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Submitted By:
Abhishek K. Nirala

Amitesh Ranjan

Madhur Sharma


This summer internship was a venture that turned out to be a very interesting project.
However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many
individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

We are highly indebted to our mentor Ms Aboli Naik for her guidance and constant
supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for
her support in completing the project.

We would also like to thank The Human Resource Department of The Ruby Mills Ltd.
Dhamni and Kharsundi. Our sincere thanks are extended to Mr K S Nair (H R Dhamni Unit)
and Mr Gadhge (H R Kharsundi Unit) from The Human Resource Department of the
company for helping us throughout the course of our internship.

We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents for their kind co-operation and
encouragement which helped us in completion of this internship.

Our thanks and appreciations also go to people who have willingly helped us out with their
abilities and skills to complete this project and make it successful.

 Internship Certificates
 Introduction
 Objective of Internship
 Company Profile
 Organizational Chart
 Process flow of the Company
 Report
1. Textile Mill’s Location
2. Textile Mill’s Infrastructure and Technology
3. Textile Mill’s Workforce
4. Raw Material storage
5. Blow-room
6. Carding And Roving Room
7. Spinning Department
8. TFO Room
9. Weaving Room
10. Sizing Room
11. Raw Material Testing Lab
12. Automatic Drawing Machine
13. Weaving Department
14. Grey Fabric Inspection Department
15. Batching Department
16. Singeing And Desizing Department
17. Scouring and Mercerization Department
18. Bleaching Department

19. Dyeing Department
20. Stenters
21. Finishing Department
22. Dotted Interlining Department
23. Packaging Department
24. Fabric Testing Lab

 Learning Outcomes
 Annexure
1. Blow room
2. Spinning
3. Weaving
4. Grey Fabric Inspection
5. Dyeing
6. Finishing
7. Packaging
8. Lab Tests

 Bibliography






We did our 2 week textile internship in The Ruby Mills Limited to understand the concept of
spun yarn production, grey fabric production, dyeing and finishing of fabric, textile testing
and their quality aspects both technical as well as for commercial purpose.

The Ruby Mills Ltd. was established in the year 1917 as a Composite Textile mill
manufacturing mainly Cotton.

The Ruby Mills Ltd. has two plants. The spinning & weaving plant is located at Dhamni & the
process house at Kharsundi close to Bombay-Pune Highway with capacity of over 1, 25,000
meters per day.

Since 1996, The Ruby Mills Ltd. is manufacturing MICRO DOT FUSIBLE INTERLINING & BASIC
INTERLINING, in Technical Collaboration with GYGLI TEXTIL AG, Switzerland.

The Company has been in operation since 1921 with an Annual Income of Rs. 680 million.

A modern Research & Development Laboratory fully equipped with the latest quality control
equipment and recognised by the Government of India supports these manufacturing


The internship was to get a fair idea of the production of fabric right from the fibre stage to
the finished fabric product which includes the concept of spun yarn production, grey fabric
production, dyeing, printing, and finishing of fabric, textile testing and their quality aspects
both technical as well as for commercial purposes.

The objective was to study the difference between the theoretical knowledge and the
practical knowledge of production in the industry.

The Ruby Mills Ltd. is manufacturer of cotton and Blended Fabrics. The range of fabrics

Polyester Viscose 100% Cotton Modal Ramie

Polyester Cotton 100% Linen Tencel Rayon

Cotton Linen Cambric Lycra Voile

The Ruby Mills Ltd. also manufactures world famous Polyester- Viscose fabric, Busy Lizzie.
They reserve the exclusive right to manufacture fabric under its registered trademark Busy

The Ruby Mills Ltd. is an approved manufacturer of highly technical parachute fabrics for the
Indian Defence Force.





















1. Textile Mill’s Location

The Ruby Mills Ltd. is located near Khalapur in Raigad district of Maharashtra. The
spinning & weaving plant is located at Dhamni village & the process house at
Kharsundi village close to Bombay-Pune Highway. Both the mills are located 3 km
apart making the transportation of goods, communication and management easy
and fast.

Khalapur is an industrial area having around 500 industries in that area. Maharashtra
is the major producer of cotton fiber; hence the raw material for the mill is available
from the nearby areas with less transportation costs.

The warehouse of the company is in Bhiwandi which makes the distribution of the
products to its customers easy and fast.
The head office of the company is at Dadar.

2. Textile Mill’s Infrastructure and Technology

Both the mills are spread in hundreds of acres of land and having high potential to
expand in that area with availability of empty land.
Water and power supply is made available to the company by MIDC at subsidized
The Dhamni unit is very old when compared to the Kharsundi unit. Hence, the
infrastructure of the Processing unit at Kharsundi is far better than Dhamni unit.
Kharsundi unit is more organized than Dhamni unit.
Both the mills are equipped with the latest and state of the art machineries. It has
ring spinning and open end spinning machine. The weaving department has air-jet
and rapier high speed power looms.
The Processing plant has jigger dyeing, jet dyeing, soft flow, CPB and Thermosol
dyeing machines and other finishing machines as well.
The testing lab at Kharsundi unit has all the latest equipment for fabric testing with
standard processes followed. There was also an Automatic Dye Dispensing machine.
Both the mills have two canteens and accommodation, one for the Officials and the
other for the workers. Dhamni plant has its own dairy farm and it also grows its own
vegetables which are supplied to the other plant also.

3. Textile Mill’s Workforce

The company has around 320 people working in each shift (3 shifts a day) along with
security and management personals.
The Ruby mills get its majority of workforce for the nearby villages and from UP and
Bihar also. The textile engineers are mainly from Mumbai and Thane and UP.
Majority of the workers are working since the establishment of the mill in that area
and some are even working for generations.
The employees and workers are very skilled, hardworking and loyal to the company.
The presence of the female employees is very small in number and limited to only
blow room and packaging department.
The workers have a strong union for taking care of their interests and solving their

4. Raw Material Storage
The textile fibers were stored in the form of bales.
Cotton bales were bought from the places like Ralegaon, Jamner, Ambewadgaon.
Modal fibers (Den-1.2, length-38mm) from Aditya Birla Modal, Polyester staple fiber
(Den-1, length-40mm) from Reliance Recron and Solvent spun cellulose fiber (Den-
1.2, length-38mm) were there.
There were 2 warehouse trucks for lifting the bales.
There was board which had the details of the available material and quantity of
materials being used.

5. Blow Room
In the blow room there were machines for bale opening, fiber mixing, removing
trash and impurities, carding and combing of fibers, sliver making.
The fibers mixed with different composition were colored during mixing stage for
identification with a dye that could be removed by washing very easily.
The fibers were put into the machine and a cleaned and combed sliver came out
from the other side.
The blow room was most hot and humid place and there fibers fly in the air.

6. Carding And Roving Room

There were 8 carding machines and hundreds of roving machine in this department.
The slivers were made and filled in the drums automatically. One sliver was made
from combining up to 20 slivers. There was automatic loading and unloading of the
drums containing slivers formed.
The thick slivers were directly sent to the open end spinning department.
The roving machine turned thick slivers into thin slivers and sent to the ring spinning
department. The machines were running at a very high speed making a lot of noise.

7. Spinning Room
The spinning department had two types of spinning machines. One was for open end
spinning and the other was for ring spinning.
The open end spinning was very fast when compared to ring spinning but the quality
of yarn was better with ring spinning.
Open end spinning was done for coarser yarns i.e. lower ticket number whereas ring
spinning was done for fine yarns with higher ticket number. Hence the yarn bound
on the spool was larger in size as compared to ring spun yarn.
The spinning machines had automatic spool loading and unloading system through
conveyer belts. There was air blowing blower system focused at the point of spinning

to blow off the foreign particles. A large number of ring spinning machines were not
in used.
A wide range of yarns were spun there from 15 to 120 ticket number.
Both the machines required least number of human labor as everything was
automatic. Technicians and operators were there only to solve the problems arising
in the machines and to feed the slivers.
The process of conversion of fine yarn from slivers was very fast and mesmerizing to
see with human eyes.

8. Two/three for One room

The spun yarn from the spinning department was taken to convert into bigger spool
of yarn and more twist was imparted to it. Then it was taken to TFO room where
plied yarns were made by plying two individual yarns together and twist was
imparted. Then the yarn spool was again converted into bigger spool and sent to the
beaming department.

9. Beaming Room
There were two beaming machines in the weaving department. Only one was being
used. There was a creel of bobbin connected to the beaming machine. The machine
had yarn breakage sensors. As the yarn broke the machine used to stop and operator
used to fix the problem. The machine had only one operator.
From 580 to 880 warp yarns could be wind on one warp beam and then the beam
was sent to the sizing department. 2.5 lakh meter warp yarn was bound on the beam
in one shift.
There was a sectional warping room also but the machine was not being used due to
no order from the customers.

10. Sizing Room

There were two machines in the sizing department but only one machine was being
used. There were two operators on the machine. .
The sizing paste being used was made of corn starch and polyvinyl alcohol. The
temperature of the size was 90oC. A Teflon coating was also applied to warp yarn
after sizing for non-stick finish.
At a time around 10 warp yarn beam was fend into the machine to form on large
beam as per the fabric width for weaving.

11. Raw Material Testing Lab

The testing lab at the Dhamni unit has the latest quality control equipment for
testing fiber, slivers and yarns. Machines for testing fiber length, twist in sliver and
yarns, tensile strength, yarn count, etc. are available.
This lab had tensile strength testing machine, wrap reel, Twist tester, Yarn count
tester, package hardness tester, trash content tested, fiber length tester and various
other testing equipment.

12. Automatic Drawing In Machine

There was one automatic drawing in machine in the weaving department. This
machine inserted the yarn into the drop wires, heddles and reed, when starting up a
new fabric style. Automatic drawing-in increased speed, flexibility and quality in
weaving preparation compared to manual drawing-in. A drawing-in rate of 50,000
warp ends per 8 hours (200 ends per minute) was possible. Then it was sent to the
power loom. A knot was tied to the yarn in the machine to warp yarn on the beam
and the weaving was started quickly.

13. Weaving Department

There were around 126 power-looms which were functioning 24/7. Mainly plain
weave was woven on the machine as it gave the best efficiency and other types of
weaves were get done by third party. All the power looms gave efficiency above
There were two types of looms; Rapier and Air jet. The looms were running at very
high speed. Fabric of 40”, 45”, 60”, 72” and 80” width were woven. The looms were
sent in three different rooms.
The weaving process was so fast that it could not be seen at normal speed. The
operator slowed down the machine speed for us and explained the weaving process
on the power loom. We could also see technicians on the round and fixing any
technical problems on the site.
We got to see that two different width fabrics can be woven on a power loom at the
same time just by making selvedges and placing a blade for separation in between.
After weaving was done, the fabric rolls were sent to grey inspection room with an
information sheet describing the fabric details and further finishes to be done on it.

14. Grey Fabric Inspection

There were total 7 fabric inspection machines in this department. All the machines
were controlled one fabric inspector. They followed 4-point inspection system. They
had a sheet which had a list of different defects and points were given on it. They
also had a tweezer, a metallic comb and thread trimmer with help of which they

corrected the minor defects. We were told that it’s very rare that any fabric roll gets
rejected. Then the inspected fabric rolls were packed in a plastic cover and sent to
the store room.

15. Batching Department

The grey fabric goes first to the batching department in the processing mill. Here the
small fabric rolls are converted into large rolls by joining the ends of two rolls by
single threat overlock machine and bound on one roll. One roll had up to 5000 m of
fabric bound on it.
This department had two batching machines which also brushed up the fabric which
passed on the combing rollers in the machine.

16. Singeing And Desizing Department

There was a machine for singeing followed by desizing.
The machine used tangential gas singeing process. The singed fabric was then passed
through cooling water and then to the desizing solution.
The pH of 5 was maintained with 70oC temperature and bio amylase enzyme was
Then the desized wet fabric rolls were sent for rotation. In this process the fabric roll
was covered with plastic film and connected to a rotating motor for up to 12 hours.

17. Scouring And Mercerization Department

In the scouring machine fabric roll was fed from one end and the finished fabric
came out from the other end. It had different chambers; one with hot steam, then
cold water sprinkler and then hot water wash. Caustic was used for washing. The
bath temperature, steam and roof temperature were the important factors for this

The mercerization machine looked similar to the scouring machine. In this machine
fabric was given caustic wash under tension (warp & weft). This machine had both
physical and chemical processes combined.
The fabric was pre-washed in two steps; at 60oC and then 90oC. Then caustic soda
wash was given at 60oC. Then the fabric assed through stenter to set the width and
stabilizers added. PH after mercerization was 11.
The mercerized fabric was completely different from the grey fabric. The fabric
became brighter and finer than grey fabric.

18. Bleaching Department

Bleaching process was done CBR (Continuous Bleaching Range) machine.

In this machine, the first two chambers have hot water wash i.e., at 70oC and 93oC.
Then the fabric was padded with 5 types of chemicals i.e., hydrogen peroxide,
caustic soda, chelating agent, stabilizers and wetting agents.
Then in the next chamber fabric was squeezed and the cured in the next chamber
which took maximum time.
All the chambers had glass window, hence the activities inside it were visible.
Then the fabric was washed and the dried by passing on heated cylinder rollers and
rolled on big roll.

19. Dyeing Department

There were total 14 dyeing machines in the processing mill out of which 4 were jet
dyeing, 2 were soft flow, 6 were jig dyeing, 1 was Thermasol dyeing and one was CPB
(Cold pad batch) dyeing.
The jet dyeing machines were used only for dyeing polyester blend fabric whereas jig
dyeing machine was used for dyeing only cotton blend fabrics.
The Thermasol dyeing machine was used only for dyeing 100 % polyester fabric with
dispersed dye and then passed through heat chambers.
100% cotton fabric was directly dyed in the CPB dyeing machine.
If a fabric had cotton and polyester content then the fabric was first dyed for
polyester the jet dyeing machine and then in the CPB for cotton.
After dyeing the fabric was washed for residual dye and passed through heated
cylindrical roller to dry and then sent to the stenter.

20. Stenters
There were 3 Stenters in total; 5 chambers, 8 chambers and 14 chambers. Resin
finish was applied on fabric on this machine. The fabric passed in the solution and
then selvedges were held with the pins and a predetermined width of the fabric was
set. Then the fabric passed through heated chambers to dry and came out from
other end and rolled.

21. Finishing Department

There were 3 shearing machines, 1 napping machine, 1 Calendering machine and 2
Sanforising machine in this department.
The shearing machine had combers which raised the fibers and a series of shearing
blades sheared the fibers.
The napping machine had a series of combers which raised the fibers on the fabric
There was a Schreiner Calendering machine which gave water mark effect to the

The Sanforising machine had a chamber for steaming the fabric and the rubber
blanket along which the fabric was shrunk. The maximum allowed shrinkage along
width was 2 cm and along length was 5%. The fabric coming out was thick and

22. Dotted Interlining Department

There was one dotted interlining machine. In this machine white 100 % cotton fabric
was used. The fabric was first dip in a raisin solution to give the fabric some stiffness
and then dried. Then polyethylene in powdered form was spread on it in powder
from and the then heated to melt it on the fabric surface and dried and then sent to
the packaging department.

23. Packaging Department

Packaging department was the most quite, comfortable and clean place in the whole
processing plant.
There fabric and interlining were packed according to the customer’s requirements. .
Fabric mapping was done to find any defect on the fabric; the defected part was cut
out and sold in the local market at discounted rates.
First the fabric was cut according to the required length, and then it was
automatically double folded on a machine and finally folded around a card board.
Then the brand logo and fabric information was printed on the fabric with hand
screen printing. Then tags, labels and packaging film were put on it. The company
sold its famous polyester viscose fabric under the trade name Busy Lissie.
The company also manufactured shirting fabric for the Park Avenue Company.
There was a separate room for packing the defected and 2nd quality fabric to be sold
in the local market.
The company also made smart fabrics under the name Label R with the trade name
Dustin and London (80% Polyester and 20% Cotton).
The interlining was packed in the form of rolls according to the length asked by the
customer. The interlinings were mostly sold in the international market. The
defected part was cut out and sold in the local market at very cheap rate.
After packing was done, the fabric was shipped to the warehouse in Bhiwandi and
then distributed to its customers form there.

24. Fabric Testing Lab

The testing lab at Kharsundi unit has all the latest equipment for fabric testing with
standard processes followed. There were all the miniature machines of the actual
working machines in the processing mill for testing new finishes on samples.

There was a padding mangle, pad steam, hydro-extractor, shade matcher, Ph meter,
tensile strength tester, crock meter, dye bath GSM tester, hot press and washing
machine. The working of the entire machine was shown to us and samples were also
displayed. We also saw sample of parachute fabric which they manufactured for
Indian defense forces on special orders only.
They showed us a database of the finishes they used and their recipes of the textile
finish on a computer. They also showed us a document containing the standard
processes followed for the lab tests.
We got to know that a fabric is tested at each stage after applying a finish to it; from
size percentage test, GSM, fabric width, drape, brightness, etc. till the fabric is finally
finished as per the requirement. Bonding strength test was also done for the dotted
interlining in the lab.
There was also an Automatic Dye Dispensing machine. In this machine a fabric
sample was scanned through a spectro-photometer and the scanned color of the
fabric was color matched with other samples. The software automatically calculated
the recipe for that particular color. Then command was given to the automatic dye
dispenser and then it dispensed the required dye in a beaker.

-Abhishek K. Nirala

This textile internship was one of the best experiences that I have had till now.

The textile mills are spread over in hundreds of acres of land & have large number of
employees as compared to other garment factories.

Generally most of the operators and labourers are from the nearby villages & work all
throughout their life in the same Textile mill.

Before this internship, I had never seen any textile fiber other than cotton, but I got to see
viscose, polyester, linen, modal and such this time bought from companies like Birla and

The blow room department was one of the most uncomfortable places to work at, as it was
very hot and humid and fly away fibers in the air made it difficult to breathe for the working

Up until now I knew that yarns are made from one sliver, I got to see that one sliver can be
made from up to 16 different slivers.

In the weaving department I got to see an Automatic Drawing in which the reeds were set
according to the weave type just by feeding the information in the computer.

Weaving department was the noisiest department. The power looms continuously made
unbearable noise.

I got know that a textile mill makes fabric for other textile mills and they may get their fabric
made by other mills, especially weaves with complex patterns which reduce the machine’s

The dyeing and finishing plant is less labour intensive when compared to spinning and
weaving plant. Dyeing and finishing requires more technical and experienced people.

I got to know that many dyeing and finishing processes may not be necessarily followed;
they could be skipped to save cost and time.

I also saw a dotted interlining machine and the experience was mesmerizing. The company
has monopoly in manufacturing dotted interlining.

I got to see various types of fabric testing machines and an automatic dye vending machine
which produced the dye for a required shade from the information put into the system with
the help of a spectrophotometer.

Packaging department was the only place which was the most quite & people looked
relaxed. I noticed that the number of female employees was very less and they worked only
in the day shift.

I saw that many machines were not being used and the machines which were used were not
working to their full potential.

I talked to an employee who had been in this company for last 40 years. He told me that
textile business is not as profitable as it used to be & orders from customers have also
reduced over time.

The operators and employees knew the differences between values of grey fabric and fabric
very well. In the spinning and weaving plant, the people leaving the plant were not so
thoroughly checked at the gate but at the dyeing and finishing plant, people leaving the
plant were strictly checked for any product that was produced there.

Before this textile internship I wanted to have my own garment manufacturing unit when I
graduate, but now I wish to have my own textile mill too.

- Amitesh Ranjan

1-In ring spinning bobbins loading and unloading.- when I saw ring spinning then I had a
doubt how the bobbins are loaded or unloaded in the machine so for two hours I saw the
machine process then finally when the bobbins are fully filled then machine unload the
bobbins and some bobbins are not unloaded by machine then there is a one or two person
who unloaded it by their hand and when whole bobbins are unloaded then empty bobbins
are loaded in the machine .

2- Safety instructions- I saw in every department there are one-page safety instructions

3- Load of the worker is less - I feel that the workload of the workers is less because of
production is slow that I feel.

4-Cleaning - In the floor there are suction and air flow chamber to clean the floor

5-Rules and regulations - All the employees and workers are strictly following the rule and
regulation of the company especially Breakfast, lunch, and dinner time because if someone
gets late then he lost his meal.

6- Workers can't talk in the weaving room because of noise.

7- How weaving frame get ready for weavings.

- Madhur Sharma

 In mixing department, when different types of fibres are mixed in different ratios
they are indicated with the use of different colour inks sprayed on them.
For example: PV (48-52) and PV(65-35) will be sprayed in different colours.

 When cotton fibers are to be mixed with synthetic fibers, it has to be cleaned and
the short fibers are to be removed.
Only the sliver form can be mixed which is manually opened first and then mixed
with synthetic fibers in MBO machine.

 SPFU machine used to remove the colored particles from cotton fibers has a sensor
which detects and then removes the particles.
After carding the sliver is send for sliver lap and ribbon lap before combing
 Automatic feeder in ring frame.
There is a conveyor system which feeds the empty spools on the machine and
removes the filled spools.

 Drawing for weaving is done in which yarns are passed through drop wire, heald
shafts and reed frame before weaving.

 Rotation wheel used for proper spreading of chemicals or dyes throughout the fabric
which rotates for 8-12 hours at a very slow speed

 Machine used to cut the selvedge which has a knife at the center of the machine.
The fabric moves through the knife and cut the fabric at the center.

Some of the finishes from The Ruby Mills Ltd. are:

Wrinkle free Aero Brush

Easy to Iron Peach Anti-Fungal

Stain Repellent Anti – Bacterial Water Repellent

Nano Care Permanent whiteness Diamond Emery and Carboni

They create and manufacture an array of fancy fabrics as per customer’s requirements. They
have expertise in:

Dobbies Emboss Structured Weaves

Jacquard Prints Leno and Lapet Weaves

Embroidery Buttas Stretch fabrics



a)100% cotton

b)Polyester from Reliance

c) Viscose from Birla

d)Half synthetic half cotton

e) Cotton – 100 bales/lorry

f) Viscose – 35

g) Polyester – 20

h) Cotton – (16) OE / (20) OE

a) V797 (LOW QUALITY) – 16 0E , Sourced from Mondal, Ropar, Debra
b) MECH 1 – 20 OE
c) H -4 - 20 OE
d) MECH 1 – 40 CB
e) BUNNY – 40 CB
f) DCH-32 -60CB

a) 160E < 20 OE < 40 CB < 60 CB
b) 40 CB AND 60 CB goes into ring frame for spinning.
c) 160 E and 200 E goes into open end for spinning.


Denier = 1

Length = 40mm

Merge: Z3D50 (depends on the process and chemicals)

b) PV

POLYESTER – 1.0 *40 mm 48%

VISCOSE – 1.2*38mm 52%

c) TV

POLYESTER – 1.0 *40 mm 65%

VISCOSE – 1.2*38MM 35%

d) 18 TV

POLYESTER – 1.4 *38 mm 65%

VISCOSE – 1.5*38MM 35%

e) 20 TC COMB

POLYESTER – 1.4 *40 mm 65%

VISCOSE – 1.5*38mm 35%

f) MTC

POLYESTER – 0.8 *40 mm(micro) 65%


g) BIRLA MODAL (76 mpmm) (micro polyester micro modal)

MICRRO POLYESTER -0.8*40mm 65%

MICRO MODAL – 0.9* 38 mm 35%

Variety of cotton bale

 Mech (B)- 1650E

 MCU -5 (B)
 H-4 – 160E
 5/6 – 40 CB
 DCM- 60 CB

1) PV Mixing- - LV -40;0.03%, Water: 2%:0.01%

Polyester – 10*40mm :48%

Viscose—1.2*38mm ;52%

2) TV Mixing – Green

Polyester- 10*40mm :65%

Viscose – 1.2*38mm :35%

3) 18 TV – Blue

Polyester- 1.4*40mm :65%

Viscose – 1.5*38mm :35%

4) Cotton Orange TC –Orange

Polyester & cotton- 1.0*44mm :65% &35%

5) 20 TC Carded –

Polyester – 1.0*40mm ;65%

Cotton – 40 CB slier :35%

6) 20 TC Comb

Polyester – 1.4*38mm ;65%

Cotton - $0 CB flessed :35%

7) MTC : LV- 0.02%, Water-0.2

Polyester- 0.8*40mm :65%

Cotton- 60 CB *flessed ;35%

In mixing of these varieties of Bale chemicals are used in mixing they have
1) Shaftcose 2152 P -0.01%
2) LV 40 -0.03%
3) Water -2%


PARTS : Conveyor, Inclined lattice


P- 1*40mm (48%)
V- 1.2*38mm (52%)

Waste generated in blow room is 16 to 18 %

 Mixing-
 Mbo-unimix (for storage)-
 Cvt3 (for beating and fining) –
 Spfv (for cleaning) –
 Dustex (filters impurities, screen sucks dust and seperates the finer
cotton)) –
 Carding- compactor (cleans cvt material, all the compactors takes the
impurities, separate compactor for dustex, separate for cvt)
 28 to 30 labors are working in blow room.
 Bale opening time
 Cotton – 1Bale – 3 to 3:30 hrs
 Viscose – 1 Bale -1 to 1:30 hrs


 Mixing-
 Mbo-unimix (for storage)-
 Metal detector-
 Carding- compactor (cleans cvt material, all the compactors takes the
impurities, separate compactor for dustex, separate for cvt)

FEED ROLLER cleans and sends waste to filter room. Speed
2) CYLINDER – opening of fiber, further cleaning and separation removal of short fiber .
Rotates at 450 rpm)
3) DOFFER – Lap is introduced here to make sliver. Rotates at 30 rpm
7) CALENDERING ROLLER – Sliver is made
8) COILER – puts the sliver in zig- zag way in can. The capacity of 1 can is 4000m(20 KGs)

Total number of machines for cotton is 12. And for synthetic fibers are 8.

1) DK780- this machine makes sliver out of 20 OE.
Speed = 110 Kg/Hrs
2) Sliver lap – this machine makes lap roll.
16 sliver can = 1 lap roll.
3) Ribbon lap machine- for cotton only.
6 Sliver lap = 1lap ribbon roll.
4) Comber – 8 ribbon lap makes 8 combed sliver..
This machine removes short slivers which make 2 cans of sliver.
5) Draw frame (Breaker) – 8 sliver can makes 1 sliver.

Parts of this machine are – Creel, Scanning Roller, Drafting Zone, Coiler

6) Draw frame finisher- 1 can = 4000m sliver.

Parts of this machines are – Equalisor, Parellisation, dust remover, Blender.

Speed Frame-

 Temperature of Carding Department is 55 degrees Celsius.

 Pressure of Carding department is set at 7 Bar.

 Creeling zone (120 cans) –
 Drafting Zone ( 3 – over – 3)-
 Flyer (Speed 900 rpm)-
 Spindle(1000 rpm)-
 Roving Bobbin (Delivery speed – 28.86m/min)
 Efficiency of the Roving machine is 68.5%
 1 can sliver= 4000m (constant)
 Hank = length in Yards* 453.6/840 Yards * weight in grams.

Machines, Draft(carding ratio) and Production per day per machines in

roving department are-

 DK780(Germany- 100, production Rate- 25 Kg/Hr

 C1/3 (Coimbatore)- 100 , production rate – 13 Kg/Hr
 DK 800 (Germany – 90 to 120, production rate – 40 Kg/hr
 TC 1-5 ( Germany) – 90-120 , production rate 40 kg/hr

Numbers of producers in all the departments in the sections so far are:

 Blowroom -3
 Carding- 2
 Comber- 2
 Drawing- 3
 Roving – 5
 Autocoro (OE) -2

1) Multi Bale opener – Coimbatore Lakshmi Reiter

2) Unimix ( for storage) - Coimbatore Lakshmi Reite

3) CVT 3 (for removing Trash)- Trutzschler Germany

4) SPFU (color contaminatin and packets of waste are removed)

5) Dustex ( Removes micro dust ) - Coimbatore Lakshmi Reiter

6) Filter – Batoliboi , Coimbatore

7) Compactor – Batoliboi , Coimbatore


In the mill there were in total 21 machines for Ring Spinning

Parts of spinning machines are-

 Ring rail
 Spindle
 Bobbin
 Front Roll ( Fastest)
 Middle roll
 Back Roll ( Slowest)
 Cradle – Cradle roll ,Bottom Apron, Cradle.
 Pop arm
 Lappet –( controls yarn wrapping)
 Breaker – ( To stop spindle from spinning if thread breaks)

1 speed frame bobbin = 1 ring frame bobbin.

 1 machine makes 60 cones.
 Autoconer machine – Drum Speed – 1200 m/min
 60 spindle, 10 spindle per section is attached, there are total of 6 section
 45 PV machine winds 2,30,000 m thread on a cone.
 Total weight of a cone is 3 kg.

1) When the winding machine indicates yellow light that indicates the cone is fully winded.
2) Cone is emptied
3) Opener arm removes the cone
4) Adaptor holds the cone
5) Drum – Spins to wind yarn on cone
6) Waxing Device – applies wax for smoothening
7) Yarn cleaner – slicer cuts the damaged yarns
8) Tension regulator – regulatesthetension.
9) 45 PV machines winds 4.5 to 5000 m, so in total of 460 bobbins make 1 cone.

10) Objectionable yarn fault removes twin place, Thick place, and heps
11) Slicer cuts faulty yarns
12) Suction arm – Brings yarn from cones
13) Ripper Yarn – Brings yarn from bobbin
14) Slicer head joins Yarn from Cone and bobbin forming knot.

Tension of this machine

 45 PV – 16 cN , Elasticity – 7%
 40 cb Cotton – 8 cN , Elasticity – 10 %
 Relative Humidity – Dry = 86 degrees F / Wet = 82 degrees F

Frequent Problems with the machines used for spinning are –

 Tension device is not working, so yarn winded on cone is loose/ tight.
 Solution – Checking belt tensioner routinely and repair , this controls yarn tension.
 Total yarn breakage is 71.6 times in 100 Km.

Production time –
1 cone is made in 3 hrs, produces 285 cones per day (855 Kg)

Production per shift= 285 Kg, 95 cones ( 1 cone = 3kg)

After the cone is ready it is moved to TFO room.

1) For single yarn cone
a) Parallel winding Machine- 2 cones are made into double yarn cone.
b) Drum – speed is 400 rpm , for assembly winding.
c) Adaptor- holds cone of double yarn, 120 spindles per machine
d) Tension Disc
e) Cone Holder – holds autoconer cone

2) For double yarn cones

a) Double yarn cone made into single yarn cone by twisting the yarn.
b) Cradle assembly
c) Drum – Speed is 10,300 rpm
d) Tension shaft – 1 cone of double yarn makes 1 cone of single yarn


AUTOCORO 8/ AUTOCORO 360 ( Saurer Schlafhorst)

There are two open end spinning machines.

 For open end cotton ( 1 cone = 3kg)

 Sliver – Rotor (twisting)- Motor (for each spindle)
 Efficiency of this machine = 89%
 Temp – Dry = 85 degrees F / Wet= 80 degrees F
 Pressure = 250 (6 Bar)
 Sliver – opening roller- adaptor- Belt- Rotor + Comber (winds on cone)
 Speed of rotors –
 16 OE – 1, 10, 000 rpm
 20 OE – 1, 15,000 rpm
 12 OE – 1,00,000 rpm
 Opening roller speed= 7500 rpm
 Sliver- opening roller- Adapter- Rotor (Belt +Rotor+Comber) ( goes into ) – Drum
 16 OE – Sliver Count (0.110 Ne)
 Spinning Vacuum -75mbar
 Drafts 148,
 Length of 1 cone of 16 OE= 84,000m
 Length of 1 cone of 20 OE = 1,03,000m
 There are total of 384 spindles ( Autocoro 8) and 360 spindles ( Autocoro 360)

Sizing of the warp yarn is essential to reduce breakage of the yarn and thus production stops
on the weaving machine. On the weaving machine, the warp yarns are subjected to several
types of actions i.e. cyclic strain, flexing, abrasion at various loom parts and inter yarn
With sizing the strength - abrasion resistance - of the yarn will improve and the hairiness of
yarn will decrease. The degree of improvement of strength depends on adhesion force
between fiber and size, size penetration as well as encapsulation of yarn.
Different types of water soluble polymers called textile sizing agents/chemicals such as
modified starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), acrylates are used
to protect the yarn. Also wax is added to reduce the abrasiveness of the warp yarns. The
type of yarn material e.g. cotton, polyester, linen,... the thickness of the yarn, type of
weaving machinery will determine the sizing recipe.
The sizing liquor is applied on warp yarn with a warp sizing machine. After the weaving
process the fabric is desized (washed).


There are 2 machines in this department.

1. Hacoba sizing machine

2. Sucker Muller/Ambica sizing machine

(1) Hacoba Sizing Machine:-

 Hacoba sizing machine is made by Germany.

 Two operator is need to operate this machine.
 'Sizanil','poly vinyl alcohol','m-5000','nsc powder'.
 Above chemical is used for sizing.
 Its production is 12000 meter/shift.

(2) Ambica Sizing Machine:-

 This machine is made by India.

 Two operator is need to operate this machine.
 'Sizanil','poly vinyl alcohol','m-5000','nsc powder'
 Above chemical is used for sizing.

 Its production is 36000 meter/shift.


Weaving is the process of interlacement of two sets of yarn to produce a fabric. The
machine that does this job is called a weaving loom. The two sets of yarn are called warp
and weft.

1. Warp- The yarns that lie longitudinally along the length of the fabric are called warp
yarns or ends.

2. Weft- The yarns that lie horizontally, i.e. perpendicular to warp are call weft or picks.

Cloth is woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads
are woven through them.

The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The
majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin
weave, or twill.


There are around 200 power looms at Ruby Mills Dhamni plant which work 24/7.

In this department three types of machine used for weaving.

(1) Tsudokoma

(2) Toyota

(3) Rapier

(1) Tsudocoma:-

 It is used for shirting & double cloth fabric.

 One operator is need to operate this machine.
 This machine is made by Germany.
 Speed of this machine is 1000rpm.
 Production of this machine is 300 to 900 meter/shift.
 Number of this machine are 82.

(2) Toyota:-

 It is used for denim as well as bottom wid fabric.

 One operator is need to operate this machine.
 This machine is made by germany.

(3) Rapier:-

 This machine is used for linen fabric.

 This machine is made by Gamma Company.
 Speed of this machine is 1000rpm.



FABRIC INSPECTION MACHINE :-Fabric from the weaving department is transferred to grey
folding department for pre-inspection of defects and folding of fabric from rolls to plaits.


Defect (in inches) points

0-3” 1

3-6” 2

6-9” 3

More than 9” 4

Points are given depending upon the length of the defect along both weft and warp
direction. These points are given only for mendable defects. Those defects which can be
mended at the time of inspection are mended. After mending of the emendable defects also
one point is given to the mend as there is an impression left of the mending of the fabric.

30 points per 100 meter fabric is agreeable most of the time.

There is 4-5% rejection of the assignment from the buyer. In case of 4 defects the fabric is
cut from that point and rolls of less length of fabric are made. The rate of small rolls of fabric
is less than the original cost.

Instruments Used :-
 Comb
 Pincher
 Cutter

 Contamination  Wrong denting

 Slubs  Mending impression

 Un-even weft  Wrong pattern

 Coarse weft  Package change

 Weft bar  Stain

 Tight warp  Sizing stain

 Slack warp  Slough off

 Starting mark  Float

 Thick place  Bumping

 Double pick  Less pick

 Broken pick  Double ends

 Multiple break  Knots

 Missing end  Distortion

Length of fabric in one batch:-

Light quality fabric – 4000-5000 meter

Heavy quality fabric – 1000-2000 meter


Inspection machine:-

 1 to 5 machine is inspection machine.

 This machine is made by Laxmi limited.
 1 operator is need to operate this machine.
 Machine speed is around 40-45 meter/min.
 On this machine defects are observed like,
Warp & weft slub, loom stop mark, thick place, broken pick, old daggi, etc…

Cut looking machine:-

 Machine no 6 is cut looking machine.
 This machine is made by Topiwala.
 1 operator is need to operate this machine.
 Machine speed is around 45-60 meter/min.

Rewinding machine:-
 Machine no 8 & 9 are rewinding machine.
 This machine is made by Topiwala.
 1 operator is need to operate this machine.
 Machine speed is around 60 m/min.

Fabric Inspection Range:-

1. Fabric To Be Inspected
2. Tension Roller
3. Guider
4. Inspection Table
5. Counter
6. Guide Roller
7. Expander
8. Inspected Fabric
9. Tube-Light Arrangement


1. Batching

2. Singeing + Desizing

3. Washing and Scouring

4. Mercerization

5. Bleaching

Stitching the ends of two small rolls to make a bigger role.

Around 5000m is in one roll.

Fabric is given some relaxation time and brushed by roller have fine plastic wires.

Machine: -
Bianco Grey Folding Machine

A singe is a slight scorching, burn or treatment with flame.
On the fabric, loose fibres protruding on the surface of the fabric are singed to remove them.
When done to fabrics containing cotton, this results in increased wettability, better dyeing
characteristics, improved reflection, no "frosty" appearance, a smoother surface, better
clarity in printing, improved visibility of the fabric structure, less pilling and decreased
contamination through removal of fluff and lint.
The process is usually to pass one or both sides of a fabric over a gas flame to burn off the
protruding fibers. Other methods include infra-red or heat for thermoplastic fibers.
Cellulose fibers such as cotton are easily singed because the protruding fibers burn to a light
ash which is easily removed.

Singeing Machine
 This machine is gas singeing machine.
 Machine name is Osthoff.
 Flame intensity in this machine is “eight”.
 In this machine, fabric is singe both side.
 Singeing flame distance is 1.0 inch.
 This machine is working in auto mode.
 In this machine, padding nip pressure is 2.0kn+/-0.2.

Desizing is the process of removing the size material from the warp yarns in woven fabrics.

Sizing agents
Sizing agents are selected on the basis of type of fabric, environmental friendliness, ease of
removal, cost considerations, effluent treatment, etc.

Natural sizing agents

Natural sizing agents are based on natural substances and their derivatives:
 Starch and starch derivatives; native starch, degradation starch and chemically
modified starch products
 Cellulosic derivatives; carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), methylcellulose and
 Protein-based starches; glue, gelatine, albumen

Synthetic sizing agents

 Polyacrylates,
 Modified polyesters,
 Polyvinyl alcohols (PVA),
 Styrene/maleic acid copolymers.
These are the methods which are used to take the size paste from the material in order to
make that fabric a good absorbent of dye in the further process.

Desizing processes:-
Desizing, irrespective of what the desizing agent is, involves impregnation of the fabric with
the desizing agent, allowing the desizing agent to degrade or solubilise the size material, and
finally to wash out the degradation products. The major desizing processes are:
 Enzymatic desizing of starches on cotton fabrics
 Oxidative desizing

Enzymatic desizing:-
Enzymatic desizing is the classical desizing process of degrading starch size on cotton fabrics
using enzymes. Enzymes are complex organic, soluble bio-catalysts, formed by living
organisms that catalyse chemical reaction in biological processes. Enzymes are quite specific
in their action on a particular substance.
Amylases are the enzymes that hydrolyses and reduce the molecular weight of amylose and
amylopectin molecules in starch, rendering it water soluble enough to be washed off the
Effective enzymatic desizing requires strict control of pH, temperature, water hardness,
electrolyte addition and choice of surfactant.

Oxidative desizing:-
In oxidative desizing, the risk of damage to the cellulose fibre is very high, and its use for
desizing is increasingly rare. Oxidative desizing uses potassium or sodium persulfate or
sodium bromite as an oxidizing agent.

Desizing Machine
 In this machine, oxidative, desizing is done.
 Machine name is beginner desizing padding machine.
 Two operator are need to this machine.
 Speed of this machine is 80 meter/minit.
 Temperature required 38 to 40c.


a. Fabric h. Post Brushing Roller
b. Guide Roller i. Blower
c. Heating Roller j. Desizing Unit
d. Pre-Bruahing Roller k. Guide Roller
e. Blower l. Squeezing Roller
f. Flame On One Surface m. Desized Fabric Roll
g. Flame On Second Surface

This important dept. as concern with the mill point of view. In this dept. various process are
undertaken. This dept. Includes various tech. Machinery. This dept. Is co-related with the
boiler plant to get highly heated steam. It is also co-related with the oil tank to carry out
various operation. The latest technology used in this m/c’s helps to get higher rate of
production, less time, power and chemicals consumption. This ultimately leads to low cost
of the product and progress of the mill.

The sequence of process in bleaching dept. is as follows:-


Singeing [natural gas]

Desizing [enzyme]


Continuous bleaching range [CBR]


Bleaching of cotton refers to the whole sequence of purification process used for making
the fabric whiter regardless of whether the purification is carried out in preparation for
dyeing and printing, or in the processing on goods to be finished as white.

For fabrics meant for dyeing and printing, absorbency is the primary requirement whereas
for fabrics to be finished as white, uniformity and permanency of whiteness are the main
requirements. The natural impurities consist of waxes, proteins and pectin substances,
mineral matter, natural colouring matter and motes etc. The added impurities are spinning
oils, sizing ingredients such as starch, gum, fatty compounds, weaving oil stains, shuttle and
fuzziness, loose fluff etc.

The natural as well as the added impurities have to be removed for the following reasons:

a. The sizing ingredients have to be removed for obtaining uniform reaction of chemicals
during bleaching operations

b. The waxes, proteins, spinning oils and weaving oils need to be removed to get uniform
absorbency for dyeing and printing.

c. This m/c is used to bleach the fabric as per required whiteness

d. Here peroxide bleaching is carried out

e. In this m/c fabric is scoured. Bleach, and washed all together

f. Scouring is done to remove oil fates and waxes, which increases absorbency of fabric.
g. Impurities may be natural and added.

h. Scoured fabric is bleached, but here all chemicals of scouring and bleaching are added

i. The chamber of chemicals is called dip-set.

j. The fabric is wetted first and then dipped in dip-set bowl, and then it circulates in the
rotation chamber at 98c for 10-25 min.

k. Now the fabric is washed, dried and batched.

l. During washing acetic acid is added in the 4th washing chamber.


A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve
the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

 Natural dye
The majority of natural dyes are from plant sources – roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood,
fungi, and lichens. Textile dyeing date back to the Neolithic period. Throughout history,
people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials. Scarce dyestuffs
that produced brilliant and permanent colours such as the natural invertebrate dyes Tyrian
purple and crimson kermes were highly prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval
world. Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo, saffron, and madder were raised
commercially and were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe. Across
Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control
the absorption of colour in piece-dyed cloth.
The discovery of man-made synthetic dyes late in the 19th century ended the large-scale
market for natural dyes.

 Synthetic dye
The first human-made (synthetic) organic dye, mauveine, was discovered serendipitously by
William Henry Perkin in 1856. Many thousands of synthetic dyes have since been prepared.
Synthetic dyes quickly replaced the traditional natural dyes. They cost less, they offered a
vast range of new colors, and they imparted better properties to the dyed materials. Dyes
are now classified according to how they are used in the dyeing process.

 Vat dyes
These are essentially insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However,
reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water soluble alkali metal salt of the dye, which, in
this leuco form, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the
original insoluble dye. The color of denim is due to indigo, the original vat dye .

 Reactive dyes
This is utilizing a chromophore attached to a substituent that is capable of directly reacting
with the fibre substrate. The covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make
them among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes, such as Procion MX,

Cibacron F, and Drimarene K, are very easy to use because the dye can be applied at room
temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose
fibers at home or in the art studio.

 Disperse dyes
These were originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, and are water insoluble.
The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or
spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester but they can also be
used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, and acrylic fibres. In some cases, a dyeing
temperature of 130 °C is required, and a pressurised dyebath is used. The very fine particle
size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fibre. The dyeing
rate can be significantly influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the

 Sulphur dyes
These are two part "developed" dyes used to dye cotton with dark colors. The initial bath
imparts a yellow or pale chartreuse color, This is aftertreated with a sulfur compound in
place to produce the dark black we are familiar with in socks for instance. Sulfur Black 1 is
the largest selling dye by volume.


Dyeing Machines

There are total 14 dyeing machines at Ruby Mills Kharsundi Plant.

a) 4 Jet Dyeing Machines.
b) 2 Soft Flow Dyeing Machines.
c) 6 Jig Dyeing Machines.
d) 1 Thermasol Dyeing Machine.
e) 1 CPB Dyeing Machine

Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.
Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical
material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut Chemical bond with fiber molecules.
The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. There are mainly two
classes of dye, natural and man-made.


1. Direct application
The term "direct dye application" stems from some dyestuff having to be either fermented
as in the case of some natural dye or chemically reduced as in the case of synthetic vat and
sulfur dyes before being applied. This renders the dye soluble so that it can be absorbed by
the fiber since the insoluble dye has very little substantivity to the fiber. Direct dyes, a class
of dyes largely for dyeing cotton, are water soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber
from an aqueous solution. Most other classes of synthetic dye, other than vat and surface
dyes, are also applied in this way.
The term may also be applied to dyeing without the use of mordants to fix the dye once it is
applied. Mordants were often required to alter the hue and intensity of natural dyes and
improve their color fastness. Chromium salts were until recently extensively used in dying
wool with synthetic mordant dyes. These were used for economical high color fastness dark
shades such as black and navy. Environmental concern has now restricted their use, and
they have been replaced with reactive and metal complex dyes which need no mordant.

2. Yarn dyeing
There are many forms of yarn dyeing. Common forms are the at package form and the at
hanks form. Cotton yarns are mostly dyed at package form, and acrylic or wool yarn are
dyed at hank form. In the continuous filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are
always dyed at package form, while viscose rayon yarns are partly dyed at hank form
because of technology.[6]
The common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is as follows:
1. The raw yarn is wound on a spring tube to achieve a package suitable for dye
2. These softened packages are loaded on a dyeing carrier's spindle one on another.
3. The packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitable density of
4. The carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed.
5. After dyeing, the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolly.
6. Now the trolly is taken to hydro extractor where water is removed.
7. The packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum amount of water leaving
the desired color into raw yarn.
8. The packages are then dried to achieve the final dyed package.
After this process, the dyed yarn packages are packed and delivered.

Removal of dyes
In order to remove natural or unwanted colour from material, the opposite process of
bleaching or discharging is carried out.
If things go wrong in the dyeing process, the dyer may be forced to remove the dye already
applied by a process that is normally known as stripping. This normally means destroying
the dye with powerful reducing agents (sodium hydrosulphite) or oxidizing agents (hydrogen
peroxide or sodium hypochlorite). The process often risks damaging the substrate (fiber).
Where possible, it is often less risky to dye the material a darker shade, with black often
being the easiest or last option.

Vat dyes are an ancient class of dyes, based on the natural dye, indigo, which is now
produced synthetically.
The process "vat dyeing" refers to dyeing in a bucket or vat. It can be performed whenever a
liquid, even shade over the entire garment is desired. Almost any dye can be used, including
fiber reactive dyes, direct dyes, and acid dyes. One alternative to vat dyeing is direct dye
application, such as the process used for tie-dyeing. "Vat dyes" are a special class of dyes
that work with a special chemistry. Cotton, wool, and other fibers can be all dyed with vat
dyes. Note that not all vat dyeing is done with vat dyes.
Most vat dyes are less suitable than fiber reactive dyes for the home dyers, as they are
difficult to work with; they require a reducing agent to solubilize them. The dye is soluble
only in its reduced (oxygen-free) form. The fiber is immersed repeatedly in this oxygen-free
dye bath, then exposed to the air, whereupon the water-soluble reduced form changes
color as oxygen turns it to the water-insoluble form. Indigo is an example of this dye class; it
changes from yellow, in the dye bath, to green and then blue as the air hits it .

Using vat dyes

PRO Chemical & Dye, which sells some vat dyes, provides instructions online for Immersion
Dyeing using PRO Vat Dyes. The process requires the use of lye (sodium hydroxide), which
must be used with due care, including the use of safety goggles.
Indigo is subject to major crocking (rubbing the dye off onto other items) unless it is applied
carefully. This means use a weaker dyebath, and dipping many times, rather than a single
strong dipping.

Application of vat Dyes
Application of vat dyestuff is not so easy like direct or reactive dyes. The application involves
a lot of chemistry - such as oxidation, reduction, pH control and so on. Even the dissolution
of the dyestuff involves a great technique of reduction using adequate quantities of caustic
soda and sodium hydrosulphite.
There are several methods available for the application of vat dyes to yarn and fabric.
The Vat dyes are having all around fastness properties which cannot be possible in any class
of dyes .the only problem in this class is slightly poor rubbing fastness.which can be
increased by special after treatment.

Sequence for development of vat dyes:-


Caustic and hydro treatment

Steaming [101˚c- 103˚c]

Water lock

Washing range



1. Fabric To Be Pad-Steamed
16. Break Roller
2. Chilling Rollers
17. Dancer
3. J-Box
18. Washing Chamber
4. Plaiter
19. Squeezer[Washer]
5. Tension Roller
20. Squeezer Fx
6. Guide Roller
21. Horizontal Drying Range
7. Airing Chamber
22. Exhaust Fan
8. Caustic & Hydro Through
23. Turbo Roller
9. Squeezer
24. Hot Steam Cylinder
10. Caustic & Hydro Solution
25. Chilling Rollers
11. Steamer
26. Plaiter
12. Dancing Roller
27. Pad Steamed Fabric
13. Water Lock
28. Counter Current Flow
14. Squeezer
29. Pleva
15. Expander


 Kuster Company makes this machine.
 Four operator works on this machine.
 Sulphur, vat and reactive dyes can be used on this machine.
 This machine consists of six tanks in which 1,2,5,6 are of 2000 litres and 3 and 4 are of
3000 litres.
 This machine used steam & hot air for drying purpose.
 In this machine two tanks consist of cold water then another to consist of H2O2 then
two of caustic and further of soap solution.
 Machine consists of drying zone including 24 dry can.

Sulfur dye:-
Sulfur dyes are the most commonly used dyes manufactured for cotton in terms of volume.
They are cheap, generally have good wash-fastness and are easy to apply.
The dyes are absorbed by cotton from a bath containing sodium sulfide or sodium
hydrosulfite and are made insoluble within the fiber by oxidation.
During this process these dyes form complex larger molecules which is the basis of their
good wash-fastness.
These dyes have good all round fastness except to chlorine. Due to the highly polluting
nature of the dye-bath effluent, slowly sulfur dyes are being phased out.
Sulfur dyes are primarily used for dark colors such as blacks, browns, and dark blues. The
deep indigo blues of denim blue jeans are a product of sulfur dyes.
Recent advances in dyeing technologies have allowed the substitution of toxic sulfide
reducing agents. Glucose is now used and both low sulfide and zero sulfide products are
Future developments in the field of reducing dye levels by means of electro-chemical
processes are promising. This work is just in the research stage but is expected to come to
industry very soon. This may eradicate the problems of polluting sulfides.
Sulfur dyes are water insoluble. They have to be treated with a reducing agent and an alkali
at temperature of around 80 degrees Celsius where the dye breaks into small particles
which then becomes water soluble and hence can be absorbed by the fabric.
Heating and adding a substance like common salt facilitates the absorption. After this the
fabric is removed from the dye solution and then taken for oxidation.
During the oxidation step the small particles of dye once more form the parent dye which is
insoluble in water.
This oxidation can be done in air or by using oxidizing agents like hydrogen peroxide or
sodium bromate in a mildly acidic solution. Now as the dye has become water insoluble in
fiber so it will not bleed in water when washed and will not stain other clothes. However the
dye may have poor fastness to rubbing, that is the dye from the fiber may come out
gradually if the fabric is rubbed against. Also the fastness to hypochlorite bleach is poor
because hypochlorite breaks the color imparting group in the dye and hence the colored
part becomes colorless.
Sulfur dyes are very inexpensive and very important to the dyeing industry. Out of all the
sulfur dyes perhaps 50% of production is of the sulfur black color as black is the most
popular fabric color.
Sulfur dyes do not have any pure red color in its shade range. A pink or lighter Scarlet color
is available.

In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to any process performed on yarn or fabric after
weaving or knitting to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile
or clothing.
Some finishing techniques, such as fulling, have been in use with hand-weaving for
centuries; others, such as mercerisation, are by-products of the Industrial Revolution.

In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to
subject the material to different types of physical and chemical treatments. For example,
wash and wear finish for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease-free or wrinkle-free.
In a similar way, mercerising, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, waterproof, anti-
static and peach finishing achieve various fabric properties desired by consumers.
The use of 100% synthetic textiles has increased considerably since the development of
textured yarns made of filaments, and the growing production of knit goods. The use of
open weave has enabled production of lighter, breathable, fabrics to ensure better wearing
The properties of plastic-based synthetic fibers, most important among them being
polyamide, polyester and polyacrylonitrile, are essentially different from those of natural
cellulosic and wool fibers. Hence the sequence of finishing operations is likely to be
different. While cellulosic fabrics require a resin finishing treatment to impart easy-care
properties, synthetic fibers already exhibit these easy-care criteria and require only a heat
setting operation.

There are total 10 finishing machines:

a) 3 Shearing Machine
b) 1 Napping/Raising Machine
c) 1 Calendering Machine
d) 2 Sanforising Machine
e) 3 Stenters

 Calendering
 Desizing for woven fabrics.
 Shrinking, Sanforization
 Scouring with detergents, alkaline solutions, or enzymes removes foreign matter.
 Shearing or singeing smoothens the fabric by removing the fine protruding fibers on
the surface of the fabric. Flame singeing is the standard process: the wet fabric is
passed through an array of gas burners at a suitable distance to burn the pills off of
its surface.

 Fulling adds weight and density.
 Hydrophobic finishing produces a fabric that repels stains or water.
 Weighting silk with metallic salts or polymer adds weight and improves handle.


Mercerisation makes woven cotton fabric stronger, more lustrous, to have better dye
affinity, and to be less abrasive..
Peach Finish subjects the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels,
making the surface velvet-like. This is a special finish used mostly in garments.
Fulling or waulking adds weight and density and decatising to bring dimension stability to
woolen fabrics.
Calendering makes one or both surfaces of the fabric smooth and shiny. The fabric is passed
to through hot, fast-moving stainless steel cylinders.
Sanforizing or Pre-shrinking prevents a fabric and the produced garment from shrinking
after production. This is also a mechanical finish, acquired by feeding the fabric between a
roller and rubber blanket, in such a way the rubber blanket compresses the weft threads
and imparts compressive shrinkage.
Crease-Resist finish or "wash-and-wear" or "wrinkle-free" finishes are achieved by the
addition of a chemical resin finish that makes the fiber take on a quality similar to that of
synthetic fibers.
Anti-microbial finish causes a fabric to inhibit the growth of microbes. The humid and warm
environment found in textile fibers encourages the growth of the microbes. Infestation by
microbes can cause cross-infection by pathogens and the development of odor where
the fabric is worn next to skin. In addition, stains and loss of fiber quality of textile

substrates can also take place. With an aim to protect the skin of the wearer and the textile
substrate itself, an anti-microbial finish is applied to textile materials.

Special finishes for synthetic fibers

Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates the internal tensions within the fiber, generated
during manufacturing, and the new state can be fixed by rapid cooling. This heat setting
fixes the fabrics in the relaxed state, and thus avoids subsequent shrinkage or creasing of
the fabric. Presetting of goods makes it possible to use higher temperature for setting
without considering the sublimation properties of dyes and also has a favorable effect on
dyeing behavior and the running properties of the fabric.
On the other hand, post-setting can be combined with some other operations such as
Thermasol dyeing or optical brightening of polyester. Post-setting as a final finish is useful to
achieve high dimensional stability, along with desired handle.
Stiffening and filling process: A stiffening effect is desirable in certain polyamides and
polyester materials (e.g. petticoats, collar inner linings), which can be done by reducing the
mutual independence of structural elements of fabric by polymer deposition on coating as a
fine film.
Hydrophilic finishes compensate for lower moisture and water absorption capacity in
synthetic fiber materials, which become uncomfortable in contact with skin. Certain
products, based on modified (oxy-ethylated) polyamides, make the fabric more pleasant by
reducing the cohesion of water so that it spreads over a larger area and thus evaporates
more readily.

Anti-pilling finish alleviates pilling, an unpleasant phenomenon associated with spun yarn
fabrics, especially when they contain synthetics. Synthetic fibers are more readily brought to
the surface of a fabric due to their smooth surface and circular cross-section, and due to
their higher tensile strength and abrasion resistance. With knit "picking" also occurs: by
abrasion, individual fibers work themselves out of yarn loops onto the surface, and the
garment catches on a pointed or rough object. Knitting is susceptible to these effects due to
the open weave and bulky yarn.
Anti-static finish prevents dust from clinging to the fabric. Anti-static effective chemicals are
largely chemically inert and require Thermasol or heat treatment for fixing on polyester
fabrics. Polyether agents have been found to be useful but should not affect the dye-
equilibrium on fiber, lest they impair the rubbing fastness. In general, Thermasol anti-static
agents also have a good soil release action, which is as permanent as the anti-static effect.
Anti-static finishes may also be of polyamide type, being curable at moderate temperatures.
Non-slip finishes give the filaments a rougher surface. Synthetic warp and weft threads in
loosely-woven fabrics are particularly prone to slip because of their surface smoothness
when the structure of fabric is disturbed and appearance is no longer attractive. Silica gel

dispersions or silicic acid colloidal solutions are used in combination with latex polymer or
acrylates dispersions to get more permanent effect, along with simultaneous improvement
in resistance to pilling or snagging. These polymer finishes are also capable of imparting a
soft and smooth handle to synthetic fabric without making it water repellent.

Fire Resistant or Flame-Retardant finish: to reduce flammability.

Anti-microbial finish: with the increasing use of synthetic fibers for carpets and other
materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have gained importance. Products which
are commonly applied are brominated phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds,
organo-silver and tin compounds, which can be applied as solutions or dispersions. They can
also be incorporated in a polymeric film deposited on the surface to achieve controlled


The finish folding department is meant for final inspection and packing of the fabric before it
is sent for the buyer.

For the inspection 4-point inspection system is used. The inspection is done of all the lots
that come out of the processing and finishing department. This inspection is done for the
fabric faults that occur in a fabric after all finishing. The faults are checked and they are
according to the 4-point system.

Defect (in inches) points

0-3” 1

3-6” 2

6-9” 3

More than 9” 4

After the fabric is inspected once by the people then at random 5-10% piece are again
inspected. This is just to ensile that the inspection on the correct path.


 Spinning :-
1. Coarse end 4. Slubs
2. Contamination 5. Weft bars
3. Knots

 Weaving :-
1. Broken pick 10. Slack end
2. Bumping mark 11. Starting mark
3. Double pick 12. Stitches
4. Float 13. Temple mark
5. Crack 14. Tight end
6. Lashing-in 15. Wrong down
7. Missing end 16. Snarl
8. Oil stain 17. Rust stain
9. Reed mark

 Dyeing :-
1. Colour stain 5. Dyeing patter
2. Dropping 6. Dyeing stop mark
3. Dyeing daghi 7. Dyeing crease
4. Dyeing patches 8. Discharge daghi

 Bleaching :-
1. Abrasion 3. Hole
2. Crease 4. Hairiness

 Finishing :-
a. Abrasion f. Mud stain
b. Bowing g. Selvedge torn
c. Finish crease h. Width variation
d. Finish variation i. Blanket impression
e. Finish holes j. Neps

After re-inspection, the rolls are transferred into the packing section where the rolls are
packed according to the type of fabric.

Export- bales

Local market- bags

Bales which are prepared for the export can be maximum 150 meters each.

If the length in the rolls is less as per the details given by the buyers then the rolls are let off
at lesser prices.

The defects that need to be cut of the roll need to be saved as they comprise the waste of
that department and then it is sold at different prices.

For sampling, random samples are collected from all the orders that are being made.

These samples are collected and are hung on hangers which are placed in in the sampling

The hangers are of two types:-

1. Export based
2. Local market

For regular customers these samples/hangers are sent on weekly basis so that he can
choose or cater any idea from the samples by some plus and minus.

Usually the orders come of tailor made designs i.e. The design is given by the client himself.

Three types of machines are used in this department.


 Total seven inspection machines are used.
 All of these are “TOPIVALA” company.
 These machines are also known as mapping machine.
 Speed: - 17-18 meter per min.
 Production; - 1000-3000 per shift. And is also depend on material.
 Inspection of fabric is depending of “four point system”.
 Operator :- one

 There are total four cutting machines.
 And one roll cut machine is used.
 All these machines are of “MEASE” company.
 A main batch of fabric cut in cutting machine and then cut into small roller in roll cut
 On this roll cut machine, the fabric roll first cut 10cm width and sends it to Q.A. lab for
testing and shade matching.
 If requirement is confirmed, then fabric cut at and wound in small roller as per customer
Operator: - 1.
 Speed :- 30meter per min
 Mending roll cut machine is also used here.in this m/c, the damage coursing is either
removes or solves.
Operator: - 2


 There are three packing machines used.
 All these machines are of ”PENGUIEN”.
 Operator :- 2
 The fabric roll comes on this machine and a plastic film wound on this roller & this pack
is send to go down or wear-house.
 and this pack is finally distribute the customer from this wear-house.



Quality is nothing but property, merit trait or behavior.


Control is command, power, regulate or manage.


Quality control is regulating or managing the behavior or property. Dyeing lab is backbone
of the whole industry. It carries out an important part of knowing different parameters
fabric or yarn to be dyed. It provides a small production of the goods to be dyed. It also give
the quantity of auxiliaries to be used and the quality of product that will be produced. It also
provide information regarding the cost of the final products after the completion of various
processes. To check out and obtain such successful result of dyeing lab have been setup.
There are various instruments being used in this kind of lab.

They are as follows:-

1. Padding mangle :- This is a special arrangement in which fabric is padded into the dye
liquor or finishing liquor. Padding is done in such a way that fabric passes into the liquor just
once, then it is squeezed through the nip of two squeezing rollers. No. of nips and dips
differs according to the needed of the shade.

2. Pad steam :- This machine is laboratory dyeing machine in which the fabric after it is
padded on the padding mangle developed by passing it through sequential processes to find
out the dyeing result. By using of this machine much time can be saved, also desired result
are obtained and cost of production can be controlled.

3. Hydroextracter :- This machine remove excess of water from the dyed or washed sample.

4. Shade matcher :- This machine is used to match various shades of fabric in the presences
of various lights provided in the machine. This machine fulfils various requirements of

Different types of lights being used in this m/c are as follow:-

1. Day-light (D-65)
2. UV-rays
3. A-10
4. U 30\ TL 84
5. CWF

5. PH meter: - It is the advanced technology of finding out the ph of any given sample of
fabric. In such type of arrangement there is a beaker in which hot water is kept in which
the fabric whose ph has to be checked is kept then the electronic device , the ph meter
measured ph actually and indicates it on to the display.

6. Tensile strength tester: - It is the m\c to find out the tearing strength of the fabric i.e. It is
the maximum tension applied on the fabric after which the fabric will be tored. The
apparatus used is such that there is angular blade whose one edge is sharp, while at the
other edge there is a hook on which weight can be applied. The maximum weighted when
fabric gets torn is to be note down.

7. Crock meter :- It is an instrument to find out rubbing fastness of any fabric. In this test
the fabric to be tested rubbed against grey fabric, the amount of dye coming on the grey
fabric is compared with grey scale and results are obtained.

8. Dye bath :- This machine is used for heating a dye pot.

9. GSM tester :- This instrument is used to find out grams of fabrics per square meter area
of fabric. The fabric of diameter 100 mm is cut by special instrument, then the fabric is
weight this decides the GSM value of the given fabric.

10. Hot press: - This is an ironing instrument.

11. HTHP dyeing m/c:- This machine is use for polyester dyeing at high temperature and
high pressure.

12. Washing m/c: - This m/c is use for washing of cheese. Which are dyed in above m/c.
Washing is carried out by water and air.

13. Washing fastness tester: - This machine is also used to find out washing fastness of the
fabric. In the m\c there are small iron balls which are rotated along with fabric to be tested.
These are iron balls give beating effect so that the unfixed dye comes out of the surface if
the fabric.

14. Tearing strength tester: - This machine is used for measuring the tearing strength of the

Tests for Grey Fabric
1. Blend %
2. Count
3. Construction(EPI,PPI)
4. Tearing Strength
5. Tensile Strength
6. GSM
7. Fabric Width
8. Dimensional Stability

Tests after Bleaching

1. Tearing Strength
2. Tensile Strength
3. GSM
4. Whiteness Index
5. Absorbency
6. ph
7. Dimensional Stability
8. Fabric Width

Tests after Finishing

1. Tearing Strength
2. Tensile Strength
3. GSM
4. Whiteness Index
5. ph
6. Dimensional Stability
7. Fabric Width
8. Pilling Test

Tests after Dyeing

1. Color fastness to washing
2. Color fastness to Rubbing
3. Sublimation Fastness
4. Light Fastness
5. Perspiration


1. http://www.rubymills.com/#2

2. http://site.rubymills.com/

3. http://site.rubymills.com/about

4. http://site.rubymills.com/products

5. HR department of Ruby mills Ltd.

6. https://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102005/