Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

SHORE PROTECTION

MANUAL
VOLUME II

Coastal Engineering Research Center

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers
PC Box 631
Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180

^
/ \N \^^ ^

1984

Approved For Public Release; Distribution Unlimited

Prepared for

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY


US Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314
APPENDIX C
Miscellaneous
Tables and Plates

-'T' -''.,^-

Cape Florida State Park, Florida, 28 July 1970


MISCELLANEOUS TABLES AND PLATES

LIST OF PLATES

Plate Page

C-1 Illustration of various functions of d/L C-2

C-2 Relationship between wave period, length, and depth C-31

C-3 Relationship between wave period, length, and depth for waves
of shorter period and wavelength C-32

C-4 Relationship between wave period, velocity, and depth C-33

C-5 Relationship between wave energy, wavelength, and wave height C-34

C-6 Change in wave direction and height due to refraction on slopes


with straight, parallel depth contours including shoaling C-35

LISTS OF TABLES

Table

C-1 Functions of d/L for even increments of d/L^ C-5

C-2 Functions of d/L for even increments of d/L C-17

C-3 Deepwater wavelength (L^) and velocitiy (C^) as a


function of wave period C-30

C-4 Conversion factors: English to metric (SI) units of measurement .. .C-36

C-5 Phi-millimeter conversion table C-40

C-6 Values of slope angle and cot for various slopes C-45

C-1
10 ;. :

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

10
0.8

0.6

04

0.2 rrir

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.01
0.008
0.006

0.004

0.002

0.001
GUIDE FOR USE OF TABLES C-1 AND C-2

= ratio of the depth of water at any specific location to the wavelength


in deep water
d
= ratio of the depth of water at any specific location to the wavelength
L
at that same location

H = ratio of the wave height in shallow water to what its wave height would
O have been in deep water if unaffected by refraction

4 y X — X -pT
— = K (shoaling coefficient)

K = a pressure response factor used in connection with underwater pressure


instruments, where

H P ^2-d/J
cost cos h

where P is the pressure fluctuation at a depth z measured negatively


below still water, P is the surface pressure fluctuation, d is the
depth of water from still-water level to the ocean bottom, L is the
wavelength in any particular depth of water, and H is the corresponding
variation of head at a depth z . The values of K shown in the tables
are for the instrument placed on the bottom using the equation when
z = - d

values tabulated in column 8


UTTd/ 1

cosh

n = the fraction of wave energy that travels forward with the waveform:
i.e., with the wave velocity C rather than the group velocity C^

Aird/,
^^
2
sinh T4^^

n is also the ratio of group velocity Zq to wave velocity C

—— = ratio of group velocity to deepwater wave velocity where

C-3
— —X—= = n tanh
(^)
o o

M = an energy coefficient defined as

2
IT

2 tanh^ (ill)

C-4
Table C-1. Functions of d/L for even increments of d/L (from 0.0001 to
1.000).

d/L
Table C-1. Continued.

<1/L„ d/L 2VA/1 TAMH SDffl " COSH


zrd/L a-TdA ?»rd/L

.09000
Table C-1. Continued.
2T d/L TANK SINK COSH H/H' l*TTd/L SINH COSH
dA„ d/L
2" d/L 2Td/L Urrd/L

.1500 .1833 1.152 .8183 1.1*21. 1.71*0 .9133 .571*8 2.303 1*.951*
.1510 .18U1 1.157 .8200 1.1.33 1.71*7 .9133 .5723 2.311* 5.007
.1520 .1850 1.162 .8217 l.U*2 1.755 .9132 .5699 2,321* 5.061
.1530 .1858 1.167 .8231* 1.1*51 1.762 .9132 .5675 2.335 5.115
.15I40 .1866 1.173 .8250 1.1.60 1.770 .9132 .5651 2,31*5 5.169

.1550 .1875 1.178 .8267 1.1*69 1.777 .9131 ,5627 2.356 5.225
,1560 .1883 1.183 .8281, 1.1*79 1.785 .9130 ,5602 2,366 5.283
.1570 .1891 1.188 .8301 1.1*88 1.793 ,9129 .5577 2.377 5.339
.1580 .1900 1.19li .8317 1.1*98 1.801 .9130 .5552 2,387 5.396
.1590 .1908 1.199 .8333 1.507 1.809 .9130 .5528 2,398 5.1*5U

.1600 .1917 1.20U .831*9 1.517 1.817 .9130 .5501* 2.1*08 5.513
.1610 .1925 1.209 .8365 1.527 1.625 .9130 .51.80 2.1*19 5.571
.1620 .1933 1.215 .6381 1.536 1.833 .9130 .51*56 2.U29 5". 630

.1630 .19i4l 1.220 .8396 1.51*6 1.61.1 .9130 .51*32 2.1)^0 5.690
.161*0 -1950 1.225 .81*11 1.555 1.81*9 .9130 ,51.09 2.1*50 5.751

.1650 .1958 1.230 .81*27 1.565 1.857 .9131 .5385 2.1*61 5.613
.1660 .1966 1.235 .81*1*2 1.571* 1.665 .9132 .5362 2.U71 5.871*
.1670 .1975 I.2I4O .81*57 1.581* 1.673 .9132 .5339 2.1*82 5.938
.1680 .1983 1.2U6 .81.72 1.591* 1.882 .9133 .5315 2.1*92 6.003
.1690 .1992 1.251 .8^86 1.601* 1.690 .9133 .5291 2.503 6.066

.1700 .2000 1.257 .8501 1.611* 1.899 .9131. .5267 2.513 6.130
.1710 .2008 1.262 .8515 1.621* 1.907 ,9135 ,521.3 2.523 6.197
.1720 .2017 1.267 .8529 1.631* 1.915 .9136 .5220 2.531* 6.262
.1730 .2025 1.272 .851.1. 1.61*1* I.92I1 .9137 ,5197 2.51*1* 6.329
.17I4O .2033 1.277 .8558 1.651. 1.933 .9138 .5171* 2.555 6.395

.1750 .20lj2 1.282 .8572 1.661. 1.91.1 .9139 .5151 2.565 6.1*65
.1760 .2050 1.288 .8586 1.675 1.951 .911.0 .5127 2.576 6.531,
.1770 .2058 1.293 .8600 1.685 1.959 .911*1 .5101. 2.586 6.603
.1780 .2066 1.298 .8611* 1.695 1.966 .9li*2 .5061 2.597 6.672
.1790 .2075 1.301* .8627 1.706 1.977 .9li.Ji .5058 2.607 6.71*1*

.1800 .2083 1.309 .861*0 1.716 1.986 .911.5 .5036 2.618 6.818
.1810 .2092 1.311* .8653 1.727 1.995 .911.6 .5013 2.629 6.690
.1820 .2100 1.320 .8666 1.737 2.001* .911*8 .1*990 2.639 6.963
.1830 .2108 1.325 .8680 1.71*8 2.013 .911*9 . U967 2.650 7.038
.1810 .2117 1.330 .8693 1.758 2.022 .9150 .1,91*5 2.660 7.113

.1850 .2125 1.335 .8706 1.769 2.032 .9152 .1*922 2.671 7.191
.i860 .213ll 1.31*1 .8718 1.780 2.01*1 .9151, •'899 2.681 7.267
.1870 .21(42 1.31*6 .8731 1.791 2.051 .9155 .1*876 2.692 7.31*5
.1880 .2150 1.351 .871*3 1.801 2.060 .9157 .1*851* 2.702 7.1*21
.1890 .2159 1.356 .8755 1.812 2.070 9159 .1*832 2.712 7.500

.1900 .2167 1.362 .8767 1.823 2.079 .9161 .1*809 2.723 7.581
.1910 .2176 1.367 .8779 1.83a 2.089 .9163 .1*787 2.731* 7.663
.1920 .218U 1.372 .8791 1.81*5 2.099 .9165 .1*765 2.71*1* 7.71*6
.1930 .2192 1.377 .8803 1.856 2.108 .9167 .1*71*3 2.755 7.627
.19UO .2201 1.383 .8815 1.867 2.118 .9169 .1*721 2.765 7.911

.1950 .2209 1.388 .8827 1.879 2.128 .9170 .1*699 2.776 7.996
.i960 .2218 1.393 .8839 1.890 2.138 .9172 .1*677 2.787 8.083
.1970 .2226 1.399 .8850 1.901 2.11*8 .9171* .1*655 2.797 8.167
.1980 .2231* 1.1*01* .8862 1.913 2.158 .9176 ,1*633 2,808 8.256
.1990 .22U3 1.1*09 .8873 1.921* 2.169 .9179 .1*611 2.819 8.3i*6

.2000 .2251 1.1*11* .8881* 1.935 2.178 .9181 .1*590 2.829 8.1*36
.2010 .2260 1.1*20 .8895 1.91*7 2. 189 .9183 ,1*569 2.81*0 8.521*
.2020 .2268 1.U2S .8906 1.959 2.199 ,9186 ,1*51*7 2.850 8.616
.2030 .2277 1.1*30 .8917 1.970 2.210 .9188 ,U526 2.861 8.708
.ZOUO .2285 1.1*36 .8928 1.982 2.220 ,9190 .1*501* 2.872 8.803

.2050 .2293 .1*1*1 .8939 1.991* 2.231 .9193 .1*1*83 2.862 8.897
.2060 .2302 ,1*1*6 .8950 2.006 2.21*2 .9195 .1*1*62 2.893 8.991*
.2070 .2310 ,1*51 .8960 2.017 2.252 .9197 .1*1*1*1 2.903 9.090
.2080 .2319 ,1.57 .8971 2.030 2.263 .9200 .1*1*19 2.911* 9.187
.2090 .2328 .1*62 .8981 2.01*2 2,271* .9202 .1*398 2.925 9.288
Table C-1. Continued
dA„
Table C-1. Continued
A/L
Table C-1. Continued.
dA
Table C-1. Continued.
l/L
Table C-1. Continued.
d/L
2
U

Table C-1. Concluded.


d/L d/L 2t7 d/L TANH SINH COSH H/H' UfTd/L SINH COSH C-/C
rTd/L ° G o
2<d/L 2TTd/L IjTd/L li^d/L

.9000 .9000 5.6SS 1.000 1U2.9 112.9 .9999 .007000 11.31 10,810 Ij0,8l0 .5001 5001
.9100 .9100 5.718 1.000 152.1 152.1 .9999 .006571; ll.ljli Ij6,280 li6,280 .5001
.9200 .9200 5.781 1.000 162.0 162.0 .9999 .006173 11.56 52,170 52,1470 .5001
.9300 .9300 1.000 172.5 172.5 .9999 .005797 U.69 59,500 59,500 .5001
.9UOO .9UOO 5.906 1.000 183.7 183.7 .9999 .OOSlJiS 11.81 67,l470 67,1470 .5001

.9500 .9500 5.969 1.000 195.6 195.6 .9999 .005114 II.9I4 76,1490
.9600 .9600 6.032 1.000 208.2 20s. .9999 .OOIjSoZ 12.06 86,7liO
.9700 .9700 6.095 1.000 221.7 221.7 .9999 .00U510 12.19 98,340
.9800 .9800 6.158 1.000 236.1 236.1 .9999 .OOI1235 12.32 111,500
.9900 .9900 6.220 1.000 251. Ij 251. 1.000 .003977 12.l4ll 126,500
Table C-2. Continued.

d/L i/L 2TdA TANH SINH OOSH m' UTd/L SINH COSH V^o
2lTd/L 2rrdA 2/7 dA lITdA UfTdA.

.(X)20C» .00002Slil .01257 .01257 .01257 1.0001 6.308 .9999 J)2513 .02511, .000 .9999 .01257 31,250
.002100 ,00002772 .01319 .01319 .01320 1.0001 6,156 .9999 .02639 .02639 .000 .9999 .01319 28,350
.002200 .0000 30U0 .01382 .01382 ,01382 1.0001 6.015 ,9999 .02765 .02765 .000 .9999 .01382 25,630
.002300 .0000332U .0lUi5 .0114145 .011,1,5 1.0001 5.882 .9999 .02690 .02891 ,000 .9999 .OII4I15 23,630
.002ljD0 .00003619 .01508 ,01508 ,01508 1.0001 5.759 .9999 .03016 .03016 .000 ,9999 .01508 21,700

.002500 .00003928 .01571 .01571 ,01571 1.0001 5.6L2 .9999 .031i,2 .O3II42 ,000 ,9999 .01571 20,000
.002600 .0000121,8 .OI63I4 .01633 .OI63I4 1.0001 5.533 .9999 .03267 .03268 ,001 ,9999 .01633 18,1,90
.002700 .00001,579 .01696 .01696 ,01697 1,0001 5.1,29 .9999 .03393 .0339U .001 .9999 .01696 17,150
.002800 .000014925 .01759 .01759 .01759 1.0002 5.332 .9998 .03519 .03519 .001 .9999 ,01759 15,950
.002900 .000052814 .01822 .01822 .01822 1.0002 5.239 .9998 .036IU4 .036I45 ,001 .9999 ,01822 114,870

.003000 .00005652 .01885 .01885 .01885 1.0002 5.151 .9998 ,03770 .03771 .Od .9999 .01685 13,890
.003100 .00006039 .OI9I48 .OI9I48 .019148 1.0002 5.067 .9996 .03896 .03897 .001 .9999 ,019147 13,010
.003200 .000061,35 .02011 .02010 .02011 1,0002 U.987 .9996 .01,021 .01,022 ,001 ,9999 ,02010 12,210
.003300 .0000681a .02073 .02073 .02073 1,0002 1,.911 .9998 .01,11,7 ,omU8 ,001 .9999 .02073 11,1,80
.0031400 .00007262 ,02136 .02136 ,02136 1.0002 U.838 .9998 .01,273 ,01,271, .001 .9998 ,02136 10,820

.003500 .00007697 .02199 .02199 ,02199 1.0002 14.769 .9998 .01,398 .01,399 ,001 ,9996 .02199 10,210
.003600 .000081140 .02262 .02262 ,02262 1.0003 1,.702 .9997 .01,521. .01,525 .001 .9998 ,02261 9,6U8
.003700 .00006599 .02325 .023214 .02325 1.0003 I4.638 .99^7 .01650 .0U652 .001 .9998 .0232I4 9,131,
.003800 .00009071 .02388 .02387 .02388 1.0003 U.577 .9997 .0U775 .01,777 ,001 ,9998 .02387 8,660
.033900 .00009551 .02U50 .021,50 .021,51 1.0003 I4.SI8 .9997 .01,901 .01,903 .001 ,9998 ,021,149 8,221

.OOUOOO .0001005 .02513 .02513 .02513 1.0003 l,,l462 .9997 .05027 .05029 ,001 .9998 ,02511 7,815
.ooUioo .0001056 .02576 .02576 .02576 1,0003 I4.I4O7 .05152 .051 5I4 ,001 .9998 .02571, 7,1439
.9997
.001j200 .0001108 .02639 ,02638 .02639 1.0003 U.3514 .9997 .05278 .05280 ,001 .9998 ,02637 7,090
.001)300 .0001161 .02702 ,02701 .02702 l.OOOl, I,. 303 .9996 .05101, .051,06 .001 .9998 .02700 6, 7614
.OOlillOO .0001216 ,02765 .02761, ,02765 l.OOOl, 1,.251, .9996 .05529 .05531 ,002 .9997 ,02763 6,1460

.OOltSOO .0001272 .02827 .02827 ,02828 l.OOOl, 1,.207 .9996 .05655 .05658 .002 .9997 ,02 825 6,176
.ooli6on .0001329 .02890 .02889 .02890 l.OOOl, 14.161 .9996 .05781 ,05781, .002 .9997 ,02 688 5,911
.O0li700 .0001387 .02953 .02952 .02953 l.OOOl, 1,.116 ,9996 .05906 .05909 .002 .9997 .02951 5,662
.ooWoo .0001U47 .03016 .03015 .03016 i.oooS I4.073 .9995 .06032 .06035 ,002 ,9997 ,03011, 5,1,29
,00li900 .0001508 .03079 .03078 .03079 1.0005 1.032 .9995 .06158 .06161 .002 ,9997 .03076 5,209

.ooSooo .0001570 .031i42 .031U. .0311t3 i.oooS 3.991 .9995 .06283 .06287 ,002 ,9997 .03139 5,003
.005100 .0001631, .O320I1 .03203 .03205 1.0005 3.951 .9995 .061K)9 .061a3 ,002 .9997 .03202 U,809
.005200 .0001699 .03267 .03266 .0326S 1.0005 3.913 .9995 .06535 .06539 .002 .9996 .03265 14,626
.005300 .00017611 .03330 .03329 .03331 1.0005 3.876 .9995 .06660 •O66o5 ,002 .9996 .03328 l4,U53
.oo51i00 .0001832 .03393 .03392 .03M 1,0006 3.8UO .999I4 .06786 .06791 ,002 .9996 .03391 li,290

.005500 .0001900 .03I1S6 .03U5S .03liS7 1.0006 3.805 .999I1 .069U .O69I6 ,002 -9996 .03151, I4.13S
.005600 .0001970 .03519 .03517 .03520 1.0006 3.771 .999U .07037 .0701,2 ,002 .9996 ,03517 3,969
.005700 .000201a .03581 .03580 .03582 1.0006 3.738 .999I4 .07163 .07169 .003 .9996 .03579 3,851
.005800 .0002112 .0361*11 .036W .0361,5 1.0007 3.706 .9993 .07288 .O729I4 .003 .9996 , 0361a 3,719
.005900 .0002186 .03707 .03705 .03708 1.0007 3.675 .9993 .07lal4 .O71i20 ,003 .9995 .03703 3,59U

.006000 .0002261 .03770 .03768 ,03771 1.0007 3.61J, .9993 .0751,0 .0751,7 ,003 .9995 .03766 3,1475
.006100 .0002337 .03833 .03831 .03831, 1.0007 3.611, ,9993 ,07665 .07672 .003 .9995 .03829 3,363
.006200 .OOO2UII1 .03896 .03891, .03897 1.0008 3.581, .9992 .07791 .07798 .003 .9995 .03892 3,25s
.006300 .00021492 .03958 .03956 .03959 i.oooe 3.556 .9992 .07917 .07925 .003 .9995 .03951, 3,153
.006(iOO .0002570 .oboa ,01,019 .01,022 1.000a 3.528 .9992 .0801,2 .08050 ,003 .9995 .OI4OI7 3,055

.006500 .0002653 .oiioaii .014062 .01,085 I.oooe ,501 .9992 .08168 .08177 .003 .999I4 ,0lK)80 2,962
.006600 .«X«73S .0(iUi7 .OlOU .01,11,8 1.C009 .1,75 .9991 .06291, ,08303 .003 .999I1 .Oial,2 2,873
.006700 .0002819 . 01,2 10 ,0li2O7 .Ol,2U 1.0009 .141,9 .9991 .081a9 .081428 .001, ,99914 .01,201, 2,768
.006800 .000290(1 .01,273 .01,270 .01,271, 1.0009 .1,23 .9991 ,085U5 .08555 .001, .999li .01,267 2,707
.006900 .0002990 .01,335 .Oli333 .01,336 1.0009 3,398 .9991 .08671 .08681 .001, .999I4 ,01,330 2,629

.007000 .0003077 .01,398 .Oil 395 .OU399 1.0010 3.37li .9990 .06796 .08807 .001, ,999li ,01,392 2,551
.007100 .0003165 .01Jj61 .OUiSe .OI,l<62 l.OOlfl 3.350 .9990 .08922 .08933 .001, .9993 ,Ol4U55 2,l483
.007200 .OOO325I4 .01,5214 .0!i521 .01,525 1.0010 3.327 .9989 .0901,8 ,09060 .001, .9993 .OI4518 2,U5
.007300 .OOO33I46 .0l45«7 .Oli581i .01,589 l.OOU 3. 301, .9989 .09173 ,09185 .001, .9993 .014581 2,3l49
.007IjOO .OOO3I439 .Oli650 .QI16I46 .01,652 1.0011 3.281 .9989 .09299 ,09312 .001, .9993 .0I,6U1, 2,286

.007500 .0003532 .OI4712 .01709 ,01,711, l.OOU 3.260 .9989 .09I425 ,091,38 .0014 .9993 .01,706 2,226
.007600 .0003627 .OI477S .01,772 .01,777 1.0011 3,23» .9989 ,09550 .09565 .005 .9992 .01,768 2,167
.007700 .0003722 .014838 .01,831, .OI18I1O 1.0012 3.217 .9988 .09676 ,09681 .005 .9992 .01,830 2,112
.007800 .0003820 .01,901 .01.897 .01,903 1.0012 3.197 .9988 .09802 .09617 .005 .9992 .01,693 2,058
.007900 .0003918 .01,9614 .01,960 .01,966 1.0012 3.176 .9988 .09927 .099U3 .005 .9992 .01,956 2,006

C-18
Table C-2. Continued.
d/L
Table C-2. Continued.
d/L
Table C-2. Continued.
d/L
Table C-2. Continued.

d/L
Table C-2. Continued.

d/L dA„
Table C-2. Continued.
Table C-2. Continued.
Table C-2. Continued.
Table C-2. Continued.
Table C-2. Concluded.
Table C-3. Deepwater wavelength (Lq) and velocity (Cq)
as a function of wave period

T
200 250 300 500
Wavelength, L ( m)

1800 2000
Wavelength, L(ft} after Wiegel. R.L., "Oscillatory Waves," U.S. Army, Beach Erosion Board,
Bulletin, Special Issue No. I.July 1948.

Plate C-2. Relationship between wave period, length, and depth (upper
graph shows metric, lower graph English units).

C-31
t3
a

Ho
u
0)
a.

u •
0) '-s
4-1 (0
M 4J
O -H
M 3
4-1 J3
O CO
•H
CO ^
0) 00
> C
to w
u
o 00

4-1 (1)

0) 4-1

(s)i 'pouaj BABM o


t3 4J
c
a

4J 4-1

00V
a a
(U
H to
3
« o
T> x:
O 09
•H
)-l 4J

a (U

> (U
td^
S 4-1
c o
0) 4-1
(U
*
4J
-5
Oi
(U to
XI M
60

•H
x: x:
CO 4-1

C 00
o c
•H (U
4J iH
<0 Q)
M
OJ
>
to
Oi 3

U
I

(U
4J
to

If) <a- ro cvj

(S) I'pouad 3ADM

C-32
u
•rH
U
u
%
CO
3
o
CO

4-1
« 3

i ~
(U

o
u
j:
o.
CO
l-i

00

4-)

a,
0)
XI

13
C
CO

(SAi)O 'M!30|3/( BAB/IA

^MO 'AJ!00|8A SABM

C-33
IP
Table C-4. Conversion factors: English to metric (SI) units of measurement

The following conversion factors adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense are those published by ttie American Society for Testlnjj and
Materials (ASTM) (Standard for Metric Practice, December 1979), except that additional uerlved conversion factors have been added. The metric
units and conversion factors adopted by ASTM are based on the "International System of Units" (designated SI) which has been fixed by the
International Committee for Weights and Measures.

For most scientific and technical work It is generally accepted that the metric SI system of units Is superior to all other systems of
units. The SI Is the most widely accepted and used language for scientific and technical data and specifications.

In the SI system the unit of mass is the kJ,logram (kg) and the unit of force is the newton (N). N is defined as tlie force whicli, when
applied to a mass of 1 kg, gives the mass an acceleration of 1 m/s .

Former metric systems used kilogram-force as the force unit and this has resulted in the conversion of pound-force to kllo^ram-torce In
,

many present-day situations, particularly in expressing the weight of a body. In the SI system the weight of a body Is correctly ex^jressed m
newtons. Uhen the value for weight Is encountered expressed in kilograms, it Is best to first convert It Into newtons by multiplying kilograms
by 9.80665 This provides consistent usage of the SI system, and will help to eliminate errors in derived units.

Multiply

Length

Inches 2.34 . centimeters


feet . 0.304 8 meters
yards . 0.914 4^ meters
fathoms . 1.828 8 meters
statute miles (U.S.) 1 609.4 meters
. 1.609 34 kilometers
nautical miles 1 852.0 1 meters
1.852 kilometers

Area

square Inches 6.4516 square centimeters


square feet 0.092 903 . . . . square meters
square yards 0.836 127 square meters
acres 0.404 687 hectares
4 046.87 square meters
square miles (U.S. statute) 2.589 99 square kilometers

Volume

cubic Inches .... 16.387 I cubic centimeters


cubic feet . 0.028 316 8 . . . . cubic meters
cubic yards 0.764 555 cubic meters
cubic yards per foot . 2.508 38 cubic meters per meter

Liquid Capacity

fluid ounces (U.S.) 29.573 5 cubic centimeters


. 29.573 5 milliliters
liquid pints (U.S.) . . 0.473 176 liters
quarts (U.S.) . . . . . 0.946 353 liters
gallons (U.S.) . . . . . 3.785 41 liters
cubic feet . 28.316 8 liters
acre-feet 1 233.48 cubic meters

Mass

ounces (avoirdupois) 28.349 5 grams


pounds (avoirdupois) 0.453 592 37^ kilograms
1
slugs U.593 902 9 kilograms

Mass Per Unit Time (Mass Flow)


Table C-4. Concluded.

Multiply
.

Table C-5. Phi-millimeter conversion table

Table C-5 is reproduced from the Journal of Sedimentary Petrotogut with


the permission of the author and publisher. It was taken from the Harry G.
Page, "Phi-Millimeter Conversion Table," published in Volume 25, pp. 285-292,
1955, and includes that part of the table from -5.99 (about 63 mm) to +5.99
(about 0.016 mm) which provides a sufficient range for beach sediments. The
complete table extends from about -6.65 (about 100 mm) to +10.00 (about 0.001
mm)

The first column of the table shows the absolute value of phi. If it is
positive, the corresponding diameter value is shown in the second column. If
phi is negative, the corresponding diameter is shown in the third column of
the table. In converting diameter values in millimeters to their phi
equivalents, the closest phi value to the given diameter may be selected. It
is seldom necessary to express phi to more than two decimal places.

The conversion table is technically a table of negative logarithms to the


base 2, from the defining equation of phi: ^ = log„d where d is the
,

diameter in millimeters

Values of phi can also be determined with an electronic calculator having


scientific notation by use of of the following relationship:

lOg^gd
= -log d = -
<|)
2" , 2
l°SlO

The table begins on the following page.

C-38
Table C-5. Phi-millimeter conversion table

<t>
Table C-5. Continued.

«
Table C-5. Continued.

*
Table C-5. Concluded.

*
Table C-6. Values of slope angle <^ and cot tj) for various slopes.

Slope Angle Cot (X/Y) Slope (Y on X)

45°
ii^

^-^
-^^

Point Reyes National Seashore, California, 8 April 1969