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CAREER MANAGEMENT AND WORKFORCE Sources of Meaning of Work

PLANNING TRAINING-SEMINAR OUTLINE


Self
 Values, motivations, and beliefs one has
Talk 1: THE MEANING OF WORK  Job involvement refers to how one
Speaker: Jefferson Ivan Villanueva identifies his/her self-concept with his/her
Activity/s: Say the Color, not the Word job
 Work orientation refers to the lens by
Why do we work? which people look at their work
 Three lenses people use to look at their
 To earn a living work: job, career and calling.
 To develop our talents  Job orientation is focused on material
 For psychic reward outcomes of work
 Career focuses on the rewards one gains
Domains of Work Meaning from progressing through an organization
 Calling focuses on the fulfilment the work
Work Centrality provides the individual.
 Refers to how important work is to an Others
individual’s life at any given point in time.  Influential forces may be in the form of
Societal Norms coworkers, leaders, groups, communities,
 Revolves around people’s entitlement in and family
and obligation to society Context
o Entitlement is defined as “the  Includes organizational mission, design of
underlying rights of individuals and job tasks, financial circumstances, non-work
the work-related responsibilities of domains and national culture
society and organization to the Spiritual Life
individual.”  One finds meaning at work when it is
o Obligation refers to members of the
attuned to one’s vocation or calling
society’s duty to work to contribute
to the society
Work Goals Mechanisms of Work
 Refer to the relative importance of various
goals and values which are sought or 1. Authenticity - people find work meaningful if
preferred by individuals in their working lives they are able to live out their authentic self at
work.
 i.e. expressive (expressing one’s talent and
2. Self-Efficacy - stems from being able to control
abilities), instrumental (work as means to
or have autonomy at work, overcome
earn or a living), comfort (to achieve a level
challenges and having positive impact
of comfort in one’s life), and learning
3. Self-esteem - stems from achieving at work
(endeavour to learn a particular skill)
and receiving affirmation of their value at work,
 Can also be differentiated into extrinsic and increasing one’s self-worth
intrinsic orientation. 4. Purpose - if one finds his/her work being of
 Extrinsic orientation includes opportunity significance and one’s values are aligned with
for promotion and the significant role of the work
money. 5. Belongingness - work offers a social system
 Intrinsic orientation includes variety, from which one anchors his/her identity; and if
interesting work that you really like, a match this experience is positive, contributes to its
between job requirements and individual’s meaningfulness
abilities and a lot of autonomy. 6. Transcendence - refers to work contributing to
something greater than one’s self such as a
cause or group
7. Cultural and Interpersonal Sense-making -
adheres to social or cultural constructionism
and also interpersonal sense-making in which
we look to others to make sense of our meaning
at work.
5 C’s of the Meaning of Work Talk 2: CAREER THEORIES AND
CAREER MANAGEMENT
1. Calling Speaker: Desiree Soriano
 An endeavor one engages in for a lofty, Activity/s: Briggs-Myers Personality Test &
nonmaterial goals, and feels highly Four Dimensions of Behavior
energizing and fulfilling
Career
 Pleasant, interesting, and enjoyable;
 Combination and sequence of roles played
more intrinsic outcomes by a person during the course of a lifetime.
2. Cause
 Work that is seen as an obligation or Developmental Self-Concept Theory
duty and is experienced as a heavy load of Donald Super
and not always pleasant and enjoyable
 Unpleasant, tiresome, monotonous;  Our career choices and development is part
of the process of developing our self-
more intrinsic outcomes
concept (Leung 2008).
3. Career  Self-concept is seen to be a function of the
 Work that one performs primarily to get interactions of factors such as growth,
something immediately beneficial such experiences, environment and the like.
as monetary rewards, personal  Super suggests that we go through life
advancement, prestige and status, stages and each stage is connected with a
social network chronological age and for each stage has to
 Pleasant, interesting, and enjoyable; manage a vocational developmental task.
Once the career actor has achieved this, he
more extrinsic outcomes
has achieved career maturity.
4. Chore
 Work that one feels constrained to do for Life Stages According to Super
the sole purpose of earning a living or in
exchange for other tangible outcomes, 1. Growth
and is experienced as something  0-14 years old
unpleasant.  start of the development of self-
 Unpleasant, tiresome, monotonous; concept and the first exposure to the
more extrinsic outcomes world of work
5. Coast 2. Exploration
 Work that is not of major significance in  15-24 years old
 exploration of interests; occupational
one’s life
choice, although tentative, is forming
 Between the positive and negative 3. Establishment
affects; more extrinsic outcomes  25-44 years old
 skills are developed and built which
eventually lead to stabilization
4. Maintenance
 45-64 years old
 continuous development in the
chosen path
5. Decline
 65+ years old
 Slowing down and preparing for
retirement

Holland’s Theory of Personality and Careers

 the expression of one’s personality is


through one’s career
 The six typologies are arranged in a Career Anchors by Edgar Schein
hexagon in the same order (RAISEC). This  A person’s self-concept that consists:
denotes that the personalities adjacent to 1. self-perceived talents and abilities
each other have a high degree of similarity, 2. basic values
the further one personality is to another, the 3. Evolved sense of motives and needs as they
lesser their similarities are. pertain to the career

Holland’s Six Typologies Areas of Anchors

1. Realistic 1. Technical/Functional Competence


 Those who like to work with their hands,  Excited by the content of work itself
making, fixing, assembling or building  Prefers advancement only in his
things, using and operating equipment technical or functional area of
and tools or machines and like working competence
outdoors  Generally disdains and fears general
2. Investigative management as too political.
 Those who like to discover and research 2. General Managerial Competence
ideas, observe, investigate or  Excited by the opportunity to analyze
experiment, ask and solve equations and solve problems under conditions of
3. Artistic incomplete information and uncertainty
 Those who like to use words, art, music,  Likes harnessing people together to
or drama to express themselves, achieve common goals
communicate or perform, or those who  Stimulated (rather than exhausted) by
like to create or design things crisis situations
4. Social 3. Autonomy/Independence
 Those who like to work with people to  Motivated to seek work situations which
teach, train, inform, help, treat, heal, are maximally free of organizational
cure, serve and greet or those who are constrains
concerned with others’ well-being  Wants to set own schedule and own
5. Enterprising pace of work
 Those who like meeting people, leading,  Is willing to trade off opportunities for
talking to, influencing others, promotion to have more freedom
encouraging others and working 4. Security/Stability
business  Motivated by job security and long-term
6. Conventional attachment to one organization
 Those who prefer to work indoors at  Willing to conform and to be fully
tasks that involve organizing and being socialized into an organization’s values
accurate, following procedures, working and norms
with data, or numbers, planning work  Tends to dislike travel and relocation
and events. 5. Entrepreneurial/Creativity
 motivated by the need to build or create
something that is entirely their own
project
 easily bored and likes to move from
project to project
 more interested in initiating new
enterprises than in managing
established ones
6. Service/ Dedication to a Cause
 Motivated to improve the world in some
fashion
 Wants to align work activities with
personal values about helping society
 More concerned with finding jobs which
meet their values than their skills
7. Pure Challenge 5. Job-Matching Systems
 Motivated to overcome major obstacles,  Organizational mechanisms for the
solve almost unsolvable problems or win actual movement of employees for
out over extremely tough opponents career development
 Define their careers in terms of daily 6. Development Programs
combat or competition in which winning  Programs that are specifically designed
is everything for career development
 Very single-minded and intolerant of
those without comparable aspirations Practice of Career Management Intervention
8. Lifestyle
 Motivated to balance career with lifestyle % PRACTICING
 Highly concerned with such issues such INTERVENTION
INTERVENTION
as paternity/maternity leaves, day-care
options, etc. Development Programs 63%
 Looks for organizations that have strong
pro-family values and programs
Organizational Potential
63%
Career Management in Organizations: Assessment Processes
The Philippine Scenario
Job-Matching Systems 58%
Career management in Philippines
Individual Counseling 40%
Have Career Employee Self-Assessment 40%
19% Management
practices Internal Labor-Market
36%
54% Information Exchanges
Have for more
26% than 6 years
Effectiveness of Practice of Career Management
Intervention
Have for 3-4
36% years PERCEIVED
INTERVENTION
EFFECTIVENESS
Have for less
than a year Development Programs 3.70

Organizational Potential
3.60
Assessment Processes
Types of Career Management Interventions

1. Employee Self-Assessment Tool Job-Matching Systems 3.50


 Tools and activities that help employees Individual Counseling 3.40
look into their careers and their plans
2. Organizational Potential Alignment Employee Self-Assessment 3.40
Processes
 Organizational processes for assessing Internal Labor-Market
3.30
potential in the organization for upward Information Exchanges
movement
3. Internal Labor-Market Information
Exchanges
 Tools and activities that provide
employees more information about the
careers in the organization
4. Individual Counseling Or Career
Discussions
 Career counseling or discussions
Most Commonly Practiced Career Management Talk 3: WORKFORCE PLANNING
Interventions Speaker: Rose Ann Abueg
MOST PERCEIVED Activity/s: Line-up game &
INTERVENTION COMMON EFFECTIVE- Workforce Planning Quiz Bee
PRACTICE NESS
Definition of Workforce Planning
 A process in which an organization attempts
Development
Workshops 3.90 to estimate the demand for labour and
Programs
evaluate the size, nature, and sources of
Organizational the supply which will be required to meet
Potential Interview the demand” –Reily (1996)
3.81
Assessment Process  Getting the right number of people with the
Processes right competencies in the right jobs at the
right time.” – Sinclair (2004)
Job-Matching  Synonymous to: human resource planning;
Job Posting 3.72
Systems
succession planning; building bent stretch;
strategic staffing
Individual Career
3.59  Strategic staffing is the process that
Counseling Discussion organizations use to identify and address
the staffing implications of their business
Career
Employee Self- strategies and plans.” –Bechet (2008)
Planning 3.43
Assessment
Workshop
Benefits of Workforce Planning
Internal Labor- 1. Practical Benefits
Market
Career Ladders 3.11  Refer to direct and substantive effects of
Information
Exchanges workforce planning.
i. Ensure replacements are available
The Changing Nature of Work to fill important vacancies
ii. Provide realistic staffing projections
Characteristics of Boundary-less careers for budgeting purposes.
(Arthur, 1994) iii. Provide a clear rationale for linking
expenditures for training and
1. Fluidity of moving through different
retraining, development, career
organizations or employers
2. Validation is drawn from beyond the present counseling and recruitment efforts.
employer iv. Help maintain and improve a
3. Networks or information outside the diversified workforce
organization is key v. Help prepare for restructuring,
4. The demise of organizational hierarchies and reducing and expanding the
advancement principles workforce
5. Career opportunities are rejected for family or
2. Process Benefits
personal reasons
6. The person seeing a boundary-less future  Refer to indirect benefits
i. Provides organizational members
Protean Careers the opportunity to think about the
 “a career that is driven by the person, not future.
the organization and that will be reinvented ii. Allows the organization to align and
by the person from time to time as the centralize efforts in the context of
person and environment change” (Hall decentralization.
1996, 8) iii. Integrates various organizational
 Key competencies; ability to learn and one’s actions for the purpose of
reputation and employability reinforcing the strategy.
Approaches in Workforce Planning Strategic Workforce Planning
 Emphasizes that workforce planning be
Traditional Workforce Planning actually embedded in the strategic planning
 The essence of this approach is on process of the organization
analyzing the supply/demand gap and Human Capital Planning
creating a plan to address future staffing  Similar to strategic workforce planning, this
needs (Young,2006) is concerned with the bigger picture.
However, HCP has specific aspects that
Steps in Traditional Workforce Planning distinguish it as a workforce planning
1. Collect data about the environment. methodology, namely; segmentation, less
2. Consider future needs. specificity and time frame.
3. Analyze the gap between workforce supply Segmentation
and demand  Involves classifying job roles according to
4. Find the solution. their importance to the business, and
matching these segments with specific
Three Types of Gaps workforce actions.
1. Staffing levels  Job roles can be classified as strategic
2. Skills or capabilities (roles that are specialized and critical to the
3. Mix of both business and gives the organization long
term advantage), core (roles that are
Tools on Computing Staffing Level unique to the company and critical to the
1. Statistical Regression delivery of the business’s product and
 Using historical data to predict the service), requisite (roles that are important
required staffing level given certain to the business, but of less strategic and
variables which the organization critical importance) and non-core (job roles
would deem critical that are no longer necessary to the
2. Staffing Ratios organization’s strategy).
 Numerical relationships between  Resources and time are to be allocated to
work volumes or output and the strategic and core job roles.
number of staff required to do that Less Specificity
work or produce that output (Bechet,  The level of analysis in HCP is job roles,
2008) families or functions instead of specific jobs
 Actions for closing any gaps and/ or skills and competencies
includes hiring, promotions, transfers Time Frame
and redeployment, planned staff  The timeframe of the plan to be generated
reductions, use of contingent staff is 3 to 5 years.
3. Workforce Analytics Competency Modeling
 Supplementation of quantitative  Is the process of analyzing and describing
analysis of the relationship between types and range of abilities, knowledge, and
key business metrics and staffing- skills present in an organization to acquire
related variables (Young, 2006) or to gain a competitive advantage.

Forecasting and Scenario Modeling Talk 4: Job Analysis and Job Description
 Based on multiple assumptions about the Speaker: Stephanie France Nodado
future Activity/s: Human Bingo & Job Description Making
 If an organization is faced with the prospect
Job Analysis
of multiple scenarios, the organization
 is the formal process of understanding a job
should select the staffing requirement that is  According to Prier, Goodstein, Goodstein,
common to all scenarios. and Gamble, Jr. (2009), job analysis is “a
systematic process for collecting and the necessary information before hiring
analyzing information about a job.” (employers) or before applying
Data for job analysis are usually collected on the (applicants) to a certain job position.
following aspects: 2. Training and Development
1. Tasks or work activity - the basic format  Job analysis will show information about
of a task statement should indicate the the necessary knowledge, skills,
action to be performed and the result abilities, and experience needed for a
expected from the action (Fine and Wiley, particular job. It may be used to provide
1971) and conduct seminars and trainings that
2. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) may help to enhance the performance of
 Knowledge is an organized body of their employees and therefore, promote
information, usually of a factual or growth.
procedural nature 3. Performance Management and
 Skill – proficiency in the manual, Compensation
verbal, or mental manipulation of  Data gathered for job analysis explain
people, ideas, or things the expected level or range performance
 Ability – the present capacity to for a job and the corresponding pay or
execute a job action, to perform a compensation for it.
job function by applying an 4. Organizational Management and Planning
underlying knowledge base and the  Changes in the organization affect the
necessary skill simultaneously. job description; thus, it needs to be
3. Levels of Performance – refers for the constantly updated to cater to the need
expected range of performance required for of both the employees and the
the job (Prier, Goodstein, Goodstein, and employers. To update this, a job
Gamble, Jr. 2009) analysis is required.
4. Workplace Characteristics – pertains to 5. Litigation Protection
the characteristics of the work environment  Job analysis is used to ensure all HR
that may have a bearing on job decisions are free from discrimination
performance. and are purely based on job
Example: specifications (Prier, Goodstein,
 Positive Values Goodstein, and Gamble, Jr. 2009)
 Relaxed and Productive
Atmosphere Job Analysis Methodologies
 Commitment to Excellence 1. Self-report
 Open and honest  Through self-report, the employees
communication
describe and give information about
 Cooperation, support, &
empowerment their job and duties performed. The
 Sense of humor disadvantage seen is that they might
 Compassion, respect, & give exaggerated statements that might
understanding make the job more important than it
 Flexibility really is.
 Positive Reinforcement 2. Observation
 Emphasis on health, family,  In this method, the data is gathered
and environment through observing the incumbent while
he performs his job. This may be backed
Uses of Job Analysis
by documenting the observation through
Here are five uses of Job Analysis results: capturing photos or taking videos.
1. Recruitment and Selection 3. Interview
 A job analysis is useful for both the  It overcome both the weakness of self-
recruiters and the applicants. One of the report and observation. Interviews are
outputs of job analysis is the job conducted in two rounds. The first round
description. It would help both the
employers and employees to know is individual interviews with the
about a job position. It would give them incumbent to learn about the job and the
second round is a group interview which
is done by pooling employees of the 2. Reporting Line
same job position or those related to it to  This refers to the position to which the
learn about the job with more depth. job reports to.
4. Document Review 3. Organization Structure
 It pertains to documents that the  This clarifies the position of the job in the
organization keeps that could shed light company’s organizational structure and if
on the job being analyzed. Examples there are jobs that will report to the
are time and attendance records, position.
previous job descriptions, and 4. Main Purpose of the Job
performance appraisals.  This is a one or two-sentence statement
5. Questionnaires and Surveys that explains the primary purpose of the
 These have pre-determined lists and job and its difference from other jobs.
categories that ask about tasks and job 5. Principal Accountabilities and
requirements. It has the tendency to be Responsibilities
long but may be custom-designed or  Usually ten in number, this refers to the
commercially available. key activities performed by the position.
6. Performance Measures and Standards
Strategic Job Analysis  This pertains to the targets and/or Key
 The organization has its goals in order for Results Areas of the position in the
them to develop and still be in the long run. context of Performance Management.
Moreover, to achieve these goals, they seek 7. Constraints
to comply with the needs and demands of  This part pertains to the limitations of the
the environment and the people position in terms of authority or decision-
(employees). As the company keeps on making.
growing and developing, its job analysis 8. Statistics
needs to be updated and relevant for the  This part is optional. It shows the exact
entire organization. numerical and financial scope of certain
 Being strategic means that: job activities to facilitate the job
o Information about jobs is evaluation process.
continuously gathered for the future. 9. Nature and Scope
o Tasks and KSAs are revised in the  This refers to information that would
light of future changes. describe the context of the job, e.g.,
types of problems or decision involved in
Job Description the position.
 It is a document that shows the data 10. Contacts
gathered in the job analysis.  This part shows the line of
 Is an internal document that clearly states communications of the job to other jobs
the essential job requirements, job duties, within or outside the organization.
job responsibilities, and skills required to 11. Working Condition
perform a specific role.  This explains the physical environment
where the work will be performed.
Parts of a Job Description Example: in a building or a field work.
 Cushway (2003) proposed 15 parts of a job 12. Knowledge, Skills, and Experience
description  This refers to the knowledge, skills,
abilities (KSA), and experiences of the
1. Job Identification incumbent that are needed to perform the
 This identifies the title or name of the job required duties of the job.
and the department it belongs to.
13. Competencies 2. The recipient of the action
 This refers to the observable behaviors 3. The end-result of the action
and skills necessary to be successful in
the job. Plachy and Plachy (1998) recommend the following
14. Other Information when writing accountability statements:
 This section is for other important 1. Limit statement of results to 2-5 words per
information that needs to be stated in the sentence
job description, e.g., trainings or 2. Use the appropriate action verbs
seminars 3. Avoid the use of evaluative words
15. Signature and Date
 The signature of the employee is Talk 5: Competency Modeling
attached on his job description in order to Speaker: Christine Edora
Activity/s: Competenscramble & Word Hunt
testify that he agrees to comply with its
contents. The date is also included to set Competency Modeling
as a reference if there is a need to  Competencies refer to clusters of
update it in the near future. knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs)
needed for performing the jobs effectively
Results-oriented Job Description  Competency Modeling is the process of
analyzing and describing types and range of
There are two existing ways to choose abilities, knowledge, and skills present in an
whether where to focus in making a job description. organization to acquire or to gain a
These are: competitive advantage.
1. Plachy and Plachy (2009)
Two Types of Competencies
 Emphasizes the results expected from
the job  Foundational Competencies apply to all
2. Traditional Job Description jobs/roles in an organization, and are
 Emphasizes the duties to be performed in commonly known as core competencies.
a job  Job-specific Competencies are specific to
a particular job or job family.
According to Plachy and Plachy (2009), a o Technical/Functional
results-oriented job description would describe how o Leadership
the job contributes to the mission of the
organization; in contrast, a traditional job Comparison of Competencies
description is more short-sighted as it only focuses
on the task at hand.
In writing the principal accountabilities, both
the results and duties are included in the statement.
The duty section answers the question “why” does
the action need to be done while the responsibility
would state the action needed to accomplish the
result. The duty and results are connected by the
word “by”. (I.e. maintains company telephone
directory (result) by updating files with addition,
deletions, and changes (duty).)

Cushway (2008) suggests that each accountability


statement should indicate:
1. What is done in the activity
20 Best Practices in Competency Modeling 17. Use competencies as a model or
(Campion et.al, 2011) explanation of effective job performance in
the organization
1. Customize the competency model to the 18. Use information technology as a tool to
context of the organization enhance usability of competency models
2. Link the competency model to the goals and 19. Ensure competency models are updated as
objectives of the organization. needed
3. Start data collection from top executives 20. Use competencies for legal defensibility
4. Use job analysis methods to develop when necessary.
competencies
5. Take into account possible future job Competency Framework
requirements Vis-à-vis Competency Model
6. Use other rigorous data collection tools  Competency framework pertains to all
such as employee surveys and critical the competency models, aligned in a
incident technique manner that it would reflect the
7. When coming up with competencies, organization’s mission and vision while a
include a descriptive label, a definition with competency model refers to the group of
a description of the behavioural competencies that pertains to a particular
manifestation of the competency is job.
manifested in different levels of proficiency
8. When describing the various levels of Developing Competency Models
proficiency in a competency, include a When organizations try to develop competency
description of the behavioural manifestation models, the following steps are usually involved.
of the proficiency level
9. Use the language (e.g., jargon, terminology)  Interview and/or group discussion with high
of the organization when coming up with a performers
competency model o Stories or critical incidents on work
10. Include both cross-job and job specific performance are collected from high
competencies performers, and are analyzed for
11. For efficiency and consistency in language, behaviors that would eventually form the
use competency libraries (or an existing list competencies.
of competencies) as a starting point.  Research
12. Be parsimonious when coming up with the o Internal documents such as job
number of competencies and the level of descriptions and performance appraisal
detail for each competency. If a large forms can suggest competencies to be
number of competencies cannot be included in the model.
reduced, use categories and subcategories  Competency Validation
(e.g., competencies and sub-competencies) o A selected sample of the organization,
13. Use diagrams and pictures to make the like supervisors, validate the draft
competency model understandable to competency models in terms of
employees. importance to job performance; usually
14. Use organization development techniques this is done by administering a survey
to ensure competency model is accepted  Presentation
and utilized. o The competency models are
15. Use competencies to develop systems in transformed into media that would make
Human Resources it useful for employees, like competency
16. Use the competency models to align the dictionaries and quick guides to the
various HR systems competencies.
Job Design Hackman and Oldham’s
 Is the assignment of goals and tasks that Job Characteristics Model
are to be accomplished by employees
The following makes a job more motivating:
According to Daft (2010), the design of the
 Skill Variety
job influence job productivity and o Refers to a job having different tasks
motivation. that will tap the employee’s different
 Efficiency meant minimizing the time to talents
do tasks, minimizing the time to learn  Task Identity
tasks and minimizing skill requirements. o Refers to ensuring that the
 Job simplification is the breaking down a employee feels that he or she had a
job into simple tasks and was an initial hand in the completion of work
approach in achieving efficiency goals.  Task Significance
o Is elicited when the employee sees
Job Design Approaches that one’s job had an impact on
 Job Rotation other people
o Involve having employees move to  Autonomy
perform different tasks. o Is the degree to which an employee
Nevertheless, the job is still can decide on matters relating to the
specialized and the content of the job, such as scheduling tasks
job tends to be the same  Feedback
 Horizontal Job Enlargement o Is a helpful information or criticism to
o Combines two or more simplified determine what can be done to
jobs. This approach lengthens the improve a performance, product or
work cycle and increases the variety work, and is also considered a
of jobs that the employee does. motivating factor
 Job Enrichment or Vertical Job
Enlargemet
o Involves giving the employees more -END-
complicated work and the
opportunity to decide on how to do Prepared by:
their jobs.
Heavenly Bodies Funeral Homes
 Autonomous Work Groups
o Involve having a team of employees BSA 1-1
work on interdependent tasks that
complete a whole product or service. Abueg, Rose Ann
Edora, Christine
Job Design Considerations Nodado, Stephanie France
 Technical Feasibility Soriano, Desiree
o refers to the degree to which Villanueva, Jefferson Ivan
individuals can physically and
mentally do the job
 Economic Feasibility
o refers to the degree to which cost of
the job is less than the value it adds
in the organization
 Behavioral Feasibility
o refers to the degree to which the job
is intrinsically satisfying to the
employee