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Comparison of Different Wideband DOA

Estimation Methods
Anish Kumar Yadav Sandeep Santosh
Research Scholar, Dept. of ECE Assistant Professor, Dept.of ECE
NIT, Kurukshetra NIT, Kurukshetra
ani2709@gmail.com profsandeepkkr@gmail.com

required .Hence these narrowband method are preferred into

Abstract- This paper is intended towards comparison of the
different wideband methods for direction of arrival (DOA) wide band areas also.
estimation. In this paper, explained methods are Incoherent In incoherent method, the wideband signal at the array sensor
method, Coherent signal subspace processing (CSSM) and is decomposed into no overlapped frequency components and
Weighted average of signal subspace(WAVES) using Gaussian each sub band treated as independent narrowband [2].Now by
sources in presence of Additive white Gaussian noise(AWGN). using narrowband algorithm detect the pseudo power spectrum
Here, simply decomposition of signal and measurement of power separately and combine, averaging them to obtain DOA of
spectrum is done. The transformation process causes an error i.e. wideband source .Here two method summation based MVDR
focusing error. To minimize the focusing error and to reduce the
(Minimum Variance Distortion less Response) and summation
sensitivity of subspace method, WAVES will be used. For
based MUSIC are incorporated.
evaluation of performance index, Monte Carlo simulation is
performed. Another method that is proposed by Wang and Kaven CSSM
(Coherent Signal subspace method) [8]. In CSSM decompose
Key words-DOA, SNR, SD, Coherent and Noncoherent
wideband signal by using discrete Fourier transform(DFT)for
I. INTRODUCTION filter bank so that each band signal treated as narrowband model.
In the defense areas like underwater surveillance, radar DFT of each band has different carrier frequency by doing
system received the different wideband sources in noisy proper matrix transformation so that they are converted into a
environment [1]. After computation of received data, Each DOA single frequency that is focusing frequency. Transformation
of the sources has been calculated. DOA estimates the exact process cause a focusing error occurred [9].The transformation
position of emitters [2.] matrix referred as USCM (Universal Spatial Covariance Matrix).
Signal and noise subspace that is used in optimization of focusing error causes DOA deviation and sometime happen
narrowband signal array .In this scenario to optimize array sources may not be exactly evaluated from USCM. WAVES
signal, getting DOA multiple signal classification(MUSIC) [3], (Weighted Average of Subspace) surpasses focusing error to
estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariance utilize no unitary focusing matrix [5] .WAVES create a pseudo
techniques(ESPRIT)[6], Capon minimum variance [7] methods matrix that is similar to USSM, represent a narrowband subspace
are explored. In MUSIC, create the covariance matrix from and Eigen vectors of pseudo matrix are weighted in such a way
received data of uniform linear array and decompose this matrix so that focusing error reduces.
by means of Eigen value decomposition as the result signal II. SIGNAL MODEL
subspace and noise subspace two orthogonal components are
created. Spatial spectrum estimation is done. In ESPRIT A. Narrowband signal model
algorithm, received signal is divided into two linear sub array Let N sources generated signal at the receiver there are M
from each linear array create autocorrelation and cross sensors in uniform linear array with respect to reference sensor
correlation matrix finally subspace rotation invariance is used to to reach wave fronts to mth sensor delay is ȕ.Now signal model
measure DOA .Capon minimum variance method improve the at the receiver is
performance of the conventional beamforming method And the ‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ௠ = r (t-mȕ) +݁ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ௠ (1)
effect of noise can be minimized by reducing the output power. ȕ is delay between each sensor ,m=1,2……M. r(t) is the
In wideband signal these method are not directly applicable but modulated signal and ݁௠ is additive noise
the performance of MUSIC and ESPRIT in term of numerical
convergence is fast and no need of prior guess of DOA is r (t)=a(t) ݁ ௜ఠ௧ ݁ ௜థ௧ (2)

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2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

a (t)*݁ ௜‫׎‬௧ denotes the baseband signal , a(t) is aamplitude and ‫ݐ׎‬ For each wideband signal, thee output of each filter bank
is phase behaves like as a narrowband model and combine all
narrowband signal. Similar process is done for Q wideband
(3) signal and can be represented as

‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ
d is the spacing between each sensor. ș is the DOA of sources
‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ
[ߠଵ ǡ ߠଶǡ ……….,ߠே ]. Now by providing the delay įt to a sensor ൦ ൪=ሾߙሺߠଵ ǡ ߱௄ ሻ ߙሺߠଶ ǡ ߱௄ ሻ ‫ߙ ڮ‬ሺߠொ ߱௄ ሻሿ
then approximate model for mth sensor is ‫ݕ‬ெ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ
‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ௠ = r (t) ݁ ି௜ఠఋ௧ + ݁ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ௠ (4) ‫ݎ‬ଵሺ௟ǡఠ
ఠೖ ሻ ݁ଵ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ
Now taking the summation of all the sensor annd generalize the ‫ݎ‬ଶሺ௟ǡఠ
ఠೖ ሻ ݁ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ
‫ כ‬൦ ‫ ڭ‬൪ +൦ ଶ ൪ (9)
model ‫ڭ‬
‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻଵ ݁ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሻଵ ‫ݎ‬ொሺ௟ǡ௪
௪ೖ ሻ ݁ெ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ
݁ ି௜ఠఋ௧భ
‫ڭ‬ ‫ڭ‬ ‫ڭ‬ This can be represented as in short form f
൦‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൪ ൌ ൦ ି௜ఠఋ௧ ൪ ‫ݎ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ൦݁ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൪ (5)
ெିଵ ݁ ಾషభ ெ
ெିଵ Y (߱௞ ) =A (߱௞ ) R (߱௞ ) +E (߱௞ ) (10)
‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻெ ݁ ି௜ఠఋ௧ ಾ ݁ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሻெ Where Y (߱௞ ) is Mൈ1 sensors outp put vector, A (߱௞ ) is a Mൈ ܳ
݁ ି௜ఠఋ௧భ steering matrix, R (߱௞ ) is an Qൈ ͳ ͳ Narrowband signals and E
Where the steering vector ߙሺߠǡ ߱ሻ ൌ ൦ ି௜ఠఋ௧ ‫ڭ‬ ൪ (߱௞ ) is an additive noise of Mൈ ͳǤ The power spectrum (S) has
݁ ಾషభభ
been measured at different grid poin nts‫א‬ଵ , ‫א‬ଶ , ǥ , ‫א‬ெ .
(1) Incoherent method
B. Wideband model
In this method each narro owband spectrum estimate ܵ௞
The receive signal at the sensor is a widebannd signal which by processing each subband߱ ߱௄ . If spatial filter is used to
consists of several frequency components .The receive signal is acquire then subband spectra contains power of signal in a
sampled at the sampling frequency fs and will be decomposed in direction. The related algorith hm to this method is given as
K narrowband signal using fast Fourier transfform (FFT). The following.
expression of decomposition for kth frequenccy component is Input: Estimated data Y (߱௞ ), at ang gle gridߩଵ ,ߩଶ , ‫ڮ ڮ‬, ߩெ , the
given in (6). subband is being selected ߴ.
݂௞ ൌ ሺ݇ െ ͳሻȀܰிி் (6) 1. for k ‫ ߴ א‬do
Where k=1, 2……K and ‫ ܭ‬ൌ ܰிி் Ȁʹ (7). ଵ
2. Compute the covariance matrix ܴ௒௒ = ܻ௞ ܻ௞ ு .
Since, it follows the conjugate symmetry that is why only half of ௅
3. Estimate EVD of ܴ௒௒ = ܷ෡(߱௞ ) ܸ෠ (߱௞ ) ܷ
෡-1 (߱௞ ).
samples point have been taken in account for eaach of the frames.
Here, L number of consecutive frames are considered and each 4. Estimate number of sourrces using MUSIC algorithm
[3] denoted asܰ
has same length i.e. NFFT. And, each frame is proceeded by
performing DFT as in (8) 5. M-ܰ ෡ Eigen value corressponding Eigen vector
‫ݕ‬௠ ሺ݈ǡ ߱௞ ሻ ൌ

σே ಷಷ೅ ିଵ
݄ሺ߬ሻ‫ݑ‬௠ ሺሺ݈ െ ͳሻܰிிி் ൅ ߬ሻ݁ ି௜ఠೖఛ (8) denoted as‫ܦ‬෡ ሺ߱௄ ).
6. for m =1,2,3,‫ ڮ‬,N do
And l varies as 1 to L. ଵ
గ௙ೖ 7. ܵ௞ (ߩ௠ ) = ෡෢ಹ ሺఠ಼ ሻǤఈሺఘభ ǡఠ಼ ሻ
Where݄ሺ߬) is the rectangular window and ߱௞ = . Refer fig (1) ఈ ಹ ሺఘభ ǡఠ಼ ሻ஽
෡ ሺఠ಼ ሻǤ஽

8. end
9. end
10. for m = 1,2, ‫ڮ‬ǡ N do
11. S(ߩ௠ ) = σ௞‫א‬ణ ܵ௞ ሺߩ௠ ሻǤ
12. end
13. Output : S

Figure 1 : DFT filter bank

2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

(2) Coherent wideband method- P(߱௞ ) should be diagonal so that Guassian signal and noise
In this method it is considered that correlation between the calibration can be done perfectly .
sources should be less than sampling period of the subband. And P (߱௞ ) = (17)
ඥఓೖ ఙ మ
Y (߱௞ ) behaved independently in time domain and frequency
This property of P (߱௞ ) has been exploited to furnish puedodata
domain. Hence covariance matrix. ܴ௒௒  Can be represented as
matrix Z
ܴ௒௒ =E[Y (߱௞ ) Y (߱௞ )]
Z=‫ۃ‬σே ௞ୀଵ ߴ௞ ‫[ ۄ‬T (߱ଵ ) Es (߱ଵ ) P (߱ଵ ) ‫ ڮ ڮ ڮ‬T (߱ே ) Es (߱ே ) P
= A (߱௞ ) ܴ௥௥ (߱௞ ) ‫ܣ‬ு (߱௞ ) + ߪ ଶ I (11)
(߱ே )] (18)
After Eigen value decomposition of ܴ௒௒ has signal subspace
Condition is that ߴ ൑ ܰ and taking Eigen value decomposition
‫ܧ‬ௌ ሺ߱௞ ሻand noise subspace‫ܧ‬ே ሺ߱௞ ሻ. Signal subspace consists of
of Z and noise subspace of Z is Un replaced the En and finally
Eigen vector of N largest Eigen value of ߤଵ ൒ ߤଶ ൒ ‫ڮ ڮ ڮ ڮ‬
DOA estimation has been improved.
൒  ߤே and remaining M-N Eigen value corresponding Eigen
vector is noise space.
Here, it is considered that source is Gaussian source, sensor
The basic assumption of this method to focus all the
pass band is (50 to 150) Hz, focusing frequency ߱଴ is 100 Hz,
frequency components into a reference frequency ߱଴ with the
rectangular window of size 64-points and total number of snap
help of transformation matrix T (߱௄ ) is an M×M. [14]
shot is 80. By using Monte Carlo simulation with respect to 4
A (߱଴ ) = T (߱௄ ) A (߱௄ )
sensors at angles͵͹଴ ܽ݊݀͵͵଴ , we get following plots after the
= [b (߱଴ ,ߠଵ ),ǥ b (߱଴ ,ߠே )] (12) MATLAB code execution for SNR vs standard deviation of
The Rotational Signal Subspace (RSS) method is to calculate DOA. Refer figure (2) and (3).
transformation matrix and reduced focusing error.
T (߱௄ ) = V (߱௞ ) U (߱௄ ) (13).
Where V (߱௞ ) represents left singular value and U (߱௄ )
represents left singular value ‫ܣ‬ሺ߱௄ǡ ߮ሻ‫ܣ‬ு ሺሺ߱௄ǡ ߮ሻǤ
߮߳൛ߠேǡ ߠே െ  Ǥʹͷܾ‫ݓ‬ǡ ߠே ൅  Ǥʹͷܾ‫ݓ‬ൟ , bw denotes beamwidth.
ܴ௙  is a USCM matrix [8] and calculated by taking mean of
focused ܴ௒௒ (߱௄ ) and product of selected constant elements ߛ௞
ܴ௙ =σே ு
௞ୀଵ ߛ௞  T (߱௞ ) ܴ௒௒ (߱௞ ) ܶ (߱௞ )
= A (߱଴ ) ‫ۃ‬σே ଶ
௞ୀଵ ߛ௞ ܴ௒௒ ሺ߱௞ ሻ‫ ۄ‬+ߪ ܴ௡ (14)
Rn is universal noise spatial covariance matrix and is obtained
from square root of model matrix Q.
ܴ௡ = Q ܳு =σே ு
௞ୀଵ ߛ௞  T (߱௞ ) ܶ (߱௞ ) (15)
Figure 2: SNR vs SD for Incoherent, WAVES & CSSM
‫ܣ‬fter eigen value decomposition of (15) signal and noise
subspace Es and En respectively and the pseudo spectrum is
used to calculate DOA
ಹ ொ షభ ஺ሺఠ ǡఏሻห
ߠ෠ = ఏǤ ൜
బ మ
ȁொషభ ஺ሺఠబ ǡఏሻȁమ
ൠ (16)
This method improves the performance in term of standard
deviation at high SNR but suffers at lower SNR.To overcome
this problem WAVES method is used

In CSSM, Es as well as En both has been transformed but in
WAVES uses Es as after wideband decomposition all the
subband signal behaves as an independent narrowband signal.[1] Figure 3: WAVES DOA Estimation
2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research

In this paper, different methods of DOA are applied for
estimation of emitter location are Non Coherent, CSSM and
WAVES. And, graph between standard deviation of DOA vs
SNR has been plotted along with this graph between pseudo-
spectrum and DOA is analyzed only for WAVES. It is found
that SDs of DOA 370 at SNR value 16 dB for Incoherent, CSSM
and WAVES are 1.164, .73, and .44.
Hence, WAVES algorithm has better performance compare to
the Non coherent method and CSSM method.

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