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MA[INSKO IN@ENERSTVO ‡ NAU^NO SPISANIE


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
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MA[INSKO IN@ENERSTVO ‡ NAU^NO SPISANIE
MA[INSKI FAKULTET, SKOPJE, REPUBLIKA MAKEDONIJA

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL


FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, SKOPJE, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Mech. Eng. Sci. J. Vol. No. pp. Skopje


26 1 1‡38 2007
Ma{. in`. nau~. spis. God. Broj str. Skopje

SODR@INA

377 ‡ Dame Korunoski, Ko~o An|u{ev, Hristijan Mickoski


Optimizaciona sinteza na ramni bregovi mehanizmi so oscilatorni ramni
vodeni ~lenovi so pomo{ na MATLAB........................................................................ 1‡7

378 ‡ Marjan Gavriloski, Bekir Hamidi, Zoran Bogatinoski


Analiza na stabilnosta na tenkoyidni konstrukcii .......................................... 9‡15

379 ‡ Franc Čuš, Uroš Zuperl


Proizvodstven menaxment vo malite i sredni pretprijatija............................ 17‡23

380 ‡ Zoran Ani{i}, Valentina Ge~evska


Konfiguratori na proizvod kako alat za podobruvawe na konkurentnosta
na mali i sredni kompanii .................................................................................... 25‡32

381 ‡ Marija Sejmenova-Gi~evska


Ulogata na Nacionalniot centar na INIS vo prezentacijata
na makedonskite nuklearni i nuklearno orientirani nauki ............................ 33‡37
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING – SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL EGINEERING, SKOPJE, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

MA[INSKO IN@ENERSTVO ‡ NAU^NO SPISANIE


MA[INSKI FAKULTET, SKOPJE, REPUBLIKA MAKEDONIJA

Mech. Eng. Sci. J. Vol. No. pp. Skopje


26 1 1‡38 2007
Ma{. in`. nau~. spis. God. Broj str. Skopje

CONTENTS

377 – Dame Korunoski, Kočo Angjušev, Hristijan Mickoski


Cam design optimization of planar cam mechanisms with oscillating flat-face
followers using MATLAB............................................................................................ 1–7

378 – Marjan Gavriloski, Beqir Hamidi, Zoran Bogatinoski


Stability analysis for thin-walled constructions ................................................................ 9–15

379 – Franc Čuš, Uroš Zuperl


Produktionsmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen ............................... 17–23

380 – Zoran Anišić, Valentina Gečevska


Product configurators as a tool for increasing competitiveness of small and medium
enterprises..................................................................................................................... 25–32

381 – Marija Sejmenova-Gichevska


The role of the National INIS Center in presenting Macedonian nuclear
and nuclear related sciences .......................................................................................... 33–37
Mechanical Engineering – Scientific Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 1–7 (2007)
CODEN: MINSC5 – 377 ISSN 1857–5293
Received: March 30, 2007 UDK: 531.8 : 621.01] : 004.942
Accepted: June 20, 2007
Original scientific paper

CAM DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF PLANAR CAM MECHANISMS


WITH OSCILLATING FLAT-FACE FOLLOWERS USING MATLAB

Dame Korunoski, Kočo Angjušev, Hristijan Mickoski


Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, "SS. Cyril and Methodius" University,
P.O Box 464, MK-1001 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
dame@mf.edu.mk / koco@mf.edu.mk / hristijanm@mf.edu.mk

A b s t r a c t: The problem of cam-profile determina- the underlying kinematics constraints, but it is


tion and its optimization, as pertaining to cam mechanisms structurally inadmissible or physically unfeasible.
with oscillating flat-face followers, is analyzed in this paper.
In fact, the profile synthesis procedure can gener-
For this type of followers the aim is minimization of the
area of the cam profile by properly choosing the eccentricity ate curves that do not close, so that it is an unfeasi-
of the follower face and the minimum value of the follower ble design, or curves that, although closed, but
angle of rotation. contain cusps. The cusps are inadmissible because
This paper shows MATLAB program based on “Sym- of the large contact stresses that they produce, and
bolic Math Toolbox” that provides unconstrained cam-size hence should be eliminated early in the design
minimization and calculates an optimum design parameter β stage. In the case of oscillating flat face followers,
and nondimensional eccentricity e for cusps avoidance. The
the conditions for cam size minimization and cusp
input program parameters are any function that describes a
follower-displacement program, rise of a follower and four elimination are discussed and analyzed below in
phases such as: lower dwell, rise phase, upper dwell, and re- this paper.
turn phase. So the output parameter is the optimum values of
the design parameter β and nondimensional eccentricity e
and synthesized cam-profile. The program provides a visual
graphical presentation of a synthesized cam-profile, its anima-
2. KINEMATICS RELATIONS
tion and calculates its geometric properties.
It will be assumed that the follower displace-
Key words: cam; cusp; eccentricity; MATLAB ment program is given as a sum of a constant β, a
design parameter to be determined, and a positive-
semidefinite function σ(ϕ), whose minimum value
is zero, and its maximum value being equal to the
1. INTRODUCTION amplitude of the follower oscillation, Δφ. Let us
consider Fig. 1, where OF and OC are lines at-
tached to the fixed frame and to the cam respec-
The process of systematically choosing the
tively. Moreover, e is the follower offset-segment
mechanism parameters in order to produce a given
PQ, a parameter to be determined, and ϕ, φ are the
displacement program of the follower, while
angular displacements of the cam plate and the fol-
minimizing the cam size and regarding all impor-
lower, respectively:
tant constraints of mechanism variables, is called
cam design optimization, which is the subject of φ (ϕ ) = β + σ (ϕ ) , 0 < ϕ < 2π , (1a)
analysis in this paper.
But, it is possible to choose values of the and hence,
mechanism parameters to produce theoretically the
prescribed motion of the follower which satisfies φ ' (ϕ ) = σ ' (ϕ ) , φ '' (ϕ ) = σ '' (ϕ ) . (1b)
2 D. Korunoski, K. Angjušev, H. Mickoski

Likewise, from the geometry of the quadrilat-


eral OPQR and, upon equating the projection of
the segment OR with the sum of the projections of
the segments OP and PQ onto the normal ON of
Fig. 1, we can readily derive the relation
ρ sin(ϕ + φ + θ ) = l sin φ + e , (7)
and next, we rewrite eqs. (6 & 7) as
φ ' cos φ
ρ cos θ cos μ − ρ sin θ sin μ = l ,
1+ φ'

ρ cos θ sin μ + ρ sin θ cos μ = l sin φ + e ,


where
Fig. 1. Layout of an oscillating flat-face follower
cam mechanism μ = ϕ +φ . (7a)
Now, last eqs. can be rewritten in a matrix
From the triangle OSR of Fig. 1, and upon form,
application of the sines law, we obtain Q ( μ ) p(ϕ ) = r (ϕ ) , (8)
u ρ
= . (2) where
π π
sin(γ − ) sin(φ + )
2 2 ⎡cos μ − sin μ ⎤
Q(μ ) = ⎢
cos μ ⎥⎦
, (9a)
But, from the same figure, ⎣ sin μ
γ = π − (ϕ + φ + θ ) . (3a)
⎡ x(ϕ ) ⎤ ⎡ξ (ϕ )⎤
And hence, p(ϕ ) = ⎢ ⎥ , r (ϕ ) = ⎢ ⎥, (9b)
⎣ y (ϕ )⎦ ⎣η (ϕ )⎦
π
sin(γ − ) = cos(ϕ + φ + θ ) . (3b)
2
φ ' cos φ
ξ =l , (9c)
Upon substitution of eq. (3b) into eq. (2), we 1+φ'
obtain
u cos φ = ρ cos(ϕ + φ + θ ) . (4) η = l sin φ + e . (9d)
Since the matrix Q is orthogonal, from eq. (8)
According to the Aronhold-Kennedy Theo- we obtain
rem, the point S is the instant center of the follower
with respect to the cam. As a consequence, the ve- p(ϕ ) = QT ( μ ) r (ϕ ) , (10)
locity of the point S regarded as a point of the cam,
i.e.
s&C , equals that of the same points when consid-
ered a point of the follower, s& F , φ ' cos φ
x=l cos μ + (l sin φ + e) sin μ ,
1+ φ'
uϕ& = (l − u )φ& . (5a) φ ' cos φ
(11)
y = −l sin μ + (l sin φ + e) cos μ .
From which we can readily solve for u, i.e., 1+ φ'
φ ' (ϕ )
uϕ& = l . (5b) While eqs. (11) allow the calculation of the
1 + φ ' (ϕ ) Cartesian coordinates of actual points of the cam
profile, it will prove convenient to introduce non-
Now, eq. (4) can be rewritten as dimensional variables, as shown bellow,
φ ' cos φ e x y ξ η
ρ cos(ϕ + φ + θ ) = l . (6) e= , x= , y= , ξ = , η =
1+ φ' l l l l l

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 1–7 (2007)


Cam design optimization of planar cam mechanisms with oscillating flat-face followers using MATLAB 3

and hence, eqs. (11) can be rewritten in a matrix where


form,
s1 = sin σ , c1 = cos σ ,
φ ' cos φ (16)
x= cos μ + (sin φ + e ) sin μ , s2 = sin 2σ , c2 = cos 2σ ,
1+ φ'
(11b)
φ ' cos φ φ '2
y=− sin μ + (sin φ + e ) cos μ . A1 = , (17)
1+ φ' 1+ φ '
Vectors p(ϕ) and r(ϕ), introduced in eq. (9b), φ"
are now redefined as their non-dimensional coun- A2 = , (18)
(1 + φ ' ) 2
terparts, namely

⎡ x (ϕ ) ⎤ ⎡ξ (ϕ ) ⎤ A3 = 1 + φ ' . (19)
p(ϕ ) = ⎢ ⎥ , r (ϕ ) = ⎢ ⎥. (11c)
⎣ y (ϕ )⎦ ⎣η (ϕ )⎦ Once β has been found, the eccentricity e
can be computed by the expression,
The shape of the profile is totally determined
by e and the motion program, the actual size of 2π e + U 2 sin β + U1 cos β = 0 . (20)
the cam being determined by the scaling parameter l.
However, from eq. (1a), φ(ϕ) contains the pa-
rameter β, which must also be found. To summa- 4. CURVATURE CONSTRAINTS
rize, there are two parameters, e and β, to mini-
mize the size of the non-dimensional cam. Regarding to [1], the curvature is given by
expression

3. UNCONSTRAINED CAM-SIZE p'T (ϕ ) E p" (ϕ )


k= 3
. (21)
MINIMIZATION p' (ϕ )

According to the [1], [2], the problem has Differentiation of both sides of eq. (8) with
been reduced to finding the roots of an equation, respect to ϕ yields
t 4 − Ct 3 − 6t 2 + Ct + 1 = 0 , (12) p' (ϕ ) = Q T ( μ )[r' (ϕ ) − μ ' (ϕ ) E r (ϕ )] , (22)
where
where
β 2B
t = tan , C= 3, (13) ⎡0 − 1⎤
2 B1 E=⎢ ⎥,
⎣1 0 ⎦
B1 = 2πU 4 − U1U 2 , (14)
and differentiation of both sides of eq. (22) with
B3 = 4πU 3 − U 22 + U12 (15) respect to ϕ , we obtain

and p" (ϕ ) = QT ( μ )[r" (ϕ ) − μ" (ϕ ) E r (ϕ ) −


(23)
2π 2π 2π 2 μ' (ϕ ) E r' (ϕ ) − μ' 2 (ϕ )r (ϕ )]
U1 = ∫ A1s1dϕ − ∫ A2c1dϕ − 2 ∫ A3 s1dϕ ,
0 0 0 where

2π 2π 2π μ ' (ϕ ) = 1 + σ ' (ϕ )
U 2 = ∫ A1c1dϕ + ∫ A2 s1dϕ − 2 ∫ A3c1dϕ , μ " (ϕ ) = φ " (ϕ ) = σ " (ϕ ).
0 0 0

2π 2π 2π From eq. (11c), r and its derivatives are


U 3 = ∫ A1c2 dϕ − ∫ A2 s2 dϕ − ∫ A3c2 dϕ
0 0 0 ⎡ξ ⎤ ⎡ξ '⎤ ⎡ξ "⎤
r (ϕ ) = ⎢ ⎥ , r' = ⎢ ⎥ , r" = ⎢ ⎥ (24)
2π 2π 2π ⎣η ⎦ ⎣η '⎦ ⎣η "⎦
U 4 = ∫ A1s2 dϕ − ∫ A2c2 dϕ − ∫ A3 s2 dϕ ,
0 0 0 Now,

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 1‡7 (2007)


4 D. Korunoski, K. Angjušev, H. Mickoski

⎡ξ '+ μ 'η ⎤ From eq. (29b), it is apparent that k becomes


r' − μ ' E r = ⎢ ⎥, negative if 1 + φ ' < 0 . However, changes in the cur-
⎣η '− μ ' ξ ⎦ vature sign are not physically possible for this type
but from eqs.(7a, 9c & d) it yields of cams and hence we must constrain k to be posi-
tive, i.e.,
η '− μ ' ξ = 0 ,
1+ φ' > 0 .
and hence, the foregoing expression reduces to
Moreover, k becomes unbounded if F (ϕ )
⎡ξ '+ μ 'η ⎤ vanishes. Geometrically, this means that the cam
r' − μ ' E r = ⎢ ⎥, profile has a cusp, which is undesirable bacause of
⎣ 0 ⎦ the large contact stresses that it produces. Thus, we
will have to enforce the condition that F (ϕ ) does
thus
not have a change of sign.
⎡ξ '+ μ 'η ⎤
p' (ϕ ) = QT ( μ ) ⎢ ⎥, (25a)
⎣ 0 ⎦ 5. CONCLUSION
and
Based on [1], [2] and [4], we have made a
MATLAB program that provides unconstrained
⎡ξ "+ μ "η + μ 'η '⎤
p" (ϕ ) = QT ( μ ) ⎢
[ ]
⎥. (25b) cam-size minimization and calculates an optimum
⎣ − μ ' ξ '+ μ 'η ⎦ design parameter β and non-dimensional eccentric-
ity e for cusps avoidance. The program also pro-
Substitution of eqs. (25a & b) into eq. (21) vides animation of an optimized and synthesized
and after reducing, yields cam-profile and calculation of its geometric prop-
erties as well as centroid coordinates, cam area and
μ'
k= . (26) principal moments of inertia. For one example it is
ξ '+ μ 'η presented in the appendix shown bellow.

From the definition of μ and ξ , i.e.,


REFERENCES
φ ' cos φ
μ =ϕ +φ , ξ = , (27) [1] J. Angeles, C. S. Lopez-Cajun: Optimization of cam
1+ φ'
mechanisms, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.
their derivatives are readily computed [2] J. Angeles, C. S. Lopez-Cajun: Optimal Synthesis of Cam
Mechanisms with Oscillating Flat-Face Followers.
Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1–6
μ' = 1+ φ' , (28a) (1988).
[3] A. Jeffrey: Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists,
φ '2 (1 + φ ' ) sin φ + φ " cos φ Van Nostrand-Reinhold, London, 1989.
ξ '= − . (28b) [4] The MathWorks, Inc.: Matlab, User manual.
(1 + φ ' ) 2

Upon substitution of the above equations into


APPENDIX
eq. (26) and after simplification, we obtain
a) Figure 2: MATLAB program for cam de-
(1 + φ ' )3
k= , (29a) sign optimization.
F (ϕ ) b) Figure 3: Optimization variables.
where c) Figure 4: Determination of the cam profile.
d) Figure 5: Determination of the geometric
F (ϕ ) = φ " cos φ + (1 + φ ' ) ⋅ properties of cam.
(29b)
⋅ [(1 + 2φ ' ) sin φ + e (1 + φ ' ) 2 ]. e) Figure 6: Principal axes of inertia.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 1–7 (2007)


Cam design optimization of planar cam mechanisms with oscillating flat-face followers using MATLAB 5

Fig. 2. MATLAB program for cam design optimization

Fig. 3. Optimization variables

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 1‡7 (2007)


6 D. Korunoski, K. Angjušev, H. Mickoski

Fig. 4. Determinaton of the cam profile

Fig. 5. Determinaton of the geometric properties of cam

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 1–7 (2007)


Cam design optimization of planar cam mechanisms with oscillating flat-face followers using MATLAB 7

Fig. 6. Principal axes of inertia ( 1 & 2 )

Rezime

OPTIMIZACIONA SINTEZA NA RAMNI BREGOVI MEHANIZMI SO OSCILATORNI


RAMNI VODENI ^LENOVI SO POMO[ NA MATLAB

Dame Korunoski, Ko~o An|u{ev, Hristijan Mickoski

Ma{inski fakultet, Univerzitet „Sv. Kiril i Metodij“


p. fah 464, MK-1001 Skopje, Republika Makedonija
dame@mf.edu.mk // koco@mf.edu.mk // hristijanm@mf.edu.mk

Klu~ni zborovi: breg; vrv; ekscentricitet; matlab (MATLAB)

Predmet na analiza vo ovoj trud e optimizacio- aspekt na nepostoewe na singulariteti na profilot


na sinteza na ramni bregovi mehanizmi so oscila- na bregot, t.e. to~ki vo koi bi se pojavile golemi
torni ramni vodeni ~lenovi. Kaj ovie mehanizmi os- kontaktni napregawa. Vleznite parametri se: koja i
novno e da se minimizira povr{inata zatvorena so da bilo funkcija koja go opi{uva zakonot na dvi`e-
profilot na bregot, so adekvaten izbor na ekscentri- we na vodeniot ~len, odot na vodeniot ~len i ~etiri
citetot na vodeniot ~len i so minimalna vrednost na fazi: fazata na dolno miruvawe, fazata na podigawe,
agolot na rotacija na vodeniot ~len. Vo trudot e na- fazata na gorno miruvawe i fazata na pribli`uva-
pravena MATLAB-programa, bazirana na “Symbolic we. Izleznite parametri se dizajn-parametarot β i
Math Toolbox”, koj presmetuva minimalni dimenzii na bezdimenzionalniot ekscentricitet e , profilot na
bregot, kako i optimalna vrednost na dizajn-parame- bregot, geometriskite karakteristiki na bregot, a
tarot β i bezdimenzionalniot ekscentricitet e , od mo`na e i animacija na rotacijata na bregot.

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 1‡7 (2007)


Mechanical Engineering – Scientific Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 9–15 (2007)
CODEN: MINSC5 – 378 ISSN 1857–5293
Received: October 15, 2007 UDK: 539.3 : 624.014.7
Accepted: October 30, 2007
Original scientific paper

STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR THIN-WALLED CONSTRUCTIONS

Marjan Gavriloski1, Beqir Hamidi2, Zoran Bogatinoski1


1
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, "SS. Cyril and Methodius" University,
P.O Box 464, MK-1001 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Priština
marjan@mf.ukim.edu.mk

A b s t r a c t: Stability of light constructions problem


for a general scalar discrete stochastic system is considered in ∂2w
this paper. Some elements of the structure, in practice, are
∂ x2 ∂ 2w
exposed to the axial dynamic pressure forces – periodical. K= ≈− (2)
2/3
These loads, in some conditions, can cause the loss of elastic ⎡ ⎛ ∂ ⎞2 ⎤ ∂ x2
or dynamic stability (resonance), which depends on the load ⎢1 + ⎜⎜ w ⎟⎟ ⎥
character, cross sectional geometry and the beam length. In ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎥
this paper, the light constructions with open cross section with ⎣ ⎦
a single symmetry axis, the conditions when the loss of elastic
and dynamic stability can be caused by simple resonance, as The additional working force can be caused
one of parameter have been analyzed. by the local curve (Fig. 1-b):

Key words: elastic and dynamic stability; parameter reso- 1 ∂ 2w


nance; excitation frequency light constructions;
q A ( x)dx = Fdϕ = F dx = FKdx = − F 2 dx →
critical bucking force
r ∂x
∂2w
q A ( x) = − F (3)
∂x 2
1. BASIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
If this working force is added in equations
As given in [1, 2, 3, 4] the deflection line equations, (1), the General differential equations of the bend-
for the beam flexible in one plane, can be expressed (in ing theory of the second order will be determined
accordance with the theory of the first order) as: (in conditions, when the beam bending and buck-
ling are in the single plane ) as:
∂4w
EI = q (x ) , (1)
∂ x4

where:
EI – the flexural stiffness,
w(x) – the displacement measured from the
truss axes,
q(x) – continual load (Fig. 1).
When the beam is exposed to the eccentric
axial pressure force F, the buckling problem in
accordance with the theory of the second order ap-
pears [4]. The angle of the segment dx is indicated
as dϕ and dx = rdϕ, where r is the local radius of
the curve, and is reciprocal to r = 1/K:
Fig. 1.
10 M. Gavriloski, B. Hamidi, Z. Bogatinoski

∂4w ∂2w EIy, EIz – the flexural stiffness referred to y,


EI = q ( x) + q A ( x) = q ( x) − F → i.e. z axis,
∂x 4 ∂x 2
EIw – area rigidity, and
∂4w ∂2w GIz – the torsional stiffness.
EI +F = q ( x) (4)
∂x 4 ∂x 2 The beam is exposed to the eccentric pressure
force F, in the plane of symmetry, as shown in Fig.
Equations for the three axial bending and tor- 2. The fiber stress in the node y, z, in the cross sec-
sion of the thin-walled beams with open profile tion, can be expressed as:
and single symmetry axis of the cross section, ex-
posed to eccentric pressure loads, can be obtained F M
σ= + z, (8)
analogously. The particle of the beam with dx A Iy
length, exposed to the external loads qz, qy and mt,
is shown on Fig. 2. where M = Fez is the flexural momentum caused
by the eccentric force F. In three axial bending and
buckling, the lateral displacements – buckling v(x)
and torsional ϕ(x), can be caused on distance x
(Fig. 2-c). The fiber which goes through the node
y, z, becomes the three axial curves. The node dis-
placements, in the directions of y and z axes, are:
[ v − ( z − a z )ϕ ], i.e. [ w + yϕ ] . (9)
In accordance with equations (3), the working
forces caused by the local stress effect σdA, in the
direction of y and z axes, are:
∂2
− σdA [v − ( z − az )ϕ ] ,
∂x 2
∂2
− σdA [ w + yϕ ] . (10)
∂x 2
Fig. 2.
Integrating along the cross section area A, the
resulting local effect, as well as the torsion mo-
The beam supported by two fork – supports, mentum about the torsion center „A”, can be de-
exposed to the axial pressure force F, eccentric to termined:
the center of mass with ez distance of it, is shown
∂2
on Fig. 2-b. The value az is the distance between
the shearing center from the center of the mass.
q y , A = ∫ −σ [v − ( z − az )ϕ ] dA , (11)
A ∂x 2
The deformations in direction of coordinate axes y,
z are v, w, respectively, and the torsion angle about ∂2
x axis is ϕ. q z , A = ∫A −σ [w + yϕ ] dA , (12)
∂x 2
The basic equations, according to the theory
of the first order, are [6, 1]: ∂2
mt , A = − ∫A −σ [v − ( z − az )ϕ ] ⋅ (z − az ) dA +
∂ 4w ∂x 2
EI y = qz , (5)
∂x 4 ∂2
+ ∫ −σ [w + yϕ ]⋅ ydA . (13)
∂ 4v A ∂x 2
EI z = qy , (6)
∂x 4 Integrating the equations (11), (12) and (13),
and taking the equation (8) into consideration, the
∂ 4ϕ ∂ 2ϕ following can be obtained:
EI w − GI = mt , (7)
∂x 4 ∂x 2 ∂ 2v ∂ 2ϕ
q y ,A = −F − (ez − a z )F , (14)
where: ∂x 2 ∂x 2

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 9–15 (2007)


Stability analysis for thin-walled constructions 11

∂2w plane of symmetry, can be obtained. The compo-


qz ,A = −F 2
, (15) nents which describe the rotation of the cross sec-
∂x
tion about its main axes and its deplanation too,
can be neglected. The inertial forces projections on
mt , A = −(a z − ez )F
∂ 2v
∂x 2
(
− r 2 + 2 β z ez F ) ∂ 2ϕ
∂x 2
, (16) directions y and z axes, as well as the inertial mo-
mentum about the shearing center (reduced to the
where: length of the beam) can be expressed as [7]:
r 2 = i 2p + a z2 , (17) ∂ 2v ∂ 2ϕ
q y ,in = − m − ma z , (23)
∂t 2 ∂t 2
βz =
1 2
(
2
∫ z y + z dA − a z ,
2I y A
) (18) ∂ 2w
q z ,in = − m , (24)
∂t 2
I y + Iz
i 2p = , (19) ∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2v
A m A,in = − mr 2 − ma z 2. (25)
∂t 2 ∂t
ip – the cross sectional polar radius of inertia.
If the equations are substituted in (20), (21)
Solving the integrals (11), (12) and (13), the and (22), the system of differential equations
following is adopted (for the general central axis): which describes the oscillations of the beam, is
∫ zdA = 0, ∫ ydA = 0, ∫ yzdA = 0. determined as:
A A A
∂ 4w ∂ 2w ∂ 2w
When the local effects (14), (15) and (16) are EI y + F + m = 0, (26)
added in eqs. (5), (6) and (7), the system of the dif- ∂x 4 ∂x 2 ∂t 2
ferential equations, which define the static stability
∂ 4v ∂ 2v ∂ 2ϕ
of the thin-walled beam with the single axis of EI z + F + (a z − e z )F +
symmetry exposed to the constant axial pressure ∂x 4 ∂x 2 ∂x 2
force in the plane of symmetry, will be obtained,
as: ∂ 2v ∂ 2ϕ
+m + ma z = 0, (27)
∂ 4w ∂ 2w ∂t 2 ∂t 2
EI y +F = 0, (20)
∂x 4 ∂x 2 2
∂ 4ϕ
(az − ez )F ∂ v
+ EI w 4 +
∂ 4v ∂ 2v ∂ 2ϕ ∂x 2 ∂x
+ + ( + ) = 0 , (21)
[( ]
EI z F a e F
∂x 4 ∂x 2
z z
∂x 2 )
+ r 2 + 2 β z ez F − GI t
∂ 2ϕ
∂x 2
+ (28)
2
∂ 4ϕ
(az − ez )F ∂ v
+ + EI w
∂ 2v ∂ 2ϕ
+ maz 2 + mr 2 2 = 0.
∂x 2 ∂x 4 (22) ∂t ∂t
[(
+ r 2 + 2β z ez F − GI t
∂ 2ϕ
∂x 2
) = 0. ] The system of equations given in (26), (27)
and (28) is the basis for the researches of the dy-
namic stability of the beam. The boundary condi-
Equations (21) and (22) are mutually depend-
tions, for the beam supported on both ends, are:
ant on v and ϕ . Thus, they make the simultaneous
system of the differential equations. The system of ∂ 2v(0) ∂ 2 w(0) ∂ 2ϕ (0)
equations (20), (21) and (22) is a specific case v(0) = w(0) = ϕ (0) = = = =0,
∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x 2
(when ay = ey = 0 is adopted) derived from the sys-
tem of differential equations for the general load
∂ 2 v(l ) ∂ 2 w(l ) ∂ 2ϕ (l )
case, according to Wlassow [6]. If the inertial parts v(l ) = w(l ) = ϕ (l ) = = = =0.
are introduced in the equations (20), (21) and (22), ∂x 2 ∂x 2 ∂x 2
the equations for the oscillations of the thin-walled (29)
beam with an open profile and one axis of symme- They can be developed as trigonometric pro-
try in the cross section, exposed to the eccentric pres- gressions as:
sure periodical forces F(t) = F0 + Ft cosθ t in the

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 9‡15 (2007)


12 M. Gavriloski, B. Hamidi, Z. Bogatinoski

∞ kπx ⎡ EI z x 4 o ⎤
v( x, t ) = ∑ Vk (t ) sin
l
, [Rk ] = ⎢ k ⎥ ,
k =1 ⎢⎣ 0 EI w xk4 + GIt xk2 ⎥⎦
∞ kπx
w( x, t ) = ∑ Wk (t ) sin , ⎧Vk ⎫ ⎡ 1 a z − ez ⎤
k =1 l {δ k } = ⎨ ⎬, [S ] = ⎢ .
⎩φk ⎭ ⎣ a z − ez r2 + 2β z ez ⎥⎦
∞ kπx
ϕ ( x, t ) = ∑ Φ k (t ) sin , (30) From the eq. (34), the following can be ob-
k =1 l
tained:
where Vk (t ), Wk (t ), Φ k (t ) are some time de- 1) an equation for determination of the critical
forces (the static stability of the beam):
pendant functions. When progressions (30) are
seated in (26), (27) and (28), the system of the ho- det [Rk ] − xk2 F [S ] = 0, (35)
mogenous different equations can be determined as
[6, 7]: 2) an equation for determination of the eigen-
d 2Wk values, the case of unloaded beam:
m + EI y xk4Wk − xk2 F (t )Wk = 0 , (31)
dt 2 det [Rk ] − mw2 [D ] = 0, (36)

d 2Vk d 2φk 3) an equation for determination of the eigen-


m + ma z + EI z xk4Vk −
dt 2
dt 2 (32) values, for the beam exposed to the constant axial
− xk2 F (t )[Vk + (a z − ez ) φk ] = 0, force:

det [Rk ] − xk2 F [S ] − mΩ 2 [D ] = 0 , (37)


ma z
d 2Vk
dt 2
+ mr 2
d 2φk
dt 2
(
+ EI w xk4 + GI t xk2 φk − ) 4) an equation for determination of the first,
⎣ (
− xk2 F (t ) (a z − ez )Vk + r 2 + 2β z ez φk = 0 ) ⎦ (33) the third etc., area of the dynamic instability, when
(k = 1, 2..., ∞ ), the beam is exposed to the periodical force:
F(t) = F0 + Ftcos θt developed as Fourier’s se-
where xk = kπ /l. ries [6]:
Equations (31), (32) and (33) present the spe-
cial case of the system of differential equations
derived by Wlassow (about eigenvalues [6]) and [Rk ] − ⎛⎜ F0 ± 1 Ft⎞⎟ [S] 1
− xk2 Ft [S] o
GolÝdenblag (about dynamic stability [7]). Equa- ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2
1 2 1 1
tion (31) is independent, since the equations (32) − mθ [D] − xk2 Ft[S] [Rk ] − xk2F0[S] − − xk2 Ft [S] = 0
4 2 2
and (33) are mutually coupled in term of Vk and φk, [Rk ] − xk2F0 [S]
9 1
i.e. they form the endless series of the simultane- 0 − mθ 2 [D] − xk2 Ft [S] 25
ous system of homogenous differential equations. 4 2 − mθ 2 [D]
4
Thus they are of specific interest, while the equa- (38)
tion (28) is disregarded from further consideration.
and the analogue equation for determination of the
even areas of the dynamic instability.
2. BASIC EQUATIONS IN MATRIC FORM

Endless series of the simultaneous equations 3. ELASTIC STABILITY OF THE BEAM


system (32), (33) can be expressed in matrix form, as:
The static stability of the thin-walled beam

dt
d2
m[D ] 2 {δ k } + ([ ]
Rk − xk2 F (t ) [S ]){δ k } = {0}, (34) with the open cross section and single axis of
symmetry, exposed to eccentric, mutually equal,
where: axis loads in the plane of symmetry can be dis-
turbed if the force amounts the critical value F.
[D] = ⎡⎢
1 az ⎤
, From the equation (35) (when k = 1 – main mode
⎣a z r 2 ⎥⎦ shape), the formulation for the critical buckling
force F, can be obtained as:

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 9–15 (2007)


Stability analysis for thin-walled constructions 13

π 2 EI z 2c 2
F= ⋅ π2 π2 l ⎛ π2 ⎞
l2 ⎡ ωy =
EI z
ωϕ = ⎜ EI ω + GI t ⎟⎟ . (45)
r 2 + 2 β z ez − (a z − ez )2 ⎤⎥
,

( )
c 2 + r 2 + 2 β z ez ⎢1 ± 4c 2 l2 m lr m⎝ l 2


⎣ (
c 2 + r 2 + 2 β z ez
2

⎦ )
(39) From the equation (36), the following will be
obtained:
where c is "the cross sectional revolving radius".

(ω 2y − ω 2 )(ωϕ2 − ω 2 )− ar 2z ω 4 = 0.
2
Iω l 2GIt (46)
C= + . (40)
I z π 2 EI z
The first two roots of the equation (46) are
When the equation (39), for the critical force, defined as:
is equalized with the equations for the buckling
force of the referent truss, with its buckling length 2
ω = ωy , (47)
sk, (i.e. the referent truss length), sk i.e. the length ⎛ a2 ⎞
coefficient β will be determined as: 1 + γ ± (1 + γ )2 − 4γ ⎜1 − 2z ⎟
⎜ r ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
⎜1 ± 1 − 4c 2 r + 2 β z e z − (a z − e z )
2
c 2 + r 2 + 2β z ez 2

β=
2c 2 ⎜
⎝ (
c 2 + r 2 + 2β z ez
2
) ⎟

and the other two as:

⎛ 2⎞
(41)
1+ γ ± (1 + γ )2 − 4γ ⎜⎜1 − a2z ⎟⎟
Analogous, the formulation for the ideal slen- ⎝ r ⎠
ω = ωy . (48)
derness (for the referent truss) can be determined as: ⎛ a2 ⎞
2γ ⎜1 − 2z ⎟
⎛ ⎞ ⎜ r ⎟
l c 2 + r 2 + 2 β z ez ⎜ r 2 + 2β z ez − (az − ez )2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
λzi = 1 ± 1 − 4c 2 ⎟⎟ .
iz 2c 2 ⎜

⎝ (
c 2 + r 2 + 2β z ez
2
) ⎠
Very often, in practice, it is the case that
(42) γ << 1. Therefore, it can be very useful to deter-
If the applied load is not eccentric (ez = 0), the mine the boundary values, i.e. values when γ → 0.
formulations (39), (41) and (42) will be slightly From the equation (48) it appears that (the actual
simplified.The critical buckling force will be as: sign „±” appears in the index):

π 2 EI z γ → 0 ⇒ ω+ → ωy ∧ ω– → ∞ (49)
F* = , (43)
β 2l 2 and from the equation (49):
where β will be the length coefficient determined as: c r
γ → 0 ⇒ ω+ → ω y = ω p ∧ ω − → 0. (50)
2 ip ip
⎛ r2 ⎞
1 r2 a 2
β= 1 − 2 ± ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + 4 z2 ,
2 c ⎜ c ⎟ c Thus, the eigenvalues of the thin-walled beam
⎝ ⎠
exposed to the constant axial force F0, can be de-
termined from the equation (37). If the following
1 2 r2
β= 1− γ ± (1 − γ )2 + 4 az2 , γ= , (44) relations are adopted as:
2 c c2
F0
where γ is non-dimensional geometry characteris- μ= , Fy = xk2 EI z ,
Fy
tic of the cross section.

Fϕ =
1
r2
(EIω xk2 + GIt xk2 ) ,
4. PARAMETER STABILITY OF THE BEAM

The unloaded beam eigenvalues can be de- Ω2 Fy ω y2 r 2 EI z xk2 r2


termined from the equation (36). Let us consider p2 = , γ = = = = ,
just the basic mode shape, i.e. when k = 1 is re- ω y2 Fϕ ωϕ2 EIω x 2 + GI t c 2
k
placed in equations. If the partial frequencies (the
buckling and the torsion) are identified as: from the equation (37) will be obtained:

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 9‡15 (2007)


14 M. Gavriloski, B. Hamidi, Z. Bogatinoski

(1 − μ − p 2 )⎡⎢1 − γμ ⎛⎜⎝1 + 2βrz2ez ⎞⎟⎠ − γ p2 ⎤⎥ − 1 − (μ ± v ) − n 2


a − ez
− (μ ± v )(a z − e z ) − a z n 2
⎛ 2β z e z ⎞ − γn 2 = 0
⎣ ⎦ (51) − γ (μ ± v ) z − az n2 1 − γ (μ ± v )⎜1 + ⎟
− 2 [μ (a z − ez ) + a z p 2 ] = 0.
2 r2 ⎠
γ 2 r ⎝
r
The equation (52) is of the fourth order, so it where:
has four roots. The first two are determined as: F0 F Ω2
μ= , v = t , n2 = 2 ,
2A Fy 2 Fy ωy
Ω 2 = ω y2 ⋅ , (52)
B ± B 2 − 4 AC Fy = x k2 EI z , Fϕ =
1
r2
(EI ω x 2
k + GI t x k2 , ) (57)
while the other two are:
Fy ω y2 r 2 EI z x k2 r2
B ± B 2 − 4 AC γ = = = = .
Ω 2 = ω y2 ⋅ , (53) Fϕ ωϕ2 EI w x k2 + GI t c2
2C
where: The roots of the equation (58) are expressed as:
⎧ ⎛ 2β e ⎞ 2A
A = 1 − μ ⎨1 + γ ⎜1 + z2 z ⎟ − θ∗2 = 4ω 2y ⋅ , (58)
⎩ ⎝ r ⎠ B ± B 2 − 4 AC
⎛ 2 β e − (a − e )2 ⎞⎫⎪
− γμ ⎜1 + z z 2 z z ⎟⎬ B ± B 2 − 4 AC
⎜ r ⎟⎪ θ∗2 = 4ω 2y ⋅
⎝ ⎠⎭ , (59)
2C
⎡ β e − a z (a z − ez ) ⎤ ⎧ ⎛ 2β e ⎞
B = 1 + γ − 2γμ ⎢1 + z z ⎥⎦ A = 1 − (μ ± v )⎨1 + γ ⎜1 + z2 z ⎟ −
⎣ r2
⎩ ⎝ r ⎠
⎛ a2 ⎞ ⎡ 2 β e − (a − ez )2 ⎤ ⎫⎪
C = γ ⎜⎜1 − 2z ⎟⎟ . − γ (μ ± v )⎢1 + z z 2 z ⎥ ⎬,
⎢⎣ r ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭
⎝ r ⎠
⎡ β e − a z (a z − ez ) ⎤
When the non-dimensional parameter of the B = 1 + γ − 2γ (μ ± v )⎢1 + z z ⎥⎦,
geometry characteristic is γ << 1, the eigenvalues ⎣ r2
of the beam exposed to the constant axial force
will gravitate toward the boundary values, i.e. ⎛ a ⎞
C = γ ⎜1 − 2z ⎟. (60)
γ → 0. From the equation (53) it appears that (the ⎝ r ⎠
actual sing „±” appears in the index):
When the dimensionless parameter of geome-
γ → 0 ⇒ Ω + → ω y 1 − μ ∧ Ω − → ∞ , (54) try characteristic is γ << 1, the beam will be mostly
in the buckling oscillation area. The boundary val-
and from the equation (54): ues for the basic ranges of dynamic instability,
when γ → 0, will be as the following: from the eq.
r c
γ → 0 ⇒ Ω+ → ωy = ω y ∧ Ω − → 0 , (55) 59, it will be θ∗ = 2ω y 1 − (μ ± v ), and from the
ip ip
r
When the beam is exposed to the parameter eq. (60) it will be θ ∗ = 2ωϕ .
ip
periodical load Ft = F0 + Ft cosθt developed as
Fourier's series [7] from the equation (38), consid- All this refers to the boundaries of the basic
ering just the first left diagonal element, the limits of areas of instability.To determine the adjacent areas
the basic area of instability will be determined as: it is necessary to get back to the general equation
(38) and to consider the next diagonal element.
⎛ 1 ⎞ 1
det [Rk ] − xk2 ⎜ F0 ± Ft ⎟[S ] − mθ 2 [D ] = 0 , (56) Finally, this equation can be solved in general form
⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 for the critical frequencies. In this case, the nu-
merical values for the mentioned parameters, can
and in the developed form that will be: be obtained only numerically.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 9–15 (2007)


Stability analysis for thin-walled constructions 15

5. CONCLUSION (54), k is the number of eigen mode shapes, θ is the


load excitation frequency.
When the thin-walled beam with an open 2) Combined resonance can appear in the
cross section of the profile and just one symmetry special case when:
axis, is exposed to the eccentric pressure (axial)
load, in certain conditions, the loss of its elastic Ω k1 ± Ω k 2 = rθ , (r = 0, 1, 2…),
(static) stability, i.e. the buckling phenomenon will
appear. Thus, the two cases can be notified as: where Ωk1 and Ωk2 are two roots of the eq. (37),
calculated for the same k; r is the number of har-
1) Buckling in the plane of the minimal radius
monics, when the load was developed in Fourier′
of inertia.
series.
2) Traxial buckling caused by torsion (lateral
buckling) [4].
Which case will appear, depends on the cross REFERENCES
sectional geometry and the beam length. When the
same beam is exposed to the parameter periodical [1] S. P. Timošenko: Teorija elastične stabilnosti, Naučna
load F = F0 + Ft cosθt in the axial beam direction, knjiga, Beograd, 1952.
the loss of dynamic stability can appear. That [2] D. Rasković: Teorija oscilacija, Naučna knjiga, Beograd,
1957.
means that the excitation frequency is in the dy-
[3] D. Rasković, Osnovi matričnog računanja, Naučna knjiga,
namic load instability area and that the parameter Beograd, 1971.
resonance can notify the following:
[4] C. Petersen: Stahlbau, Vieveg, Wiesbaden, 1990.
1). When the amplitudes of the pressure force [5] Lj. Radosavljević: Teorija oscilacija, Mašinski fakultet,
are small enough, the non-stability areas are close Beograd, 1981.
to the frequency: [6] W. Z. Wlassow: Dünnwandige elastische Stäbe, Moskow,
1959.
2Ω
θ= , (k = 1, 2…), [7] Grupa avtori, StalÝnìe listov∫e konstrukcii,
k Moskva, 1956.

where Ω is the eigenvalue of the thin-walled beam


exposed to the constant pressure force F0, (53) and

Rezime

ANALIZA NA STABILNOSTA NA TENKOYIDNI KONSTRUKCII

Marjan Gavriloski1, Be}ir Hamidi2, Zoran Bogatinoski1


1
Ma{inski fakultet, Univerzitet „Sv. Kiril i Metodij“,
p. fah 464, MK-1001 Skopje, Republika Makedonija
2
Ma{inski fakultet, Univerzitet vo Pri{tina
marjan@mf.ukim.edu.mk

Klu~ni zborovi: elasti~na i dinami~ka stabilnost; parametar na rezonancija;


sopstvena fleksibilnost na lesni konstrukcii; kriti~na sila na izvivawe

Vo trudot e analiziran problemot na stabil- od karakterot na optovaruvaweto, geometrijata na


nosta na elasti~nite sistemi kako diskreten stohas- napre~niot presek i dol`inata na elementot. Vo tru-
ti~ki sistem. Vo praktikata nekoi elementi od kon- dot se analizirani lesni konstrukcii so otvoren
strukcijata se izlo`eni na aksijalni dinami~ki sili napre~en presek so edna oska na simetrija vo uslovi
na pritisok. Ovie optovaruvawa vo dadeni uslovi na rezonancija kako eden od parametrite koj mo`e da
mo`at da predizvikaat gubewe na elasti~nite osobi- predizvikuva gubewe na elasti~nosta i dinami~kata
ni, odnosno na dinami~kata stabilnost, koja zavisi stabilnost.

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 9‡15 (2007)


Mechanical Engineering – Scientific Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 17–23 (2007)
CODEN: MINSC5 – 379 ISSN 1857–5293
Received: December 17, 2007 UDK: 658.5
Accepted: December 17, 2007
Original scientific paper

PRODUKTIONSMANAGEMENT IN KLEINEN UND MITTLEREN UNTERNEHMEN

Franc Čuš, Uroš Župerl


Universität Maribor, Fakultät für Maschinenbau,
Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
franc.cus@uni-mb.si / uros.zuperl@uni-mb.si

A b s t r a c t: Produktionsunternehmen beschäftigen Diese bedingen ihrerseits eine Verkürzung


vernünftige Leute und werden in aller Regel von klugen der Entwicklungs- und Auftragsdurchlaufzeiten.
Managern geführt. Wie kommt es dann, dass sich Innovation
und Wandel in erfolgreichen Unternehmen derart schwierig Zu diesem Zweck müssen Daten, die während der
gestalten? Und warum treten für Produktionsmanagement in Auftragsabwicklung anfallen und Aufschluß über
kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen dieselben Muster für die Leistungsfähigkeit der beteiligten Unterneh-
Erfolg und mißerfolg im Lauf der Zeit so deutlich in Erschei- menseinheiten geben, analysiert werden. Hieraus
nung? Wie kann ein Produktionsmanager wissen, wann evolu-
tionärer Wandel angesagt ist? Maßnahmen des Produktions-
lassen sich Maßnahmen sowohl für langfristig grei-
managements können demnach mit Hilfe analytischer fende Anpassungen ableiten.
Methoden bestimmt werden und sind auf Rechnersystemen
implementierbar.
2. KUNDENNÄHE HAT IHREN PREIS
Key words: Management; Produktion; Unternehmen;
Automatisierungskonzepte; Flexibilität; Kosten
Als besondere Stärke der Wekzeugindustrie
wird oft ihre Kundennähe herausgestellt. Ihre
1. EINFÜHRUNG Fähigkeit, kunden-spezifische Probleme zu lösen,
hat eine Tradition, die sich aus der engen Zusam-
Auf den Weltmärkten ist, nicht zuletzt auch menarbeit der Werkzeugmaschinenbauer mit der
wegen der nationalen Slüsselposition der Wek- Automobilindustrie bei der Planung und Erstellung
zeugmaschinenindustrie, ein harter Konkurrenz- von Produktionsanlagen für die Großserien-
kampf der Werkzeugmaschinenhersteller entbrant, fertigung entwickelte.
der bereits erhebliche Opfer gefordet hat. Eine Im Zuge fallender Stückzahlen, Losgrößen
wesentliche Ursache für diesen Konkurenzkampf ist und mit dem Aufkommen der NC-Technik wurde
die Tatsache, daß seit Jahren die Weltproduktion an die hochproduktive, aber starre Transferstraße oder
Werkzeugmaschinen höher ist als der Bedarf. Daraus Sondermaschine mehr und mehr durch flexible
ergibt sich eine generell niedrige Ertragsituation. Da Fertigunssysteme ersetzt.
die Kapzitäten weiterhin deutlich wachsen, ist in Aus dieser Zusammenarbeit entwickelten sich
Zukunft eher mit einer Verschärfung dieser die Systemtechniken, und hier entstanden CIM-
Situation zu rechnen. Lösungen: Flexible Fertigunssysteme in Verbin-
Produzierende Unternehmen stehen heute dung mit rechnergesteuerten Hochregallagern,
mehr denn je vor dem Problem, daß die Produkte automatischer Werkstücktransport und computer-
den sich ständig ändernden Marktanforderungen gesteuerte Werkzeugversorgung, Fertigungsleit-
angepaßt werden müssen. Die Orientierung an den rechner und deren Integration in komplexe Vernet-
Kundenspezifikationen besitzt höchste Priorität. zungen unter Einbindung komplexer CAD/CAM-
Das in hohem Maße dynamische Marktgeschehen Systeme.
erfordert daher flexible und schnelle Reaktionen Aber die Praxis zeigte, daß mit kundenspezi-
[1, 2]. fischen Lösungen wenig Geld zu verdinen war.
18 F. Čuš, U. Župerl

Hohe auftragsbezogene Projektierungs- und gene Strukturen aufweisen. So sind z. B. Flexible


Entwicklungskosten drücken den Deckungsbeitrag Fertigungssysteme (FFS) mit dem konventionellen
und führen zur Ertragsschwäche, die wir als für Umfeld – Härterei, Dreherei o.ä., aber auch Werk-
Werkzeugmaschinenindustrie typisch erkannt haben zeugvoreinstellung, Vorrichtungsbau etc. – zu
[1, 3]. synchronisieren.
Allerdings ist im Bereich der kundenspezi- Die geschilderten Schwachstellen erfordern
fischen Lösungen der Konkurenzdruck – besonders neue Strukturen für die Steuerung und Regelung
natürlich der Druck der fernöstlichen Anbieter – aller Produktionsaufgaben. Eine funktionale,
erheblich niedriger. Sicherlich ist dies auch mit ein zeitliche und organisatorische Segmentierung ist
Grund dafür, daß sich ein Großteil der Werkzeug- Voraussetzung dafür, daß die Mängel bezüglich
maschinenindustrie in diesem Geschäftsfeld be- der Transparenz, der Reaktionszeiten und der
wegt, dadurch aber auch unter zunehmenden Koordination verschiedener Teilbereiche behoben
Konkurenzdruck nationaler und europäischer werden können[3, 4].
Anbieter gerät (Abb. 1) Die Segmentierung kann vertikal z.B. nach
produktbezogenen oder technologischen Gesichts-
punkten erfolgen. Sie bedingt gleichzeitig eine
Analyse der Fertigungsaufgabe Hierarchisierung und Dezentralisierung der Funk-
Analyse des Werk- Analyse der
tionen, die zur Regelung der Produktion beitragen.
stückspektrums Arbeitsabläufe
Innerhalb dieser Bereiche sind entsprechend
- Geometrie
- Oberflächenqualität
- Bearbeitungsverfahren
pro Werkstück feinere Regelungen der Abläufe erforderlich. Ein
- Werkstoffe
- Spanngeometrie
- Stückzeit pro Werkstück
- Aufteilung in Haupt- Eingreifen seitens der Auftragsabwicklungsfunk-
- Spannart
- Losgröße
Neben- u. Rüstzeiten
- Kosten tion ist nur nötig, wenn das Ausregeln von
Störungen durch bereich-und teilbereichsbezogene
- Anzahl der Lose

Regelungsfunktionen nicht möglich ist (Abb. 2).

Anforderungsprofil des Auswahl der Bearbeitungsverfahren Unternehmenserfolg


durch termingerechte
Maschinenkonzeptes - Drehen und Laserhärten
und kostengünstige
Kombination - Drehen, Bohren, Fräsen
Bearbeitungsverfahren Herstellung von
und Schleifen in einer Aufspannung Qualitätsprodukten
Flexibilität Gesamtkoordination
Automatisierungsgrad
Systemfähigket - Schleifen/Drehräumen/Hartdrehen/ reproduzierbare
Genauigkeitsanforderungen Substitution Harträumen
Optimale Nutzung Meßgrößen
- wälzfräsen/Fließpressen
vorhandener Systeme gestufte Regel-
kreise
- Optimierung nachvollziehbare
neue Technologie - Laserunterstütztes Drehen (z.B. BOA) Entscheidungen
- Laser schneiden/ Einführung von
Maschinenkonzept Wasserstrahlschneiden Einzelsystemen - Erweiterung durchgängiges
(z.B. Leitstand) anpaßbares
- Kopplung Zielsystem
MRP CAP (z.B. CAD/PPS)
Abb. 1. Analyse der Fertigungsaufgabe zur Konzeptfindung CAD
CAM
BDE
CAQ V P M
V P M

V P M
R
V P M
Zeit
3. VORAUSSETZUNGEN FÜR ERFOLGREICHES 1970
V=Vorgaben M=Meßgrößen
1980 1990

PRODUKTIONSMANAGEMENT P=Produktion R=Regler

Abb. 2. Produktionsmanagement im Wandel der Zeit


Ein großer Teil von Aufgaben des Produktions
managements wird heute durch Funktionen der
Systeme zur Produktionsplanung und -steuerung 4. PRODUKTIONSMANAGEMENT ALS
(PPS) unterstützt. Dies zeiht sich z.B. darin, daß die GESAMTKOORDINATION
Systeme eine nur unzureichende Unterstützung der
Werkstattsteuerung bieten, weil sie dirigistich und Die Leistungsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens
in zu groben Zyklen sehr detaillierte Planungsvor- wird durch die Marktanbindung, die Planung und
gaben machen. Das führt zu einer Steuerung auf Vorbereitung sowie die Durchführung bestimmt
Meisterebene "am PPS-System vorbei", mit der Die Marktanbindung wird durch den Vertrieb
Folge, daß die Transparenz der Fertigungsabläufe realisiert.
drastisch sinkt. Dieser Umstand wird durch die Bei Serienfertigern steht die Beobachtung des
stochastichen Fertigungsabläufe in der Einzel- und Marktes zur Bildung von Produktionsprogrammen
Kleinserienfertigung noch verstärkt. im Vordergrund, bei Auftragsfertigern dagegen die
Erschwerend wirkt sich hier weiterhin aus, Auftragsklärung zur Vorbereitung der innerbetrie-
daß die zu koordinierenden Bereiche sehr hetero- blichen Auftragsabwicklung.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 17–23 (2007)


Produktionsmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen 19

Die Planung und Vorbereitung des eigent- daß nur diejenigen Produkte in den Mengen zu den
lichen Herstellungsprozesses obliegt den Unterne- Terminen angefertigt werden, zu denen sie tatsä-
hmensbereichen Konstruktion, Arbeitsplanung und chlich auch benötigt werden
Disposition. Hier werden einerseits aus der Pro-
duktbeschreibung des Vertriebes die internen
Arbeitsunterlagen erstellt und andererseits der 6. MAßNAHMEN IM RAHMEN DES
Ressourcen- und Materialbedarf für die Durch- ANALYTISCHEN PRODUKTIONMANAGEMENT
führung geplant. Zur Durchführung gehört auch
die Regelung der Fertigung und Montage. Die Wichtigste Aufgabe des Produktionsmanage-
Aufgabe des Produktionsmanagements besteht in ments ist die Vorgabe von Zielen, die es den ope-
der Koordination der drei Schwerpunkte Markan- rativen Bereichen ermöglichen, ihren Beitrag zur
bindung, Planung/Vorbereitung und Durchführung. Erreichung des Gesamtoptimums zu beurteilen [3,
Die Gesamtkoordination läßt sich in zwei 4, 5].
Ebenen aufteilen: in die Ebene des operativen Pro- Die Suche nach dem Gesamtoptimum
duktionsmanagements und in die des analytischen entspricht einer Gewichtung der Unternehmens-
Produktionsmanagements. Gegenstand der opera- ziele. Allerdings müssen diese strategischen Ziele
tiven Ebene ist die Auftragsklärung und die inner- in solche Teilziele zerlegt werden, die von den
betriebliche Auftragsabwicklung, d.h. das "Tages- jeweiligen Teilbereichen auch direkt beeinflußbar
geschäft". sind. Hier findet sich der Ansatz der gestuften
Das analytische Produktionsmanagement Regelkreise wieder.
setzt auf den Ergebnissen der operativen Ebene
auf. Daten, die um Unternehmen gesammelt wer- Einsatz des Menschen
den, geben Aufschluß über die Leistungsfähigkeit
der beteiligten Bereiche und vor allem über die
Wirksamkeit der Koordinationsmaßnahmen. Motivation aller Beschäftigten durch:
Eine wesentliche Voraussetzung hierfür sind - Flexibilität
Hilfsmittel zur Beurteilung des Leistungsvermö- - sicheres Umfeld
- prozeßorientierte Entlohnung
gens des Unternehmens. Die Effizienz der Auft- und Beurteilung
ragsabwicklung kann man z.B. anhand von Be-
triebskennlinien beurteilen, woraus sich Maß- Verantwortung
nahmen ableiten lassen, die zur Verbesserung des - an Prozessen orientieren
- delegieren
Produktionsmanagements beitragen.
Schulung aller Beschäftigten:

5. MAßNAHMEN IM RAHMEN DES - prozeßorientiertes Denken


- Kommunikation
OPERATIVEN PRODUKTIONSMANAGEMENT - Kooperation

Bisher wurde diese Aufgabe im betrachteten Führen statt Managen


Beispiele in der Praxis konkret wie folgt abge-
wickelt. In der Auftragsdisposition wurde unter
Berücksichtigung von Vergangenheitswerten und Abb. 3. Gestaltungsempfelungen: Mensch
Marktindikatoren – u.a. den eingegangenen
Kundenaufträgen – ein Produktionsprogramm Die Voraussetzung für diese gestuften Regel-
erstellt. Auf dieser Grundlage wurden die kreise ist die Entwicklung einer Zielhierarchie, aus
Beschaffungsund Fertigungsvorgänge ausgelöst. der sich die jeweiligen Führungsgrößen ableiten
Wie sich jedoch zeigte, konnten trotz der lassen (Abb 3). Da die Teilziele voneinander
"optimalen" Losgrößen nicht alle Kunden direkt abhängen, müssen Hilfsmittel zu deren Einstellung
aus dem Lager beliefert werden. herangezogen werden.
Heute wird die Auftrags- und Fertigungs-
disposition nicht mehr getrennt und nacheinander
7. EDV – UNTERSTÜTZUNG DER
durchlaufen, sondern gezielt koordiniert.
PRODUKTIONSMANAGEMENTS
Die Umsetzung dieser Maßnahme ging einher
mit der Umstellung von der Losgrößenfertigung Wie anhand bereits ausgeführt wurde, sind
auf die Just-In-Time(JIT)-Fertigung. JIT bedeutet, die Charakteristika der Gesamtkoordination repro-

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 17‡23 (2007)


20 F. Čuš, U. Župerl

duzierbare Meßgrößen, gestufte Regelkreise, gelte: Je kleiner der Fertigungsbetrieb, desto


nachvollziehbare Entscheidungen und ein durch- kleiner ist im allgemeinen auch die Anzahl der pro
gängiges, anpaßbares Zielsystem. Auftrag zu fertigenden Werkstücke. Das bedeutet,
Die Konsequenz aus diesen Forderungen ist daß bei der Vielzahl kleiner Fertigungsbetriebe die
eine Dezentralisierung von Unternehmensfunktio- Forderung nach hoher Flexibilität Vorrang hat um
nen, um einerseits eine hohe Reaktionsfähigkeit den schnel wechselnden Fertigunsaufgaben zu
durch die Zusammenfassung von Führungskompe- entsprechen [5, 6, 7].
tenz und Regelungsentscheidung zu schaffen und Dieser hohe Flexibilitätanspruch prägt natur-
andererseits die Systemstruktur schneller und mit lich die Organisation eines klein- oder mittel-
weniger Aufwand den sich ändernden Anforderun- ständisches Betriebes in einer ganz anderen Weise
gen anpassen zu können. als im Großbetrieb.
Der erste Schritt in diese Richtung sind flexible Beim klein Betrieb dominiert das Prinzip der
Leitstands-systeme, die die Entscheidungsfindung Werksttat-fertigung mit ihren besonderen Merk-
unterstützen. Diese Tools sammeln und verdichten malennbezug auf den Einsatzvon qualifizierten
Daten aus dem Vertrieb, den Engineering-Bereichen, Arbeitskräften und Universal- beziehugsweise
der Materialwirtschaft sowie der Fertigung und Mehrzweck-Werkzeugmaschinen.
Montage. Auf dieser Grundlage werden Informatio- Für die Vielzahl dieser Betriebe muß es doch
nen aufbereitet und bewertet, wodurch die Ableitung ebenfalls Konzepte für eine »Fabrik mit Zukunft«
von Maßnahmen erleichtert wird. geben. Konzepte die offensichtlich anders aus-
So unterstützt ein System zur Auftragsab- sehen müssen als die Systemkonzepte der Großin-
wicklung die Leitstelle bei der Planung des Pro- dustrie (Abb. 4)
duktionsprogramms, der Grobplanung von Kun-
denaufträgen, der Erstellung von Angeboten sowie
Gestaltung der Organisation
der Simulation von Anfragen. Darüber hinaus
werden Sonderfertigungen und Erstplanungen in Auf Wertschöpfung
die Betrachtung einbezogen. konzentrieren

Schlanke Organisation schaffen


8. WERKSTATTORIENTIERTE PRODUKTION Räumliche und funktionale
Integration realisieren
Das Feld der werkstarttorientierten Produk- - Schnittstellen reduzieren
tion liegt also – von der Fertigungsaufgabe her - übergreifende Teams bilden
- Tätigkeiten ganzheitlich gestalten
bedingt – im Bereich der Einzelteil-, Klein- und bis - selbststeuernde Regelkreise einführen
hin zur Mittelserienfertigung. Typische Fertigungs-
Hilfsmittel / Systeme
betriebe, die sich mit diesen Serien-größen befassen,
sind die - von Mitarbeitern initiieren
- am Prozeß ausrichten
– Werkzeug- und Formenbauer,
– Vorrichtungsfertiger, Produkt- und Prozeß-
– Sondermaschinenhersteller, gestaltung parallelisieren
– Prototypenfertiger,
Abb. 4. Gestaltungsepfelungen: Organisation
– Unterlieferanten für Großbetriebe.
Vor allem die letzeren gewinnen immer
stärker an bedeutung, seitdem sich über die Auto- 9. AUTOMATISIERUNG DER EINZELTEIL-
mobilindustrie hinaus auch andere Industriezweige UND KLEINSERIENFERTIGUNG
dem Just-in-time-Prinzip verschrieben haben und
die Fertigungstiefe durch teilweise Fremdvergabe
ihrer Produktion verringern. Untersucht man die Automatisierungskonzepte für den mitelstä-
Struktur der metallverarbeitenden Industrie, so andisches Bereich, also für die Einzelteil- und
existieren Betriebe, deren Merheit den Klein- Kleinserienfertigung, müssen sich auf den qualifi-
betrieben zuzurechnen ist. Eine Größenordnung zierten Facharbeiter ausrichtenund sich im
also, bei der es sich lohnt, nach ihren besonderen Weksttatbereich maschinennah ansiedeln.
Bedürfnissen zu fragen. Allen gemeinsam ist, daß Dies bestätigt auch eine Marktuntersucung
es sich bei diesen Betrieben um relativ kleine des ITW der TH Darmstadt, die sich unter anderem
Unternehmen handelt. Für sie darf als Faustregel auch auf den Stand der Programmiertechnik in

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 17–23 (2007)


Produktionsmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen 21

Abhängigkeit von der Betriebsgröße bezog [10]. Flexibilität im Vordergrund: das schnelle Umrüs-
Danach dominierte in den Kleinbetrieben eindeutig ten von einer Bearbeitungsaufgabe zur nächsten,
die Programmierung an der NC-Maschine direkt. das Spannen des Roteils ohne Vorrichtung direkt auf
Und wenn man bedenkt, daß die CNC- den Maschinentisch, das Arbeiten ohne Palleten-
Maschine und ihre Programmierung den Ausgang- organisation und nicht zultzt das werkstattnahe
und Kernpunkt eines jeden Automatisierungskon- Programmieren, häufig durch den Facharbeiter an
zepts darstellen, dann bestätigt diese Untersuchung der Maschine selbst. Hier muß die Zeitspanne vom
klar, daß weiterführende Automatisierungskon- Eingang des Auftrags bis zur Fertigstellung des
zepte für die Klein- und Mittelindustrie in der Tat Werkstücks möglichst klein werden. Es gilt den
Werkstattbereich ansetzen müssen. Weg von der Zeichnung bis zum fertigen Werkstück
so kurz wie möglich zu halten. Dies verbietet eine
Fertigungsorganisation mit spezialisierten sequent-
10. KOMBBINIERTES WERKZEUG- iellen Arbeitsgängen [5, 6, 8].
UND TECNOLOGIEMANAGEMENT Es ensteht eine Fertigungsorganisation, bei
der Mensch in der Wekstatt im Mittelpunkt steht.
Immer mehr Anwender verlangen eine kom- Hier werden die Fähigkeiten und die Kenntnisse
binierte Erstellung exakter Werkzeuge- und des Fertigungstechnikers voll ausgeschöpft, seine
bearbeitungsdaten. Grundgedanke ist, daß in Zuord- Qualifikation voll gefordet (Abb. 5).
nung bzw. Abhängigkeit vom Werkzeug optimierte
technologische Daten zur Verfügung gestellt
werden. Entsprechende Programmpakete stützen
sich auf Leistungfähige Datenbanken.
Die optimierung von schnittdaten und
Werkzeugfluß führt zu einer nicht unerheblicher
Erhöhung der Maschinennutzung und der Werk-
stückqualität. Integrierte Module zur Erfassung
von Maschinendaten (MDE) und Betriebsdaten
(BDE) unterstützen bei der Wirkungsvollen Aus-
nutzung leistungsfähiger Werkzeugmaschinen.
Dem Anwender muß die Möglichkeit zur Verfü-
gungstehen, auf die Ergebnisse von Zerspanung-
sprüfungen zugreifen zu können, durch welche die
unterschiedlichen Schneidstoffe ganzheitlich und
praxisbezogen charakterisiert werden.

11. FLEXIBEL DURCH


WERKSTATTKOMPETENZ
Abb. 5. Organisatorische Ansätze und Anforderungen an
Je größer die Losgröße, desto wichtiger ist die Mitarbeiter
hohe Produktivität der Werkzeugmaschine. Hier
kommt es auf Sekundenbruchteile an. Hohe Zer-
spanleistung, kurze Nebenzeiten, Rüsten während
der Hauptzeit der Hauptzeit sind die Wesentlichen
Forderungen an die Wekzeugmaschine. Dies ergibt 12.WELCHEN NUTZEN HAT DAS
eine arbeitsteilige Fertigungsorganisation im ZERTIFIZIERTE UNTERNEHMEN
Taylorschen Sinn, bei derdie Werkstatt zum aus-
führenden Organ vorgeplanter, fester Arbeitsan- Ein zertifiziertes QM-System dient zur
weisungen und optimierter CNC-Programme wird Vertiefung des Vertrauensverhältnisses zwischen
und bei der die umfassenden zerspanungstech- Kunden und Liferanten. Die Erwartungen – und
nischen Kenntnisse des Facharbeiters in der internen Effekte – beim Lieferanten sind dagegen
Werkstatt nicht gefragt sind. aus der Philosophie der ISO 9000 abzuleiten.
Ganz andere Anforderungen stellt dagegen Die größten Erwartungen richten sich auf
die Fertigung kleiner Losgrößen. Hier steht die Verbesserungen in den eigenen Abläufen. Hierbei

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 17‡23 (2007)


22 F. Čuš, U. Župerl

sollen die Anregungen, Hinweise und Vorschläge, SCHRIFTUM


die die Normenreihe vorgibt, mit den eigenen
Abläufen verglichen und die erkannten [1] Branko Katalinić: Megatrends in der Automatisierung der
Produktion, Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik,
Schwachstellen beseitigt werden.
Zeitschrift des Österreichischen Verbandes für Elektro-
Die Vorbereitung auf die Zertifizierung ist technik, e & I, 112. Jg. (1995, Heft 4, pp. 169–171,
immer dann mit erheblichen Kosten Verbunden, Springer Verlag, ISSN 0932-383X Wien / New York,
wenn eine solche Bewertung und Verbesserung der 1994.
Abläufe, der Organisation und der Prozesse [2] J. Balič, Z. Živec, F. Čuš: Model of a universal manu-
facturing interface in CIM for small- and medium-sized
Längere Zeit nicht durchgeführt wurde [8, 9, 10]. companies, Journal of Materials Processing Technology.
Die Gründe für nicht erfühlte Erwartungen Amsterdam; Oxford; New York; Tokyo., 52 (1995); S.
sind vielfältig und häufig in zu hohen Erwartungen 103–114, ISSN 0924-0136.
und in der unzureichenden Konsquenz der [3] F. Čuš: Automatisches Daten – Erfassungssystem für Zer-
spanungen, Werkstatt und Betrieb, 120 (1987) S. 923–
Umsetzung zu finden. Die gennanten Erwartungen 926, Carl Hanser Verlag, München.
suggerieren bei oberflächlicher Betrachtung mit
[4] Uroš Župerl, Franc Čuš: Določevanje značilnih tehnološ-
dem Zertifikat ein Allheilmittel für alle Probleme kih in gospodarskih parametrov med postopkom odrezo-
[7]. Dieses Mittel scheint bei richtiger Anwendung vanja – A determination of the characteristic technologi-
dem Kunden seine Verantwortung für die cal and economic parameters during metal cutting. Stroj.
Lieferantenbeziehung und dem Lieferanten seine vestn., letn. 50, št. 5, str. 252–266 (2004),.
Verantwortung für die Gestaltung seines Betriebes [5] Valentina Gečevska, Franc Čuš, Vladimir Dukovski,
Mikolaj Kuzinovski: Modelling of manufacturing activi-
abzunehmen. ties by process planning knowledge representation. Int. j.
simul. model., Vol. 5, No 2, pp. 69–81 (June 2006).
[6] Jože Balič, Franc Čuš: Intelligent modelling in manufac-
13. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG turing. Journal of achievements in materials and manu-
facturing engineering, Vol. 24, Iss. 1, pp. 340–348 (Sep.
2007).
Die nur unzureichende Erreichung von Zielen
des Produktionsmanagements zeigt, daß Maßnah- [7] Franc Čuš: Prihaja prelomno obdobje izobraževanja inže-
nirjev : izobraževanje inženirjev. Del 1. IRT 3000, letn. 1,
men im Sinne von Gesamtkoordination durch 4, str. 33–35 (2006).
Regelung der an der Auftragsabwicklung beteiligten [8] Peter Drucker, Isao Nakauchi: Die globale Heraus-
Bereiche erforderlich sind [11]. Dazu sind forderung, ECON, 1996.
verschiedene Bereiche miteinander zu verknüpfen. [9] Cornelius Herstatt, Birgit Verworn: Management der
Außerdem müssen konkurrierende Ziele abgestim- fruehen Innovationsphasen, Gabler, Wisbaden, 2003.
mt werden. [10] Alfred Herbert Fritz: Fertigungstechnik, 7. Auflage,
Basis des erfolgreichen Produktionsmanage- Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2006.
ments ist die Segmentierung und damit verbunden [11] Franc Čuš, Matjaž Milfelner, Uroš Župerl: Prestrukturira-
nje v smeri višjih tehnoloških stopenj z optimiranjem
die Hierarchisierung und Dezentralisierung von procesov obdelave. V: Proceedings of the 23rd Interna-
Funktionen, die zur Regelung der Abläufe in der tional Scientific Conference on Organizational Science
Produktion erforderlich sind. Im einzelnen ergeben Development, Slovenia, Portorož, March, 24th – 26th
sich folgende Voraussetzungen für Produktionsma- 2004. Management, Knowledge and EU. Kranj: Moderna
organizacija = Modern Organization, 2004, pp. 10–16.
nagement zur Steigerung des Unternehmenserfol-
ges, der durch die termingerechte und kostengün- [12] Franc Čuš, Uroš Župerl, Valentina Gečevska: Simulation
of complex machining process by adaptive network based
stige Herstellung von Qualitätsprodukten bestimmt inference system. V: Abele, Eberhard. (ur.), Udiljak,
wird. Toma (ur.), Ciglar, Damir (ur.). 11th International Scien-
Maßnahmen des Produktionsmanagements tific Conference on Production Engineering – CIM 2007,
June 13–17, 2007, Biograd, Croatia. Computer integrated
können demnach mit Hilfe analytischer Methoden manufacturiong and high speed milling. Zagreb: Hrvatska
bestimmt werden und sind auf Rechnersystemen udruga proizvodnog strojarstva, cop. 2007, str. 103–106.
implementierbar [12]. Es wurde gezeigt, daß sich
bei gezieltem Einsatz solcher Maßnahmen die
Effizienz der Produktionsabläufe und damit der
Unternehmenserfolg steigern lassen.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 17–23 (2007)


Produktionsmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen 23

Rezime

PROIZVODSTVEN MENAXMENT VO MALITE I SREDNI PRETPRIJATIJA

Franc Čuš, Uroš Župerl

Universität Maribor, Fakultät für Maschinenbau,


Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
franc.cus@uni-mb.si / uros.zuperl@uni-mb.si

Klu~ni zborovi: menaxment; proizvodstvo; kompanija; avtomatizirani koncepti; fleksibilnost;


tro{oci

Uspe{nosta na sovremenite proizvodni kompa- poznatlivi modeli za uspeh treba da se vodi proiz-
nii naj~esto se dol`i na uspe{en menaxment i vrabo- vodstveniot menaxment na malite i sredni kompanii?
teni kreativni lu|e. Vo trudot e napraven obid da se Kako menaxmentot da prepoznae koga da se vovedat
dadat nasoki za mo`ni odgovori na slednite pra{a- evolutivni promeni vo upravuvaweto so kompanija-
wa: Kako inovativnite promeni vo uspe{nite kompa- ta? Vo trudot se dadeni mo`ni merki koi e potrebno
nii se integriraat vo politikata na menaxmentot so da gi prezema proizvodniot menaxment bazirani na
streme` da se postigne pogolem uspeh? Po koi pre- implementirawe analiti~ki informati~ki metodi.

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 17‡23 (2007)


Mechanical Engineering – Scientific Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 25–32 (2007)
CODEN: MINSC5 – 380 ISSN 1857–5293
Received: November 28, 2007 UDK: 621.65 : 621.757
Accepted: December 11, 2007
Professional paper

PRODUCT CONFIGURATORS AS A TOOL FOR INCREASING COMPETITIVENESS


OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Zoran Anišić1, Valentina Gečevska2


1
Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department for Industrial Engineering and Management Department,
University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, Serbia
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, "SS. Cyril and Methodius" University,
P.O Box 464, MK-1001 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
azoran@vts.su.ac.yu // url: www.ftn.ns.ac.yu,

A b s t r a c t: The paper will show some practical re- Despite a huge number of variations, the elec-
sults of the implementation of mass customization in small tronic systems with a mass customization inter-
companies. Two production programs will be presented, suit-
able for involving customization in the particular market seg- action platform consist of three main components:
ments. The first industry solution deals with a furniture pro- • The core configuration software presents the
duction program for shops and boutiques where strategy en- possible variations and guides the user through
ables a variation of available modules, dimensions, colors and the configuration process, asking questions or
shapes, while the second industry solution offers a possibility to
design and personalize gates, fences, balcony rails and stair rails providing design options. Consistency and ma-
made of wrought iron. In both cases, modules used for customiza- nufacturability are also checked at this stage.
tion are prefabricated in mass production. The paper will focus on • A feedback tool is responsible for presenting
the developed product configurators for the above mentioned
production programs concerning the product structure, choosing the configuration. Feedback information for a
relevant product features, programming language and some early design variant can be given as visualization and
results of their implementation. in other forms (e.g. price information, functio-
nality test etc.) and is the basis for the trial-
Key words: mass customization; product configurators;
group technology and-error learning of the user.
• Analyzing tools finally translate a customer
specific order into lists of material, construc-
1. INTRODUCTION tion plans, and work schedules. They further
1.1. Product Configurators transmit the configuration to manufacturing or
other departments.
Recently, a new set of design solutions, called One of the basic division among configurator
Product Configurators (PC), have become signifi- solutions is the type of interaction with customers
cant in addressing many of the design issues re- [6]. Figure 1 shows online and offline options with
lated to mass customization [1, 2, 5]. They are possibilities of different programming language
systems that create, maintain, and use electronic realization.
product models that allow a complete definition of Product configurators in conjunctions with
all possible product options and variation combina- CAD/CAM systems and flexible automation (e-
tions, with a minimum of data entries. This capa- factories of the future) have the potentials to
bility is essential for the companies offering unique achieve the goals of data management systems with
configurations to satisfy specific customer needs regards to the rapid product development. These
[1, 3, 4]. Configuration is “…the construction of a product configurators have emerged as the newest
physical system according to specifications by select- design tools for 21st century product development
ing, parameterizing, positioning and assembling and will play a key role in realizing the goals of
instances of suitable existing component types from mass customization.
a given catalog” [2].
26 Z. Anišić, V. Gečevska

OFFLINE CONFIGURATORS ONLINE CONFIGURATORS


2. Product analysis. Analysing products and
eventually life cycle systems. Redesign-
CD - ROM FROM THE SERVER SIDE FROM THE CLIENT
ing/restructuring products. Structuring and formal-
DVD - ROM
SA SERVERSKE STRANE SA KORISNIČKE STRANE ising knowledge about the products and related life
MOBILE COMPUTING
HTML JAVA
cycle systems in a product variant master.
XML PLUGIN

PHP GUI
Tools: List of features and product variant
ASP/CGI master.
EJB/(JSP) JAVA

WAP (MOBIL)
3. Object oriented analysis. Creation of ob-
Fig. 1. Available technologies for configurator the design ject classes and structures. Description of object
classes on CRC-cards. Definition of user interface.
Other requirements to the IT solution.
Since, CAD is essentially the design portal for
products, software directly translates customer re- Tools: Use cases, class diagrams and CRC-
quirements into design concepts in the CAD sys- cards.
tem if necessary. Product configurators feel this
need to link the customer requirements to the de- 4. Object oriented design. Selection of con-
sign stage. Designers or end customers use product figuration software. Defining and further develop-
configurators to create a product from a set of pre- ing the OOA-model for the selected configuration
defined options or variables. Configurators range software. Requirements specification for the pro-
from simple tools within limited options to com- gramming including user interface, integration to
plex rules based systems that bring together all the other IT systems.
parts, products and processes to meet the customer
specifications. 5. Programming. Programming the system
The procedure for building product configura- based on the model. Testing the configuration sys-
tor systems is based on several theoretical domains tem.
including:
• Modeling concepts – based on object oriented 6. Implementation. Implementation of the
modeling, product configuration system in the organisation.
Traning users of the system, and further training of
• Product analysis – dealing with the transfor-
the people responsible for maintaining the product
mation of product knowledge into a product
configuration system.
model,
• Organizational aspects – how to organize the 7. Maintenance. Maintenance and further
development of product configuration systems, development of the product and product related
• Development of business process – how to models.
identify and redesign a new business process.

1.2. A procedure for building configurator systems 2. INDUSTRY SOLUTION

The procedure for building configurator sys- This chapter deals with building and imple-
tems for mass customization, takes few steps as mentation of the configurator systems on two pro-
duction programs in domestic companies.
follows:

1. Process analysis. Analysis of the existing 2.1. Furniture for shops and salons
specification process (AS-IS), statement of the
The first example, presents the successful ap-
functional requirements to the process. Design of
plication of the MC concept on production pro-
the future specification process (TO BE). Overall
gram of furniture for shops «ŽAKO» Stara Mo-
definition of the product configuration system to
ravica. The production program is developed using
support the process
the modular principle, and the operational groups
Tools: flow charts, Activity Chain, Model, of parts are formed, giving them max. level of cus-
key numbers, problem matrix, SWOT, list of func- tomization according to technological capabilities
tional describing characteristics and gap analysis.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 25–32 (2007)


Product configurators as a tool for increasing competitiveness of small and medium enterprises 27

of manufacturer. Table 1 shows ten operational compass all modules (subassemblies and parts) and
groups of parts from which one can easily build a their operational groups. The configurator system
wall shelf, as well as attributes allowed to be cus- for this product is developed in offline internet sur-
tomized. rounding, and Figuures 3 and 4 present one seg-
Figure 2 shows the structural scheme of the ment of the customized wall shelf.
complex product – product master, capable to en-

Table 1
Operational groups of parts of the furniture
OG1 Metal bar OG2 Wall clamp OG3 Adjustable foot OG4 Shelf carrier OG5 Shelf

Attributes: Attributes: Attributes: Attributes: Attributes:


Dimensions: Color: Color: Dimensions: Dimensions:
Color: Color: Material:
Color:
OG6 Wooden ball OG7 Connect. bar OG8 Stand carrier OG9 Stand OG10 Cons. shelf carrier

Attributes: Attributes: Attributes: Attributes: Attributes:


Dimensions: Dimensions: Dimensions: Dimensions: Dimensions:
Color: Color: Color: Color: Color:

1 3 SVETLO 1
COVER LIGHT

STABLO 1 1 ČEP 1
METAL BAR CORK
PS STUBA 1 M
SUB M.BAR
1 1
WALL CLAMP

STOPALO 1 1
PROIZVOD VEZNI EL. 1 1
FOOT NOSAČ1 1
PRODUCT CONNECT.EL.
CARRIER 1

1
1 2
PS POLICE 1 M ID[ B
SUB SHELF
POLICA 1
SHELF
1

1 1 [ TENDER 1 4 1
STAND

Fig. 2. Structural scheme of wall shelf for shops and salons – product master

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 25‡32 (2007)


28 Z. Anišić, V. Gečevska

Fig. 3. Product configurator – furniture for shops and salons

Fig. 4. Report preview of the confihured product – ready for printing of e-mailing

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 25–32 (2007)


Product configurators as a tool for increasing competitiveness of small and medium enterprises 29

2.2. Wrought iron products The emerged situation opened the possibilities of
applying the MC concept in this area, though de-
Assortment of products made from wrought signing customized products from prefabricated
iron is quite wide, but the main representatives are elements, is slightly more expensive than the clas-
(Fig. 5): sic metalwork made from steel shapes.
• gates, Current situation in this field on the market
• balcony rails, and the prices are given bellow (material and man-
• fences, ual work included):
• stair rails, • products made from steel shapes, the price
• furniture and other objects. is 100 €/m2,
Products made from wrought iron have sev- • products made from prefabricated forged
eral centuries long history, and traditional technol- elements, the price is 200 €/m2,
ogy assumes completely hand forged manufactur- • taylormade products, completely hand for-
ing. Recently, there is a huge number of mass pro- ged, the price is 600 €/m2,
duced elements present on the market, manufac- which has opened possibilities for new niche mar-
tured on high productive forging machines, avail- kets, similar to other fields (Fig. 6).
able at every large supplier of building material.

Gates Balcony rails

Fences Stair rails


Fig. 5. Basic products from wrought iron

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 25‡32 (2007)


30 Z. Anišić, V. Gečevska

Fig. 6. Mass produced elements made with forging machines

2.3. Building product configurator

Due to limitation, the paper will cover only Designing the gate can be easily performed
the principal development of the gates, as a part of using the drag and drop technique. The customer
the production program. After the anlysis of just has to select the desired element from the cor-
available gates made from wrought iron, four basic respondent operational group and to drag it to the
types are pointed out: field in the chosen type of the gate. The product
• sliding gates, configurator system performs positioning of the
• one wing gates, element, and/or the necessary number of instances
• two wing gates, that have to be copied, having in mind the standard
• four wing gates distance between elements of 120 mm and the
overall wide of the gate defined by the customer.
Figure 7 shows sketches of basic gate types,
The product configurator is built in Delphi pro-
which are at the same time complex products
gramming language, in offline mode, according to
representatives.
the category of the product. It is expected that the
In addition, seven operational groups of parts customer download configurator file, perform cus-
are given, with the minor part of the total number tomization and upload the desired solution for fur-
of elements, together with parameterized sketches ther quotation and adjustment.
for the complex representative of the group, used
for designing all four types of gates (Tab. 2).

Sliding gate One wing gate

Two wing gate Four wing gate

Fig. 7. Basic types of gates

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 25–32 (2007)


Product configurators as a tool for increasing competitiveness of small and medium enterprises 31

Table 2
Operational group of parts from the wrought iron
Operational group of parts Complex product
TWO WING GATE
COMPLEX PRODUCT REPRESENTATIVE
SHARP END

p11 p12 p13 OG1


S-CURVES

OG2
p21 p22 p23
VERT.BARS

1 – Sharp ends, 2 – S-curves, 3 –Vert.bars, 4 – Bottom area,


5 – Central detail, 6 – Door lock, 7 – Hinges
p31 p32 p33 …. OG3
C-CURVES

p41 OG4
CUSTOMIZED TWO WING GATE
CENT. DETAIL

p51 p52 OG5


LOCKS

p61 p62 OG6


HINGES

Designing the product using elements from correspodent


operational groups
p71 p72 ..... OG7

3. CONCLUSION sive taylor made products, manufactured on special


demand. The constant and progressive develop-
From the given examples, it can be concluded ment of IT, especially in the domain of product
that for a large number of production programs design, process planning and control, necessary for
certain suitable segments of the market could be the MC sustainability, opens possibilities for wid-
found, for applying the MC concept. It is a rela- ening this market segment, giving perspective for
tively narrow market niche positioned between the the future.
cheapest products, mass produced and very expen-

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 25‡32 (2007)


32 Z. Anišić, V. Gečevska

Besides the mentioned market situation, product 4. REFERENCES


configurator development is very important regard-
less of the applied level MC concept. The product [1] A. Karlsson: Assembly Initiated Production – A Strategy
for Mass Customisation, Utilising Modular, Hybrid
configurator enables easily processing a large num-
Automatic Production Systems, Assembly Automation,
ber of inquiries and forwards them to the produc- Vol. 22, No 3, pp. 239–247 (2002) (ISSN 0144-5154).
tion system for further designing of nonstandard [2] M. M. Tseng, F. T. Piller: The Customer Centric Enter-
parts and process plans for manufacturing. Visualiza- prise: Advantages in Mass Customization & Personaliza-
tion of the product through showing possible modi- tion, Springer: New York/Berlin (2003).
fication on computers impresses customers and [3] I. Ćosić, Z. Anišić, B. Lalić: Group Technology as a Basis
they are more readily for buying even the possibil- for Mass Customisation, Proceeding of the 14th DAAAM
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM "Intelligent Manufac-
ity for customization is minimal.
turing & Automation: Focus on Reconstruction and De-
The fact is, that at this moment, only large in- velopment", Sarajevo, Bosnia (2003).
ternational leading companies have power for im- [4] Z. Anišić, I. Ćosić, B. Lalić: Some Cases in Applying
plementation of the MC concept but small and me- Concept of MC in Production System Designing, Pro-
dium enterprises could have benefits even now, ceeding of the International Conference on Mass Cus-
tomization and Personalization Theory and Practice in
through the application of certain segments con- Central Europe, Rzeszow, Poland (2004).
cerning configuration and visualization of prod- [5] Z. Anišić, I. Ćosić, B. Lalić: Mass Customization and the
ucts. Introduction of the approach and refreshment Process of Production Systems Designing – Case Study,
of the marketing promotion – offering personalized Proceeding of the International Conference “Manufac-
products will strengthen their competitive position turing and Management in 21st century”, Ohrid, Repub-
lic of Macedonia (2004).
on the market for surely.
[6] Z. Anišić, I. Ćosić, B. Lalić: The Choice of the Optimal
Having in mind, that the configurators de- Product Configurator in Mass Customization Strategy,
scribed in the paper have been in use only few Proceeding of 16th DAAAM INTERNATIONAL SYMPO-
months, there is no valid reverse information con- SIUM "Intelligent Manufacturing & Automation: Zoung
cerning behavior of the customers or achieved Researches and Scientists", pp. 9–11, Opatija, Croatia.
(2005).
benefits for the manufacturers. If is just left to
track every single request in order to improve ef-
fects.

Rezime

KONFIGURATORI NA PROIZVOD KAKO ALAT ZA PODOBRUVAWE


NA KONKURENTNOSTA NA MALI I SREDNI KOMPANII

Zoran Ani{i}1, Valentina Ge~evska2


1
Fakultet tehni~kih nauka, Otsek za industrijsko in`ewerstvo i menaxment,
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Trg Dositeja Obradovi¢a 6, Srbija
2
Ma{inski fakultet, Univerzitet „Sv. Kiril i Metodij“,
p. fah 464, MK-1001 Skopje, Republika Makedonija
azoran@vts.su.ac.yu / url: www.ftn.ns.ac.yu,

Klu~ni zborovi: strategija mass customization; proizvodni konfiguratori; grupna tehnologija

Vo ovoj trud e daden prikaz na prakti~nin re- nosta na proizvodite konfigurirani preku dimenzii,
zultati od implementacija na strategijata „mass cus- boi, formi, a vtorata proizvodna programa ja prika-
tomization“ (proizvodi za {iroka potro{uva~ka spo- `uva primenlivosta na istata strategija kaj proizvo-
red barawata na kupuva~ite) vo mali kompanii. Pri- di od kovano `elezo. Vo dvata slu~aja modularnosta e
ka`ani se dve razli~ni proizvodni programi pogodni osnova za masovno proizvodtsvo.
za voveduvawe na strategijata „mass customization“ vo Trudot ja prika`uva implementacijata na stra-
pazarnite segmenti koi tie gi pokrivaat. Prvata tegijata „mass customization“ preku razvoj na proizvod-
proizvodna programa se odnesuva na proizvodstvoto ni konfiguratori za dvete analizirani proizvodni
na mebel, kade primenlivosta na strategijata „mass programi, konfiguratori koi se generirani vo sog-
customization“ se bazira na varijabilnosta i modular- lasnost so strukturata i formite na proizvodite.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 25–32 (2007)


Mechanical Engineering – Scientific Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 33–37 (2007)
CODEN: MINSC5 – 381 ISSN 1857–5293
Received: November 5, 2007 UDK: 621.039 : 004.6 (497.7)
Accepted: November 6, 2007
Professional paper

THE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL INIS CENTER IN PRESENTING MACEDONIAN


NUCLEAR AND NUCLEAR RELATED SCIENCES

Marija Sejmenova-Gichevska
National and University Library “St. Kliment Ohridski”,
MK-1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
sejmenova@yahoo.com

A b s t r a c t: The Republic of Macedonia is 95th application of nuclear science and technology.


Member State of INIS and its participation in this cooperative Thus, the achievements of Macedonian respective
decentralized system started in 1996 when the Macedonian
INIS Center was established to be operated by the National scientists and scholars are being presented in the
and University Library “Kliment Ohridski” in Skopje. The global network as INIS is, which not only ensures
main objective of this study is to give an overview of the Ma- access to the worldwide scientific and technical
cedonian nuclear and nuclear related scientific thought pre- literature but it is a base for preservation and ex-
sented in the INIS Database. A statistical analysis of the Ma-
cedonian INIS Center’s contribution to the INIS Database for
change of nuclear knowledge.
the period of its constitution to 2006, by quantifying and re-
viewing the language, publication type and INIS subject cate-
gories of the submitted records is presented. MACEDONIAN INPUT
Key words: INIS; Macedonian INIS Center; INIS Da- TO THE INIS DATABASE
tabase
A bibliometric study of the Macedonian nu-
clear and nuclear related scientific thought pre-
INTRODUCTION sented in the INIS Database is performed. The ob-
jective of this study is to quantify and analyze bib-
Macedonian focal point to the INIS System – liographic records prepared by the Macedonian
the National INIS Center, operates within the INIS Center, with particular emphasis on language,
framework of the National and University Library publication type and INIS subject categories of the
“Kliment Ohridski” – Skopje. Its acting is in close relevant records.
relationship with the Macedonian Ministry of Edu-
cation and Science, which is a National coordinator The analysis is carried out on the basis of
of the whole activities in Macedonia, connected to searches and retrievals in the INIS Database on
IAEA. CD-ROM. The period covered in the analysis is
1980–2006/12 and includes all published and input
INIS (International Nuclear Information Sys- items into the INIS Database until that date. Tak-
tem) is a bibliographic database covering the ing into consideration that the Macedonian INIS
worldwide-published literature in nuclear research Center was established in 1996 and 1997 was its
and technology, as well as collecting the associat- first imputing year, the following period, from
ing full texts of non-conventional literature. Since 1980 to December 2006, is considered relevant for
INIS is based on international cooperation, i.e. at this analysis.
present 117 countries and 23 international organi-
zations have participated in building the INIS Da- The total number of records of the Macedo-
tabase, the main Macedonian INIS Centre’s task is nian INIS Center processed and submitted to the
creating information of the scientific-research ac- INIS Database for the above mentioned period is
tivities in Macedonia in the domain of sustainable 1023.
34 `M. Sejmenova-Gichevska

1. Language non-conventional literature is usually available


from INIS, unless it is marked with the special in-
The Language of Macedonian input is Mace- dicator “X” (unavailable from INIS).
donian 55%, English 42%, or both Macedonian Journal articles represent about 50% of all
and English 3%. There are only 2 records pub- Macedonian input and papers from conferences
lished in Russian and one in Albanian (Fig. 1). organized in our country 45%. Macedonian input
also includes doctor or master theses 5% and re-
ports, basically scientific-technical projects fi-
nanced by the Macedonian Ministry of Education
700 577 and Science (Fig. 2).
600
500 443
400
300
600
200
100 27 2 1 495
500 462
0
400
g

ng
ac

b
us
En

Al
M

R
&E
ac

300
M

200
0%
Mac 100 49
3% 0% 14
Eng 3
0
Mac&Eng
lls

is

ts

s
42% Rus c.

ok
es

or
ro
na

Bo
55%

ep
f. P

Th
ur

Alb

R
on
Jo

0%
5%1%
Fig. 1. Number of records (%) per language
Journals
Conf.Proc.
Thesis
It can be concluded that almost half of the 49%
Reports
documents are written in English, although Mace- 45%
Books
donia is a non-English speaking country. It reflects
the English oriented publishing policy of the do-
mestic scientific journals. Excluding the journal
“Energetika” all Macedonian key journals for the
INIS Database (Fig. 3) are published mostly in Fig. 2. Number of records (%) per publication type
English.

In order to help the user find journal titles


2. Publication type easily, INIS prepares the Authority List for Journal
Titles. This list is published annually and includes
The INIS cataloguing rules specify different the titles of all journals that have contained articles
types of records (i.e. book, journal article, report, submitted to the INIS Database. The statistical evi-
miscellaneous, patent, computer-medium, audio- dence of Macedonian journals regularly scanned
visual material) and literary indicators (i.e. short and key journals is shown in Fig. 3.
communication, conference, dictionary, numerical The journal “Energetika” has a high number
data, legislative material, translation, thesis or dis- of records, since it is published quarterly. The rest
sertation, computer program description, standard of the journals is published once or twice per year
or specification, progress report, bibliography) that (in some cases two numbers at once) depending on
indicate in which format the document reported to available publishing resources of the respective
the INIS Database is published. The full text of journal editors.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 33–37 (2007)


The role of the National INIS Center in presenting Macedonian nuclear and nuclear related sciences 35

Bulletin of the Chemists and Technologists of


29
Macedonia

Contributions-Macedonian Academy of Sciences and


26
Arts. Section of Biological and Medical Sciences

Contributions-Macedonian Academy of Sciences and


13
Arts. Section of Mathematics and Technical Sciences

Energetika 258

Geologica Macedonica 40

Physica Macedonica 50

Proceedings-Department of Mechanical Engineering,


54
University of Skopje

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Fig. 3. Macedoniam journals

3. Subject categories
200

INIS is a subject-oriented bibliographic data- 150


base and according to its rules, the assignment of
the primary subject category to each INIS record is 100

mandatory. The primary category should be one


50
for which the scope description encompasses the
main INIS topic discussed in the piece of literature. 0
The subject categories are defined in the
1

ETDE/INIS subject classification scheme. In Janu-


S0

S0

S1

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S7

ary 2000 the old subject categories was replaced by


a new simplified categorization scheme, containing
Fig. 4. Records arranged by the primary subject category
45 one-level broad subject categories from which
42 only are within the INIS subject scope. The new
categories have three-character alphanumeric
codes [Tab. 1]. Table 1
In determining the main INIS areas of the ETDE/INIS Subject Category Codes
Macedonian input, the primary subject categories
are analyzed. In order to reach uniform and com- S01 COAL, LIGNITE AND PEAT
prehensive analysis, the old category codes have S02 PETROLEUM
been converted to the new. It can be concluded that S03 NATURAL GAS
the subject fields with the highest number of re- S04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS
cords are topics on energy sources (fossil and re- S07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES
newable), environmental sciences, materials sci- S08 HYDROGEN
ence, engineering related to nuclear science and S09 BIOMASS FUELS
technology. (Fig. 4)

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 33‡37 (2007)


36 `M. Sejmenova-Gichevska

S10 SYNTHETIC FUELS CONCLUSION


S11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS
S12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES AND In accordance with the decentralized philoso-
NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR phy of the INIS System, INIS National centers col-
FACILITIES lect nuclear related information published within
S13 HYDROENERGY their boundaries, prepare the associated input and
S14 SOLAR ENERGY send it to the INIS Secretariat at the IAEA in Vi-
S15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY enna. The INIS Secretariat then provides quality
S16 TIDAL AND WAVE POWER control of the input submitted by all INIS Members
S17 WIND ENERGY
and produces various formats of information prod-
ucts, available to the nuclear community in both
S20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS
developing and developed countries. Macedonia
S21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND
ASSOCIATED PLANTS
contributes to this system through its National
INIS Center, making the Macedonian nuclear-
S22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS
related literature visible worldwide and facilitating
S24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
the transfer of nuclear knowledge among Macedo-
S25 ENERGY STORAGE nian scientists. The International Nuclear Informa-
S29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY tion System (INIS) is an excellent mechanism of
S30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION international cooperation that brings benefit to all.
S32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION AND
UTILIZATION (ETDE only)
S33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS (ETDE only)
S36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
REFERENCES
S37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY [1] N. Marinkovic: Research Reactor Records in the INIS
S38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY Database – A Bibliometric Study, March 2002.
AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY [2] W. Mandl: Impact and public acceptance of INIS’ biblio-
S42 ENGINEERING graphic studies, April, 2002.
S43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS [3] C.-D. Hillebrand: Analysis of Low and Medium Physics
Records in Databases: Science and Technology Indica-
S46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR tors in Low and Medium Energy Physics (with particular
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY emphasis on Nuclear Data), November, 1998.
S47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION (ETDE only)
[4] C.-D. Hillebrand: A Survey on Publications in Fusion
S54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Research and Technology: Science and Technology Indi-
S58 GEOSCIENCES cators in Fusion R & T, October, 1998.
S60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES [5] D. Dimitrov: Bibliometriska analiza na spisanieto “Bib-
liotekarska iskra”, Bibliotekarstvo, 23 (2), 19–28 (2005).
S61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY
[6] Marija Sejmenova-Gichevska: The Republic of Mace-
S62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE donia in the International Nuclear Information System
S63 RADIATION, THERMAL AND OTHER (INIS), Bibliotekarska iskra, 17 (1–2), 99–104 (1999).
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON
[7] Marija Sejmenova-Gichevska, Slave Jakimovski: The
LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL
Journal "Zbornik na trudovi – Mašinski fakultet Skopje"
MATERIALS
in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS),
S70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY Zbornik na trudovi – Mašinski fakultet Skopje, 19 (1), 3–
S71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, 10 (2000).
GENERAL PHYSICS [8] Marija Sejmenova-Gichevska: The digital collection of
S72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND the INIS center for the Republic of Macedonia, Bibliote-
FIELDS karstvo, 22 (2), 77–81 (2004).
S73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS [9] Atieh Taghrid, Robert Workman: INIS: The World’s
Nuclear Knowledge Reservoir, IAEA Bulletin, 47 (1), 50–
S74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
51 (Sep 2005).
S75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS,
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY [10] ETDE/INIS-02: Subject Categories and Scope Descrip-
tion, IAEA, Vienna, 2002.
S98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS AND
PHYSICAL PROTECTION [11] IAEA-INIS-11 – INIS: Authority List for Journal Titles,
IAEA, Vienna, 2006.
S99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS
[12] Presenting INIS, IAEA, Vienna, 1999.

Mech. Eng. Sci. J., 26 (1), 33–37 (2007)


The role of the National INIS Center in presenting Macedonian nuclear and nuclear related sciences 37

Rezime

ULOGATA NA NACIONALNIOT CENTAR NA INIS VO PREZENTACIJATA


NA MAKEDONSKITE NUKLEARNI I NUKLEARNO ORIENTIRANI NAUKI

Marija Sejmenova-Gi~evska

Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka „Sv. Kliment Ohridski“,


MK-1000 Skopje, Republika Makedonija
sejmenova@yahoo.com

Klu~ni zborovi: INIS; makedonski centar na INIS; baza na podatoci na INIS

Република Македонија е 95-та членка на INIS i неј- науки дадени во базата на податоци na INIS. Презентира-
зиното учество во овој децентрализиран систем започна на е статистичка анализа на придонесот на Македонскиот
во 1996 година кога беше формиран Македонскиот центар центар за базата на податоци на INIS од неговото форми-
na INIS во рамките на НУБ „Климент Охридски“ – Скоп- рање до 2006 година преку давање преглед на податоците
је. Основната цел на оваа студија е да даде преглед на за јазиците, типот на публикациите и категориите според
македонските нуклеарни науки и нуклеарно ориентирани INIS и нивните нумерички karakteristiki.

Ma{. in`. nau~. spis., 26 (1), 33‡37 (2007)

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