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Microfabrication technologies

-lithography
-thin film deposition
-dry and wet etching
-electrodeposition
-surface micromachining
-bulk micromachining
Lithography
Generation and transfer of patterns by exposing radiation on a substrate
Photolithography
Transfer of patterns from a mask to a substrate by exposing UV light through a mask on a
substrate; utilizes alignment marks to create a series of pattern transfers
Photoresist
Photosensitive polymer

Positive photoresist: Exposure to light destroys the polymer crosslink and becomes more
soluble in developer

Negative photoresist: Exposure to light forms


crosslink and becomes less soluble in developer
Lithography process
1) spin coat photoresist
2) soft bake around 90 degrees C
3) align and expose to UV light
4) develop
Thin film deposition (dielectric material): thermal oxidation on silicon wafer
Growing of SiO2 (insulator) at high temp

dry: Si + O2 --> SiO2, high quality but slow deposition time

wet: Si + 2H2O --> 2H2 + SiO2, low quality but fast deposition time
Thin film deposition (dielectric material): chemical vapor depostion
SiO2, phosphosilicate glass, borosilicate glass, and low temperature oxide are used in this
process; Each has a different composition, step coverage, density, refractive index, stress,
dielectric strength, and etch rate; SiO2 and SiN are commonly deposited dielectric layers using
CVD
Thin film deposition (metal deposition): Important properties
-Low resistivity
-Easy to etch
-Good adhesion
-Low stress
-Surface smoothness
Things that affect these properties: deposition method, deposition rate, chamber pressure
Thin film deposition (metal deposition): evaporation
-thermal evaporation
-E-beam evaporation
Thin film deposition (metal deposition): Sputtering
-Physical vapor deposition
-Inert ions are accelerated using a DC or RF drive to bombard a target, generates a cluster of
materials
-Almost any material can be sputtered
Etching
Processing step to remove materials that is not covered by a protective mask
Dry etching
-Chemically active species in gaseous state removes the target material
Wet etching
-Liquid etchant removes the target material
Electrodeposition
Processing step to create thick patterned metal structure above a substrate (few µm - tens of
µm)
Plastic microfabrication: Hot embossing
Pressing a mold against a heated and softened thermoplastic to create an inverted replica of
the mold (mold typically Si or metal)
Limitations of 2D microfabrication
-Arbitrary shape is challenging
-Many fabrication technologies are limited to Silicon and Glass
Plastic microfabrication: Injection molding
-Similar to hot embossing: Replicate inverted copy of the mold
-Molten polymer materials
-More suitable for producing many replica due to the shorter processing time compared to hot
embossing
-More complex and 3D structures are possible to replicate
Plastic microfabrication: Laser micromachining
Direct removal of polymer using laser radiation, has greater surface roughness compared to
other plastic microfabrication techniques
Stereolithography
-3D micro manufacturing process using photopolymerization
-Laser beam scans the surface of a photo-curable liquid polymers layer by layer to produce
copies of solid or surface models
Soft Lithography
-Non photolithographic method of producing patterns
-Creates a cast mold
- Use PDMS to make structures
PDMS Bonding
-Reversible bonding: is adhesive to itself as well as other materials
-Irreversible bonding:
1) spinning uncured PDMS on top of a
second PDMS layer
2) Activate surface with O2 plasma
Cast molding advantages
-Elastomers such as PDMS most commonly used
-low cost
-good pattern replication capability
-optically transparent
-self adhesion to other PDMS, glass, silicon, etc.
-reversible sealing is possible
-non toxic

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