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12.

4 fiactional Quantum Hall Effect 719

of all, let us emphasize that we are speaking about critical values of


v where we switch from one plateau to another. In Figs. 12.2 and
12.3, we saw intervals in between the plateaus, where pYz is chang-
ing continuously. This is a finite-T effect, and there is evidence that
the width of the transition regions vanishes according to a power law:
AH N T". This allows to raise the question: what is the critical fill-
ing factor vcr1/3*2/5 ? A naive guess would be the arithmetic mean
(( 1/3)+(2/5))/2x 0.3667. However, the idea of corresponding states
leads to another prediction. Namely, the transition should be the im-
age of the IQHE transition 1 + 2, which surely happens at v = 3/2,
so (12.121) gives (3/2)(2(3/2)+1)=3/8=0.375. The two predictions are
pretty close; can experiment decide? Yes, it can: the measured value is
0.3745f0.0012, vindicating our present scheme [132].
Theoretically, a sample with infinitesimal disorder should go through
an infinite squence of incompressible fluids as v is raised from 1/3 to
1/2 (the same happens coming from v = 2/3 via the electron-hole
analogs). The ground state in the point of accumulation v = 1/2 should
be an exotic beast and so it turns out: it is a compressible quantum
fluid, very much like a Fermi liquid with a Fermi surface (see [377]
for a brief review). We do not attempt to explain this in any detail.
Nevertheless, just to get a glimpse of how a Fermi liquid may arise, we
have to mention that it is a very fruitful idea to interpret the sequence
of Jain states (12.116) as states of filled Landau bands of composite
ferrni~nt?~.Attaching the correlation factor ( x i - ~ j to
) ~a wave function
means that when the electron i passes along a loop around electron j , it
acquires an extra phase 2 . 2 ~ We
. have argued that a phase change 2~
can be induced by a thin flux tube carrying 40, thus here we say that
Ca acts as if two flux tubes had been attached to each electron. Thus
the v = 1/3 state of electrons can be looked at as the v' = 1 state of
(1 electron + 2 flux tube) composites, and the correlation gap can be
identified as the cyclotron energy of the composite fermions (CF). The

system would slide freely and we would not see a &HE at all. However, the incom-
pressible states are still there, even though they are not accompanied by plateaus.
In any case, the plateaus appear at 2) + 0 but the infinitesimal disorder can be
neglected in the discussion of the ground state.
29This was an essential motivation for introducing the states (12.115) [183].