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Applying Contract Administration to Manage

Quality of JICA Funded Road Project:

A Case Study of Hanmyintmo-Myogyi-Ywangyan Road
Improvement Project


Khin Maung Htwe

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

degree of Master of Engineering (Professional) in
Construction, Engineering and Infrastructure Management

Examination Committee Dr. Djoen San Santoso (Chairperson)

Dr. Chotchai Charoenngam
Dr. Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

Nationality: Myanmar
Previous Degree: Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering
Mandalay Technological University
Mandalay, Myanmar

Asian Institute of Technology

School of Engineering and Technology

May 2017


I would like to express special thanks and share my deep gratitude to everyone who
contributed so as to accomplish my thesis.

First of all, I deem it a pleasure to acknowledge my sense of gratitude to U Kyaw Linn,

Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Construction, and the one who initiates the studying of
Professional Master Degree for Project Management Program (MPM) of Asian Institute of
Technology University in Myanmar, to make me opportune in the pursuit of this MPM
course fortunately.

I wish to reciprocate, in full measure, the kindness shown by Dr. Djoen San Santoso, who
inspired me with his valuable suggestions in successfully completing this thesis. He not only
gives effective advice for my thesis but also offers me efficient guidance on the project
planning and project financing widely.

I would like to thank to Dr.Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo again who is the head of Project
Management Program in Myanmar and all of my professors. They make me endowed with
incredible skill, knowledge and knowhow on management of their areas. I would like to
thank to all of the Project Management Program office staffs as well.

I also would like to thank to all of the authorities from Ministry of Construction and U Khin
Mg, JICA Myanmar office, U Myo Winn, the consultant from JICA, Daw Ei Ei Myo, Deputy
Director, Department of Highways and U Zeya Tun, MD of FCGC Company who gave me
required data for my thesis. I must say that no height is ever achieved without some sacrifices
made at some end and it is here where I owe my gratitude to all of them.

Last but not least, I shall remain grateful to the program in the pursuit of indispensable
Professional Master Degree for Project Management Program (MPM) at Asian Institute of
Technology University.


Nowadays, Department of Highways (DOH), Ministry of Construction (MOC) has been

improving many road and bridge construction projects nationwide with Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA) funded Official Development Assistance (ODA) loan for
poverty reduction in Myanmar. Hence, these projects are in urgent need of quality
management on the base of application of contract administration processes.

This report analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the existing contract administration
processes to achieve good quality management which is undertaken by DOH and FCGC
company and also presents the framework for achieving quality management by applying
contract administration for ODA projects of road improvement sector in DOH.

In this road improvement project, the contract administration process has four stages which
consist of pre-tendering, tendering, construction and closeout stages. At each stage, contract
administration practice is applied with quality management in construction. The quality
management system is not accustomed in Myanmar and the owner cannot administer contract
practices effectively to get the qualified project.

Therefore, DOH must implement the quality management system regarding on the quality
policy, quality manual and quality procedures. And also DOH should administer and apply
the contract processes with quality assurance and quality control programs. The contractor
must submit the project quality plan and implement as well.

Keywords: Quality management system, Contract administration, Contract practices,

Qualified project, Quality plan, Quality assurance programs, Quality control programs.



Title Page
Acknowledgements i
Abstract ii
Table of Contents iii
List of Figures v
List of Tables vi
List of Abbreviations vii

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Problem Statement 1
1.3 Objectives of Study 2
1.4 Scope of Study 2

2 Literature Review 3
2.1 Quality Management for Construction Project 3
2.1.1 Quality Plan 3
2.1.2 Quality Assurance for Construction 6
2.1.3 Quality Control 8
2.2 Contract Administration 11
2.2.1 Defining and Preparing the Construction Contract Document 11
2.2.2 Mobilization of work 11
2.2.3 Testing and Workmanship 12
2.2.4 Substitution of Materials 12
2.2.5 Payment for Work finished 12
2.2.6 Retained Money 12
2.2.7 Liquidated Damages 13
2.2.8 Contractor submittals 13
2.2.9 Change Order 13
2.2.10 Worksite Coordination 13
2.2.11 Risk Management for Project performance 14
2.2.12 Engineer Instruction 15
2.2.13 Sample Approval 15
2.2.14 Defect Period 16
2.2.15 Taking-over Certification 16

3 Case Study 17
3.1 Case description 17
3.1.1 Background of the Project 17
3.1.2 Objective of the Project 18
3.1.3 Contract Information on this project 18
3.1.4 Scope of the Project 19
3.2 Contract administration practices to achieve good quality
in the project 20
3.2.1 Pre-Tendering Stage 20
3.2.2 The Tendering Stage 21
3.2.3 Construction Stage 22
3.2.4 Closeout Stage 33
3.3 Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses and Recommendations 35
3.4 Contract Administration Framework for Achieving Good 49
Quality Management of Hanmyintmo-Myogyi-Ywangyan
Road Improvement Project

4 Conclusions and Recommendations 55

4.1 Conclusions 55
4.2 Recommendations 56
4.2.1 Recommendations for DOH 56
4.2.2 Recommendations for Contractor 58
5 References 60



2.1 Construction Project Trilogy 3

2.2 Contents of the Quality Plan 4
3.1 Project Location Plan 17
3.2 Project Organization Chart for FCGC 23
3.3 Contractor‟s Quality Control Organization Chart 27
3.4 Final Project Performance 34
3.5 Contract Administration Framework for Achieving Good Quality
Management 54



3.1 Contract Information 18

3.2 Scope of Road Project 19
3.3 Quality Plan and Activities of this Project 25
3.4 Work Activities by Using the Applicable Code 26
3.5 Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses and Recommendations 35


AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official

ASQ American Society for Quality
ASTM American Society of Testing Materials
BOQ Bill of Quantity
BS British Standard
CAR Contractor‟s All Risks
CBR California Bearing Ratio
CPM Critical Path Method
DCP Dynamic Cone Penetration
DOH Department of Highways
FCGC Future Creator Group of Construction Co., Ltd
ITB Instruction to Bidders
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
LAV Los Angeles Abrasion Value
MOC Ministry of Construction
MDD Maximum Dry Density
MY Myanmar
ODA Official Development Assistance
OMC Optimum Moisture Content
PMU Project Management Unit
PW Public Works
QA Quality Assurance
QC Quality Control
QCBS Quality Cost Based Selection
QCM Quality Control Manager
QMS Quality Management System
VO Variation Order

1.1 Background

For socio-economic development and poverty reduction, road infrastructure needs to be

upgraded and facilitated across the nation. After the period of military government from 1988
to 2010, Myanmar has been on the way towards a modern democratic country by negotiation
with many parties. The elected new government has been striving hard to develop multi-
dimensional development including roads links for faster and smoother connection and
convenience across the nation. In the time being, majority of road circumstances are still
unacceptable and these roads are less qualified and not built under international criteria. As a
result, Ministry of Construction (MOC) of Myanmar plans to improve transport infrastructure
with ODA Loan funded road construction organized by JICA, such as Hanmyintmo - Myogyi
-Ywangan Road linking between Mandalay city and Taunggyi city of southern Shan state.

With the aim to achieve good quality of road construction project which is funded by JICA,
the contract administration practices need to meet the demand of international regulations and
this is also a matter of great importance to the coherent management for poor quality road
projects. By and large, the consultancy and contracting parties come together at early stage
and remain throughout all stages of each project. Thus, all are paid to cover the specific
conditions of quality assurance and quality control, quality management system and contract
documentation, bonds and insurance, defect period, change over for road construction

1.2 Problem Statement

The project faces that good quality with standard specifications are not achieved for every
construction road projects which cause of inefficient contract management. Some road
projects only quality control such as testing and inspection of materials a little construction
activity only checks to meet the specification requirements. Although they undertake quality
control measurement, the owner and contractor are lack of project quality management
system on performing road construction including quality plan, quality assurance and
construction costs which are not likely to implement the project. Therefore, the budget is
unaffordable to control the project quality and project's requirements as a consequence of
budget constraints.

Another problem for JICA projects is; they do not bid to select consultant to company. They
choose their country's company to perform for consultant service and JICA also favor to their
company not to work strictly. Furthermore, local contractors also have less knowhow and
practice on international construction project that can meet the standardized specifications
and other necessary requirements.

1.3 Objectives of Study

The objectives of this report are;

 To study practices of contract administration for quality management in Hanmyintmo-

Myogyi-Ywangan road project.
 To analyze strengths and weaknesses and propose recommendations in the application
of contract administration for quality management.
 To develop a framework for contract administration for achieving good quality road

1.4 Scope of Study

The scope of this report is to focus on Hanmyintmo -Myogyi-Ywangan road project

which is JICA funded loan project and consider only contract administration that is related to

2.1 Quality management for construction project

The quality management can be defined in ASQ glossary as such “the application of quality
management system in managing a process to achieve optimal customer‟s satisfaction at the
lowest overall cost for the organization in time of processing.”

Besides, Chung (1999) highlighted that construction project quality is nothing but the
accomplishment of the owner‟s demand per defined scope of works under a specified budget
and well-laid schedule so as to make owners‟ heart content. These three components are
termed as „construction project trilogy‟ and illustrated in figure 2.1 as well.




Fig. 2.1 construction project trilogy

Quality planning on the base of a well-established quality plan plays a major role in project
quality management. The planning procedures should be in light of a documented procedure.
The quality management of work on the construction site regulates in three processes as
1. Quality Planning what is to be done.
2. Quality Assurance
3. Quality controlling of the execution of the plan.

2.1.1 Quality Plan

Quality plan is a document that can appeal to the accurate quality process including
nomination of subcontractors and suppliers, confirmation of construction methods,
construction programming, site layout, identification of manpower requirements and training
needs, material and plant acquisition and resources on contract or project through references
on documented procedures about the quality system that spotlights project–specific
procedures or work guidelines for respective project. Quality planning should be
accomplished preliminary phase and all special specifications and non-routine processes must
be checked and set up before construction work commences, or prior that the contract is
signed. Its substances are drawn from the quality system, the contract and inclusive
documents, as shown in Fig. 2.2. In the quality plan, the general documented producers are
similar with required additional procedure especially designed for the project so as to achieve
specified quality objectives.
The quality plan is almost a tailor – made design of quality manual for the project. The client,
or the engineer serving as his representative, may mention the contract what quality plan
must be involved which items are totally subject to mutual agreement.

Quality Manual Quality Procedure

Contract Statutory
Requirement QUALITY PLAN Regulation

Inspection and Project-specific Procedure

Test plans and Work Instruction

Fig. 2.2 Contents of the quality plan

Quality planning starts regulation in time of well-prepared tender. Submitting a quality plan
with the tender is a proof for the client of our courtesy and respect on the project
requirements and capability in assuring the quality of the finished works. If not included in
the tender, the quality plan is mostly requested while signing the contract. It is a must prior to
work commencement. Under agreement of contract, the quality plan has to be approved by
the client beforehand implementation.

To achieve the targeted quality standards and objectives for the project, the contractor must
make well-preparation on quality control plan and report it to the consultant for final approval
of contract requirements. What is more, the contractor will execute the work per the granted
quality control plan. This is contractor‟s effective tool to create proper quality control of
construction. This plan chiefly affects both the work-done of the contract and the owner‟s
quality assurance assessment of the contractor‟s performance. Chung (1999) further mentions
that the quality plan is the quality manual tailor-specified for the project on the base of the
contract requirements. Hence, the client, the engineer serving as representative, may point out
the contract which the quality plan should take into special account and which items are
totally subject to mutual agreement respectively.

The contractor‟s Quality Control Plan should include well-preparation specific requirements
of the whole project as described in the contract documents. The plan describes the
procedures to be followed the whole construction period until the delivery of the qualified
project when fully complied with the contractual and regulatory demands.
In the Quality Planning include in the following:
1. Contract review
2. Quality procedures, methods
3. Work instructions
4. Identification &traceability
5. Inspection & test plans
6. Technical Queries

The contents of the quality plan are:

 Description of project;
 Quality objectives of the project ;
 Site layout plan;
 Site organization chart
 Responsibilities and authorities of the staff;
 List of contract documents and drawings;
 Construction program and sub-programs;
 Schedules of subcontractor nomination, procurement of material and equipment
regarding on the construction program;
 List(s) of materials and appliances used with verification requirement of each;
 List of inspection and testing plans,
 List of project-specific procedures, work instructions and inspection checklists,
 List of quality procedures and work instructions applicable to project by making
reference to the company‟s Quality Manual and Procedures;
 Frequency (or provisional dates if possible) of internal quality audits;
 Keeping the list of quality records, including relevant quality records from
 Frequency of updating the quality plan.

Moreover, the brief description of the project represents clarification of the scope of work
conducted by the contractor and to specify the site under his responsibility. The contractor
should note down the contract document and lay down which the requirements are to be
mentioned. Site layout plan should indicate the access and passage for heavy vehicles,
strategic location of lifting equipment and designated storage areas. The contractor usually
mentions his commitment to perform the project in full compliance with the contractual and
regulatory requirements, and to deliver the timely completed activities. A programmed
construction with any sub-programs is of the quality plan to spotlight that he aims to timely
In addition, schedules of subcontractor nomination, material and equipment procurement,
through the construction programmed is attached with necessary for the project. All staffs
with a complete management or supervisory role must have in the site organization chart. If
someone is placed of duty to a position when the quality plan is comprehended, his/her name
should be inserted with a position title. Authorities with responsibilities given to each
position should be briefly and clearly mentioned.

For the project is conveniently done, listing of materials and appliances are putted into the
following categories;
 Items supplied with the manufacturer‟s test certificates;

 Items for approval of the architect/engineer before use;
 Items for sample testing, if relevant, the laboratory investigations commissioned.
During the examination and investigations demand of receipt materials on site, the materials
must be summarized in the lists described above; the inspection and test plans should cover
work productivity as well.

Sites operations are run by the company‟s quality system to suit the particular demand of the
project. The quality plan improves the quality procedures of the company that are effective
and efficient for the project. Only a few procedures are likely to be modified to suit the
particular contract, e.g. taking more retention period of quality records or an assured time
frame within which client complaints must be responsible for.

There must be of task instructions and monitoring checklists that cover the construction and
installation process. If any of these documents does not already exist in the library of current
work instructions and so on, the project manager or someone under his instructions must
record with the target date when it will be available is referred in the quality plan.

The majority of quality records constitute documentary evidence of product conformance.

Typical records are material receipt and dispatch forms, material test reports, weld inspection
reports, piling records, ITPs duly signed off, and as-built drawings. Other quality records
perform verification that the planned quality assurance activities have been taken. Adherence
to the quality plan is checked by internal quality auditing. Provisional dates of internal quality
audits may be stated, depends on the anticipated progress of the project. If not possible, the
frequency of audit should be well-schedule.

The quality plan is a „live‟ document. It is updated in the small changes of contractual
requirements, staffing and other circumstances which occur during the progress of the project.
Normally the project manager reviews the quality plan, and amends it if needed, at monthly
intervals for an initial period of, say, six months. An amendment sheet should be involved
with detailed amendment records such as the revision number, pages replaced, contents
amended, and date of effect and signatory evidence of updating. This is mostly on the first
page of the document. The quality plan is a restricted document. Like other quality system
documents, it is looked into by the document number, the issue number, the revision number
and the date of issue or revision. Apart from it, issue and distribution of the document should
stick to the document control procedure of the quality system.

2.1.2 Quality Assurance for Construction

For targeted quality, the owner should define the objectives of the project and the engineer
needs to mention the necessities unambiguously, explicitly, and clearly in the contract
drawings and specifications. The owner ought to take the following action in a well-
 To select the proper quality system requirements for contract,
 To identify the quality system requirements clearly in tender and contract documents,
 To monitor the execution of the works and the implementation of the quality system,
 To collect, review and control the quality records that provide by the supplier ,
 To appraise and choose subcontractors on their capability to satisfy specified
 To review and accept the quality system documentation specified for the supplier,
The ASQ (American Society for Quality) terms quality assurance as “all the planned and
systematic activities materialized by the quality system that can be proven to provide
confidence a product or service shall meet the aimed quality requirements”. (Abdul Razzak
Rumane, 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Pg. 19) inclusion criteria of quality
assurance are all developmental process like design, development, construction,
documentation and regulations of the quality of raw materials, products and inspection
processes as well. Quality assurance of construction projects are implemented by the design
team, contractor and quality controller/ auditor must be capable to comply with owner‟s
objectives under specifications and to ensure that the project facility is fully operated to get
the owners‟ reputation.

Out of them, quality assurance is applied to prevent of pitfalls or deviations to the contract
documents before and during analysis. It must be of submittals, certifications, and other
actions to ensure that the proposed products and services meet the contract demand. The
engineer must perform to verify that the required quality of work is being provided and to
inform the owner of known deviations from the contract documents and defects and
deficiencies assessed in the worksite.

The contractor‟s QA process begins when the contractor pays a visit to the site to get more
accustomed with occupational experiences. The process of QA shall proceed by field
measurements, coordination, scheduling, and the preparation and review of submittals.
Preparation of materials submittals are important part of the project‟s QA. QA activities shall
tribute to bring about a mutual understanding of the contract documents and prevent potential
problems before genuine execution of the task. QA activities are:
 To verify site conditions, correlate the information with the contract documents,
calculate field measurements; and reporting any errors, inconsistencies, or omissions.
 To evaluate drawings and specifications not to cover any cooperative items, errors,
inconsistencies before construction.
 To submit well-established evidence and quality of products.
 To correlate proposed solutions with the contract requirements.
 To make project schedule and sequence of the work.
 Achieving manufacture‟s certifications.
 To negotiating with others to reduce disputes or conflicting matters.

The Engineer must handle QA in project design, preparation of documents, and

administration of the construction contract. The contractor‟s construction progress schedule
and submittal schedules should mention a planned approach to completing the contract
demand and these schedules shall give allowed time to settle conflicts to make decisions and
reviews. It is necessary for contractor to equip with heart-felt evidence of and quality of
materials and equipment to be furnished under the contract. The essence of QA is the process
of submitting shop drawings, product data, and samples. The engineer‟s review of submittals
before work starts is an opportunity to prove that requested materials and equipment conform
to the intent of the contract documents. Field samples provided QA in the form of actual
examples and if permitted by the engineer, acceptable field samples must be involved into the
work and may also be used in negative investigation. In a quality assurance based contract,
the engineer needs to supervise and verify so as to monitor the verification work with the
contractor on the base of the use of hold points and witness points in checking and testing

plans. The specifications must also identify the hold points and witness points and notice is
needed too.
Some assurances are rooted in legalities of the contract, for instance, preconstruction
submittals, like bonds and certificates of insurance, are definitely assurances of performance,
payment, and financial responsibility. What‟s more, the contractor should prepare a
construction progress schedule and submittal schedule for execution of the work. Next,
contractor will demonstrate quality by reviewing and approving submittals before submitting
to the engineer. Guarantee provisions is standard conditions of demanding contractor‟s
affirmation that materials and equipment are new and of good quality if not required or
allowed. They will be free from defects not inherent in the quality required or allowed, and
will conform to the contract requirements. The warranty provisions are the contractor‟s major
responsibility for quality. They need to conform to the demand of the contract documents.
The warranty should not almost one year for corrective measures.

2.1.3 Quality Control

The quality control during construction must accomplish in light of the requirements of the
contract. Quality is a vital point of a construction project; so the QC provisions in the
conditions of the contract are required to verify conformance with the contract requirements
and it should meet the requirements specified in the contract documents. The construction
project quality control process is the partition of the contract documents that states details
about applicable quality practices, resources and activities. Inspection of construction works
must be done along the construction period by the construction team (consultant) or the
assigned inspector agency.

Quality control can be defined as a process of analyzing data collected on the base of
statistical techniques to make correlation with ground demand and goals to ensure its
compliance with some standards. Kerzner (2001) refers to” Quality Control as a collective
term for activities and techniques, within the processes intended to deliver specific quality
characteristics. Such activities comprises continuous monitoring program, assessing and
alleviating root-cause of problem, use of statistical process control so as to reduce the
variability and to boost the effectiveness and efficiency of the entire process. Quality control
certifies that the organization‟s quality objectives are being met.”(p.12, Abdul Razzak
Rumane, 2011 by Taylor& Francis Group)

Generally, quality assurance and control programs are necessary to monitor design and
construction conformance and these are to set up requirements to meet the contract
specifications. Construction project documents should specify comprehensive materials and
workmanship desired and identifies type of inspection and tests to be performed to valid
compliance. Under the commencement of the project, the activities of mobilization must
follow. Quality control in construction projects is performed at every single stage of
execution and installation of works. The contractor should report shop drawings, materials,
products, equipment, and systems to the owner / consultant for their review and approval
before intervention of the project.
At the construction site, quality controls are performed;
 Receipt of materials on site
 Sampling
 Special processes
 Inspection, measuring & test equipment
 Document control
 Inspection & testing
 Control of non-conforming product
 Inspection & test status
 Corrective action

Shop drawings Approval

For achieving acceptable quality in construction projects, the task must be executed per
approved shop drawings employing approved material and fully making joint-effort with a
variety of trades. The contract drawings and specifications which are generally specified for
determining the tender pricing and for planning the construction project are insufficient for
execution of the works in different stages. More detailed information is needed during the
construction phase to have the specified quality and they must be provided by the contractor
on the shop drawings for reference documents to execute the works. Based on the contract
drawings, the contractor must make well-preparation for shop drawings and needs submitting
to the consultant for permission for all executed work by taking into special account to fulfill
the design intent.

Materials Approval

All the materials, equipment, and systems described in the contract documents also need prior
approval from the owner/consultant. If the contractor is not able to achieve the specified
product or is not able to find out an unapproved equivalent product, then proposal can
substitute product for the approval of the consultant / owner for their review and approval.
The contractor needs submitting the material inspection report on material receipt. This is a
must for contractor to submit the necessary checklists or requests for inspection by the
consultant in time of the construction process.

Nonconforming work

Work not conforming to the contract documents must be supposed defective or

nonconforming. The owner has rights and remedies for defective or nonconforming work and
can adjust in the contract sum. The consultant shall publicize a remedial note if the consultant
finds that an item has been implemented at site that is not accordance with specifications, or
general code of practice and contract documents. If the contractor avoids rejection of works,
rejection of the checklist will pose negative impact on rework and can delay the project. After
taking necessary action, the contractor shall demand replying on the same form. The
consultant /supervision staff shall issue withdrawal notice.
The consultant‟s supervisory staff must make a daily inspection and supervision at the time of
construction process and a well-prepared nonconformance report shall be sent to the
contractor for corrective/preventive action on activities. The engineer shall require additional
independent inspection and testing.

Inspection and Testing

The contractor needs to coordinate and cooperate and the required tests and inspections are
necessary according to the contract documents and laws, regulations, ordinances, rules or
orders of public. The contractor needs to draw the tests and inspections schedule and provide
notice to the engineer in real time when these inspections and tests are well-scheduled. The
contractor, the owner or both must be paid testing and inspection costs and fees depending
contract requirements. Certificates of approvals testing and inspection must be safe-sided by
the contractor and delivered to the engineer as QC submittals.

On the construction site, inspection and testing must be performed following in three stages
during the construction period to meet quality compliance.
1. For receipt of purchased material at site, the contractor must submit a material
inspection request to the consultant.
2. Before proceeding to the next step, the contractor needs to perform with the checklist
request submitted for testing ongoing work.
3. Before final delivery or commissioning and handover.

Progress Payment

The engineer must visit the site to inspect work progress and quality of the fulfilled task.
After On determination of field observations, the engineer must evaluate the contractor‟s
payment applications and must recommend payment of amounts due. This process is
verification by the engineer. The quality of work is in light of the contract documents.

Site Safety

The contractor needs to report contract documents on safety and accident prevention program.
In the program, the contractor has to contribute for safety and health requirements of local
authorities, manuals of accident prevention in construction, and all other local codes and
regulations. If the contractor is not abiding safety requirements, a safety violation notice must
be issued. Penalties are a must for the contractor for noncompliance with the site safety
program which shall signify the prevention of accidents, injury, property damage, and
occupational illness. The contract specifies that a safety officer must be engaged by the
contractor to monitor safety measures.

On the construction site, the contractor is in charge of ongoing maintenance of accident/

incident records and their notification to the consultant.
Sort, set in order / simplify, shine/sweep, standardize sustain are systematic approach for
quality improvement and safety by organizing a workplace. The contractor must keep all the
material in available space in neat, tidy and ready to employ situation and then needs to
consider site safety while planning the area of storage. The responsibility of the contractor is
provision of all resources including manpower, construction equipment, machinery, tools,
consumables, and materials to be applied in the project to set up the project/facility. The
following points must be taken into special consideration in time of planning the layout for
storage of construction material:
(a) While construction process, construction documents specify the number of machinery,
construction equipment and tools to be made available at the site.
(b) The contractor needs consumables to assemble the equipment / fabricate / install /
panel / material.
(c) Materials to be used in the project must be documented in the bill of material (BOM)
or bill of quantity (BOQ).

Testing, Commissioning, and Handover

Here comes the final process of construction projects life cycle and this process consists of
electrical and mechanical systems, commissioning of the project, attaining authorities‟
approval, user‟s personnel training, using the technical manuals, documents and as-built
drawings to the owner. During this period, the contractor hand over the project to the owner
for use and the owner issue a substantial completion certificate to the contractor. Before
issuance of the certificate, the Contractor needs to submit all the required certificates and
other documents to the owner.

2.2 Contract Administration

In phase of the construction contract, the responsibility of the owner is fulfilling contractual
obligations to the contractor and focusing issues directly affect project quality. The efficient
administration of the construction contract is compulsory in achieving quality in the
constructed project, and the Resident Engineer (Employer‟s representative) need to review
quality concerns on materials, the quality of construction workmanship, job site safety, and
payment, unforeseen conditions, construction contract submittals and documentation, change
orders and worksite coordination and collaboration.

2.2.1 Defining and Preparing the Construction Contract Document

The contract documents are the corner stone for defining quality requirements; it is important
functions from the starting to the closing a project to define the rights and responsibilities of
the owner and the contractor, ranging from the specific quality requirements in the
specifications and plans to the owner‟s obligations to make decisions and payments in a
timely manner. It will confirm higher quality of constructed projects. The contract documents
established procedures and requirements of contract administration such as schedules, shop
drawings and inspections.

The followings are generally included construction contract documents;

 The agreement between owner and contractor ( the document signed by the parties,
which identifies the parties, states the contract price, payment terms, and contract time,
and lists the contract documents);
 Supplementary conditions;
 Drawings and Specifications
 Notice to proceed;
 Performance and payment bonds ;
 Addenda issued before bid submittal;
 General conditions and particular conditions of the contract;
 Change orders or contract modifications (post-execution)

2.2.2 Mobilization of work

After signing of the contract, the Contractor must start the construction work. The activities
to be performed during the mobilization period define in the contract documents will be
implemented by the Contractor. In anticipation of the award of contract, the Contractor must
start the activities much in advance, but these are part of contract documents, and the

Contractor‟s action is required immediately after signing of the contract in order to start
 Mobilization of construction equipment and tools
 Workforce to execute the project

2.2.3 Testing and Workmanship

The contractor submits test procedures together with the requisition on final inspection. The
performance of tests and criteria of different aspects of the task shall be specified in the
contract for that work. Inspection and testing are in need to confirm compliance with the
drawings and specifications under construction and completions of a project. Moreover, the
Resident Engineer, a person or entity appointed by the Employer, administers the
construction contract, must monitor the materials by the Contractor and reports occurrences
where they do not meet the contract specifications, which typically require conformance to
gold standards. For in situ materials such as native soils and rocks, contract documents call
for laboratory testing and engineering evaluation of the properties of these materials to
determine their suitability for project uses. Such laboratory reports and engineering
evaluations shall record in the project file. For procured materials such as cement, asphalt,
mechanical and electrical equipment, contract specifications must provide minimum quality
standards and for manufactured products, may be accepted through the verification of a brand
name and catalog number. They must be documented in a file listing the qualification
procedure and the minimum specifications and must be of the type, the date a test are
performed , the signature of the person performing a test, test results, any nonconformance
reports and the location in the structure where the test material or product is incorporated.

2.2.4 Substitution of Materials

During construction, Contractor requests for substitution of materials, substitution procedures

must allow the Contractor to propose alternate materials that offer savings in construction
time or money, or improvements in quality. Quality substitution procedures need to examine
the design for the proposed substitution to achieve the project quality. After approval of the
design, the Resident Engineer must initiate a formal change order signed by the Employer
and Contractor incorporating the substitute material into the contract. In the change order, the
original item, the item substituted, the reason for substitution, who is responsible for this
substitution, date of action, and the price adjustment, if any, negotiated as a result of the

2.2.5 Payment for Work finished

The Employer shall provide payment by the Resident Engineer‟s submission of the
construction progress. According to the contract documents, payments to other participants
include those made to the design, consultants performing laboratory testing, equipment and
other firms or persons performing construction-related tasks. Moreover, the Contractor has to
submit and updated construction of progress schedule, test report, material certifications, and
other accompanying information as a prerequisite for application of payment.

2.2.6 Retained Money

When the Contractor‟s work performance is impact of any error in quantity estimating, a
lapse in meeting quality standards, or construction error, the percentage of the Contractor‟s
earned payment shall withhold for an agreed-upon. This retain age is an inducement to
encourage timely completion and provides to ensure that work is completed according to the
contract documents.

2.2.7 Liquidated Damages

If the project is not substantially complete within the specified time in the contract documents,
liquidated damages are targeted for compensation of the Employer for anticipated costs
incurred and potential loss of income. This can be checked out when the origin for the delay
is by the Contractor. If a project is delayed for some reasons out of the control of the
Contractor, then adequate extension of time are granted in accordance with a change order.

2.2.8 Contractor Submittals

Beginning of construction, Contractor needs to obtain insurance certificates, surety bonds and
other required documents such as NTP (Notice to proceed). After the Contractor receives
NTP, preconstruction submittals are needed to submit such as proposed product lists,
preliminary schedules, construction schedule, insurance certificates and worker‟s
compensation coverage, payment and performance bonds and erosion, pollution and traffic
control plan. During construction the Contractor must submit construction submittals of shop
drawings, test reports, design data, product data samples and information submittals of
QA/QC activities, certificates, manufacturer‟s instructions, manufacture‟s field reports,
sustainable design submittals and construction photos. At the project closeout stage, the
Contractor has to submit closeout submittals of operation and maintenance data, bonds,
warranties, and record documents.

The Resident Engineer receives and reviews the Contractor‟s specified construction
documentation in the construction contract which consists of payment and performance
bonds, suppliers, proof of insurance coverage and estimated cash flow needs. Documentation
for contractor's submittals which also include shop drawings, material certifications,
schedules and progress report, safety-related documentation ,request for substitution and
partial payment.

2.2.9 Change Order

When no physical impediment to construction has been come across, change orders may
acknowledge changes in aimed construction progress like weather delays are a common
reason. That‟s why, Resident Engineer works to receive formal approval of change orders, a
preliminary written order, may be available until the change documents are systematically
approved. The Employer and Contractor sign every single change order that comprise revised
plan sheets, sketches, specifications and quotations. This can impact the changed work on the
project schedule. Some changes may be out of the scope of the original contract; as a result,
the Contractor can turn down a change order. If the project is found to be of a high
potentiality of encountering unforeseen conditions, such as underground work, the Employer

makes progress from budgeting for change orders as part of contingency costs which can
deter the potential for disagreement among team members.

2.2.10 Worksite Coordination

The Employer‟s Resident Engineer must make energetic effort and joint-venture for the
activities of Contractor, safety monitors, testing team and rest entities having direct contracts
with Employer. The documentation of communication and decisions plays an essential role
for the Resident Engineer‟s administration of the construction contract. Safety, payment, and
overall quality depend on documentation which can describe written communication and job

Written communication are of notes and memos among project participants, kick off meeting ,
meeting minutes, reports, letters to and from outside parties, memoranda to the project file,
and written summaries of E mail and phone calls. The Resident Engineer must maintain
subject matter and chronological files of relevant correspondence.
The Contractor submits a progress schedule which comprises cash flow needs, assessing
personnel demands, and coordinating contract work with adjoining work activities before
construction commences by means of contract documents. The Contractor can deal with
intended progress in several formats like Grant charts, critical path method (CPM) and “S”
curve charts that related progress to cumulative cost.
Progress report includes the comparison of true progress to that forecast in the reported
schedule. In construction progress report, there are three kinds: detailed reports, summary
reports, and subjective reports. The normal daily prepared in the detailed report, and
comprise tabulation of work done accomplished during the given period that form the
substance of the contract administration file are essential resource for payment requisitions,
dispute resolution, and job history. Summary reports must be prepared for any time of need,
usually finished on monthly progress with information of the detailed reports and information
to project objective. When unusual or significant events takes place, subjective reports
prepare to clarify why deviation from schedule was needed and must be filed in the way of a
letter that the Resident Engineer transmits to parties that are likely to have an inspiration in
the event.
Job record consists of design and shop-drawing logs, photographs, and certified pay roll
records required by a federal or other government agency. Non- conformance reports on
discrepancies between “as designed” and “as-constructed” drawings, as well as change orders.
Shop drawing logs, job photograph log, bid documents and certificates of completion are job
records to collect and present releases, certifications and affidavits.

2.2.11 Risk Management for Project Performance

Under agreement, contract terms must be able to diminish and manage risks and drawbacks
by performing in a manner that is faithful to the letter. Insurance, bonds and warranties are
the most important tools of risk management.

To protect against the risks affected, owner uses insurance by physical loss or damage to the
work in progress at the construction site; an owner may purchase or require the contractor to
provide builder‟s risk insurance to cover these risks. A contractor is necessary to provide
insurance to support the identification and obligation specified by the contract with the owner.

Insurance carried by the contractor should be of commercial liability that covers workers'
injuries and property damage; workers‟ compensation and employer‟s liability insurance.

There are three bonds applied in a construction project risk are (1) bid bonds, (2) performance
bonds (3) payment bonds. Bid bond protect the owner against the risk of increased costs in
case that the contractor fails to enter into an agreement with the owner at the bid price. The
bond typically mentions that the surety will make up for the owner about the difference
between the lowest and second lowest bids if the low bidder does not enter into a contract
after award. A performance bond guarantees the performance of the constructor‟s contractual
obligations in case that the constructor is unable or unwilling to participate in them. If the
constructor defaults, the surety is liable under the performance bond to the owner for the
completion of the contract. Payment bonds guarantee that persons providing labor and
materials to the project will be paid the amounts due under their contracts. Payment bonds
traditionally have been used as a means of reducing mechanic‟s liens on a project and often
provide the only security for subcontractors and suppliers on public projects where liens are

The objective of a warranty is to ensure and valid the quality of the materials or services
provided by supplier or a construction work. Warranty obligations may be that the project
will function properly for some time, or may be specific, as is the case of warranties that
equipment or systems will produce results of accuracy and precision. When risks lead actual
losses and wrecks, the resulting liabilities will be paid. The contractual liability of one or
more parties arises. If the particular loss is impossible to provide for under the contract, the
law will be taken into account.

2.2.12 Engineer Instruction

The quality procedures are chiefly administrative which are added by work guidelines that
how the activities are performed. The quality procedures and work instructions together
ensure consistency of operations. Procedures are in two categories: system procedures and
technical procedures. Systems procedures are employed to check and balance the
administrative processes namely document control, contract review and internal quality audit.
Technical procedures are well-prepared to standardize the construction processes and are
termed as method statement. A technical procedure is a document which details how a special
technical process is to be implemented. The qualified procedures of both shall be applied in
many forms.

2.2.13 Sample Approval

All the materials, equipment, and systems designated in the contract documents must be
submitted to the owner / consultant to have the approval. If the contractor is impossible to
accept specified material or equivalent product, the contractor shall propose a substitute
product for the approval of the consultant / owner for their review and approval. The
contractor shall submit the material inspection report through receipt of material at work site.
The contract drawings and specifications details are needed on the shop drawings during the
construction phase to ensure the specified qualities which are provided by the contractor.
These are reference documents for executing the works. Through the contract drawings, the
contractor needs to prepare shop drawings and submits them to the owner /consultant for

approval. All the works are executed according to the approved shop drawings which are
required to meet the design requirements.
The work site is executed according to approved shop drawings and approved materials. The
contractor needs to comply with all the requirements specified under contract documents. The
contractor shall execute the work per the approved quality control plan (CQP) for the
contractor‟s every single day tool to ensure quality.
The contractor needs to submit the checklists to the consultant to inspect the work during the
construction process and work executed per the contract documents and per the approved
shop drawings and materials to make sure proper the quality control of construction. The
consultant‟s supervisory staff shall make a daily inspection during the construction process. If
the consultant inspects that an item has been executed at site that is not in accordance with
contract documents, general code of practice or specifications, then a remedial note is issued
by the consultant. The contractor needs to reply on similar form after taking required action.
The consultant/ supervision staff issues the withdrawal notice according to the final issue. A
nonconformance report shall be prepared and sent to the contractor to take corrective /
preventive action toward this activity.
To achieve quality in construction projects, all the work need to be executed according to
shop drawings using approved material and fully coordinating with different trades. The
contractor must use the PDCA cycle to upgrade and develop the construction processes and
avoid rejection of works by the supervision team (consultant).

2.2.14 Defect Period

The particular conditions of contract shall provide the correction period for deficiencies after
substantial completion and must be extended warranties and guarantee. The correction period
is an assigned period of time in which the contractor is required to correct the deficiencies
and complete work that was not noted to final acceptance.

2.2.15 Taking-over Certification

The owner is submitted a written requisition by the contractor for conducting the project
when the construction has been accomplished according to scope of contract, final tests have
been made, all the required obligations have been fulfilled and issuance of substantial
completion certificate. Substantial completion occurs when the project, or a portion of the
project, is sufficiently complete according to the contract documents to allow the owner to
use it for its intended purpose. One-year correction period will be started at substantial
completion, and specified product warranties starts as well. If the contractor is unfulfilled
contract requirements, the consultant listing all the items still requiring completion or
correction for rework / correction of the works mentioned in the punch list. The contractor
resubmits the inspection request after completing or correcting previously notified works. If
there are still some items to be corrected/ completed by the contractor, the remaining works
are to be completed within the agreed period to satisfy of the owner / consultant. All
completed works / systems that are fully functional, the contractor starts handing over and the
owner agrees to take over the project. A handing over certificate shall be well-prepared and
signed by respective parties.

3.1 Case description

3.1.1 Background of the Project

The name of the project is Hanmyintmo-Myogyi-Ywangan Road which is connected between

Mandalay Region and southern Shan State and Kayah State as well. This project plays an
important role inasmuch as it links between the industrial developed region of Mandalay
which is the second largest capital of Myanmar, and agro based business region of southern
Shan State, Kayah State with the capital city of Taunggyi and Loikaw respectively. On the
other hand, it is the one of the linked road between Yangon -Mandalay Union Highway and
Meikhtila –Taunggyi – Kyaing Tone – Tarchileik Union Highway which is the entrance Shan
State and Kayah State from the upper Myanmar in figure 3.1. Moreover, the existing road
condition is very tough and rough and gradient is quite high as it is located in mountainous
area. The formation width is rather narrow and pavement width is 12ft only. The expansion
of this road is found to be difficult for future traffic volume and giving enough access for
vehicles. So the construction of this project will make the good of many people now that it
plays the key role in facilitating the economic growth of States and will alleviate the gap of
living standard between Regions and States.
On all of relevant factors, Department of Highways (DOH) from the Ministry of Construction
(MOC) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) come up with this project by
ODA Loan.

Fig 3.1 Project Location Plan

3.1.2 Objective of the Project

The objective of this project is aimed for regional poverty reduction in effected area by
connecting of highly productive agriculture – industries region which is vital for domestic
and regional markets.

3.1.3 Contract Information on this project

Name of Project -Regional Development Project for Poverty Reduction Funded

by ODA Loan (MY-P1-PW-11)-Hanmyinto–Myogyi-
Ywangan Road
(a)Bituminous Road Improvement Work (M3/4-M5/7),(M6/3-
M7/6),(M7/7-M9/0) &(M10/6-M20/3)=14 Miles 4 furlongs
(b) Construction of formation width (M10/6-M32/5)=21 Miles
7 furlongs
Project Cost -Kyats Eight Billion & Four Hundred Ninety Eight Million
(kyats 8498 Millions)
Date of Contract Agreement -Tenth, March, 2016 (10.3.2016)
Project Period –From 10.3.2016 to 9.3.2017 (365-Days)

Table 3.1 Contract Information

Loan Agreement No:MY-P1: Construction of Hanmyintmo-

Contract Title Myogyi-Ywarngan Road in Shan State and Mandalay Region
for Regional Development Project (PW-11)
Contract Signing Date August 19th2015
Contract Effective Date March 10th2016
Contract Completion Date March 9th 2017
Notice of Commencement March 10th2016
Contract End Date March 9th 2017
Three Hundred Sixty Five (365) consecutive calendar days for
construction, Defects Liability Period, which extends over three-
hundred sixty-five (365) days calculated from the Completion
Contract Duration
Date. However, in no event shall the Defect Liability Period
extend beyond twenty-four (24) months after the Completion
Contract Language English
Eight Billion & Four Hundred Ninety Eight Million Kyats
Contract Price
(8,498,000,000 Ks).
Employer Department of Highways(DOH), Ministry of Construction
Contractor Future Creator Group of Construction Co.,Ltd. (FCGC)
Yangon, Myanmar

3.1.4 Scope of the Project

Hanmyintmo – Myogyi – Ywarngan road project will be implemented by upgrading the

existing road and the project data are as per following in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Scope of Road Project

Sr.No Scope of Work Quantity Unit

Bituminous Road Improvement Work (M3/4-M5/7),(M6/3-

M7/6),(7/7-M9/0)&M10/6-M20/3)=14Miles 4frulongs

1. Sub – base Course Work 14.5 Mile

2. Base Course Work 14.5 Mile

3. Prime Coat 14.5 Mile

4. 18‟ – 0” Width Bitumen Pavement 14.5 Mile

5. Construction of Hard Shoulder ( Both Side) 14.5 Mile

6. Construction of Earth Shoulder ( 7‟ – 0” Both Side) 14.5 Mile

Construction of Formation Width (M10/6-


1. Earth Work for Embankment 21.875 Miles

2. Construction of Compaction Sub-grade 21.875 Miles

(c) Other works

1. Side Drain ( Both Side) 9.192 Mile

2. Cross Drain 8508 ft.

3. Box Culvert 3 No.

3.2 Contract administration practices to achieve good quality in the project

This project implements four stages for contract administration to achieve good quality as
1. Pre-Tendering Stage
2. The Tendering Stage
3. Construction Stage
4. Closeout stage

3.2.1. Pre-Tendering Stage

The employer, Department of Highways (DOH), Ministry of Construction invites sealed Bids
from eligible Bidders for construction and completion of the work so as to summit bidding
forms for assessment of their experience and competency while undertaking a particular

In the bidding document, the bidder shall furnish a Technical proposal including a statement
of work method, equipment, personal, schedule, safety plan and any other information which
all meets the Employer‟s requirements. In connection with the Invitation for Bids, the
Employer issues these bidding documents for the procurement of works requirements. In this
document, specification for road construction and method of statement review to comply and
follow by the Contractor.

These specifications and method of statements are of bidding document for construction
activities of embankment, sub-grade, sub base course, well-graded crushed rock base course,
application of prime coat, semi-grout penetration macadam surface course and hard shoulder.
To achieve the qualification of the bidder, it will set up its qualifications to perform the
contract under “Evaluation and Qualification Criteria”. The interested Bidders summit to the
DOH, the Employer will pick out the bidders on submitted their qualifications and bidding
documents respectively.

A bid security shall be required to protect the owner from the risk of increased costs in the
event that contractor fails to enter into an agreement with the owner at the bid price. The
amount and currency of the bid security in this project will be ks. 60,000,000.In the case of a
bank guarantee, the Bid security will be submitted either using the bid security form included
in section 4, Bidding Forms, or in another substantially similar format approved by the
Employer prior to Bid submission. The bid security shall be valid for 28days beyond the
original validity period of the bid, or beyond any period of extension if requested under
instruction to bidder. Any Bid not accompanied by a substantially responsive Bond security
will be turned down by the Employer as non-responsive. The Bid security of unsuccessful
Bidders shall be returned as promptly as possible upon and once the successful Bidder has
signed the contract and furnished the required Performance Security.


 Bidders are required to submit bid security for demand guarantee because bid bonds
protect the owner from the risk of increased costs in the event that the contractor fails
to enter into an agreement with the owner at the bid price.

 The bidder selection method is Technical Compliance Selection Method with the
lowest price and it can be recommended to possess quality cost based selection.
 In bidding document, instructions to bidders, the competitive bidders‟ requirements
must comply with pre-qualification because the owner can make a choice of a short
list of qualified bidders who are able to complete the project with conclusive result.


 The construction bid documents are not sufficiently completed with design QA/ QC
programs because DOH‟s design states that quality control only for work activity and
construction technique and not for the rest.
 DOH‟s design needs to incorporate the design QA/QC activities in construction
contract bid documents during the design stage because they are unfamiliar with
quality management system.
 Bidders submit only contractor‟s quality control plan for work activity attached in the
bidding document of Bidder‟s Qualification, so this is required contractor‟s QA/QC
plan for materializing the construction phase so as to meet the terms of contract

3.2.2 The Tendering Stage

The bidders submit the two envelopes; one is Technical envelop (hereinafter envelope A) and
the left is Financial envelop (hereinafter envelope B) to Department of Highways, Ministry of
Construction. All bids are received on the set deadline date in light of Employer‟s address
shall be taken into account for preliminary examination by the DOH authorized committee.
The technical criteria for envelope A is the bidder shall be furnished to meet the work
requirements and completion time including a statement of work methods, equipment,
personnel, construction schedule, quality control plan, safety plan and bidder‟s qualification
of financial situation, average annual construction turnover, financial resources, current
contract commitments, construction experience and acknowledge of compliance with JICA

The envelope A shall be opened first to determine the Bidder‟s compliance with the
documents required to be submitted for the bid. In case, one or more of the required
documents in envelope A of a particular bid is missing, incomplete, or patently insufficient,
the DOH shall rate the bid concerned as “FAILED” and immediately return to the bidder
concerned its second bid envelope unopened.

At the tendering stage, the Employer (DOH) examines the Bid to confirm that all documents
and information requested in Instruction to Bidder (ITB) have been provided and to
determine the completeness of each document submitted by the Bidder. In bid opening, firstly
open „Envelope A‟ which contains a technical proposal including a statement of works
method with owner‟s technical specification, schedule plan and any other information. After
that 2nd envelope, which contains lump sum price for each activity will open. Then the owner
selected the constructor by the Technical Compliance Selection method of lowest priced bid
according to ITB. During implementation of this project, the successful constructor rent a
quality control team from the owner (DOH) to check and inspect of for each contractor‟s
work activity to meet the requirements of specifications according to the Works Procurement
in Bidding Document.

 DOH selected the contractor by using the quality cost based selection (QCBS). This
two envelope system provides that the owner can achieve quality in construction
comply with specifications.

 Contractor is needed to submit Performance Bank guarantee for work complete

because this is guaranteeing the performance of the contractor‟s contractual
obligations in case that the contractor is unable to complete and remedied any defects.

 Advanced payment security must be made by the contractor because advanced

payments can make guarantee for owner.

 Contractor is required insurance for works, plant and materials and insurance for
property and personal injury or death to manage the risk and this can affect risk
mitigation and protect the physical loss or damage to the work in progress at the
construction site.


 At Tender opening, although DOH picked out the Bidder with Technical Criteria, the
lowest bid price can be diminished again by DOH and this can poses poor
specifications for works and Contractor cannot successfully accomplish as well.

 After awarding the contract, the contractor needs to guarantee for material and retention
money security for the first half of the Retention Money to be certified for payment,
payment of the second half is to be made against a Retention Money Guarantee.

 The Contractor needs to submit non-technical documents of traffic control, pollution

control and erosion plan, insurance for crushed rock plant, material and equipment.

3.2.3 Construction Stage

(a) Document incorporated on this contract agreement

The following documents are constructed as part of this contract agreement;

1. The Letter of Acceptance;
2. The Letter of Bid;
3. The Addenda (Bid Validity Extension);
4. The Particular Conditions of Contract;
5. General Condition of Contract;
6. The Specification;
7. The Drawings;
8. The complete schedules; and
9. Compliance with guidelines for Procurement under Japanese ODA Loans

Construction Contract Management Team Member

The construction contract sign between DOH‟s Chief Engineer and the Managing Director of
FCGC construction company, a contract management team is formed to administer the
contract in the most effective manner. The contract is directly managed by the Chief Engineer
of DOH as contract manager of MOC and the Managing Director of FCGC Co. Ltd., as
contract manager of the constructor.

Detailed responsibilities of contract team members are as below:

Contract Manager of the Constructor

 Directly negotiating with the Employer about all contract changes and concluding into
draft Variation Order (VO).
 Approving changes to the contract conditions or scope of the contract.
 To direct and review the overall operation of the Company.
 To take overall responsibility for all works and services undertaken by the company.

Figure 3.2 Project Organization Chart for FCGC

Project Director of the FCGC

 To direct and oversee construction operations, including operational strategy,

equipment and manpower deployment.
 To advise the General Manager regularly on the current capabilities of the Company
for new commitments.
 To advise the General Manager regularly on the current and projected needs of
technical resources of the Company.
 To assign technical staff with appropriate qualifications and experience to a project.
 To provide resources for a project to meet the construction program.

DOH performed kick-off meeting and minutes of meeting with consultant and contractor for
giving information that Contractor is required to submit for all documents; monthly work
progress reports with S curve and photos, weather report, shop drawing, inspection and test
reports to the consultant.

(b) Bonds

Typically, there are three bonds included in this construction project in the Contract
Agreement. They are Bid Bond (Bid Security), Performance Bond (Performance Security)
and Payment Bond.
The Performance Security will be provided to the Employer within 28 days after receiving
the Letter of Acceptance, issued in an amount 10% of the Initial Contract Price. A
Performance Security shall be required and be submitted within 14 days of the notification of
contract award. It shall be returned to the Contractor within 28 days after the one year defect
period for the works by the Project Manager provided that there are no claims for labor and
material failed against the Contractor.
The Employer will make advance payment to the Contractor of the amount up to 25% of the
Initial Contract Price within 28 days of submission of the application for the Advance
Payment and on demand Bank Guarantee. The guarantee will remain effective until the
advanced payment has been repaid, but the amount of the guarantee will be progressively
reduced by the amounts repaid by the Contractor. Interest also shall not be changed on the
advance payment.

(c) Insurance

The Contractor will provide with insurance cover from the start date to the end of the Defects
Liability period.
-Minimum insurance cover of the Works, Plant and Materials will be same as the amount in
Contract Price and which is covered under ' Contractor's all Risks' (CAR), and the minimum
deductible insurance amount is Ks. 2,000,000.
-The Contractor shall provide the insurance of Equipment to each vehicle/machine but the
maximum deductible for insurance of this is not applicable.
-The minimum insurance cover of Property is ks.40, 000,000 and the maximum subtract for
this insurance is ks.2, 000,000.

(d) Quality Control Plan

For this project, the Employer‟s pre-construction involvement with the design of Road
Research Laboratory, Department of Highways under the Ministry of Construction gave
detailed design and specifications for Procurement of Works in Bidding Document. In the
general situation of contract, the Contractor needs to construct and install the works in
accordance with the specification and drawings. Thus, the constructor (Contractor) is
responsible and accountable for implementing Employer‟s quality plan or quality processes
to meet the terms of the owner-contractor agreement.
The Quality Plan and Activity of this Project is tabulated in the Table as per bellow which is
submitted to the Employer (DOH) by the Contractor (FCGC).

Table No. 3.3 Quality Plan and Activities of this project

Particulars in Routine
No Road QC Requirement Performing Remarks
Construction Actions
Ӏ Materials CBR Tests Laboratory Testing in MOC‟s
1 Soil Embankment≥5% Test Lab : and
Sub-Grade & Hard Getting approval
Shoulder Soak CBR from MOC upon
≥30% test results
2 Crushed Rock Test for Abrasion and Laboratory Testing in MOC‟s
Hardness. Test Lab and getting
CBR TESTS approval from
Sub-Base ≥ 30 % MOC upon test
Base ≥ 80 % results.
Hard Shoulder /
Wearing Course Soak
30 %
3 Bitumen Recommended to use Only purchase the
80/100 Bitumen recommended type
with full statement
of specification.
Π Road Works
1 Embankment CBR 5 % Road side Laboratory (1)Testing in Joint Testing
suitable earth. Test MOC‟s Lab:
Compaction ≥ 95 %
Field Test (2)Testing at site
by Contractor‟s &
2 Sub- Grade CBR 30 % Borrowed Laboratory (1)Testing in DCP Test
Soil compacting ≥ 95% Test MOC‟s Lab: OMC Test
Field Test (2) Testing at site
by Contractor‟s &
Field Test (3) Testing at site
by Contractor‟s &

3 Sub-Base CBR 30 % Crushed Laboratory (1)Testing in
Rock Test MOC‟s Lab:
Compaction ≥ 95 % (2) Testing at site
Field Test by Contractor‟s &
LAV (Los Angeles DOH‟s QC
Abrasion Value)≥ Field Test personnel
95 % (3)Testing at
Plasticity Index≥ 6% MOC‟s Lab
(4)Testing in
MOC‟s Lab
4 Base CBR 30 % Crushed Laboratory (1)Testing in
Rock Test MOC‟s Lab:
Compaction ≥ 95 % Field Test (2)Testing at site
LAV 40 % ≥ Laboratory by Contractor‟s &
Test DOH‟s QC
Plasticity Index ≥ 6 % Laboratory personnel
Test (3)Testing at
MOC‟s Lab
(4)Testing in
MOC‟s Lab
5 Prime Coat Recommended to use
80/100 Bitumen
6 Pen Mac Status of Key Stones Field Test (1) Testing at site Plate Bearing
(Bitumen Roller‟s by Contractor‟s & Test, Sand
Layer ) Pressing Status DOH‟s QC Core Test,
Compaction 8/10 Tons personnel Ring
Test, Core
Cutter Test

The following table 3.4 is performed by the Contractor for the work activities by using the
applicable Code.

Table No. 3.4 Work Activities by using the applicable code

Apparatus Applicable Work Scope
1 Manual & Digital Balance To weight the materials( soil, Crushed rock, Sand)
2 Oven Hot Air- Digital-250ºC For dehydration of Sand, Earth, Rock for tests of
3 Laboratory CBR Apparatus- For the testing of density or mix ratio of road
Digital-(ASTM-D1833) constructing materials such as well-graded gravelly
soil, etc.
4 Liquid Limit Device Moisture For testing of Plastic Index of the earth
5 Automatic Soil Compactor To get the degree of compaction according to the
(ASTM-D-558,D-560, mixed proportion
6 Plate Bearing Machine (18” Plate, For compressing test of well graded soil or rock
59 Ton Jet) road by payload at least 20 tons and above.
7 Dynamic Cone Penetration Machine To measure the settlement falling height of 3‟for
embankment, cut and fill soil layers
8 Core Cutter Apparatus To get the proportion of compactness by using 4”×
6” Hole Cylinder Rammer after the compaction of
embankment, cut and fill soil layers.
9 Sand Cone Apparatus To get the proportion of compactness by extracting
and replacing of specified sand after the compaction
of embankment, cut and fill soil layers.
10 Test Sieve (Certified BS To get the Grain sized Distribution by using sieve
410Specification) analysis

11 Soil Moisture Meter To get the Moisture Content quickly

12 Proving Ring Penetrometer To get the proportion of compactness by penetrating

of machine after the compaction of embankment, cut
and fill soil layers.

(e) Responsibilities for Each Organization and Personnel

Project Manager

The Employer‟s quality control team shall carry out the Contractor‟s major functions such as
quality controlling and monitoring of receipt materials, construction activity processes and
testing of the finished work.
Contractor's quality control organization chart is as follows.

Project Manager

QC Manager

QC Engineer Lab. Engineer Geological Engineer

Document control staff Assistant

Figure No.3.3 Contractor’s Quality Control Organization Chart

Project Manager

The Project Manager is responsible for execution of the project and to ensure that the quality
system is carried out at site. He shall ensure that the right resources are allocated to the

Quality Control Manager

The Quality Control Manager is the authority on all quality matters on the project. He is to
provide the authority and necessary to troubleshoot invisible pitfalls and achieve final
solution on quality plan.
The Quality Control Manager is responsible for compliance with the requirements of the
contract, approved drawings for the areas of site works in his control and for the quality of
workmanship. For the Contractor, he is the authority to lead, instruct, supervise and direct the
execution of the works under his control and he will interface with the Engineer on all
questions regarding organization of quality system and control including the establishment of
quality assurance and control procedure.

The Quality Control Manager‟s responsible works are followings.

 Responsible for the proper implementation, management and organization of on – site

Quality Control Plan with respect to the project and its requirements cooperating with
Project Manager.
 Giving the instruction for advising and supervising the site staff in all cases which is
relating to quality system/quality control.
 Implementing, controlling, revising and maintaining complete inspection records for
the project.
 Insure that the site superintendent and site staff are informed of and receive copies of
amendments and revisions to drawings, specifications and contract requirements.
 Coordinate with the Project Manager, site staff on ways of resolving quality-related
production problems.
 Reviewing the incoming notification from the Engineer relating to quality control
procedures and to suggest or approve remedial action.
 Reviewing and approving submissions from suppliers relating to product/service
 Reviewing and certifying shop drawing, certificates and other documents prior to
submissions to the Engineer.
 Delegating authority as allowed appropriate for the effective implementation of
procedures and requirements to the QC staff.

Quality Control Staff

The Quality-Control Staff is the coordinator and supervisor of all matters on compliance with
contract drawings and specification, codes and standards as applicable. He is independent
from the Site Engineer and the Production team regarding any matters related to quality
control / quality procedures. He shall be reliable assistance to the Quality Control Manager
and perform under QCM‟s direction and instruction.

The Quality Control Staff‟s works are followings.

 Responsible for the management and organization of Quality Control Plan with
respect to the project and its requirements.
 Giving the instruction and supervising the development of the detailed inspection
 Establishing, revising of material testing records for the project.
 Insuring that the Project Manager and all staff concerned are informed of and receive
copies of amendments and revisions to drawings, specifications and contract
 Insuring that internal and external laboratories and testing systems are selected and
maintained as required by applicable regulations.
 Reviewing the whole project cycle, the efficiency of the inspection plan, procedures
and documentation and to advise changes or amendments for optimization.
 Coordinating with the Project Manager and site staff on ways of resolving quality-
related procedure-problem.
 Shall be delegated authority as allowed appropriate for the effective implementation
of procedures and requirements to the QC staff.

The quality control team conducts inspection and testing which are required for a project on a
construction site. They carried out at three stages;

1. on receipt of purchased materials

2. during a construction process in which an in process check is conducted before
proceeding to the next step
3. before final delivery of the finished works

Materials (crushed rocks or selected soils for embankment) received on a construction site are
subjected to make inspection and/or testing. The quality control team inspects the received
material and records the type, quantity and condition of the material. When the materials have
been passed the inspection and/or testing, QC team permits its release to use or installation by
signing off the form. If the materials are not meet with specification, not to use on
construction works according to the test result of quality control team.
During the construction work for Embankment, Sub-grade, Sub-base course, well graded
crushed rock Base Course, Semi-grout penetration macadam surface course and Hard
shoulder which are implemented by the Contractor, the quality control team inspected and
tested to meet the design standards and specifications.
If the materials are not pass the inspection and/or testing, the Q/C team identifies the non-
conforming item by physical means and the Q/C team leader refers the non-conforming item
to the Project Manager for disposition. The project manager reviews the extent and severity
of the non-conformity and decides on this may be repair or reject. Then the project manager
issues a Notice of Nonconforming Supply to the Contractor. If the inspection of construction
work is not conforming to the specifications, the quality control team leader repair or rework
for the disposition of the nonconforming work during construction of layer by layer.

(f) Change Order

Variations may have Lump sum contract and measurement contract even though contract is
signed; the contractor wants to change some items in contract as the changing of detailed
design, changing of place of quarry map of selected soil and material in the updated programs
and activity schedule, requested for carrying out the variation. The Contractor must provide a
quotation to the Project Manager within 7 days of the request or within any longer period
mentioned by the Project Manager and before the Variation is ordered. If Contractor‟s
performance is unreasonable, the Project Manager will give to the Contractor based on his
own forecast of the effects of the variation. If the cost per unit of quantity changes, or if the
nature or timing of the work in the variation does not correspond with item in the Bill of
Quantity (BOQ), the quotation by the contractor will be in the form of new rates for the
relevant items of works.

(g) Defect Period

If a minor defect occurs, the Project Manager will give notice to contractor to repair of any
defects before the end of the Defects Liability Period. The Contractor must correct the
notified defect within the length of specific time by the Project Manager‟s notice. If the
contractor has not corrected the defects during this period, the Project Manager assesses the
corrected defect cost and the Contractor must pay the assessed amount. In the particular
conditions of contract, the Defects Liability Period is (365days).

(h) Claim

In this contract, the term claim will be a claim for additional monies or for extension of time
for completion by the Contractor of an actual entitlement for additional works. In this project
that a contractor considers that circumstances justify, the contract permitted to make one or
both of the following.
1. Extension of the Intended Completion Date; and/or
2. Additional Payment
If a variation is issued which makes it impossible for completion to be achieved by the
Intended Completion Date the Project Manager will extend to the Contractor to accelerate the
remaining work.

The Project Manager must consider for decision depends on the effect of Compensation
Event or variation to extend the Completion Date within 21 days of the Contractor asking the
Project Manager. If the Project Manager does not issue drawings, the specifications or
instructions required for execution of the works on time, does not instructs the Contractor to
uncover or to carry out additional tests upon work, which is then found, gives an instruction
for dealing with an unforeseen condition, caused by the Employer, or additional work
required for safety or other reasons and the Employer modifies the schedule of other
contractors in a way that affect the work of the contractor under the contract, the contractor
can compensate to the Employer.

When a compensation event would cause additional cost or delay task accomplishment before
Intended Completion Date, Contract Price will be increased and/or Intended Completion Date
shall be extended. The Project Manager will decide the additional cost and completion date.

Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses for Construction Stage


 At Pre-construction stage, the contractor is required to submit pre-construction

submittals of construction schedule, product lists and shop drawings. Therefore, DOH
can review according to the requirements provided by the design in the construction
contract documents.

 During the construction stage, the contractor submitted construction submittals to the
employer which include sample of test results, shop drawings, product certificate and
detailed data, material progress, inspection and testing report and construction
photographs, therefore DOH can review the design specifications conformance with
the design of the project and information in the construction contract documents.

 DOH also reviews and monitors the progress reports and meetings to know the
contractor‟s work progress and to get the information in timely so the project
completion date cannot delay as per schedule.

 Contractor‟ quality control team has to carry out the quality control of inspection and
testing at every layer of road construction to meet the requirements of specified in
contract documents. They calibrate their equipment to meet the standard submit
inspection and testing report to the owner.

 The contractor obtain the approval for products and shop drawings from the DOH and
quality control report timely submit to the owner and get approval from owner. Thus,
DOH can know design and construction conformance with contract specifications.

 Retained money is withdrawn from the progress payment which is agreed-upon

percentage of contractor‟s earned payment covered from the contractor, the contractor
need to repair for all defects caused during defect period when defects period to pass
and warranty for liability period are needed for owner risks.

 The contractor is required one year warranty period for correction of defective works
after the completion of the project because this is qualitative requirement for the work
and administering the contract and will be free from defects not inherent in the quality

 Variations or change orders or extra work orders which affect the cost of the change
and schedule impact are allowed by DOH because quality construction can achieve

 The liquidated damages are required to compensate for delay by the contractor
because the contractor must be finished on completion date according on contract

 Owner‟ Claims that the contractor has not corrected nonconforming or defective work
within the time specified in the DOH”S notice which is necessary to avoid recurrence
of the untoward event from the contract drawings/specifications.


 At pre-construction, the contractor needs to submit the technical submittals for

inspections and testing schedule, pollution and erosion control plan and traffic control
plan are also in urgent need to submit by the contractor because the contractor is
responsible for assuring to meet the level of quality specified in the contract
documents and cannot delay in the project.

 During construction stage, construction submittals namely as manufacture‟s product

procurement data, equipment and manpower data are needed to submit by the
contractor because the products and equipment are required extended product
warranties and by using manpower for physical construction task so as to be endowed
with specified requirements.

 Another one is required to submit the qualification and experience certificates of

machine operator by the contractor because the quality of workmanship needs to
determine minimum acceptable standards of measurements.

 Inspection and testing of material received at site and of constructed payment road
layer performed the testing are not enough by the contractor now that information
submittals of QA/QC are necessary to verify compliance with the construction
documents according the project quality plan.
 The contractor needs to submit the timely submission of shop drawings and materials
of approval to the project manager / consultant such as daily progress and weekly
progress because it can get the details of the staff, labor force, plant and equipment,
and receipt material at site of the contractor.

 Coordination for construction activities and documentation of communication

between the owners, consultant and contractor are good situation because they held
monthly meetings, weekly minute meetings for work progress, and safety monitoring
which can affect safety, payment, and overall quality.

 Written communications, standard forms are poor-defined for contract administration

filing system in this project. This can lead to even misunderstanding.

 Based on the contract drawings, the contractor must make well-preparation the shop
drawings for approval. All the materials, equipment, and systems specified in the
contract documents need prior approval from the owner / consultant.

 The contractor is needed to perform a job site safety and accident prevention program
to follow the safety procedures because the workers are poor to provide personal
protective equipment to all workers.

3.2.4 Closeout Stage

The Contractor shall request the Employer to issue a taking-over certificate for the
completion of the works, the Employer shall take-over the site and the works within (7) days
of issue date. Then the employer takes the inspection the project completed works comply
with contract requirements and give the final punch list to correct any defects and tasks. The
Contractor shall supply the final account of the total amount that the Contractor considers
payable under the contract before the end of the Defects Liability Certificate, the Contractor
needs to perform all the identified tasks and corrected any deficiencies on the final punch list
within (56) days. After checking the final punch list, employer will review the Contractor‟s
final application for payment and closeout submittals (as built drawings, all test reports and
documents), the final completion of the work issued by DOH. Then DOH gives notice to the
Contractor to correct all defect works and deficiencies before the end of the Defects Liability
Period, which extends over (365) days calculated from the Completion Date.

Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses

 DOH conduct closeout meeting to review closeout procedures and submittals
 The Employer must pay to the Contractor‟s final payment (Retention money and
Performance Guarantee, 2.5% and 10% of contract price) after the Defects Liability
Certificate. Therefore DOH can receive the Contractor‟s corrections for their defects
works and all deficiencies during the defect period.
 The Contractor submits “As build” drawings to the Employer within 30 days from the
Completion Date .So DOH can maintain a set of record drawings and these indicate
the actual construction.
 The Contractor must correct for all defects during one-year defects period after final
completion and it is the warranties and guarantees by FCGC for DOH.
 The Contractor submits completion of the punch list for requesting of completion so
DOH can easily determine Contractor‟s completion or correction the causes for denial
before the issuance of a certificate of completion certificate.
 Record documents on construction submittals of shop drawings, record drawings and
specifications, contract modification documents, test reports, construction
photographs and certifications, which are received from the Contractor. DOH can use
as a resource for operations and maintenance.


 DOH did not give taking over certification at the substantial completion stage but give
the final completion certificate directly after repairing of punch list. And then DOH
paid the final payment to the Contractor.
 The documents of preparation of start-up reports and commissioning logs cannot be
submitted by the contractor for operating facility.

After completion of the Hanmyintmo- Myogyi- Ywangyan road improvement project, final
performance of project works related with time, cost, and quality of activities is found the

(a) The construction time on this project extended two weeks in accordance with the
project schedule per contract agreement. As per contract agreement, the liquidated
damages or penalties are required to compensate to the owner for the Contractor‟s
late performance of the works at final completion. The owner cannot deduct the
penalties from the Contractor‟s final payment because the owner favors the
Contractor that the waiting time occurs for getting approval from DOH for
changing design to construct with stabilized crushed rock instead of existing with
2”-4” crushed rock for base and sub-base layers.
(b) To achieve the owner‟s requirements of quality based-on normal standard, cost on
budget is not increased. The project cost is fixed to perform the scope of works as per
contract because there are not many variations and change orders and no additional
cost for variation order request by the Contractor for design change.
(c) Generally, the project is implemented to get normal standard but quality is not fully
satisfied because it doesn‟t meet the contract‟s requirements. The major causes of
poor quality are poor management with quality system, poor communication and
coordination, unrealistic project duration and lack of QA/QC trainings.

Figure No.3.4 shows the final project performance based on time, cost and quality by the
contractual agreement.

Final Project

Time Quality
( Delay ) ( Not Fully Satisfied )

( Contract Price)

Figure No.3.4 Final Project Performance

3.3 Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses and Recommendations

Table 3.5 Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses and Recommendations

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations

Pre-Tendering 1. The Bidders are required to The owner can select a short
submit Bidding document with list of qualified bidders who
Technical Proposal and bidder‟s are capable of completing
qualification. the project successfully.
(a)Construction Statement,
(b)Equipment and personnel Plan,
(c)Safety Plan,
(d) Quality Control Plan,
(e)Construction Schedule,
(f)Site organization,
(g)Bidder‟s Qualification must be
submitted to the selection of tender

2. Contractor will select by using Technical Compliance

two envelope systems. Selection method with the
lowest price cost. (Quality
Cost Based Selection-
QCBS).It is recommended
to get quality and lowest

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Pre-Tendering 3.The Bidders are required to The submitted Quality Project quality plan and
submit Bidding document with Control Plan is only Mobilization Schedule
(a)Project Quality Plan inspection and testing of should be included in
(b)Mobilization Schedule materials used in road bidding documents which
construction and must be effective to meet
constructed each layer the project goals and
conform to specification. objectives.
The Project Quality Plan
and Mobilization
Schedule need to
consider implementing
the project requirements
of the contract
documents and according
to DOH‟s design of
QA/QC program by the

4. Bid Guarantee, need to be Bid security can protect the

notified of the acceptance of its bid owner from the risk of
during the Bid Validity Period. increased costs in the event
(a) Bid Security (Bank Guarantee) that the contractor fails to
is required to submit by contractor. enter into an agreement with
the owner at the bid price

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Pre-Tendering 5.Preparation of bid documents of DOH‟s design states that Therefore DOH cannot
Work Procurement of road quality only for work instruct quality procedures
construction design activity and construction and guidelines for QA/QC
(a) DOH‟s design stated that only technique. system to the contractor
construction technique and quality There is no Quality which covers the ISO
control for road construction. Management system in requirements so that this
DOH. Quality Control and
Quality Assurance
(QA/QC) program need
to provide for each

DOH need to establish the

quality management
system which comprise of
quality policy,
responsibilities and
authorities of personnel
whose work affects
quality, quality procedures
and work instructions.
DOH need to arrange the
quality manual to
reference the quality
procedures that form a
part of system
documentation for QA/QC

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Tendering 1. Selection of the Successful Bidder This two envelope system
is Technical Compliance Selection provides that the owner can
Methodology recommends the lowest achieve quality in
price which is described in ITB at bid construction comply with
opening. specifications.
(a)DOH selected the bidder with the
Technical Qualifications Criteria.
(b) At Bid Opening, choose the Bidder Reduce the lowest price DOH should follow the
with the lowest price. again by the Tender Technical Compliance
Committee of MOC it Selection method exactly
may destructive activities which recommends in
to achieve the good Section ӀӀӀ which
quality project. determines the criteria to
assess the lowest
evaluated Bid and the
capabilities of the Bidder.
2. Certification of Insurance and This can affect risk No insurance for DOH should review for all
worker‟s compensation coverage, mitigation and protect the property damage and insurance certificates by
Contractor is required to submit for personal injury and death or insurance for works, the contractor and the
(a) Personal injury or death insurance work progress destruction at plant, material and contractor must be submit
to cover injuries to workers. the construction site. equipment. contractor‟s all risks and
Contractor‟s risks Insurance required DOH‟s approval.
Certificate are needed to cover for
insurance of
(b)works, plant, material,
(d)property damage

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Tendering 3. Selection of Consultant company Bidders other countries Need to invite bidders who
must be Japanese. Limited cannot participate into are from other countries to
competitive bidding or short list the bidding because this get the efficient process
bidding among Japanese consulting project is funded by achieved by consultants.
firms. Only limited Japanese JICA loan.
Consultant companies can be
competed tenders.

4. Non-Technical Documents of Material Bond and Contractor should be

Bonds need to submit by the Retention money submitted a variety of non-
Contractor. security are required technical documents
(a) Material Bond after awarding the continually through the
(b) Retention Money Security contract. construction process such
as material bond and
payment bond.

5. Technical Submittals to be This can control by the

submitted with requirements of owner for work progress
contract documents by the and payment.
(a) Construction progress schedule

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations

Construction 1. Non-Technical Documents of This is guarantee for

Bonds need to submit by the contractor‟s contractual
Contractor. After award the obligations in the event, the
contract, the contractor is required contractor is unable to
(a)Performance Bond complete and remedied
(b)Advanced Payment Security defects and to provide the
pay for labors and materials
due under the contract.

2. Technical Submittals to be At pre construction, the Schedules for technical

submitted with requirements of contractor is required to submittals should be
contract documents by the submit the technical submitted according to the
contractor. submittals to the owner. contract requirements by
(a) Submittal schedule for DOH cannot review the the contractor which
Product data sheets content of these are consist of preliminary
(b) Submittal schedule for shop consistence with the shop drawings for
drawings construction program in construction, placing
(c) Schedule of inspections and the contract documents. drawings for concrete
Testing reinforcing steel, schedule
for test results, samples.

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Construction 3.Responsibilities of DOH (a) DOH does not DOH should organize the
(a) Site Organization Structure or establish the site supervision team (project
Project Organization Structure organization in this management unit) PMU
(b) Contract Administer project, depending on the
(b) DOH does not assigns classification of the
contracts administer and project. PMU should be
they have not clearly their organized by contract
responsibilities so they administrator, quantity
cannot manage the surveyor, planning and
contract effectively. scheduling engineer,
mechanical and electrical
engineers. DOH need to
assign the positions,
authorities and
responsibilities to
interrelation of personnel
who manage, perform and
verify work affecting
quality and need to
oversee the execution of

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Construction 4.Management resources/ A staff approval can know
Procurement with the competence the capabilities of the
Certificates submit by the proposed staff by the DOH.
contractor And material inspection is
(a) Staff positions approval asked to the consultant
(b) Material approval when receipt of material
(c) Machinery approval from purchased or
subcontractor and before
final delivery and handover.

5.Management resources/ The contractor is The contractor should

Procurement with the competence required for these submit approval from the
Certificates submit by the certificates because the DOH / Consultant for the
contractor quality of machine and list of machine operators
(a) Machine Operator operator‟s workmanship to perform at the project.
needs to determine
minimum acceptable
standards of

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Construction 6.Construction submittals need DOH can review the
timely to submit and approval by specifications conformance
the Contractor with the design of the
(a) Sample of test results project and information in
(b) Inspection and Testing report the construction contract
(c) Construction photographs documents. Contractor‟s
(d) Shop drawings proposal or completed work
(e) Product certificate can meet the technical intent
(f) Material Progress of the design to the DOH
and Consultant.
7.Construction submittals need The extended warranties After the DOH awards the
timely to submit and approval by of products and construction contract,
the Contractor equipment are required FCGC should prepare
(a) detail product procurement and by using manpower contract documentation to
data for physical construction execute the project and
(b) Equipment and Manpower task to get specified submit the reports, shop
(c) Contractor‟s Plant and requirements are not drawings, schedules and
Equipment submitted. other information.
8. DOH reviews and monitors The project completion date
Progress reports and held meetings cannot delay as per contract
to know the contractor‟s progress schedule.
of work and to get information in DOH can know the
timely. Contractor‟s progress of
(a) Material received at site work and to get information
(b) Work progress at planned in timely.
(c) Crusher plant and Equipment

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Construction 9. Before construction These data can know to
Contractor is needed to submit meet the specified
(a)the shop drawing requirements.
(b) product data
(c) samples

10.Quality control of construction DOH can know

work performed by the contractor conformance with design
to comply with the contract specifications and contract
documents requirements.
(a) Inspections and testing
at every layer
(b) Products approval
(c) Shop drawings approval
(d) QC report

11. Quality control of construction The Contractor does not The contractor should
work is required to comply with the carry out quality control vary out the final
requirements which are specified in with the checklists inspection of the work to
the contract documents by the request for testing to the ensure full compliance
contractor. consultant ongoing work with the contract
(a) Checklist is carried out before before proceeding to the documents.
continuing to the next stage next step.
(b) Receipt of material Inspection
(c) Calibrate equipment

Contract Administration
Stage Strength Weakness Recommendations
Construction 12.Change Order or Variation If the contractor requires any
Order amendment to the specified
The reason for the proposed method, a request for
changed for design modification form should be
(a) Amended contract regarding used without any additional cost
change order for additional and time.
work (b) Substitution material
13.Communication and Timely submissions are Coordination and
Coordination among parties needed to the communication need
(a) monthly meeting owner/consultant and between the owner,
(b) minutes of meeting on written communication consultant and contractor
work progress of standard forms are on construction activities.
(c) safety monitoring poor for contract
(d) entities of direct administration filing
contract with owner system.
(c) written communication
14.Retained money This can withdraw from the
contractor‟s earned progress
payment if the contractor needs
to repair for all defects caused
during defect period when
defects period to pass, the
retained can pay repairing cost
and warranty for liability period
are needed for owner risks.

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Construction 15.Owner‟s claim for The contractor corrects
nonconforming or defective work defective works within the
time specified to avoid
recurrence of the untoward
event from the contract

16. Quality control of construction The contractor requires Contractor needed to

work is required to comply with the information submittals of verify compliance with the
requirements which are specified in QA/QC. construction documents
the contract documents by the according to project
contractor. quality plan for execution
(a)Inspections and testing of the work.
at every layer
17. The contractor is required to The contractor doesn‟t The contractor should
undertake a job site safety. provide personal follow safety procedures
protective equipment to and should establish
all workers. prevention program.
18.Payment progress for work This retained money can However, the project
issue on payment for error manager should be only
in quantities and to correct one for payment approval.
for defective works.

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations

Closeout 1.Closeout meeting This meeting can review the

closeout procedures and submittals

2. Performance bond will be released after the DOH can receive the Contractor‟s
defect period by DOH to the Contractor. corrections for their defects and all
deficiencies during the defect period.

3. The Contractor submits “as built” drawings DOH can retain a set of the recorded
to the DOH within 30 days from the drawings which are obvious to
completion date. indicate the actual construction.

4. Warranty or guarantee for the DOH. The Contractor must correct for all This is qualitative
defects during one-year defect requirement for the
period after the substantial work and will
completion. After completion of the emancipate from
project, Contractor‟s contractual defects. The
obligations required to correct Contractor should
during the defect period. provide products and
materials warranty.

5. Contractor submits completion of the punch DOH can easily determine

list for requesting of completion. Contractor‟s completion or
correction the causes for refutation
before the issuance of completion

Stage Contract Administration Activity Strength Weakness Recommendations
Closeout 6.Recorded documents on DOH can use as a resource
construction submittals of for operations and
(a)shop drawings maintenance manuals.
(b) record drawings & specification
(c)contract modification documents
(d)test reports, construction
photographs and certifications

7. DOH gives completion DOH performed final DOH should give taking-
certificate. completion directly after over certification at
repairing of punch list substantial completion and
and then the final at this time starts defect
payment paid to the liability period.

8. The contractor will compensate The owner cannot The owner should be
for late performance subtract liquidated deducted liquidated
(a) Liquidated Damages damages from payments damages because
due to the Contractor‟s warranties provide the
delay completion. works complete in time, if
the project is not
significantly complete
within the scheduled time
in the contract documents,
the owner can claim the
compensation to the

3.4 Contract Administration Framework for Good Quality Management

Pre – Tendering Stage Tendering Stage Construction Stage Closeout Stage

Pre – Design Phase Evaluation on successful Bidder Mobilization at the beginning of

Closeout meeting
actual Construction
- - Identify goal and objectives -Technical Bid
- -Develop Quality Management -Price Bid -Need the necessary permits - To review requirements for
System -Job site instruction form used by completion of contract
- - Contractual Arrangement the consultant to communicate -To obtain submittal of necessary
- -Identify D-B-B project delivery with the contractor final documents
- Method
Technical Submittals at
Selection of successful bidder preconstruction stage Contractor‟s punch list
Design Phase -Meet the work requirements -Construction progress schedule for issuance of taking over
-Completion with Statement of - Schedule for product data sheets certificate
-Specifications work method with owner‟s - Schedule for shop drawings
-Quality Audit Technical specifications -Traffic control plan -Inspects to determine substantial
-QA/QC Programs -Construction Schedule Plan -Schedule of Inspections and completion.

Activities for Quality

-Drawings -Safety Plan Testing -Prepare punch list all the requiring
-Quality Control Plan -Pollution and Erosion Plan completion or correction
-Follow the Technical -Preliminary shop drawings for -Must complete the remaining
Compliance Selection Method temporary construction works within the agreed period to
with lowest price -Placing drawings for concrete the owner‟s satisfaction.
reinforcing steel -Completely finished works
-Schedule for Test results, handing over and taking over the
Samples items handed over.
-Contractor‟s proposal
Pre – Tendering Stage Tendering Stage Construction Stage Closeout Stage

Preparing of bidding documents Non-Technical Documentation Management Resources / Documents need to submit
for Technical Proposal By the Contractor Procurement with the to issue substantial
qualification and experience completion certificate for
-Construction Statement -Names of proposed suppliers
Certificates Handing over
-Equipment and Personal Plan and manufacturers
-Safety Plan -Estimated cash flow -Site staff positions approval -Final testing
-Quality Control Plan -Payment Schedule -Material Approval -“As-built” drawings
-Construction Schedule -Health & safety plans -Technical manuals and
-Machinery Operator
-Mobilization Schedule -Project schedule documents
- Site Organization
-Bidder‟s Qualification Non-Technical Documents of
Bonds Construction Submittals need
timely to submit and approval
-Performance Bond (Quality Assurance)
-Advanced Payment Security
- Material Bonds - Sample of test results Record documents on
Bid Security or Bid Bond -Retention Money Security -Inspection and testing report construction submittals

Activities for Quality

-Construction photographs
Need to be notified of the -Shop drawings -Shop drawings
Contractor‟s risks Insurance
acceptance of its bid during the -Product certificates -Record drawings &
Certificate for loss of or damage
Bid Validity Period -Material progress Specifications
-works, plants, materials -Detail product procurement data -Contract modification documents
insurance -Capacity of Equipment and -Test reports, construction
-equipment insurance labor force photographs, and certifications
-personal injury or death -Contractor‟s plant and
insurance Machinery
Pre – Tendering Stage Tendering Stage Construction Stage Closeout Stage

Progress report and meeting Final Payment including

-Received material at site -Final inspection takes all the
-Work Progress at planned completed items in the final
schedule punch list.
-Crusher Plant and equipment -submit closeout submittals
-Review of Contractor‟s final
-Signed certificate for
Quality Control
Liquidated Damages
- Inspection and testing at every
-Products approval Need to deduct liquidated
-Shop drawings approval damages from payments
-Quality Control report due to Contractor‟s delay

Activities for Quality

- Checklist is carried out before completion.
continuing to the next stage
-Received material inspection
-Calibrate equipment

Pre – Tendering Stage Tendering Stage Construction Stage Closeout Stage

Change Order or Variation Order Completion Certificate

- Change order Request by owner
- Needs to give taking-over
-Variation order proposal
certification at substantial
completion and then starts defect
-Amended contract regarding
liability period.
owner initiated changes
- After the inspection of final
-Substitution materials
completion, the final payment
has made.
Communication and Coordination
between parties
between parties
- Monthly meeting
-minutes of meeting on work Warranties provide the works
progress complete in time, correction for
-safety monitoring Defective works
-written communication
-One year warranty period

Activities for Quality

-Products and materials
Technical Submittals are needed
to submit with requirements of
contract documents by the

(a) Construction progress

(b) Schedule for product schedule
(c) Shop drawings schedule
(d) Inspection and testing
Pre – Tendering Stage Tendering Stage Construction Stage Closeout Stage

Payment Performance Security and

Retained Money
- Update work progress
-Timely work completed based on S -Released the Performance
curve security and paid the second
-Retain money on payment for error half of the total amount
in quantities and to correct for retained after the defect period.
defective works
-Need only one Project Manager for
approval and must assign
responsibility and accountability

Defective and nonconforming work

of the contract document
- Nonconforming work notice

Activities for Quality

-Field observation report
-Correct defective work
-Additional testing and Inspection

-Extension of time and additional
cost due to change order which is
initiated by owner
-Correct for defective works by
-Liquidated damage for late
53 performance by contractor
-Repair of damages to existing cable
line, optical fiber line
Pre – Tendering Stage Tendering Stage Construction Stage Closeout Stage

To assign Responsibilities and

(a)Project Organization Structure
with contract administer, quantity
surveyor, planning schedule
engineer, mechanical and electrical

Retained money

-To withdraw from contractor‟s

earned progress payment to repair
for all defect works when defects

Activities for Quality

warranty period to pass.

Job site safety

-The contractor requires following
safety procedures and undertaking
need to provide PPE to all workers
and establish prevention program.

Fig 3.5 Contract Administration Framework for achieving good Quality Management

4.1 Conclusion

To begin with construction projects, the work effective implementation and systematic
executions of the works are compulsory for the contract documents between the owner and
contractor. The spotless accomplishment of a project needs to save time, money, men power,
materials and management so as to achieve good quality. This project is JICA funded
international loan from Japan and the contractors in Myanmar has poor experience in
construction project with Project Management Unit and foreign consultant. Besides, DOH,
Ministry of Construction has had a total of 3 years‟ experience by using international contract
system in road projects. Especially DOH has not established quality management system in
their department yet and quality procedures, quality manual and QA/QC system are not
integrated in bidding documents.

By and large, majority of Myanmar companies have not the culture to follow the quality
management system and contract administration practices. Hence, the output results are
needed to meet the required specifications due to the lack of quality management system.
Myanmar construction companies are in hard ride to follow the contract requirements on
quality because they are not realizing under project quality plan and safety plan. This is a
major stumbling block to achieve good quality management and implement the project with
win-win solution.

In addition, this Contractor catches hold of many good reputations and a big company in
Myanmar because they are well-experienced as old hands on road construction works; also
recommended and impressed by MOC. The construction activities and standardization
processes are pretty systematic for this project. The main reason is that this road construction
project is provided by JICA international funded as well as the workmanship of JICA‟s
consultant. So, project management unit are keys to win success with this project. The
Quality Control team has been organized in this project so they have crystal clear positions
and well-established responsibilities; this team plays a major role to meet the Employer‟s
requirements with specifications. All of stake holders should pay special attention not only
functioning of quality control team but also establish the mindset on the desired or expected
quality of the work.

Moreover, at tender opening, the tender selection committee team from MOC selects the
Contractor with lowest quotation price among the other competitive bidders. Moreover, the
committee team leader offers to reduce the optimal lowest tender price next again beside this
lowest price to the successful Contractor. No matter what happens, they reasoned that their
fruitful tender price is very low, so they have to construct with many limitations. It does not
make sense for the Employer to win success of this project with time allowed, reasonable cost
and higher quality.

Besides, after awarding the contract, the project implemented starts delayed due to the
concurrence of the contract agreements. It is very significant that the contract agreement date
is (19.8.2015) and the date of Notice to Proceed by DOH is (10.3.2016). Furthermore, in this
project, the contract administration forms are not applied for document control and these
documents should be valid factual, accurate and timely for project. Most of documents are
mainly stored by hard copies and the update data of this project didn‟t kept the electronic
copies sometimes. So the information of project may go into wrong figure as the amendment
data of contract. In this project, this can be time consuming for completion of the project as
per contract agreements. DOH is in urgent need of a qualified procedure, so it must be set up
as soon as possible to organize, store and distribute in the construction phase correctly and in
a timely manner to the contractor.

What‟s more, in this project, only Quality Control Plan is applied for inspection and testing
plan for single work activity and materials used in construction road. So it is not perfect for
quality plan. Contractor‟s Quality Control Plan of the project has been mentioned as detail
specification, construction procedure, inspection and testing plan for each and every portion.
These expressions help the Contractor to comprehend the quality issues of project and reduce
the misunderstanding between the Contractor and quality control teams. The Employer
(DOH) identified his demand on specifications issues since beginning of the project. Thus,
the designer, the constructor and quality control engineers can have extensive outlook and
wider horizon of knowledge on the scope of this project and the required quality of the
project. Participation of design section from DOH can lead to the necessary quality of design
improvement. Design section checked all of the materials testing and concepts, procedure and
calculations from conceptual design stage to detailed design stage. Chief engineer from DOH
organizes Design section members and their experiences are strongly supported to get the
qualified design.

To get the flawless quality of project requirements, the project should be built of qualified
human resources endowed with updated skill, knowledge, knowhow, and sufficient time,
money, effective materials on road construction, systematic management and rightful mindset.
Construction technique or method of statement on this road project is crystal clear to construct
with specified standard specification. These specifications and drawings are well-designed by
DOH. The contractor has already experienced with this method. However, the project manager
should be only one for payment approval.

Next, if the contractor of any defects that is found by the project manager from DOH, DOH
instructs the Contractor to make corrective measures and rework for these work. Furthermore,
if the Contractor is unable to correct current defect within the Defects Liability Period, the
Project Manager can make systematic assessment on the cost of correcting defects and the
Contractor should pay this amount.

At the closeout stage, the project needs to separate time of completion: substantial and final
completion. This project is not clear time of completion. Next to substantial completion, the
Contractor needs to request written notice of final completion and final inspection of all
remaining items of completed works in the final punch list.

4.2 Recommendations

4.2.1 Recommendations for DOH

1. Firstly, DOH needs to establish of construction contractual arrangements

which must be effective to meet the project requirements and objectives, to
obtain the owner‟s abilities and to fulfill the Contractor's responsibilities.

2. DOH need to establish the quality management system which comprise of
quality policy, responsibilities and authorities of personnel whose work affects
quality, quality procedures and work instructions.
3. In spite of being stipulated in general conditions and particular conditions of
contract, owner does not follow the contract agreements.
4. DOH need to arrange the quality manual to reference the quality procedures
that form a part of system documentation for QA/QC activities.
5. DOH should follow the Technical Compliance Selection method which
recommends the lowest price and it is described in ITB at bid opening.
6. DOH need to assign the positions, authorities and responsibilities to
coordination and cooperation of personnel who manage, execute and confirm
work affecting quality and need to achieve the execution of contracts.
7. DOH should organize the supervision team (project management unit) PMU
depending on the classification of the project. PMU should be organized by
contract administrator, quantity surveyor, planning and scheduling engineer,
mechanical and electrical engineers, inspectors from different sectors,
document controller and office staff.
8. The training of QA /QC system should be provided at DOH using
international training approach and methodology urgently to achieve the
qualified project.
9. Need to invite bidders who are from other countries to get the efficient process
achieved by consultants.
10. To practice quality assurance, DOH needs to establish and maintain a quality
management system in its day-to-day operation which contains a set of
documented procedures for the various processes carried out by the
11. DOH should follow the Technical Compliance Selection method which
recommends the lowest price and it is described in ITB at bid opening.
12. Apart from it, DOH should use the central file servers which can electronically
consolidate documents. The documents of the owner‟s original proposal and
the contractor‟s submitted proposal, project drawings and specifications,
catalog information, shop drawing and submittals, job site reports and punch
lists contract and amendment, correspondence, meeting minutes and notes,
reports should be kept in central file server system.
13. On the whole, DOH should perform specific risk management tools such as
insurance for property, works, plant and material, bonds for, guarantees for
material and retention money, compensation for delay performance, and
warranties for according to the contract agreement beside existing contractual
and legal liabilities. DOH should review for all insurance certificates
performed by the contractor.
14. The consultant should use job site instruction form for work site safety. DOH
should also issue taking over certificate if the Contractor FCGC‟s construction
works has been completed and final tests have been performed within the
agreed period to the owner‟s satisfaction. Contractor‟s warranty for DOH is
qualitative requirement for the work and will emancipate from defects.
15. The owner should be deducted liquidated damages because warranties provide
the works complete in time. If the project is not significantly complete within
the scheduled time in the contract documents, the owner should claim the
compensation to the contractor.

4.2.2 Recommendations for Contractor

1. After the DOH awards the construction contract, FCGC should prepare
contract documentation to execute the project and submit the reports, shop
drawings, project schedules and other information.
2. Schedules for technical submittals should be submitted according to the
contract requirements by the contractor which consist of preliminary shop
drawings for construction, placing drawings for concrete reinforcing steel,
schedule for test results, samples, contractor's proposal.
3. In spite of being stipulated in general conditions and particular conditions of
contract, contractor does not follow the contract agreements.
4. Contractor should be submitted a variety of non-technical documents
continually through the construction process such as material bond and
payment bond.
5. The contractor requires approval from the DOH / Consultant for the list of
contractor's project organization staff and machine operators to perform at the
6. The contractor requires approval from the DOH / Consultant for the list of
contractor's project organization staff and machine operators to perform at the
7. During the construction process, the Contractor should carry out quality
control with the checklist request for testing ongoing work before proceeding
to the next step.
8. FCGC should materialize the contractor‟s quality control plan regarding on
project-specific quality requirements of contract documents and FCGC should
follow during construction period. FCGC‟ project quality plan should be well-
prepared to comply with the contract of this project and the followings are a
must be added in the existing quality control plan.
 Construction program and sub-program
 List of materials and appliances
 Schedules of labor force , received of materials and equipment
regarding on the construction program
 Inspection and test programs
 Training plan for the quality control
 Keeping the List of quality records from supplier
 Contingency plan or emergency plan for material / manpower shortage,
serious accidents
 Frequency of internal project quality audits
 Frequency of updating the quality plan
9. The contractor should follow safety procedures and should establish
prevention program. Necessary permits are needed to start the construction
10. Contractor needed to verify compliance with the construction documents
according to project quality plan for execution of the work.
11. The contractor should be submitted contractor‟s all risks and required DOH‟s

12. At the closeout stage, Contractor should request substantial completion
certificate or taking over certificate when the works are sufficiently complete
according to contract documents
13. Contractor‟s warranty for DOH is qualitative requirement for the work and
will emancipate from defects. For this reason, the Contractor should provide
products and materials warranty and correct all defects for DOH.


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