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Experiment 1

Viscosity
A. Objectives
1. Determine the time it takes for corn syrup and water to flow.
2. Compare the viscosity of corn syrup and water.
3. Determine the effect of temperature on the viscosity of corn syrup.

B. Laboratory Equipment and Materials


 Eight pieces of paper cup  Iron ring
 Small nail  Wire gauze
 250 mL beaker  Alcohol lamp / electric stove
 Stop watch  Water
 Iron stand  Corn syrup

C. Procedure
1. Using a small nail, poke a hole at the bottom of a paper cup.
2. Place your finger tightly on the hole and pour about 100mL of water.
3. Hold the cup over an empty 250mL beaker and prepare the stopwatch to time the
process.
4. Remove your finger from the hole and take note of the time it takes for the water
to drain through the paper cup into the empty beaker.
5. Record your time on the data table provided.
6. Do a second trial.
7. Repeat steps using corn syrup instead of water. Use different paper cups for corn
syrup for the two trials because some corn syrup may stick to the paper cup.
8. Repeat steps 2-6 using corn syrup. The corn syrup should be warmed a bit using
an alcohol lamp or an electric stove. Use different cups for the corn syrup for the
two trials.
9. Get the average time of the two trials for water, corn syrup at room temperature,
and warmed corn syrup.

Data table

Comparison of the Viscosity of Water and Corn Syrup

Time in Seconds Time in Seconds


Average Time
(Trial 1) (Trial 2)
Water
Corn syrup at room
temperature
Warm corn syrup
Experiment 2
Heating and Cooling Curves of a Substance
A. Objectives
1. Describe the effects of heating and cooling a pure substance by a change in phase.
2. Determine the freezing and boiling point of stearic acid.
3. Construct the heating and cooling curves of stearic acid from the experiment data
gathered.

B. Laboratory Materials
 Test tube
 400 mL beaker
 Thermometer
 Iron ring
 Iron stand
 Test tube clamp
 Bunsen burner
 Stopwatch
 Stearic acid
 Water

C. Procedure
I. Preparation for cooling curves
1. Obtain a test tube containing stearic acid from your teacher. The stearic
acid is in the solid phase and, therefore, below its freezing point.
2. Place 200mL of water in a 400mL beaker. Place a thermometer inside the
beaker and heat the water bath.
3. Place the test tube containing the stearic acid in the hot water bath when
the temperature has reached 70oC by suspending the test tube with an iron
clamp.
4. Observe the melting point of the stearic acid. Start reading the temperature
at 80oC. Continue melting until it reaches a temperature of 95oC. This
molten stearic acid will be used for the cooling curve or part B.
II. The Cooling Curve
1. Remove the stearic acid test tube from the hot water bath. Record the initial
time as 0 second using the table given. Rest the test tube in a test tube
rack.
2. Take note of the temperature after every 30 seconds until a temperature of
30o has been reached. (Note: Stir the stearic sample test tube gently during
the temperature readings). Observe the point when the temperature remains
constant two times while recording the temperature. This will be the
condensation point and freezing point. At the freezing point, the molten
stearic acid becomes frozen.
III. The Heating Curve
1. Use the hot water bath prepared in part A after removing the stearic acid
test tube which you used in part B.
2. Place a test tube containing stearic acid in the hot water bath making sure
that the temperature is about 80oC. Initial time is recorded as 0 seconds.
3. Make temperature readings every 30 seconds until 90oC.
4. After completing the temperature recordings, return the test tube of molten
stearic acid to your teacher.

Data Table

Temperature
Time (seconds) Cooling curves Heating curves
0 (initial)

30

60

Time (When temp is 30oC /


90oC)

Analysis

1. Plot the data points for the cooling curves using red point ball pen and black for the
heating curves using the same set of axes. The time is placed on the x-axis and
temperature on the y-axis.
2. Explain the cooling curves in terms of the kinetic and potential energy of the
molecules of stearic acid.
3. Explain the heating curves in terms of the kinetic and potential energy of the
molecules of stearic acid.
4. Which phase changes are exothermic? Endothermic? Explain your answers. Which
phase has the greatest amount of energy? Why?