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L 2: ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Environmental Concens on
Developmental projects
Revocation of  the  Environmental  Clearance  in  view  of  non-­
compliance  to  the  conditions  stipulated  while  according  
Environmental  Clearance  to  the  Captive  Power  Plant  at  
Lanjigarh,  Kalahandi,  Orissa  by  M/s  Vedanta  Aluminium  Limited,  
[August  31st,  2010].
Environmental Concens on
Developmental projects
POSCO  – India  Private  Limited,  Bhubaneswar  proposes  to  
setup  a  coal  based  integrated  Steel  Plant  south  of  Paradeep  
and  therefore  require  a  minor  port  to  handle  their  cargo.  
This  minor  port  requires  water  front  at  Jatadharmohan  creek  
near  Paradeep.   This  steel  plant  and  port  are  the  result  of  
Memorandum  of  Understanding  (MOU)  signed  by  POSCO,  
Korea  and  the  State  Government  of  Orissa  for  setting  up  a  steel  
plant  of  initial  capacity  of  4  Million  Tons  Per  Annum  (MPTA)  
expandable  to  12  MTPA  in  three  phases.  Stop  Work Order  in  
POSCO  dated  04th  August  2010.  [August  6th  2010]
Environmental Concens on
Developmental projects…
Aarpee  Iron  Ore  Mine  at  village  
Jambhunatha,  District  Bellary,  Karnataka  of  
M/s  Smt.  R.  Mallamma  -­ Suspension  of  
mining  activities regarding.  [August  19th  
2010]
Revocation  of  Environmental  Clearance to  
Careamol  Iron  Ore  Mine  at  village  Pirla,  Taluk  
Quepem,  District  South  Goa  August  26th  
2010]
What is EIA?
“an  important  procedure  for  ensuring  
that  the  likely  effects  of  new  
development  on  the  environment  are  
fully  understood  and  taken  into  account  
before  the  development  is  allowed  to  go  
ahead”
What is EIA?...
Environmental  Impact  Assessment  is  a  process,  
set  down  as  a  repeatable  series  of  steps  to  
be  taken,  to  allow  the  environmental  
consequences  of  a  proposed  development  to  
be  assessed.
The  environmental  consequences  have  to  be  
those  INCREMENTAL  effects  which  are  due  
to  the  proposed  development,  and  not  those  
which  are  due  to  the  passage  of  time  or  other  
developments  not  included  in  the  proposal.
Screening (does  the  project   Impact  assessment
require  EIA?) (interpreting   the  impacts)

Scoping (what  issues  and   Mitigation (what  can  be  done  to  
impacts  should  the  EIA  address?) alleviate  negative  impacts?)

Baseline  studies  (establish   EIS  preparation/review  


the  environmental  baseline) (document  the  EIA  findings)

Alternatives (consider  the   Public  consultation


different  approaches) (consult  general  public  and  NGOs)

Impact  prediction (forecast   Monitoring (monitor  impacts  


the  environmental  impacts) of  project)
Screening
Is  an  EIA  needed?
Many  projects  may  have  no  significant  
environmental  effects
A  screening  mechanism  seeks  to  
identify  those  projects  with  potentially  
significant  adverse  environmental  
effects
Screening
Two principal  approaches  to  screening:
l the  use  of  thresholds
l case-­by-­case  examination  against  criteria    

Under  the  EIA  Directive:


l EIA  is  mandatory for  projects  if  listed
l EIA  is  required  subject  to  some  conditions
Scoping
The  scope of  an  EIA  is  the  issues  and  
impacts  it  addresses
Scoping is  the  process  of  deciding  
which  of  a  project’s  possible  alternatives  
and  impacts  should  be  addressed  in  the  
EIA
An  EIA  should  focus  only  on  the  
significant issues  and  impacts
Scoping..
Scoping  is  carried  out  in  discussions  between  
the  developer,  the  competent  authority,  
relevant  agencies  and,  ideally,  the  public
Effective  scoping  enables  limited  resources  to  
be  allocated  to  best  effect  (i.e.  through  
investigation  of  only  the  most  significant  
impacts)
Scoping  is  not mandatory  under  the  EIA  
Directive
Baseline studies
Following  the  scoping  phase,  it  is  essential  to  
assemble  all  the  relevant  information  on  the  
current  status  of  the  environment
The  baseline  study  should  anticipate  the  
future  state  of  the  environment  assuming  the  
project  is  not  undertaken  -­ the  ‘no  action  
alternative’
This  provides  the  ‘baseline’ against  which  
future  impacts  can  be  assessed  
Baseline studies
Baseline  studies  should  be  undertaken  
for  each  alternative  site  so  that  the  
relative  severity  of  the  impacts  for  each  
alternative  can  be  assessed
New  field  work  may  necessary  (e.g.  
ecological  survey)  if  relevant  data  is  not  
already  available
Alternatives
EIA  is  ideally  undertaken  for  a  project  and its  
alternatives  (e.g.  different  locations,  scales,  
designs)
Alternatives  are  the  ‘raw  material’  of  EIA
The  US  Council  on  Environmental  Quality  
(CEQ)  has  described  the  discussion  of  
alternatives  as  the  ‘heart’  of  the  EIS
Many  EISs  fail  to  consider  alternatives
Impact assessment
Impact  assessment  involves  evaluating the  
significance of  the  impacts  identified
Significance  can  be  determined  through  
professional  judgement,  reference  to  
regulations  etc.
Potential  for  bias  in  determining  what  is  
significant
The  conclusions  of  the  impact  assessment  
can  ultimately  be  used  by  decision-­makers  
when  determining  the  fate  of  the  project  
application  
Mitigation
Negative  impacts  on  the  environment  
identified  during  the  EIA  can  be  alleviated  
through  mitigation  measures
The  mitigation  hierarchy:  
l -­ Avoid    
l -­Reduce  

l -­ Remedy  

l -­ Compensate  
l – Adopt
EIS preparation / review
The  Environmental  Impact  Statement  
(EIS) is  a  formal  document  which  
includes  information  on  the  
development  and  information  relating  to  
screening,  scoping,  baseline  studies,  
alternatives  etc.
Common  requirement  to  include  a  non-­
technical  summary  
EIS preparation / review
Once  complete,  the  EIS  is  submitted  to  
the  competent  authority  (along  with  the  
planning  application)
The  EIS  is  often  reviewed (either  
formally  or  informally)  
The  review  enables  the  competent  
authority  to  decide  whether  the  EIA  is  
adequate,  accurate  and  unbiased    
Public consultation
The  EIA  Directive  provides  for  public  
consultation  on  the  application  for  
development  and  the  EIS    
Post-­project monitoring
Monitoring should  determine:
l the  accuracy  of  the  original  predictions
l the  degree  of  deviation  from  the  
predictions
l the  possible  reasons  for  any  deviations

l the  extent  to  which  mitigation  measures  


have  achieved  their  objectives    
What is in an EIS?
Non  Technical  Summary
Description  of  the  proposals
Assessment  of  Baseline  conditions
Assessment  of  no  development  
conditions
Assessment  of  conditions  with  
development
Mitigation  proposals
What is in an EIS?
All  conditions  assessed  for  

Construction  phase
Operation  phase
Closure  and  post  closure  phase
Construction Phase
Temporary
Higher  levels  of  impact  usually  deemed  
acceptable
Difficult  to  predict
VERY  difficult  to  enforce  conditions
Usually  well  influenced  by  effective  
consultation
Operation Phase
Long  Term
Much  less  room  for  compromise  on  standards
Relatively  simpler  to  predict
Less  difficult  to  enforce  conditions,  as  the  
conditions  are  on  the  project  owner
Usually  less  influenced  by  effective  
consultation  at  scheme  level,  more  at  detailed  
level
Consents Process
Air Quality
l Oxides  of  nitrogen  (NOx)
l Oxides  of  sulphur  (SOx)
l Ozone  O3
l Particulates  PM10   and  now  
PM2.5
l Particulates  (dust)
l Odour
Water Quality
Aquifer  protection  zones
River  designations
Ecology  impacts
Hazard  assessment  from  spills  etc
Forestry and Agriculture
Classification  of  land  
Severance  and  viability
Orphaning  of  land  parcels
Isolating  buildings  from  fields  etc
Opportunities  for  landscaping  on  
isolated  pieces  of  land
Ecology

Assessment  of  ecological  value


Inventory  of  flora  and  fauna
Rare  species
Protected  species
Impact  of  severance,  disruption  etc
Geology and Soils
Assessment  of  geological  value
Site  protection
Acoustics and Vibration
More  than  half  of  the  citizens  live  in  noisy  surroundings  
One  third  of  Europeans  have  disturbed  sleep  due  to  
noise  
Prolonged   exposure  to  noise  can  cause  hypertension  
and  heart  disease  
Noise  above  80db  may  cause  aggressive  behaviour  
A  link  between  noise  and  mental  health  is  suggested  by  
the  demand  for  sleeping  pills   and  tranquillizers  
An  adult's  ear  can  tolerate  an  occasional  noise  level  of  up  
to  140db  
A  child's   ear  should  never  be  exposed  to  noise  above  
Heritage and
Archaeology
Site  categorisation  
l (World  Heritage  Site,  Conservation  Area)
Locally  important  buildings  without  
designation
County  Archaeology
Traffic Impact
Assessment
Traffic  flows  generally  on  roads
Cars,  taxis,  trucks,  buses,  cycles
Pedestrian  journeys
Public/private  transport  split
Congestion/traffic  management
Proposed  mitigation  measures
Can EIA contribute to
Sustainable
Development ??