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Mitosis and Meiosis

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
• Mitosis is the process of cell division.
What is Mitosis • Meiosis is the process where the
and Meiosis? number of chromosomes in a gamete
or sex cell is halved.
How does Mitosis work?

Mitosis is divided into Four phases known as Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.

The first phase, Prophase is when structures known as Centrioles move to opposing ends of the gamete and spindle fibers that
look like threads stretch across the cell.

The second ohase, Metaphase is when the chromosomes line up in the center of the gamete and the two spindle fibers attach to
the centromeres.

In the third phase, Anaphase, the centromeres divide and DNA molecules that are identical go to opposing sides of the cell.

In Telophase, the last phase, the spindle fibers disappear (Magic!) and a new nuclear membrane forms around all the sets of DNA
molecules.
• Like Mitosis, Meiosis can be broken down into many different stages. The first stage is Interphase
when a cell goes through a round of DNA replication and at the end the cell contains two identical
chromosome sets. Then during prophase 1, the chromosomes in the parent cell pair up, where they
can exchange genetic material. Next, during metaphase 1 the pairs of chromosomes line up in the
center of the cell. After that in Anaphase 1 the pairs of chromosomes seoerate and move to either
end of the cell. Then Telophase 1 occurs and nuclear memberanes form around both os the sets of
chromosomes and the cell divides into two cells called daughter cells, each pf which has half of the
original cells number of chromosomes. After that in prophase 2 the nuclear envelope starts to break
down, then in metaphase 2 the chromosoes once again line up across the center of both cells. Next
during Anaphase 2 the chromatids separate which forms single chromosomes and they then move to
opposing ends of the cells. Next telophase occurs again, enveloping each set of chromatids with
nuclear envelopes and both of the cells divide into two more daughter cells which makes four
daughter cells, all with half the mumber of chromosomes the original cell had.

How does Meiosis work?


• Mitosis and Meiosis are very similar but also very different. Mitosis is the
division of cells whereas Meiosis is when the number of chromosomes in
a gamete is halved. They each have similar phases or steps, but Meiosis
has far more steps and they both have different outcomes. Each are
necessary in order to reproduce, without each of these the sperm
wouldn’t be able to fertilize the egg and the cells wouldn’t be able to
multiply which is required to start forming a human. Both processes also
increase genetic variation because each the mother and the father give
half of the cells in order to make a child, which means you get features
from both your mother and your father.
What’s the
difference?