (Balila)

Alanib River Downstream (Balila)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
143
144

Alanib River Downstream (Balila)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016

v
145
146

Alanib River Downstream (Balila)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016

v
147
148

Table 21. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River (Basac)

Manupali River Upstream (Basac)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
149
150

Manupali River Upstream (Basac)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
151
152

Manupali River Upstream (Basac)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
153
154

Table 22. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River (Basac)

Manupali Upstream (Basac)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
155
156

Manupali River Upstream (Basac)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
157
158

Manupali River Midstream (Basac)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
159
160

Table 26. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Date Sheet in Manupali River (Balila)

Manupali River Midstream (Balila)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
161
162

Manupali River Midstream (Balila)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
163
164

Manupali River Midstream (Balila)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
165
166

Table 27. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River (Balila)

Manupali River Midstream (Balila)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
167
168

Manupali River Midstream (Balila)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
169
170

Manupali River Midstream (Balila)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
171
172

Table 28. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River (Colonia)

Manupali River Downstream (Colonia)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
173
174

Manupali River Downstream (Colonia)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
175
176

Manupali River Downstream (Colonia)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
177

c
178

Table 34. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Manupali River (Colonia)

Manupali River Downstream (Colonia)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
179
180

Pulangi River Downstream (Colonia)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
181
182

Manupali River Downstream (Colonia)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
183
184

Table 30. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River

(Zamboanguita)

Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
185
186

Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
187
188

Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
189
190

Table 31. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River
(Zamboanguita)

Pulangi Upstream (Zamboanguita)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
191
192

Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
193
194

Pulangi River Upstream (Zamboanguita)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
195
196

Table 32. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River (Sugod)

Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
197
198

Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
199
200

Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
201
202

Table 33. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River (Sugod)

Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
203
204

Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
205
206

Pulangi River Midstream (Sugod)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
207
208

Table 34. Abiotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River (Dologon)

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
209
210

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
211
212

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
213

c
214

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
215
216

Pulangi
Pulangi River
River Downstream
Downstream (Dologon)
(Dologon)
Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
217
218

Pulangi
PulangiRiver
RiverDownstream
Downstream(Dologon)
(Dologon)
L. Melendez
Maria Angela Melendez August 15, 2016
219

c
220

Table 35. Biotic Rapid River Assessment Field Data Sheet in Pulangi River (Dologon)

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Beatrix Madeline Tanquion August 15, 2016
221
222

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Kathleen O. Adajar August 15, 2016
223
224

Pulangi River Downstream (Dologon)


Maria Angela L. Melendez August 15, 2016
225
226

Paired T for Physicochemical Pulangi - Abiotic Pulangi

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi 9 47.3 101.1 33.7
Abiotic Pula 9 7.8 3.8 1.3
Difference 9 39.5 99.4 33.1

95% CI for mean difference: (-36.9, 115.9)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.19 P-Value =
0.267

Paired T for Physicochemical Pulangi - Biotic Pulangi

N Mean StDev SE Mean


Physicochemi 9 47.3 101.1 33.7
Biotic Pulan 9 6.1 2.6 0.9
Difference 9 41.2 101.8 33.9

95% CI for mean difference: (-37.1, 119.5)


T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): T-Value = 1.21 P-Value =
0.259
227

Table 36. DENR Administrative Order no. 34 Series of 1990.

Classification Beneficial Use


Class AA Public Water Supply Class I
Class A Public Water Supply Class II
Class B Recreational Water Class I
1. Fishery Water
Class C 2. Recreational Water ClassII
3. Industrial Water Supply Class I
1. For agriculture, irrigation,
livestock, watering etc.
2. Industrial Water Supp\ly Class
Class D
3. Other inland waters by their
quality, belong of this
classification
228

RESEARCHER’S PROFILE

Kathleen O. Adajar

16 years old

February 27, 2000

Barangay 11, Impalambong, Malaybalay City

Mrs. Maria Gina O. Adajar

Maria Angela L. Melendez

16 years old

July 20, 2000

Zone 4, Kalasungay, Malaybalay City

Mr. and Mrs. Meldin P. Melendez

Beatrix Madeline Tanquion

16 years old

June 21, 2000

Avinca Village, Casisang, Malaybalay City

Ms. April A. Tanquion