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G E N E R A L C O M M I T T E E (*Exjcccrr/z"e Men~6ers)


Prof. R. C. ROSANQUET Rt. Hon. Sir G E ~ R G1'
*Miss E ~ K E N ~ T E I N Baron A. YON HiiGRr. Prof. Sir F. W. RlncEw~Y
Sir JAX~ES FRAZER Mrs. C. H. W . J O H N ~ Mrs. STRONG
* P ~ ~ ~ . E x GARDNER
N E ~ T (Chairman). J. G. MILNE E. TOWRY WHYTR
(Vice-Chancellor Univ. Lond.) ROBERTMOND

Honorary Director-Prof. Sir FLINDERS PETRIE

Honorary Treasurer *C. H. CORBETTJ.P.
Honorary Secretary-Lady P w m e


Pn.D. I Wll.1.1Ahl COP~,EVWINSI.OW,PH.~).,L.H.D., LL.D.

Miss RUTHWIIKINS, Room 28, Haskell Oriental Museum, University of Chicago
I. BALLAS, 1895; by J. E. QUIBELL.(Out of print; obtainable in joint volume NAQADA AND
BALLAS, by W. M. F. PETRIE.68 plates. 20s. net.)
11. THE RAMESSEUM, 1896; by J. E. Q ~ I B E L L(Out . of print.)
111. EL KAB, 1897; by J. E. QUIBEI.~,.
IV. HIERAKONPOLIS I, 1898; text by W. M . F. P. 43 plates. 20s. net.
V. HIERAKONPOLIS 11, 1899; ,hy F. W. GREENand J. E. Qulnlir.~.. 39 plates (4 culoured and
20 photographic).
40 plates. 16s. net. (Out of print.)
and I<un~SETHE.43 plates. (Out of print.)
VIII. TEMPLE O F THE KINGS, 1902; by A. ST. GEORGE CAUI.PEILD.24 plates. 16s. net. (Out of print.)
IX. THE OSIREION, 1903; by MARGARET A. MURRAY.37 plates. 25s. net.
X. SAQQARA MASTABAS I, 1904; by M. A. MUERAY; and GUROB, by L. LOAT. 64 plates. 30s. net.
XI. SAQQARA MASTABAS 11, 1905; by HII.DAPETRIE.(Ill preparation.)
40 plates. 25s. net. In double volume with 94 plates. 45s. "et. ('This latter is out of print.)
XIII. GIZEH AND RIFEH, 1907; by W. M. Fr.1NDens PETR~E.40 plates. 25s. net. In double volume
wit11 ~ o gplates. 5 o s . p e f .
PETRIE, 43 plates. 25s. net.
and E. E. KNOBET..
(Out of print.)
XV. MEMPHIS I, 1908; by W . M. F. P e ~ n rand
~ J . H. WAI.KER.54 plates. 25s. net.
XVI. QURNEH, 1909; by W. M. F. PETRIEand J. H. WAI.KER.56 plates. (Out of print.)
XVII. THE PALACE O F APRIES (MEMPHIS 11), 1909; by W. M. F1.1N~ansPETRlE and J . H . WAI.KEE.
35 plates. 25s. net.
47 plates. 25s. net.
XIX. HISTORICAL STUDIES, 1910. 25 plates. 25s. net. (Studies, vol. ii.)
XX. ROMAN PORTRAITS (MEMPHIS IV), 1911; by W . M. F. PBTRIE.35 plates. 25s. net.
52 plates. 25s. net.
XXII. PORTFOLIO O F HAWARA PORTRAITS. 24 coluured plates. 5 0 s net.
XXIII. TARKHAN I AND MEMPHIS V, 1912; by W. M. F. PETRIE. 81 plates. z j s . net.
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W. M. F. PETRIE.62 plates. 25s. net.
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XXVII. LAHUN I, THE TREASURE, 1914; by GUYBRUNTON.23 plates (8 coloured). 63s. net.
XXVIII. HARAGEH; by R. ENGEI.BACH and B. GUNN. 81 plates. 25s. net.
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XXX. TOOLS AND WEAPONS, 1916; by W. M. F. PETRIE.76 plates. 35s. net.
XXXI. PREHISTORIC EGYPT, 1917; by W. M. F. PETRIE.53 plates. 25s. n d .
XXXII. CORPUS O F PREHISTORIC POTTERY; by W. M. F. P E T ~ I E58. plates. 25s. net.
XXXIII. LAHUN 11, THE PYRAMID, 1920; by W. M. F. PETRIZ,G . BRUNTON, M. A. MURRAY.75 plates. 25s. net.
XXXIV. SEDMENT I, 1921 ; by W. M. F. PBTRIEand G. BRUNTON. 47 plates. 25s. net.
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GARDINER. and M. A. Munnn~. 55 plates. 25s. net.

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where also copies of the above works can be obtained.


I .................. I
CHAPTER I 29 . Remains on the ground . . . . . . . . . . . 14
30. The stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '4
31. Spiral stairways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Material of the 1st dynasty . . . . . . . . . ' 32. The Portico and coping . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3. Position of the graves. . XV . . . . . . . I .
33 Sources of the architecture ......... I5
4 . Nature of the cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5. Constructionofthegraves,pls.XVItoXVIII z C H A P T E R V1
6 Two regions for graves . . . . . . . . . . . 3

C H A P T E R I1 34. Cremation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
35 . Platform tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
36 . Apse chapel tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
P1. I Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. Subterranean chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . I7
Pls . 11. XI1. Cylinders and inscriptions . . 4 38. Large halls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '7
Pls . III-V .
Copper tools and sealings .. 4 39. Colurnbarium at Abydos . . . . . . . . . . . 18
P1. V1 Flint work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. Inscription of Theodore . . . . . . . . . . . 18
V1l . Ivory ............. 41. Abydos chapel; Byzantine sealings . . . . 18
Pls . VIII-XI . Stone vases and pottery . 7
13. Pls . XIII-XIV .
Skeletons . . . . . . . . . 7 C H A P T E R V11
14. Burials at king's death . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. .
15 P1. X I X Shrine and graves . . . . . . . . 8
16. A varied group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
17. Weights Registers pls X X , X X I . .... g 42 . Stele of Menthotpe .............. I9
18. Fort of Khosekhemui . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 43. Coffin of Inaros . . .............. I9

C H A P T E R 111 C H A P T E R V111

19 Pls . X X I I - X X I I I . Mentuhetep stele and

great altar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 44 . Recluses. solitary and in communities . . 20

20 . Pls . XII, X X I V . Antef and Sebekdudu .
45 The wady of the hermitage . . . . . . . . . 20
steles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 .
46 The 1iving.room. larder and kitchen . . . 21
2 1 . P1 X X V . Burial with gold wristlets . . . 10 47 . Wall scenes and lamp recess . . . . . . . . 21
. .
2 2 Pls XXVI-XXVIII . Steles of XIIth dyn- 48. The oratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2
asty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
49. Contrivances of the hermit . . . . . . . . . 23
23 P1. XXIX . Hieratic steles . . . . . . . . . . II
24 P1. XXX . Cats' tomb; small objects . . . II C H A P T E R IX
25 P1. X X X I . Ramesside steles . . . . . . . . 11 T H E COPTIC INSCRIPTIONS
. .
26 Pls X X X I I - X X X I I I . Saite steles . . . . 12 . .
50. On the main wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
OXYRHYNKHOS 51. On the side wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
52. In the oratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
53. In the quarry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
27 Site of Oxyrhynkhos ............. 12 DISTRIBUTION
LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
28 . The colonnade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


tomb Un-nefer inlay ... 11
I Forts. steles and graves . . . . . . 3. g X X X I. Steles of X I X t h dynasty .
. . . 11
I1. Seals. inscribed ivory . . . . . . . 4. g X X X I I. Steles of Saite period . . .
. . . 12
I11 Property marks and seals . . . . . 4 XXXIII . Steles of Saite period . . .
. . . 12
I V Copper tools . Foreign pottery . . 5 XXXIV . Coffin of Art-herru . . . . .
. . . 12
V Copper tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
V1. Flint knives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 OXYRHYNKHOS
V11 Gaming pieces . Copper bars . . . 6 X X X V. Colonnade and sculpture . . . . 13
V111 Stone vases. granary. &C. . . . . . 7 .
X X X V I Theatre sculpture . . . . . . . . . 14. 15
I X Alabaster vases . . . . . . . . . . . 7 X X X V I I . Columbarium . Theatre . . . . . . 14. 15
X . Alabaster vases . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 9 X X X V I I I Plan of theatre . . . . . . . . . . 14. 15
X I New types of pottery . . . . . . . . 7 X X X I X . Plan of site . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. 1 6
XI1 Inscribed ivory and steles . . . . 7. g. 10 X L . Plans of platform tombs . . . . 16
XI11 Courtiers' graves . . . . . . . . . . 7 XL1 . Plans of chapel tombs . . . . . . 16
X I V Courtiers' graves . . . . . . . . . . 7 XL11. Plans of subterranean tombs .. 17
X V Graves and later forts . . . . . . . I . 2 .
XL111 Plans of hall tombs . . . . . . . 17
X V I . Graves of courtiers Zer . . . . . . 2. 8 X L I V . Plans of Columbarium . . . . . . 18
XVII . Graves of courtiers Zet . . . . . . 2. 8 X L V . Views of tombs . Jar. stele . . . 16
. .
X V I I I Graves of courtiers Merneit . . . 2. 8 XLVI . Views of tombs . . . . . . . . . . 17
XIX . Plans of graves and shrine . . . . 8 XLVII . Views of tombs . Sculpture . . . 17. 18
X X . Register of courtiers' graves . . . g XLVIII . Byzantine sealings . . . . . . . . 18
X X I Register of courtiers' graves . . . g
X X I I . Stele of Mentuhetep . . . . . . . . 10. 1 9
X X I I I . Stele of Mentuhetep and altar . . 10. 19 .
X L I X Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
X X I V Stele of Antef . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 L . Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
X X V Amulets and genealogy ...... 10 L1. Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . 22. 23. 24
X X V I . Steles of XIIth dynasty . . . . . . 10 L11. Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. 24
X X V I I Stele of Shenu . . . . . . . . . . . 11 L111. Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . 22. 23. 24
X X V I I I Steles of XIIth dynasty . Pot marks 11 LIV . Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 25
XXIX Hieratic steles . . . . . . . . . . . . II LV . Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 I . 22
I. TtrE work described in this volume was 'I'HE GRAVES OF 'I'HE COUR'I'IERS.
carried on at Abydos from the 8th of December z. THE excavations which I carried on at the
1921 to the 11th of February 1922, and then a t Royal Tombs in 1900-OK seemed to have ex-
Oxyrhynkhos from the 16th of February to the hausted the material that could be recovered of the
10th of April. The party a t these sites consisted 1st dynasty, and subsequent work a t that site by
of the Director and Mrs. Petrie, M. Henri Bach, others yielded scarcely a fragment more. A tomb
Mr. Montgomerie-Neilson, Mr. G. W . H. Walker, of that age, probably of a queen, a t Gizeb, sup-
Miss Caton-Thompson planning the distribution of plied a few objects of different kinds in 1906:
flint work on the desert, Miss Guenevere Morton, those from the central chamber are in Cairo, un-
Mrs. Benson in part of the time, while Mr. and published; those from the surrounding graves are
Mrs. Brunton could not arrive from South Africa figured in Gizeh and Rifeh, with plans. Then about
till the 20th of March, and were occupied entirely 1911 another excavator found, about a mile from
in exploring southward. the Royal Tombs, a line of graves of the 1st dyn-
Beside the work here described, tombs were visited asty, but did not pursue the matter to a con-
in the eastern desert opposite Oxyrhynkhos, in one clusion. In 1921, as nothing more had been under-
of which was a series of Aramaic inscriptions. Here taken a t that site, I cleared it as the work of the
are references to Taharqa, Nekau and Psemtek I, British School.
showing an early settlement of Syrians, probably 3. There was no indication of the extent of
Jews. The 'inscriptions were copied by M. Noel these squares of graves visible on the surface. A
Giron, and photographed by the Museum staff. mere flat expanse of sand, pebbles and chips lay
Rt. Giron's account appeared in Ancient Egypt 1923, level between the fort of Khosekhemui and the
pp. 38-43, and he then preferred to place the other fort, now a Coptic deir: thence it stretched
material in the hands of Dr. Cowley. down to the rubbish mounds around the Kom es
A t Oxyrhynkhos many papyri were purchased Sultan. W e had to run trenches in all directions
from the diggers and dealers; a few were retained to get in touch with the many lines of graves
for publication by Professor Hunt, the bulk were that we found, see pl. xv. Thus we disclosed three
sent to Washington University, St. Louis, and others great squares of graves; the N.W. group con-
to Ann Arbor University, Michigan. Some of the tained an ivory label and a copper adze of king
oldest Hebrew papyri, of the third century, were Zer, the third king of the 1st dynasty; the N.E.
found in the work, and have been described by group contained in one grave two ivory labels
Dr. HIRSCHFELD (Jewish Guardian, June g, 1922) and of Zer, in other graves the large ivory comb of
Dr. LOEWE(Journ. Tlzeol. Studies, Jan. 1923). A photo- king Zet, and two copper tools of his; the S. E.
graph was issued in a pamphlet on The Status of group had no ivories or copper tools, only a large
the Jews in Egypt, by FLINDERS PETRIE. These pottery jar made for queen Merneit. Thus this
are now in the British Museum. I t is hoped to cemetery belonged to the three reigns in the middle
issue a volume with final publication of all these of the dynasty. The pottery alone sufficed to date
papyri now in England. the graves to these reigns, before any names were

found; and the decline of construction in these might perhaps have been a long tomb with divi-
squares accords with that seen in the tombs of sions, like that at Gizeh. I t had in it a division
those kings. No question can remain therefore into three burial chambers at the tiorth, and two
about the date of the objects here discovered. The a t the south end. I n the N.E. one of these cham-
whole of each square of graves constitutes one bers was a burial, obviously of the XIIth dynasty,
group, and the separate graves are all of one date. while upon the body were laid a small bowl of
Before describing the graves we should note the black and white porphyry characteristic of the
the condition of the ground. When these squares beginning of the 1st dynasty, a tall cylindrical
were laid out, the graves were about four feet alabaster vase, broken and patched, and a smaller
deep, with about a foot of sand over them. I n the one of like form. All of these are clearly of the
XIIth dynasty the ground was riddled with long age of the squares of graves, and have been re-
graves for full-length burials, and some large used; this supports the idea of this large long pit
family graves with great steles. The surface con- being the central tomb of the square, the people
structions formed traps for blown sand, which of the XIIth dynasty having cleared it out for
raised the ground level. I n the X X V I t h to X X X t h re-use, and then buried in it some of the vases
dynasties large chambers were excavated, cutting which they had found in the original burial.
through and destroying many of the earlier graves; I n the general plan (pl. xv) the lines of graves
these new works formed vaulted brick rooms part- are blocked in solid black, a s the walls would be
ly underground, or sometimes domed chambers too thin to show. The details of the graves are
with a pyramidal top on a cubic basis. The height given on the separate plans of each square, xvi-
of these trapped more sand, so that about five xviii. T h e great wall of the 'fort of Khosekhemui,
feet of sand lay over the early graves, which were known as the Shunet ez Zebib, is at the west
much cut into b y the later tombs. side, and north of that is the earlier fort of Perab-
From early times the graves had been mostly sen. These forts were ppblished by AYRTONin
plundered (see pls. xvi, xvii, xviii). Of 269 graves A b d s 111, vi, vii, and the parts here are copied
of Zer, only 68 contained anything notable, and from those plans. The chamber at the north-east
only 16 had copper of obvious size left in them. of Perabsen's fort is not certain in form, so has
The 154 graves of Zet had objects in only 40 of been duplicated from that a t the south-east corner.
them. The 79 graves of Merneit had nothing of The plans of the three squares were made by
value left. Of gold only a few beads remained in laying tape lines along the walls, measuring each
one grave. grave from these, and connecting the tape lines
4. T h e nature of this cemetery is scarcely yet at the corners, and with each other. The sketches
explained. It is obviously like the squares of graves of the outlines of excavations were made by setting
around the Royal Tombs, and these burials of up a scale of markers along the west, and another
court servants are alike in both sites. But why along the south, and reading off the positions by
these graves should retain the square arrange- sighting a distant hill peak over each one of the
ment, when not around a royal burial, is not under- scales. This is the quickest method for a mass of
stood. A t first we naturally supposed that there detail where no great accuracy is needed.
was some central burial chamber, and the presence 5. The construction of the graves (pls. xvi-xviii)
of a mastaba wall in th'e north part of the square was made b y cutting a trench in the ground, lin-
of Merneit (xviii) seemed evidence of this. Yet no ing it with brickwork, and dividing it b y cross-
central burial could be found there, although we walls (pl. i, 4). I n the less careful work of the
removed a large part of the mounds which en- last square the trench is mostly left unlined, and
cumber this square. In the other squares (xvi, merely divided by brick crosswalls. It is evident
xvii) the outlines of our excavations, sketched in that the two earlier squares were laid out on a
the area, show ground which has been exhausted fairly consistent plan; yet the square of Zer has
down to native gravel. I t will be seen that there two corners left incomplete; that of Zet has all
is no space unexamined which is large enough for corners incomplete, while a broken row is added
a great tomb pit, like those of the Royal Tombs, on the west; that of Merneit is most irregular,
or any mastaba wall. I n the N.E. square, of Zet, and no trace of a western side could be found,
there is a large pit lined with brick walls, which though long searched for. There seems to have

been sufficient planning to justify our looking for buried a t the edge of the desert, at a site open to
the specified measurements, The square of Zer, all for royal worship; these two cemeteries devel-
inside the walling, is 225 cubits of 20.53 in length, oped later as the upper and lower temples of the
and in width 133.33 cubits of 20.64 to 20.79 inches, kings.
or else 135 cubits of 20.38 to 20.53; neither of I t may be noted how the sacrifice of the court
these multiples is satisfactory, but 135 cubits diminished during the dynasty. The graves con-
agrees best with the 225 cubits. The square of nected with Zer are 326 above and 269 below,
Zet is of likely multiples, zoo cubits of 2083 in total 595; of Zet 174 + 154 = 328; of Merneit
length; in width 125 cubits of 20.13 to 20.77. The +
41 80 = 121 and a few lost; of Den 121; of
latter breadth agrees well with the length. Azah 63; of Semerkhet 69; of Qa 26.
6. What seems inexplicahle is, when 326 graves T h e outlines within the squares show the pos-
were constructed around the tomb of Zer, where itions of pits dug b y us, leaving scarcely any
there was unbounded space on the desert, why chance of there being a large tomb chamber in
269 more graves should have been placed a mile the area.
away, and not with the others. Similarly for Zet On the west of Merneit's square is a mastaba
there are 174 graves round his tomb, and 154 or fort foundation with a tomb of the XIIth dyn-
placed in the lower cemetery. asty at the south end. No central chamber could
I t was not that the lower cemetery was for an he found, either in this or in the mastaba within
inferior class; among them is a large grave for a the Merneit square of graves. The position of the
woman named Mer-nesut with labels bearing the western mastaba on pl. xv may be slightly different.
name of Zer, and the great ivory comb of Zet and
large royal tools of copper show that people of some
consideration were buried here. The steles that re- CHAPTER I1
main mention a seal bearer, a carver, and two chief O B J E C l S O F T H E FIRST DYNASI'Y.
officials. The four seal cylinders found here also
belonged to persons of authority. What may ex- 7. I N describing the objects found in the graves
plain the difference of the upper and lower cem- of the 1st dynasty it will be clearest to follow
eteries is that nearly all the steles from the tomb the order of the plates i to xiv, for position of
of Zer have female figure determinatives (R. T. 11, graves referring to the plans, xvi to xviii, and
xxvi), suggesting that the burials around the king noting the whole groups in the Registers, xx, xxi.
were those of the harem and intimate servants, PI. I. I. The wall a t the side of the south gate
while the lower cemetery contained the palace of the fort of Khosekhemui. 2 . The western side
officials. This however hardly seems a sufficient of the fort of Khosekhemui. 3. The western side
reason for establishing two entirely separate cem- of the ancient fort occupied as a Coptic deir.
eteries during all these reigns. A t first I had thought These buildings of the IInd dynasty will he de-
that the lower cemeteries were those of the staff scribed after the graves.
of crown-princes who had died before accession, 4. View of open trench of graves, along the
but the absence of a central burial in each square east side of the square of Zet, looking south. The
is against that. loose blown sand overlying the graves readily fell
It seems likely that these great squares of graves in and choked them.
enclosed a space for some ceremony, otherwise 5. View of shrine on the west side of the square
there was no object in laying them out over so of Zer, see plan in pls. xvi and xix. This building
large a site. The enclosure of Zer alone is as was discovered at the back b y the workmen in
great an area as that of four of the Royal Tombs opening the graves, but they naturally did not dis-
with all their subordinate graves. If ceremonial, tinguish it from the many late tomb buildings which
they would be the early stage of what later be- lie over the area. They stated the back of the
came the lower temple of each pyramid in the inner chamber t o have been over the mid line of
IVth to VIth dynasties. Thus, for the present, it the graves, and the enclosure wall to have been
seems that the persons who were intimate with the 50 inches further to the west. This would imply
king were buried around him, where only intimates that the chamber was about I Z O inches long, while
might come for worship, while the court staff were the breadth of it is 81.5 to 82.6 inches, or 4 cubits.

That this is of about the latter part of the 1st I n one grave there were some dozens, al1,marked
dynasty is shown by the level of its foundation, with three parallel cuts; no other marks were found.
mhich is but little over the top of the graves. The 8. A finely cut ivory label of Zer; by the side
brick lengths of the graves of Zer are 9.4 to 9.8 of the name is bekh with the bird, see pl. xii, I ,
inches, those of this shrine are 9.7 to 10.3, and which also is on two copper adzes, iii, I, 2. From
those of the fort of Khosekhemui are 10.1 to 10.6 comparing the arrangement on these, it is clear
inches: hence this would agree with the end of the that the bird is named beklz, sometimes with lih
dynasty, as also shown b y the sizes of bricks in complement, sometimes the bird as the comple-
the Royal Tombs (R. T. 11, 15). I n the outer wall ment. I t is the desert partridge, h-arivan, which is
is a doorway blocked up b y brickwork, marked so familiar, with its quaint cry. If this is the name
on the plan by two white lines. This is not op- of an official, these objects mere not all buried
posite the entrance t o the chamber; a similar dif- with him as they were found in graves 461 and 612,
ference of doorways is seen in the pyramid shrine at opposite ends of the square of Zer, nearly four
of Meydum. The building is noted further under hundred feet apart.
pl, xix. g. A thick strip of ivory with a tenon at one
The steles are distinguished by the grave num- end, inscribed sher, perhaps abbreviated for the
bers. 442 is of a man Onkh-ef-sen, with the title name shera, the little one.
tep ud. 453 is of Neter-shedti, who was sealer of 10. A label inscribed zrren; as it was found in
some office. 117 is of Hetep-neb, who was appa- the S. W. corner of thc Zer square, it is tempting
rently a carver, indicated b y a flint knife. 159 is t o see a fuller form of tlie king's namc written in
of Mer-nesut, from the tomb with her playing-piece, alphabetic signs.
ii, 16. 446 is very much cut b y the sand-blast. 442 11. Two broken pieces of ivory with the same
is of Merefka, director of some office. signs, see copies in xii, 3, 4.
8. PI. 11. The cylinder seals are fully drawn on 1 2 to 17 a group found together, with the ivory
pl. iii, with which they will be described. 5 is an lions and marbles, vii, I to 6. They seem to h a v e
ivory label, with rd, neter, and a basket of offer- belonged to a royal favourite Mer-nesut whose
ings; it is tempting to see here an early use of name is on the large draughtsman 16, and on tlie
rd, a s " inspector " of divine offerings. stele (pl. I) found in the grave. She certainly lived
6. The ivory comb of king Zet, the detail of under Zer, b y the two ivory labels with that king's
which is drawn on pl. xii, 5. The remarkable design name found here, 14, 15. Other labels, 13, 17, were
of the upper part is new to us. The bark of the plain; they were probably inscribed with vegetable
solar hawk, Harakhti, has the pendant cloth hang- ink which had decayed. The ivory hemispheres,
ing from the front of it (see Abydos, Teinple of 12, were used in a game, see vii, g.
the Kings, V), and curved objects above, mhich seem g. P1.111. 1-5. Ten copper adzes were found in
like those on the stern of the bark in T. K. v. The various graves of Zer, and five of these are inscrib-
structure below the hawk suggests a case like that ed. Two together, 461, have the name of Bekh, of
of the mummified hawk Har-sma-taui (T.I<. vi; I.ANZ, which one was royal property, with an exquisite
D. Mit. ccxxxix). S o far the design is not unusual; engraving of the falcon and name of Zer. Another,
but the idea of a boat of the sun is then combined 3, has the name Her-ka, perhaps meaning the king.
with the flight of the hawk, b y placing a pair of No. 4 has Ba-she, or possibly the name is Hershefi
wings beneath the bark. Below is the name of Zet and the sh is a complement. 5, reading Onkh-ka,
(or Uazet) with the hawk over it, preceded by onkh. is interesting a s having the wide triangular base
This suggests the usual formula which begins later for the onkh, as on the steles R. T. I , xxxi, 11, 12;
inscriptions, " Lives the Horus." Everything that R. T. 11, xxvi, 52 and Abydos I, xii, 2. This early
we can observe in these early inscriptions is of form shows the antiquity of the emblem of Tanit
great value, as giving the original forms from (Ancient Egypt, 1916, 107)~which is thus identified
which the well-known phrases of later times have with the oizkh. I t seems a s if it had been brought in
been derived. from Libya in that form, and modified later in Egypt.
7 . Ivory arrow-points were very usual in the 6, 7 . These are the names of Zet'upoii a massive
graves, they are often stained red with ochre at the copper axe, and a large flat-topped adze, photo-
tips, perhaps to fetch blood b y sympathetic magic. graphed in v, 5, 7.

8. This name Ka-hetep is roughly incised on an 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 adzes and needles of copper; the inscrip-
axe with side lugs, v, 21. This form is remarkable tion has been noted under iii, I .
as being far earlier than any other lug axe; such 9. Parts of a jar were found, of hard gray pot-
square lugs were barely reached in the VIth dyn- tery, wheel-turned inside, and finished by diag-
asty, and not fully till the XIIth dynasty. The form onal scraping outside. I t is of the class of foreign
is scarcely Egyptian in its feeling, and it seems pottery, found in the Royal Tombs (Abydos I, viii),
as if it had been imported from some centre where by the bulging body, flat base, form of mouth,
the lugs had been already developed. and handles. The ware was remarkably hard, tinkl-
g . The sign of an office here, which is not known ing hen struck, unlike any Egyptian pottery.
before the IInd dynasty, points to this being later 10 is a scrap of a similar jar.
than the graves, and it has no history. 1 1 . Another kind of foreign pottery, hitherto
10. This seal has an interesting figure of a reed- unknown, is of very hard red ware with a pol-
work shrine, known before on sealings of Zer (R. ished face. Whether it was a cylindrical jar, or a
T. 11, xvi, "4, " 5 , 116, 117). The lion with three tubular stand, is uncertain as only parts of the
yokes (?) upright on the back also occurs on seals top remain. The side is fluted all round, with a
115, "6: with a single bar it occurs here on seal cord pattern and a vandyke incision round the
16, also in the titles of Hesy, and on an early neck. I t looks like an imitation of the Egyptian
cylinder seal (P. S. C. iv, 87). On sealing 1 2 it is alabaster cylinder jars, by some different people.
replaced by the sign of a registry (a bundle of 12. A clay ball has apparently the sign of Neit
papyrus rolls tied up): it therefore means some incised.
kind of ditvait. On sealing 16 here it is prefixed P1. V. I, 4. Groups of copper needles; such are
by a chisel, much as Hesy prefixes an axe. often found in the graves, and those in 4 are un-
11. A very perfect ebony seal has repetitions usually thin and in perfectly fresh condition.
of the name Tein-ka or Ka-tern, " t h e perfect ka." z. A type of knife as yet unknown was found
(Cairo.) For the name Tern-ha, of a woman, see in five graves, twice in pairs. From the small size,
P. S. C, v, 121. absence of handle, and a hole in the butt end, it
13-16 cannot be explained at present. The two is evident that these were hung, and used about
different forms of the hand in the ka sign of 1 4 the person; they are therefore called "girdle knives"
point to there being tivo values of this sign. as having been probably attached to the girdle.
1 7 has the name Nekht, and portions of titles. No. 3 is a thick rod of ivory found with the knife
1 8 might perhaps read Tata tata-en Tata: as in grave 429. Six knives were in the Zer group
Tutu is a son of Neit a possible meaning would (graves 401, 531, 5 3 4 and 765), and one in grave
be " T u t u nourish Tata," a play of words on the 429 of Zet, so they were an early fashion.
name Teta. 5 , 6, 7. A group of massive copper tools, the two
rg is a scarab which was found in a box burial larger having the name of king Zet, see iii, 6, 7.
of contracted position, placed between the arm and They were placed between the heel and pelvis of
chest. The box was undisturbed, with the skeleton the contracted body.
perfect, buried in the open space of the square of 8. A small chisel of copper, shown in edge view.
Zet. No contracted burials are known after the Vth, g. A copper coating for the forked end of a staff,
or possibly the VIth dynasty; by all appearance beaten out of sheet, and fixed on by minute nails.
of position this \vould be referred to the 1st or This method of copper plating is well known in
IInd dynasty; yet this scarab-which is of a de- the great statue of Pepy. The forked end was
graded design-was found in place, and could not developed later as a bronze casting, the purpose of
be supposed to have been inserted later. I t shows which is not yet certain; it might be for throwing
that scarab types were made some time before this, a spear by a looped cord, like the principle of the
and this cannot be later than the Vth, or more Australian spear-throwers. See Tools and Weapons,xl.
probably the IInd dynasty. 10. A copper coating of a staff head.
PI. 1%'. 1-4 some copper tools of the Zer group, rr. A bar of copper, square a t o n e end, and
a flaying knife, I ; a small pair of tweezers of bad tapering to a curl at the other end. Three such
form, 4; a ring or ferrule of base gold, 2, and a were found, see vii, 10, 11. What the purpose was
tip of horn, 3. is unknown, but the resemblance to the sign on

seal iii, 14, seems to show that they are not parts 28, 29. This remarkably developed blade for
of anything, but complete objects. A form more attachment to a stick is 2 0 inches long; it is ob-
like tlie cord sign, but reversed, is on a cylinder, viously of the Middle Kingdom period. With it was
P. S. C. v, I 1 5 The thick square end to the present the Syrian axe, cast in a closed mould, with relief
objects prevents their being connected with a cord ribbing along the edges. A similar axe is in a
sign. A small chisel was found with 726. group of tools from Central Syria (Tools, lxxiv,
12. A large group of copper was found in grave base); atid by this group in grave 3 0 the ~ group
640; 2 adzes, z chisels, 3 square borers, I round is now fixed to the Middle liingdom. This is of
borer, 14 needles, and a bodkin. There were also much importance a s it shows that in the design of
1 2 pointed flint flakes, 10 round-ended blades, a tools, and in the mode of casting, Syria was far
small knife, and a slate bowl mith a piece inserted before Egypt; it is tlie first tangible proof of a
after a break. high development of work in early Syria. The
13. Heavy copper axe. metal is a bronze rich in tin, having over 12 per
14. Two-edged knife of copper, smaller than cent, and it is hard to drill.
usual. I drilled out samples of many of these tools, and
15. Heavy square bar of copper, tapering: it from other dated examples a t U~iiversityCollege;
may be a rough casting, to work into a chisel b y these have been analyzed by Prof. Sebelien, and
hammering. are published in Ancielrt Egypt, 1924, p. 6.
16, 17. Ebony rod, ivory rod, long pointed bone ro. PI. VI. Flint work. The fresh result that has
flattened at one end, ivory hair pin with slight come out of the grave series is the frequency of
head, thin copper knife in wooden handle complete a narrow-blade knife with steep edge, intended for
(660). scraping; the wide thin blade being made for slic-
18,19,20. Broken tools occur only in grave 601, ing, and being too thin to bear much scraping.
whether for econoniy or with ritual purpose, we The blades with obtuse steep edge were about as
cantlot say. With the large saw-knife (20) and frequent a s the thin slicing blades. I n the Zer
adze ('g), were a chisel, 3 borers and 2 needles graves there were 7 wide to 6 narrow knives, in
(601). those of Zet 3 wide to 5 narrow; thus the scrap-
21, 22. The remarkable early axe with lugs (21) ing knife was gaining in favour. The most typ-
has been noted under iii, S. The large saw-knife, ical examplea are on pl. vi. No. I is the earlier type
18 inches long, has scarcely been known till now; of straight-handle knives, as in the Naqada tomb
it starts as a double-edged knife, which was irreg- of Neit-hetep. This form continued under Zet,
ularly haclred on the edge and partly notched, a s Semerkhet and Perabsen (Abydos I, xiv, xv). The
it was found thus to cut more quickly. From this obtuse knife is seen best in no. 4; 3 is partly worn,
apparently the regular saw urith teeth was evolved. and 2 has been much worn down by scraping.
How difficult the sawing of wood was in this 6 to 8 are examples of the thin slicing knife, up
age is painfully shown b y such a surface a s that to 2.8 inches wide, and only about 0.15 thick at
in Tarkhan I, xxiv, where cutting has proceeded in most.
every direction. With these tools was the cylinder A great quantity of pointed flakes were found,
seal ii, 3, showing that a man of official importance a s g, 12, and round-ended flakes, as 10, 11. Such
had tools buried with him (654). are well known from the Royal Tombs, and the
23, 24. An undisturbed grave had the long saw- round-ended type of scraper steadily degraded dur-
knife, mith the adze lying upon it, placed beneath ing the first dynasty (Abydos I, xiv, xv).
the head. The adze is inscribed, Onkh-ka (iii, 5). 11. P1.VII. Ivory work. In several graves ivory
A curious feature of all these large knives is the gaming pieces were found: sometimes in contig-
continuance of the edge below the base of the uous graves, as in 634 to 639, six graves together
tang. This is not known later in Egypt, nor in in the middle of the south side of the Zer square.
any other country. From this we may conclude that the burials were
25, 26. These are of the VIth dynasty or rather grouped according t o the functiotis of the persons.
later. The lions, 1-5, 13, are the finest of the carvings.
27 is the more extended blade of rather later There are various types of them, which are quite
date. distinct. (I) T h e round-topped head, with two raised

spots on the forehead; the fur rendercd by quad- ing time in dancing. For a scene with such wands
rants of conce~itric arcs of raised lines, and ex- in use, see Deshaslzeh xii, and gazelle-head wands
tending beneath the body. This shows affinity with of ivory in Gizeh and Rifeh iv. The ram liead on
the cold-country lions figured on the Gebel el- this wand is a fresh t y p e ; it is finely wrought,
Arak knife handle, with fur below; the aspect is and the whole piece is in sound, firm, condition,
quite un-Egyptian, and is more like Babylonian only the tip of the muzzle being missing. (Cairo.)
work (R. T. 11, vi, 3,4; Ceilz. Abyd. 11,X, I ; DE MOR- 18. A few things here are of later date. The frag-
CAN, Tonzb. Royal, fig. 699). (z) The African lion ment of a diorite bowl of IChosekhemui was bought
with mane, but no hair marked below the chest; from a boy, doubtless found at the king's tomb.
well marked jaw and nose, as here vii, I, 3, 4, 13. I t is the finest engraving known of that dynasty.
(3) The lioness, 5, of the same breed, with an em- 19. The scarab of Khofra was bought a t Abydos,
broidered collar. This seems to be a tame lioness, and as scarabs of pyramid kings are keenly sought
which was probably employed as a decoy in liunt- for b y the professional dealers, it is not likely
ing the lion. Of a similar class of work is the dog that this had arrived from elsewhere. 20. This piece
found b y De Morgan, 698. of an alabaster jar-lid of Merenra was sticking out
6. Along with the lions, small balls of white from stratified rubbish in the ICom es Sultan; we
stone are found, which were used in the game: subsequently worked there with a dozen men for
the more usual stone is white geobertite, or niag- a week or two, but found nothing of interest.
nesian limestone. Pls. IX, X show all the forms of stone vases
7, 8, g. For another kind of game, rods, plaques which were found; the number of the graves date
and hemispheres of ivory mere used. A similar them according to the group from which they each
group of this age is in Tarkhan I, xii, 3-5. The come. These exactly agree with the typcs already
curved bars of copper have been noted under v, 11. assigned to those reigns. The pottery pl. x i also
12. PI. VIII. The stone vases were of the same agrees with the types found at the Royal Tombs.
character a s those of Tarkhan, and the alabasters P1. XII. The objects I to 5 are already described;
of the Royal Tombs, but there was much less I in ii, 8 ; 2 in ii, g; 3, 4 in ii, 11; 5 in ii, 6. The
hard stone work than in royal burials. The little steles will be dealt with under the Middle Icing-
bowl with in-turned brim, 199, is of the black and dam objects, chapter 111.
white porphyry with large crystals, known t o he- 13. Pls. X I I I , XIV. Of the skeletons, and tomb
long to the beginning of the 1st dynasty. The groups in position, there were 32 sufficiently com-
slate bowl 640 has been broken, and patched, with plete to be worth photographing. Of these, Z I had
drill holes for ties to secure the piece. The burial objects with them and are on the register list,
817 was of the Middle Kingdom, but the bowl g pls. xx, xxi; I I of the most important of these
seems to be an early piece re-used; 5 of translucent are here published. The numbers of tombs photo-
alabaster is not like the work of the XIIth dyn- graphed, but without objects claiming place in
asty, but the date is uncertain. The fluted pottery the Register, are 163, 180, 422, 425, 436, 470, 530,
1 0 has been noted under iv, 11. The cylinder jars 538, 540, 543, 607. On pl. xiii, zzq is the most
of alabaster are all of usual form; a jar from 461, contracted skeleton found. 329 shows a n alabaster
on pl. x, has a mark on the base. vase in place and a triple granary of clay. The
The clay granary model from 384 is the only remains of the wooden coffin are evident around
example that could be removed entire. The little the body. No. 384 has two complete clay granaries
squares are marked on the sides to represent the in place, one of which was removed entire, pl. viii,
doors for removing the grain; the form widening and kept a t Cairo. 542 is in a strange position,
t o the top was probably to check rats in scaling face downward. 601 shows an unusually large group
the actual granaries. The little wall round the of pottery, fully entered on the Register. 414 is
group has an opening provided: such a wall would unusual, having two flint knives laid on edge just
be to keep cattle away from fouling the bins. before the face. The knees projecting beyond the
Other forms of clay granary models are at the line of the coffin, as also the elbow projecting in
base of pl. x i ; the two square openings marked 542, do not mean that there was any attempt at
were for removing grain when a t different levels movement, but only that the coffin was shallow,
inside. 21. This fine wand of ivory was for beat- without a lid.

On pl. xiv the examples show a suggestion of he dies, as a matter of absolute necessity. . and .
movement. In 541 the upper elbow pushed up no one can even say that any of them has shown
high, and the hand spread out on the ground, a s any fear of death, or has in the least sought to
if raising the arm, looks like a conscious action. evade it when the king is dead." The same custom
I n 537 the position is most peculiar; the heels Athenaeus mentions as being taken for granted in
have been tied tight back to the hips to prevent Arabia, "they think it ridiculous to be willing to
action; the body was thrown in, chest down, over be buried with the king when he dies, but not lo
a large boulder in the soil; the head has been pay him the compliment of appearing to be sub-
twisted round upright, and at right angles to the ject to the same sufferings as he is while alive."
spine laterally; the left arm has been thrust up I n Eth'iopia the killing off of the court was a re-
from below with the hand before the face. I was gular custom at the king's death, and a complete
careful to verify that the skull rested truly on the example of it was lately found in the burial of
atlas vertebra, and that all the vertebrae of the the viceroy Hepzefa at Icerma. The political use
neck were in articulation down to the straight of such a custom was valuable in an unsettled
line of the spine. The double twist of the head country. Not only did it ensure that all those
at right angles was entirely made while the body about the king would be faithful to him, but, also,
was fresh. Fortunately I had a medical opinion on that all around the king would defend him from
the skeleton in place, which accorded with the any outsiders, even at the cost of their own lives.
view of all our party, that the position proved 15. The plans xvi-xviii have already been de-
that this man had been endeavouring to raise his scribed at the beginning. I n plan xix are some of
head above the earth as the grave was being the fuller tomb-groups and the large plan of the
filled. This skeleton has been placed in position shrine in the west side of the Zer square. The
in the Eugenics Department of University College, back of it, overlying the graves, was removed b y
by Prof. Pearson. 544 is another example suggest- the workmen, as not distinguished from various
ing, b y the outstretched fore-arm, and the other late tomb structures; but they told me where the
hand outspread, that there was some consciousness two back walls were, and the repetition of the
at burial. 533 was remarkable for the knee being panelling would not allow of any position more
raised u p ; the femur we here propped b y bricks than an inch or two different to what is here drawn.
10 keep it in position as found. No. 539 is the only East of A each wall was measured precisely, west
body, beside 728, which lay on the right side. of A it is restored. The regularity of the panelling
14. I n describing the burials of the courtiers is not carefully laid out. The different walls vary
around the tombs of Qa and of Khosekhemui from 9.8 to 11'5 for the mean recess and 15.3 to
(R, T. I , 14; 11, 12) I have noted the examples of 16.0 for the mean projection, or 25% t o 27.2 for
walls being built of soft bricks, evidently in a the group. This is one fifth of the group b y which
hurry, and burials having taken place within a the great Tarkhan mastabas were laid out (Tar-
few days, while the bricks could yield to pressure. khan 11, 7). The mean group there is 130.4 to 131.1,
This hasty burial of a large number of bodies a t a fifth of which is 26.08 t o 26.22. The mean group
one time showed that the persons had been in- here 'is 26.4, so some connection seems evident.
tentionally killed at the funeral of the king. The The proportion between bay and projection differs
burials now described confirm this by evidence from that a t Tarkhan. The main dimensions appear
that some were partly conscious at burial. From to be in the usual cubits. The inner shrine is
the absence of any broken bones, and the signs 4 X 20.65 inches wide inside, 7 X 20.88 wide outside.
of partial consciousness, it seems likely that they The outer wall is I ~ % X Z O . ~ Zinside, and1z'/,Xzo.j7
were stunned (perhaps by a sand-bag) and buried outside; that is to say 1zr/, outside, and walls
before coming to. This would be the most rapid I cubit thick.
and painless death possible. What the personal The succeeding plates have already been describ-
feelings may have been, we have recorded in a ed. I n the Registers the same method is followed
parallel case, which Athenaeus (vi, 54) copies from a s in previous volumes:-the dimensions of the
Nicolaus, where Adiatomus, a Celtic king, had six grave in inches, the direction of head and face of
hundred picked men about him, called Siloduri, the body, the sex where known, and a star for
meaning "Bound b y a vow," and "they die when undisturbed burials. For the skeletons the plate

reference is given if published, or a -) cross if The -) sign marks the presence of examples usu-
photographed but not published. In the other col- ally too much broken to fix the type. Dimensions
umns, references are stated where published, or a are stated in inches. Only those graves containing
t put where only noted. distinctive objects are here noted.
The bones of the first dynasty burials were col- 18. The fort of Khosekhemui, now called the
lected; of the skulls I measured 80 in fifteen di- Shuneh, or Shunet-ez-Zebib ("storehouse ofraisins"),
mensions, paraffiued them, and 60 were brought to has been planned and described by AYRTONin
the Eugenics Department, University College. The Abydos 111, 1-5. Some notes were lately made
long bones I measured, of 96 individuals, and then about the height, which should be recorded. The
reburied them in a pit in the fort of IChosekhemui photograph of the wall, pl. i, I , shows a grouping
where we lived. of the courses near the top. This grouping, in six
16. As an example of one of the most varied courses together, is very distinct all round the fort.
groups in a grave, no. 611 may be quoted, of the I t is difficult to define the cause; it seems to be
age of Zer. Stone vases. Alabaster, cylinder jar a weakening of one course laid without sufficient
pl. X, pieces of 6 other cylinder jars; 3 dishes. mud mortar. When the general surface has crum-
Basalt, half a bowl. Porphyry, bit of dish. Quartz bled by weather-one brick thickness being lost
crystal, bit of dish and of cup. Magnesite, part of -this weak course has dropped away altogether,
a spouted bowl. Slate, bits of 3 bowls. Ivory. Parts and left a line of shadow visible. The levels meas-
of a duplicate inscription, pls. ii, 11; xii, 3, 4. Gam- ured at the S. S.W. part were, o sand bed, 17 inches
ing pieces, z tall cones, 3 wide slips, 8 narrow base of pilaster, 23 base of recess, 267 inches top
slips. Bits of two cylinder jars. Disc with hole. of gray brick levelled up on edge, a general level-
Bit of lid of kohl palette. Copper. Narrow chisel ling up which extends all round. Above this, groups
in handle, 2 small chisels, bits of foil and loops. of six courses, at 21, 42, 68, 91, 114 inches, and con-
Flint. Tip of a flint knife handle, 5 round-end flakes, tinuing with twelve courses to 168, that is 427 over
z pointed flakes. Shell with kohl. base; some further weathered courses extend to a t
17. The weights of stones found in the graves least 450 inches. I t seems likely that the wall up
are on the three standards which we know to have to 267 inches was the first building, and that it
existed at this period. was extended higher in stages of six courses at a
The qedet weights are,- time, perhaps annually, until complete. I t will be
seen that near the top there is a course of tilted
grave grains
brick put next over the unmortared layer. These
121 black, rhombic . ...... 4218.0f 30 140'6
329 white, triangle . . ... .. 1423.5 10 142.3
tilted bricks were so placed in a levelling up of
329 , rectangle . . . .. . 1453.5 10 145'3
the work to begin afresh, and this points to the
uumortared layer being the top one of the six.
461 black, square ... . .. .. . 7396.5 50 147'9
This may give a clue to the cause; a layer of
The gold standard weights are,- loose bricks over the top of the wall would be the
146 brown limest., triangle 4985.0 25 199.4 handiest missiles to attack besiegers, and might be
329 white ,, ,v 399'5 2 199'75 left unmortared on purpose. When the next build-
729 sandstone, square . ..
. 8086.3 40 202.16 ing season arrived, a fresh course was simply laid
510 a flat . ... . ...
5144'7 205.78 over them.
At the base on the south, the thickness of the
The shekel weights are,-
601 sandstone, square . . .. 6347.0 50 126.9
wall is zog inches, the space between the walls 126,
510 black, hard, rhombic . 4604'0 36 127.9
and the thickness of the fender wall is 114 inches.
121 ss ,, triangular 6418.0 50 128.3
601 gy. limest., square . . . 3223.7 25 128.9
510 porphyry, square.. . . . 9685'5 75 129'1
The Registers, pls. xx, xxi, are on the same plan
as those of previous years. The capital Roman 19. THE course of work over the region of the
figures refer to plates; the Arabic figures in the Courtiers' graves brought to light many tombs of
pottery refer to the types in Tarkkan I and 11. later periods. Those of the Saite age produced a few
small steles, and an unlimited amount of common entangling the system is by following the examples
beads. There were hardly any burials between of en-ka-en, for where that comes a t the end of a
these and those of the Middle Kingdom, of which line ( I , 2 , 10, 1 1 , 1 2 ) it must continue with a re-
three large steles and several groups of small lationship and names.
things were found. Beside this, some work was zo. PI. X X I V . The Antef stele was found in
done to the west and north of this region, which the ruin of a large pit tomb, 197, in the S . E . of
produced some small groups but no inscriptions. the square of Zet. I t represents the keeper of the
The description here follows the order of the cattle Antef and his wife Sentu-onkh. Below on
plates. the left are the sons Upuat-nefer, Menti and Nef-
PI. XXII. The Mentuhetep stele is the finest in khet, with his mother Aba. Three servants are in
point of workmanship. On this and the other the middle, quite on an equality with the family,
large steles the servants appear almost on an Senbebu, Art and Senen. On the right are the
equality with the children; this tells of the famil- daughter Kemt, sister Dada-erdats, a son Pert-nefer,
iar terms of the household. The grand-parents and a "royal servant" Sebek-hetep. By the parents'
were Pert-heb born of Rans-onkh, and Hather-em- side is the youngest son Adu-aqer. The title "royal
hat born of Bener-en-at. Their son was Mentu- servant" also occurs at the end of tlic list on the
hetep, who married Sent born of Hapa. H e had front of the altar. I t seems as if this were a ~ v e k i l
sisters Rans-onkh and Neb-tau; a son Pert-heb- of the king to see to the royal share of the farm
nefer, and daughters Hather-em-hat, and Ran- produce; he comes a t the end in both monuments,
onkhs. The nurse Rehetu-tet ("nurse of women") outside of the household.
is with the sisters; the lady's maid Ata and the P1. XII. Turning hack to the previous plate
cook Ada, the farm servants Sent, Shema and xii, 6 is a small stele, with green painted figures,
Pert-heb-nefer, are all with the children. The which was let into the face of a little brick ma-
photograph of this is in the next plate. This stele staba at the S.E. corner of the square of Merneit.
was found in a large pit full of ruined brickwork Though with the date of year 2 , the king's name
of the tomb, which had been constructed at the is not stated The figures are of Mentu-si-hather,
N. E. corner of the Zer square, cutting through and his mother Antef-onlih-iunes. The son Sehetep
some of the 1st dynasty graves. The translation is below the seat. A t the base are his wife Onlih,
by Dr. Gardiner is in chapter VII. her daughter Mesy, and a lady Dadat.
Below is the base of a family stele; the only 7. A carefully cut, hut clumsy, inscription of
person of title was Mentu a prophet of Ptah. Sebelidadu, who was kher heb asut in Icherp Senu-
Curiously, there are traces of a scene of cattle, sert, which is known as the Semneh fortress, and
which has been erased in order to cut the figures. of the sarzr chiefs in Hetep Senusert, which appears
At the right is a fragment of an early list of a to be Kahun; he was also a priest of Anuhis. He
family, the name Uah-ka being almost restricted to appears with his father Menkau born of Dadat.
the IXth and X t h dynasties. His mother was Sit-hor-em-hat born of Sit-user.
P1. XXIII. The long stele is described above. His brother was Sebek-nekht and sister Shepset.
The altar inscription is set out on pl. xxv, with His wife was Tamit born of Onkes, and children
the resulting genealogy: 34 persons are related Ameny and Sit-hor-em-hat.
together, and 1 2 others are also named, 46 in all. 21. PI. X X V . An undisturbed hurial in the north-
This is one of the fullest family lists that is ern end of the cemetery contained a pair of wrist
known, and covers five generations. The arrange- hands of gold, with a hand amulet attached to
ment is in two halves: on the left the recital of the each ; on the ancles were ivory bangles. The neck-
family of Senonkh's mother, and on the right that laces were of shell, gold, a carnelian centre to a
of his father. On the mother's side the maternal string of shell beads with carnelian, lastly a heavy
uncle's family is set out, and on the father's side string of carnelian and serpentine. Kept at Cairo.
that of the paternal uncle. The genealogy is ar- Below is the altar inscription, see pl. XXIII.
ranged here in a column for each generation, the zz. PI. X X V I . I . A very coarse sandstone stele
earliest at the left hand. The numbers refer to the belongs to the beginning of the XIlth dynasty,
numbered lines of inscription, and the numbers in as it has the name Sehetep-ab-ra. Possibly his
circles are the first in each line. The clue to dis- mother Ata may have been the lady's maid of the

Mentu-hetep family. 2. An interesting stele, with senb; Beba born of Kema. I have to thank Prof.
figure and offerings in relief, is dated to Sen- Griffith for some of these readings.
usert 111: it was for an overseer of boats named 6. This is illegible, except for the name Sneferu-
. . . . uka, possibly Pekeniuka. Another figure faced hetep.
this, probably a brother, by the scrap of inscrip- 7. A roughly cut stele represents offerings made
tion below. by his brother Aba, for Mesu, overseer of the
3. Part of a stele of Anatef born of Adu. Tbahent, Libyans: apparently Libyan settlers in
4. Part of a stele of Aunena. the XIIIth or XIVth dynasty.
5. Part of a stele of Sebek-oi, and his brother 24. P1. X X X . I. A small pyramidal tomb, worn
. . . . UY. down to the desert level, is on the east side of
PI. X X V I I . A large stele was found in a wide the square of Zet. The front of it was included in
tomb pit, ravaged and destroyed, in the square of the general plan, and the form and position of
Zet. The father was a legate (uaheilzu) Shennu, and the back is clear in the photograph. In the cruci-
mother Nezert. The daughter Ameny who set up form chamber were seventeen skeletons of cats,
the stele, names her four sons (two dead) and four and in the offering recess a row of the roughest
daughters, also her sister Dedat and her son and little offering pots of the XIIth dynasty. This is,
daughter. By the offerings there is "father Nekht," perhaps, the only instance of offerings made for
hut of which child is doubtful, probably of Shennu; animals, presumably of milk.
also a "devoted Aby." This is probably early 2-4. This small group was kept at Cairo, for
in the XIIth dynasty, by the names Antef and the very fine example of the mottled glaze pottery.
Amenemhat. 2. This was made by mixing a white base and a
P1. XXVIII. A fragment of a tomb of the XIIth manganese base in layers, and then glazing over
dynasty. A royal sealbearer, sole friend, keeper of the whole.
the seal, Ameny, is "hunting fishes" in a boat with 5. A large head of a falcon, about a foot high,
his sisters, Senbtesi and others. An elder brother, was found loose in the cemetery; it is cut in hard
apparently, was behind him also. The daughters white limestone, and appears to have been broken
were named below. This is interesting as keeping from a temple statue of Horus.
the style of the Old Kingdom, in the relief work 6-10, A group found in a burial of a woman
and the scenes of fish. was unusual for the carnelian necklace with four
Stele of the scribe of the treasury Nefer-hetep- claw amulets of carnelian. There were many other
senb born of Seubtesi, receiving incense from his strings of beads with this.
sou Ameny-senb-senbefen. Below is the wife Antet 11-12. On the southern side of the fort of
horn of Deda, and the nurse Nnbu-dadat born of Khosekhemui, between the panelled wall and the
Sit-sebek. For Upuat the great god of Abydos to fender, it seemed that a shrine had been broken
appear as the deity of a stele is an unusual and up, and the ebony inlaying scattered. The long
early feature. The pot marks are of the same cha- strips are a t the base of pl. xxxi. These, and the
racter, and in the same order here, as those in Royal girdle tie pieces here, belonged to Un-nefer the
T O ~ I ZThe
~ S . pottery altar is the only example of great high-priest of Osiris, who is so well known
the offering tray found a t Abydos, though such from other monuments, half a dozen statues and
are common in other sites north and south of several steles, in different museums. The figures
that. here are evidently those of the high-priest ador-
23. PI. X X I X . I. Ink-written hieratic stele on ing, as shown by the panther's skin. The figure
limestone, with the usual formula for Sebek-hetep- of Osiris is on a panel, with the names of Mendes
senb-refn, born of T a n ; Senusert; Kesti; Sit-sebek; before and behind.
Kems; Sebek . . . born of Sat-hather; Dadati born 25. PI. X X X I . I. Door jamb (?) from a tomb
of Nekhta, and others effaced. of Nekht.
2-4. Minute steles on flakes of limestone; 2 for 2. Part of a stele of two charioteers of Ra-
the shenzsu Neha; the other names are illegible. messu I1 adoring Osiris and Horus. Their names
5. This names Si-sebek born of Mut; Onkhet; are Nesuti-em-heb and his son Neheh: the first
Ran-senb born of Heunt; another Ran-senb ; Ranef- name is fair evidence that Sety I and Ramessu I1

were co-regent, the man being born when the two

kings held a festival. Below, Neheh is offering to OXYRHYNKHOS
Nesnti-em-heb, the chantress of Amen, Netabpartaa,
a chief messenger of the king Neheh, and a chant- CHAPTER IV
ress of Amen, Tausert. The long cartouche a t the
top, including the royal titles, written with both
crowns, is very unusual. 27. THOUGH the prospect of more material of the
3. A curious fragment of early date, with figures 1st dynasty had drawn us to Abydos, we wished
and hieroglyphs in relief. The name is "anzakh to continue the search along the western desert
Min-hetepu born of Fenen." which had progressed southward since 1910. The
4. Parts of a stele with five priests bearing the last work was at Sedment, which joined up with
sacred head of Osiris; the names are chief iu- a former publication of Deshasheh. Hence the next
spector Nekht, uab priest Meh, Anher-nekht, ztab centre was Oxyrhynkhos, from which I examined
priest Hor. The six ears mark it as given with a the desert northward, nearly to Deshasheh. South-
petition, like the ear tablets of Menaphis I, ix-xiii. ward of Oxyrhynlrhos the desert was examined by
Mr. Brunton as far as Darabseh. All of this desert
5. Ebony slips from shrine of Un-nefer. H e is
said to be "son of the judge, first prophet of is very low and flat, bordered by great sand dunes,
Osiris, over the prophets of Abydos, Mery; and and is apparently devoid of any remains before
born of the chief of the harim of Osiris-Ra" the Roman age.
(Mainy, as the name is, elsewhere). The object of work at Oxyrhynkhos was to search
for any trace of the early city. On the south side
26. P1. X X X I I . 6. Stele of the divine father of
of the present town a low area was cleared to
Mentu(?)uza, offering to Her-akhti. His father
water level without passing through the Roman
Zed-her and grandfather Nes . . . held the same
stratum. On the west side the clearance was car-
office. His mother was the priestess of Khent-
ried down to the water level at the colonnade, but
amenti, Thes-ast. Painted in red. The headdress of only Roman pottery was found. I t seems then that
sprouting plants on this, and two other steles here,
on this very low desert the early city was scarcely
is peculiar.
above water level at the edge of the canal, and
7. Stele of Hor, son of Merti-heru, adoring R a the site has only accreted as the water level rose,
and Horus as two separate deities. so that it is solely under the middle of the pre-
8. Stele of Nes-mehti, son of Taheru, adoring sent town that anything could he hoped for, earlier
R a . Red paint. than classical times. Close to the west of the pre-
g. Stele of Da-merti, son of Heruza, adoring Ra. sent houses an immense hole was dug by sebakhiiz
PI. X X X I I I , 10. Finely cut stele of Neitaqert about twenty feet deep, but a t the bottom was the
adoring Horus, Herakhti and Tehuti. She was portal of an Arab mosque not more than a few
daughter of the ami as hen ka (enrolled ka priest) centuries old. For two or three square miles west
Rere, son of Nesmau born of Merti daughter of of the present town of Behnesa the ground is
Rere son of Ruru. covered with rubbish mounds and cemeteries; but
11. Piece of a deeply engraved sarcophagus in
nothing before Roman times is found, although
the cuttiiigs for sebakh are thirty feet deep, and
hard limestone, of the chief prophet of Osiris,
prophet of the sacred bark, Noble, over the pro- almost reach wet earth. Only one trace of pre-
phets, prophet of Tehuti, Anher-auf-onkh. A pro- Roman work occurred; in one of the late tombs
phet named Imhetep is also mentioned. a fragment of temple sculpture was re-used, having
a band of stars across the middle; above it, the top
12. Part of a stele of Nes-her born of Ast-ar-das.
of a scene with hawk's wing and inedu; below it,
13. Top of a stele of a woman in Greek dress khou izeferu, recalling Mut-kho-nefern, the name
adoring Osiris and Isis. of Amenardas.
P1. X X X I V . Sarcophagus of Art-herru, having On pl. X X X I X are the few fixed landmarks in
inscriptions deeply incised, and filled in with white the formless waste of mounds, trenched and cut to
plaster. The translation is given by Dr. Alan Gar- pieces by hundreds of diggers for sebakh. An in-
diner in chapter VII. tended railway line to the oasis was begun during

the war, a bridge was placed over the canal, and left, the large pilaster in which the row of col-
the start of the line laid south- and westward. This umns ended, A in plan pl. xxxix; from this the
was stopped, and the material was partly used to row was traced eastward to column 28, the two
lay a branch behind the town mounds to bring easterly columns are marked with lines above them
away the sebakh. Every day a train of I O O to 150 in the view: the complete one is 222 inches high.
tons of earth runs over the bridge, to distribute it Upon them were capitals; the upper half of one
along the country. Beside this a great deal is dug is in xxxv, 4, and the upper and lower halves to-
and removed to the canal bank for transport in gether in 5, with the lower half of another at the
barges. During all this digging papyri are found, top. The material of the columns is nummulitic
but apparently nothing else of importance. limestone, with the bedding set upright, so that
The railway for sebakh is marked on pl. xxxix they readily weather and flake. T h e diameters of
by a broken line, coming from the bridge at the the columns vary between 31.6 and 34 inches, ex-
south, and ending in the flat desert to the north, cept that at the end pilaster which is 26.4. The
iyear the south is the outline of the theatre; to distances of the centres apart average 125.26 inches,
the west of it a bank ending in a long mound, variations noted being 123'2 to 128.6. The distance
parallel to that, part of a thick wall, and north of the lines apart was '9' inches, leaving a
that other thick walls, which seem like boundary way 259 inches between them. What these columns
walls of properties. To the east of the theatre is is not in evidence; but it cannot be
seen the long double row of the colonnade (pl.xxxv, doubted that some roofing was carried. The span
I ) ; east of that is the end of another colonnade is not greater than that of the streets of present
(xxxv, 3) of it (shown in towns, which are roofed over with beams and
photograph). Further north is a large base of a matting. The brackets, which project from the
statue of about the Vth century A. D., now dug columns in Syria and Palmyra, may have been
around and isolated (xxxv, 2). To the north of for Struts to the wide span
these are two domes of tombs, red and white, This colonnade was nothing when compared to Pal-
which serve a s landmarks. All to the east of this there were twenty times s' many
plan are the buildings forming the decayed fringe umns, each thrice as high, and of marble.
of the present town. The principal landmark, a A t the east of the colonnade there are traces of
tall minaret (seen in the distance, xxxv, I ) belongs another at right angles t o it, xxxv, 3. A square
to a disused mosque, and is dropping t o pieces: pillar has half columns on two faces, and beyond
as one of the sheykhs said, when I remarked on it are visible the circular bases of other columns.
it, " I t does not matter if it falls, no one lives These are 127 inches centre to centre, and 29 inches
there." diameter; each is marked with A. Apparently at
iyorthward the desert is dotted with ,nounds the end of this colonnade was the circular base of
of ruins. A few of each kind we dug out a statue, xxxv, 2, the foundation of which has been
and planned; the map xxxv is not as complete a s exposed by the removal (in 1914) of the rubbish
might be, as one of our party in charge of this in which it was founded. The inscription upon it,
region fell lame; after waiting a week or two the .
b y Mr. Walker's copy, is . . . @ W K A I O Y /(W)-
work was taken u p by another; then his eyes were CCBECTATOY /(OI K)€ I W N A E C O/TOY
~ nOAAA-
hurt b y the dust, and it was only after he left, TA/€TH. " O f Phocaeus, a most pious master of
and all the workmen, that I had at the last to plan his for mally years." On the base
up the tombs while doing the packing. Where notes is ANA@EPO(NTWN) followed b y the name of the
had been left insufficient, the number without a ' . .
. NE ... . -
definite block shows the approximate place. The The base, which is 70 inches square, and the
following account follows the order of plates. octagonal course, are each zo inches thick; below
28. pl.xXXV. I. The three tall columns standing
are the foundation courses-30 inches thick.
in the midst of broken pottery and brickwork were I n the course of digging to find the line of the
found to be part of a double colonnade, evidently colonnade, a marble head was found, xxxv, 10, of
lining a great road, like the colonnades ofAlexandria about the end of the second century; also some
and the Syrian cities. In the view there is, at the bands of relief in limestone, xxxv, 6 to g.

CHAPTER V by any direct measures. The middle of the stage

is destroyed, but there remain shallow pilasters
along it to within two spaces from the middle;
29. THEgreat theatre of Oxyrhynkhos has been presumably there was a doorway in the middle,
known as a quarry for stone long ago. I t is deeply but certainly there were not two doors at the sides.
buried in blown sand, and the excavations that we These pilasters had marble capitals, one of which
spent upon it were solely to determine the plan, was found, too crumbling to be removed, zzr/, inches
without any intention of clearing it, which would base, 23I/, high; pl. xxxvi, 4. I n front of each pi-
entail twenty times as much work. The principal laster, at 44 inches, there was a red granite column,
points which I succeeded in defining are the stage, and an equal number interspaced between these.
the seating where remaining, the scheme of the Thus the columns were 50 inches apart, 27 inches
vomitoria, the great circuit wall, and the eastern diameter at the base, and the same across the top
portico. All these are entered in full black on the roll. They were 160 inches high, on marble bases
plan, pl. xxxviii. Many architectural fragments were 12 inches high, and with marble capitals 3 3 inches
recovered; some were drawn, and all the more high (see xxxvi, 3), or 205 inches over all. Such
interesting pieces are now exhibited in the British columns, at the end of the stage, are in pl. xxxvii, 3.
Museum. There were also red granite columns lying near
In reconstituting the plan, the axis is defined by the circumference of the theatre, doubtless from a
the limits of the stage. The centre upon the axis colonnade around the top, as in Syrian theatres.
is defined b y a perpendicular to the line of remaining These were 22 inches diameter.
seats, the outer circuit of vomitoria, and the re- A t intervals along the stage were colossal marble
mainder of the outer wall on the east. The radial figures, xxxvi, I, 2 , xxxvii, 5. They appear to be
vomitoria vary too much to be able to prove a intended for the Muses; presumably they were
position b y them. The remaining seats, which were placed in some of the 50 inch spaces between the
seen in a trench, deep under sand at the west, are granite pillars. On the base of no. 5 is EITA, be-
very much weathered and worn, but the upper ginning complete, but broken after A. r
part shows a different plane of slope from that of the Two figures were found 320 inches apart; this
lower, indicating a circular gangway about four implies placing at each fourth intercolumniation,
feet wide. On the opposite side to this, on the and nine figures in the whole row.
east, only the upper part of the long passage was A t the west end of the stage the end wall re-
uncovered, and seating was not found. If there mains, with two engaged columns and a pilaster
were a gangway between each group of five rows beyond, see xxxvii, 3, 5 , where the columns A and
it would imply seven circuits of five rows each, B are lettered in each of the views to connect
or 35 rows. The average row held 320 seats (the them. From the positions of the granite columns
pygon was 15 inches), so the whole seated 11,200 sloping upward, it is evident that they were along
persons; if the gangways were not so close to- the front of the stage.
gether it would have held more, but there were also 31. The most remarkable matter architecturally
radial gangways that would have reduced the num- is the development of the spiral staircase, formed
ber. Looking at the very shallow seats with foot exactly as in a mediaeval castle. A t each end of
rests between, the whole area would be practically the wall behind the stage there was a door a t the
a stairway. The seat and the step were each g inches back, opening on the low-level vaulted passage,
high, and the distance from rank to rank 33 inches. which ran along the back. This door led to a spiral
30. The stage (logeion) is raised 106 inches above stair with central newel. There are two steps cut
the central area (konistra), but close to the back in each block, 8 inches each; the block is $ 2 wide
it is 115 inches, probably due to a paving over it. iucluding the newel, 45 back to front, and 16 inches
The length over all is 2405 inches; this is half thick. The newel is 17 inches thick, the steps
the outer diameter of the theatre, which is 4795 4 26 inches wide, the circumference divided in four-
facing stones; and it is double the diameter of the teen steps, each 15 inches wide at the outer side.
konistra, 1200 inches. It is curious how closely These stairs are preserved on the east end to much
these dimensions are 100, zoo and 400 British feet; above the stage level, see xxxvii, 4. They do not
but they were arrived a t from the plan, and not open on to the stage a t all, but g o u p in the solid

wall to at least 125 inches over the stage where of the pillars and pilasters, and the end walls. T o
they are broken away. A t 82 over the stage, a fill the extra space at the ends I have assumed
passage branches off in the wall, parallel to the that a pilaster was set sideways against the side
back of the stage, and this opens out as a win- wall. The surprising feature is the flattened arch.
dow at 79 above the stage, where it interrupts the There is no doubt of the radius at the spring, as
sequence of pilasters. In the view xxxvii, 4, the the width is known, and the lowest voussoir springs
three workmen are standing in the passage, with as a tangent to the pilaster. That radius is 71
the newel and staircase in the foreground. The un- inches; but the intrados of the upper voussoirs
derside of the steps is worked into a single smooth has a radius of 104 or 114 inches on different
cochlea spiral, which shows a complete develop- blocks. Much of the arches had collapsed bodily on
ment of this design. The form of such a spiral pulling down the building, and the voussoirs were
was familiar in the water-screw of Archimedes, found lying side by side. There seems no question
but this is by far the earliest example of its ar- about the flattening of the curve, by the difference
chitectural use. In the theatre of esh Shubeh (Pi-o- between 71 and ~ o ginches radius. The height of
vincia Arabia) there are square stairs a t each end the pillars and pilasters is quite unknown, as they
of the stage; but the steps are only on each side were ruined below the impost. The least height
of the square newel, with square landing-s in each that is likely has here been assumed. A block of
corner. At ed DumEr there is a circular stairway, triglyph was also found here, which must have
but of large diameter around a central well. The been over the architrave moulding: it has the nor-
Oxyrhynkhos theatre seems to have by far the mal three grooves and six guttae.
earliest example of the compact spiral stair with Around the top of the outer wall was a band
a newel column. of very bold and simple rosette work in a scroll,
The back passage into which the stairways open xxxvii, 6, 7, 8. The same rosettes are seen on a
is a t 56 over the konistra, and about 194 high to small scale in the upper part of the pilaster, xxxvi,
the vaulted top. The low passage entering the 4. This band was 12 inches high, and the blocks
theatre from the east has the floor 19 under the carrying it were 23 inches thick, with a moulding
konistra; it is 135 high a t the side, or about 205 projecting on the inner face 5 inches (xxxviii, top,
t o the top of the vault. right). The outer wall is 155 inches thick; deduct-
32. A curious feature is the portico at the eastern ing 23, which is a likely thickness for the top wall
end of the stage. There does not appear to have (like the coping), that leaves 132 for the colonnade
been any opening from it into the theatre; the on the top of the wall, or I I O clear width inside
clearance of the back wall in the middle was car- the row of granite columns. This seems quite a
ried down to 42 inches below the footing of the reasonable result.
pillars, and deep enough all along to prove that 33. There is a curious mixture of design in this
there was no opening equivalent to the pillar level. theatre as the features belong to different sources.
From back to front of the hall is 230 wide to the I t is mainly Greek, in the seating being continued
inner faces, or 272 inches to the outer faces of the beyond a semicircle, in the columns on the stage,
pillars. The two pillars and side wall on the south in the triglyphs. I t is Roman in the features of
were fairly preserved, the northern part was de- the long tunnel passage beneath the end seats,
cayed and ruined, but the general positions were and the vomitoria. I t is Syrian in the colonnade
plain. around the top. Yet the back wall of the stage
A t the bottom corner of the plan, xxxviii, is the with its pilasters and row of granite columns has
detail of the impost and arch moulding, touching nothing to do with the recessing of the Syrian
the side of the pilaster on the left; also the detail stage. The features which seem peculiar to this
of the architrave moulding, which must have been theatre are the end portico and the spiral stairs.
above the pilasters. The capitals of the pilasters The stage is placed further back than any rules
were made in two blocks, an upper and lower, provide. The stage front is 488 too far back, and
placed together in the photograph xxxvi, 5. A the stage back 450 also, for the Roman triangle.
sketch of the relation of these parts is placed in The stage front is 80 too far back for the Greek
the top corner of the plan, on double the scale square, or the back is 150 too far back for the
of the plan. The material for this is the spacing circle. A s it faced south, the much stronger light

in Egypt would enable spectators to see clearly a conical mound with a doorway half-way up in
a t a greater distance than allowed b y European the side. I t may be that this type is many cen-
rules. turies older, but has not hitherto been found pre-
The mouldings are mostly cut in a debased served, as it seems like the original of the Mero-
manner, b y dressing diagonal drafts and then run- itic pyramid with an imitation doorway high up
ning grooves in them. on the side.
36. The apse tombs, pls. xli, xlv, seem to be iden-
tical with the arrangement of a Coptic church.
CHAPTER V1 There is a semicircular apse, sometimes with a low
THE TOMBS. fence of stone before it (no. 42); at each side is
a small chamber, like the Coptic side chapels,
34. THE tombs of Oxyrhynkhos are spread far though probably used here t o store vestments,
over the desert, but they have the reputation of books, or other articles for the service. The back
containing nothing, and are left alone in modern of the apse is painted with marbling, and this
times. Those few bodies that we found had nothing agrees with the Coptic usage of a wooden com-
with them; and-apart from limestone sculpture- munion table placed in the front part of the apse.
the only objects found in the cemetery were two Some way before the apse was a wooden screen,
engraved glass jars, one perfect (xlv, g), now in the grooves for which are seen at the side pilasters
Cairo, and one broken, now re-united, in the British and on columns. This was equivalent to the hekel
Museum. These are the largest such known, no. g screen. The court before the screen contained the
being 10 inches high; they lay in a tomb chamber, burials in shallow graves. I n no. 23 this court was
left after a funeral feast. All of the plans are to probably open, as the width is sixteen feet. A
a uniform scale of I : loo, and are placed approxi- smaller court, probably roofed, is in no. 35; one
mately with the north upward. burial was in a loculus in the floor of the side
Cremation was followed here in some instances, chamber, running beneath the back wall. No. 43
and mounds entirely composed of ashes are inter- has an apse built over some earlier chambers (in
spersed among the built tombs. The mound marked open outline here): it has been re-used a s a dwel-
on the plan (xxxix) south of 14, is the largest; ling, with a circular oven built on one side of the
it is about sixty feet across and ten feet high. apse, and a fireplace against the north wall.
Wherever we dug into it nothing but beds of The chapel no. 42 is the best finished, see three
ashes were found. On the top was a n immense views pl. xlv. No. z shows the apse with marbled
number of fragments of thin glass cups, over ten stucco, the fence before it, and the two side cham-
pounds in weight. Lesser amounts were found on bers. No. I shows the capitals of the four columns
other heaps and on tombs; it appears that libations which carried the roof, and a large impost with
were poured out, and then the glass had to be a cross in a wreath. The form of this cross is
broken, a s it had been used in the service of the certainly of the sixth century, and probably of the
dead. There was also a fragment of a roughly cut time of Justinian. I n view 3 the bases of the col-
lion's head in limestone on this mound. umns are in the foreground, and the stairs behind ;
35. A n unusual type of tomb was the high plat- in the plan, xli, the double wall at the side of the
form with chambers, pl. xl. First of all, bodies stairs was for carrying the upper half of the flight,
were buried in the open desert, only a foot or two (the arrow on the stairs points upward); this cham-
down. Over them a group of four chambers was ber must then have had a n upper storey. When
built. After rising about eight or ten feet they this beautiful work was finished under the flour-
were filled up with gravel, and banked round with ishing power of the great Justinian, who would
gravel, to make a platform. This was intended have suspected that it would be swept over by the
from the foundation, a s the outside and inside of barbarous hordes from Arabia within a century?
the walls were left quite rough. Upon the platform, There are examples already recorded of eucha-
and almost, but not always, on the lines of the ristic chapels connected with tombs such as the
lower walls, there were built chambers which were chapel of Probus attached to S. Peter's a t Rome;
plastered, and had doorways. Finally the whole but there does not seem to be elsewhere a regular
structure was heaped over with gravel, forming class of such chapels, as is found at Oxyrhynkhos.

and the capital in the foreground, with a slot for dred," like the Arabic inversion of the units he-
a wooden screen: no, z is taken from a point south tween the tens and hundreds. If so, it applies to
of no. I, to show the row of side chambers which a n era and not to the age. I t might count from
open to the outside. The height of the column 312 B. C. the era of Antioch and many other Sy-
(half of which is shown erect) is I I Z inches, the rian cities, or 3x0 B. c. when Ptolemy Soter be-
base 15 inches, the capital 17 inches; therefore came independent. This would date the inscription
the halls were just 12 feet high. The column is 511 or 513 A. D , and would fall in with the neigh-
13 inches wide, and the capital 28 inches. The bouring tombs being of the age of Justinian. The
chamber on the north-east was vaulted. sculpture of fret pattern, 4, is from the colonnade;
PI. XLIV, Tomb 30. This is built with red brick the pieces nos. 5 , 6, 7, are from tomb 14, and are
facings to the ends of the walls: also there is a of interest as showing how early the style of me-
red brick lining to the north wall of the north- diaeval foliage-work was developed. All of the
west chamber. The stairway turns to the left half- sculpture of these tombs is in the Department of
way up, instead of to the right as usual. On the Christian antiquities at the British Museum.
south side are two long bench tombs. The other 41. A t Abydos, on the eastern side of the square
plan, 40, has a southern entrance. On the east of graves of the reign of Zet, a later tomb cham-
side of the hall are two recesses, and a lamp niche her of the vaulted type had been cut through the
between them; this is 27 to 42 inches from the old graves, about the X X X t h dynasty. Afterward
floor with a smoke recess a s high as the wall now this had been converted into a Coptic chapel or
extends, to 64 inches. A burial pit is near this side: oratory. The doorway is shown in pl. xlvii, 8,
a seat I Z inches high is opposite to this on the broken away at the top, and with a watching hole
east. In the south-west corner is an enclosure, a t the side, a familiar feature to the modern Copts.
probably a bench tomb robbed. Inside there were niches cut in the walls (fig. g)
39. A t the lower part is a plan and section (to and fragments of a painting of branches and birds
double scale of the previous) of a columbarium a t in the middle niche.
Abydos, a t the south-west end of the square of PI. XLVIII. Byzantine inscriptions. In the group
tombs of Merneit. The entrance is double, facing with Hebrew papyri, numbered 50, there were
north-east; in the pillar between the entrances is some earlier sherds, a s no. I, probably Marcus
a false-door niche. A few steps descend, with Caecilius Metellus; no. 3, and nos. 56-62. No. z is
niches for urns on the right hand; then a square of Ploution or some such name. Nos. 9-10 evi-
mass of brickwork is reached, with a passage all dently denote church property (ekklesia) found in
round it, having niches around the outer side. group 18, with the glass flask 12, and the pots
These niches are all smoothly plastered and whiten- 13--15. For the position and plan of tomb 18 see
ed, and have not contained any fixed objects such pls. xxxix, xl. Group 13 has a curious large jar,
as steles: they seem only adapted for urns, with no. 16, with a late version of the Hathor head
which the height agrees, a s seen in the section, and cows, and a pattern of crossing bands in
being 7 inches wide and 11 high. The wall and white, with black line patterns. (U. C.) There were
recesses have been partly broken away on the many pieces of large amphorae of the type no. 17,
south-west. The central mass has a step around of soft brown pottery, with red scrawls brushed on,
it, shaded here contrariwise. The mass was dug marking the wine as "church" property (18-20)
through deeply, but no burial could be found in or "divine" (8aq 21-23) or with personal abbre-
it or under it. viations a s 27, Iohannes. With these were many
40. P1. XLVII, 3, is the only inscription found in pieces of thin hard buff jars, too much broken to
the Oxyrhynkhos cemetery, from tomb 46 on the be drawn, with the Byzantine inscriptions 30-39.
plan. It is the "Memorial of Theodoros servant In a house was the painted jar 41, and inscrip-
of God, son of Demetrios of Kynopolis, unmarried tions 4z--45. NOS. 46-52 were found together
(who died) sixth of the indiction, Pach6n 17. (aged) elsewhere. Nos. 53-55 were found together. Nos.
22. Of good cheer." After zz there is a sign like 56-62 are only small sketches, from pieces which
omega with a final tail: it is possible that this is came in at the last day of work. 56 is a seal of
intended for the numeral 800, and that the whole the "property of Paulakios." 59 is stamped for
should be read "twenty and two and eight hun- The6ros. 60 and 61 are stamps on the same seal-

ing. On some long necked amphorae, certainly family circle call for no particular comment, but
pre-Constantine, were names chalked roughly, 63, the name Rehwet-twet " The-ladies-are-pleased " is
64, the Coptic name IeNhMON "Begotten by Amen." not inappropriate for the nurse in the top row,
From 66 onward are the stamps placed on CO- whereas the name Shema' " The-nomad " for the
nical caps of mud which covered the necks of jars. royal slave, who leads a sorry kind of gnzelle, sug-
I t is curious how the conical cap, with stamps on gests that he required watching.
the side of it, was a continuance of the custom of
the 1st dynasty. Where different stamps were NOTES
placed on one sealing they are here bracketted ' Lit. "with an occasion as regards its occasion." I think this
together, and such are to be noted as being cer- means "appropriately" rother than "point by point."
A s the tent stands we r a n only read i r ( t ) grit-k, which is
tainly contemporary. No. 66 refers to such a name
unintelligible, but recxlls ei~riot~sly
n likewise unintelligible phrase
as Vivianus. 67 has a flying dove with (He)rculio. in the tomb of Puyemre (DAVIES, pl. 67, 1. 41 hr !rln i,. gntf).
The scarab on 68 had passed into Gnosticism and But perhaps after all, ir(t) blk is to be amended. I have guessed
Christianity as an emblem. 86 perhaps reads Papia. at the meaning.
Emend sli mi. Note the ixculiar heapinn u p of particles. 'Z?v
is doubtless to be used wit11 7~y.8r.I.
C H A P T E R V11
TRANSLATIONS. 43. The coffin of Inaros (pl. xxxiv) ('Irt-Hr-r.w
" The-eye-of-Horus.-upon-them," see SPIEGELBERG,
Rec. de Trav. 28, 197) probably belongs to the Pto-
42. THEstela of Menthotpe (pls. xxii, xxiii) shows lemaic period. The owner, to mention only his more
in its names, titles and phraseology all the charac- important titles, held the rank of "priest of Hathor
teristics of the XIth dynasty. Its special interest of Denderah," "mayor of Abydos," and "overseer
lies in the unusual expressions contained in the of the priests of Osiris in Abydos"; his father's
third and fourth lines, which imply that Menthotpe name was Peteos (PI-di-'1,s). The texts read as
was a self-made man, his own wits supplying the follows :
place of a father, a mother or a son. All this is (I) " Recitation: Thy face is to heaven, thy back
not very complimentary to his parents, whom he to Geb in thy form of 'Him-who-is-upon-his-bed,
depicts, as well as a son; but perhaps they were (titles) Inaros."
humble folk, or died while he was still a child. (2) " ... .. loosing him who is bound. It is RE',
The inscription runs thus:- "(I) 0 y e who live and the lord of heaven, even Atum, who watches over
are upon the earth and who shall pass b y this tomb, me. I am that excellent.. . . ."
who love life and hate death, s a y y e : ' i n a y Osiris, (4) " . . . . . I have my mouth, that I may speak
head of the Westenter-S, glorify Me~zt!zotpe.' (2) Now with it before the gods of the Netherworld, I have
I was thejirst among m y contemporaries, the foreman my mouth to speak, my legs (3) to go, I have my
of nzy gang, one who discovered the statement about arms to overthrow my enemies. I have power over
which he had been asked, and answered (it) appro- my arms, I have power over my legs."
priately,,' (3) cool-(headed), one who obtained bread ( 5 ) "Recitation: Raise thee up, 0 Osiris Dad,
in its (due) season, one whose (owtt) counsel replaced Rd places thee upon thy pedestal, established upon
for him a ntother at home, a father making the family it for ever."
fortune (??),Z and a son of good disposition, one whom .
(6) " . . . . Opened for thee are the gates of
his (own) nature instructed as (it were) a child grow- heaven, that thou mayst go out through them.
ing up with its father. ( 4 ) NOIV although3 I was be- (7) " The i i n y is, !1m (?) kl Peteos, justified. Raise
come an orphan, I acquired cattle and got oxen (?) thee upon thy left side, place thee upon thy right
and developed m y business in goats; I built a hotrse side . . . . ."
and excavated a (garden-)pond, the priest Menthotpe." (S) "Amset, the great god is the protection of
I t will be noted that there are some unusual (titles) Inaros." "Matefef is thy protection." "Khent-
signs in the last line, as though the scribe had enyerty is thy protection."
been unable to read his hieratic original; thus the (g) " Neri-$or is the protection of (titles) Inaros."
two words for cattle look the same, though different (10)-(12) Similarly, but with the names of the
words were probably meant. The names of the genii Neha-hor, Hray-nestef and Hray-'aweyf."

(13) "Said by Inaros: RE' opens thine eyes, that In the early centuries of Christian experience,
thou mayst see with them." ( 1 5 ) "Recitation: Isis a recluse would live in solitude, up some lonely
is in front of thee, Nephthys behind thee, 0 . . . . w a d y or desert valley, in one of the natural caverns
Inaros." in the limestone, adapted to his use. The caves
There is nothing more of interest until we come near by were left to the jackal and the hyaena,
t o the divine names (18) "Horus of Three-hundred- and these, together with the little jerboas below
town " and (19) " Horus-Pillar-of-HisMother." and the eagle on high, would be his only neigh-
(20) "Recitation by Neri-bor, who came forth bours. In some districts, as at Qau, there were
from Wedenet. Fall on your faces (for hr hr.tu) ye rows of small isolated chambers cut with difficulty
rebels, retire ye, Inaros is hidden from you, he into the rock, in a precipice a hundred feet above
shall be on board the ship of Re'."I the plain-cells which could never have been
( 2 1 ) "Recitation by Neha-bor who came forth reached except with a long ladder: the favourite
from Roseta. Get ye back, ye enemies who are position was beneath an overhanging rock, so that
said to be come (?) against Inaros. Retire ye, and there could he no access even from above. Or in
approach him not, he is in the following of the other districts, where certain strata in tlie cliff were
excellent 'Abt." honeycombed with caves, the devotees would live
( 2 2 ) '' Praise to RE' when he rises in the eastern
in a community, almost jostling each other. There
h o r i ~ o nof heaven by the great assessors who are must often have been difficulties in the acquire-
in the Nun. Hail to thee, eye of RE', every day, ment of supplies of water and food, however simple
Khepri who creates himself, manifold of names, their wants; baskets and qafas crates were probably
manifold of faces, who sails and grows not tired. hauled up b y each hermit, hand over hand, on
Come thou in peace, Re'; raise thee, thy enemies ropes, from the devoted villagers who had borne
are fallen!' them across the low desert to the escarpment below
each oratory. W e can imagine the chanting of daily
(23)-(27) are common phrases from the well-
orisons, and the hymn singing of these followers
known formula of offering.
of the "Preaching of S. Mark," and, since tlie
publication of the earliest Coptic version of the
Fourth Gospel, we can once more read word for
CHAPTER VIII word, in the Coptic original and literal translation,
the scripture which they used.' When we see the
crowding of the cells of some of these communities,
a s at Athribis, we cannot suppose that the inmates
always refrained from gossip and scandal, or from
Do not pursue after men 011 account of ease, lest t l y grumbling, any more than the pious inhabitants
poverty be hindered. of a present-day village nearer home. However
that may be, a wealth of devout meditation and
44. TIIE research work in the collecting and
earnest searchings of spirit must have been the
study of flint implements from the top desert, a t
outcome of the early settlements of devotees, and
Ahydos, carried on b y Miss Caton-Thompson, and
these were a n accession to religious thought, and,
her further search for caves, were instrumental in
as much as any action, meant advance in the life
the discovery of the Coptic hermitage of the Vth
of the world at large. Many a hermit must have
or VIth century, hidden in an adjoining gorge.
felt, as it was said, "Even here in the desert have
I n the age of persecution of the Church, when
I seen God and lived after my vision" (Gen. xvi,
peace only lay in withdrawal from the world,
I 3, traizs. Mofatt.).
there was a strong leaning towards the life of
45. At Abydos, there is a great bay of the hills,
meditation. I t is now understood that monasticism,
which forms the rocky background to the royal
which first developed on Christian lines in Egypt,
tombs of the 1st dynasty lying far up in the low
had a pre-Christian origin there-pagan monks
having passed their lives in retirement from the ' The Gospel of S. John, accordiog to the earlicst Copfic
world some centuries before the Christian era. manuscript, edited with translation by Sir Herbert Tlrornpron.
57 pp.+ 86 p p text. British School of Archaeology in Egypt.
For g s ~ d p t ,see AZ 57, 99. 25 S. net.

desert behind the temples. Many limestone gorges, living-room was about g X 10 feet, and had a rock-
wide and narrow, debouch into this square plain hewn sleeping-bench ( L V , 10) on the west side,
o f sand-covered desert. One o f the wider valleys with a rock-hewn pedestal basin at its foot. Facing
on the western side is figured in "Methods and these, i n the south-west corner, was an ingenious
Aims o f Archaeology" (figs. 2-3 facing p. I ) , cooking-stove, in which charcoal had been used;
where the low desert approach t o the valley is it consisted o f limestone blocks, was square, and
seen in photograph. Further north, on the same stood three feet high. It was fitted with the rim
side o f the bay, there emerges a narrower wady o f a jar which served as the ring o f the stove;
which we have sometimes used as a convenient the pot formed the oven, above the fuel replenished
channel o f access t o the high stretches o f the from the stoke-hole below. Much o f the charcoal
Libyan desert, above. still remained, both in the stove and also in an
On ascending this wady westward, an entrance amphora, X L I X , 3 (see L V , 3), which was one o f
t o a cavern was noticeable on the right hand the store-jars in an adjacent store room or larder.
side, high u p i n the rock, above a steep face o f This larder occupied a fissure, on the west o f
compacted sand looking almost like driven snow. the cave, which had been utilised b y building a
It was hoped that the cavern might contain worked rough wall u p against the rock, t o enclose a small
flints, and Miss Caton-Thompson dug and searched space adjoining. Stoppered jars were ranged along
it for these. T h e place seemed worth further in- the back o f the little room ( L V , 3), on a low foot-
vestigation, as an inscribed wall was found. T w o ing o f rock, and still contained various remains o f
o f our Arab workmen tramped thither with me food and fuel. From the entrance o f the cave, a
later on, and, on Christmas Eve, we dug down plastered passage-way led here ( L V , z) separated
along what proved t o b e a cross-wall o f masonry, from the bedroom area b y a low kerb. Beyond
stuccoed and covered with earnest scribblings o f the stove, a square-headed narrow doorway was
pious inscriptions in Coptic, and quaint symbolic reached. No door remained, but the inner sides o f
representations o f birds and beasts and crosses. the larder doorjambs were furnished with bar-slots
That was a day o f unrest in the province, we for a substantial bar, which showed that the hermit
afterwards learned, and the Lewis guns were forced had recourse t o barricading, t o preserve himself
t o rattle in A s y u t , but here in a remote gorge, and his provisions when wild beasts grew im-
with only the evidences o f the life o f meditative portunate. One wonders whether it was a hyaena
devotion around one, peace reigned. Enough was which, in the end, pulled him down, or whether
laid bare t o prove it desirable to return, and when he lived on t o extreme old age.
the First Dynasty dig was near its end, I came South-east, in the opposite corner o f the living-
back daily, with a man and two boys, and w e room, another fissure in the rock provided a storm
four cleared the hermitage, which I planned t o kitchen sheltered from the wind, and here the
scale I : zo and copied, and then had it refilled cooking-vessels-a blackened cooking-pot, its cover,
with sand for future preservation. and a pottery soup-ladle-were neatly ranged up-
46. T h e little retreat o f this anchorite o f Abydos side down on the floor; the hermit's whisk or brush
faced south, and was situated about a mile back o f palm fibre lay with them. All o f these are figured
from the bay o f the hills. T h e narrow gorge, cut on pl. X L I X , fig. 3 (three photographs), together
out in limestone and half filled with sand drift, with two o f the amphorae from the larder. T h e y are
was the desolate view seen from the hermit's door- preserved in the collection o f Egyptian antiquities
way. In the photograph X L I X , z (see L V , z) the in University College, London.
wall o f rough masonry stands at the entrance t o 47. Through the inner blocking wall o f the cave,
the cave, and is the front wall o f his outer chamber; there was another square-headed doorway (pl. I., 7 )
from the edge o f the sunlit slope w e look down having recessed inner jambs and a moulded lintel
the wady towards Abydos, and across the narrow decorated with rudely painted black crosses. This
rift t o its other face lying in northern shadow. led into the oratory, and a rough flagstone paved
W i t h i n this containing outer wall lay the living- the threshold. Above and beside the doorway were
room in the wide mouth o f the cave, and the cave circular openings, and the wall immediately over
had been further divided b y an inner wall ( L , 7), the lower o f these windows (LV, g ) was painted
parallel, t o separate living-room from oratory. T h e in red outline, on its outer side (L, 7), with the

design of a large decorative cross (L, g and LII, 3) made 011 the spot, in actual size, is given reduced
flanked on either side by a dove with outspread on pl. LI, 2, and the six-line inscription between
tail, bearing ail olive branch, and, below each, a the two ornaniented columns. For the translation,
quadruped statant regnardant, with tall neck, spread see chapter I X , 2. From the mention of the name
ears, and a slender tail. Judging from their long Mena, twice here, and elsewhere in the inscriptions,
straight horn and equine appearance, we may coil- it has been conjectured that this may designate
sider these creatures to be unicorns; they are the hermit himself, called after Saint Mena. The
caparisoned, and decorated with wide collars and inscription on pl. LIII, 4 occurred between the
large round pendants, probably amulets. Below column tappings, L, 8 (LI, 2) and the invocation
the cross, and between these supporters, is a neatly above the cross, L, g (LII, 3).
writLen inscription, immediately over the head of Beside the oratory door, a shelf recess had been
the window which seems to have been enlarged to hewn out in the corner, on the east side of the
the detriment of the inscription. I t consists of nine cave, to form a lamp stand, well screened from the
lines enclosed within a border, and gives a list, or wind, XLIX, 4 (LV, 4); a small stoup, probably
invocation, of fathers and holy men (chapter I X , 3), a hollow for a candle, was scooped beside it. They
prefaced by the names of the Persons of the Trinity. were surrounded by various inscriptions, above,
The central figure of the design, the stemmed below, and within, X L I X , 4 and LIII, 6, 8, g, 10;
cross, is fimbriated, and filled in with a twisted for translations see chapter I X , 6, 8, g, 10. On the
rope-pattern, forming a guilloche; the limbs widen right side of this recess (south), a lamp on a tripod
to a decorative splay, rather like the recercelated is depicted, with the abbreviation I C-i. e. Jesus-
cross, in heraldry, but straight-ended. I t is orna- beside it, in the usual red paint (XLIX, 4 and LIII,
mented between each of the terminals by a gar- g). The inscription above it names the Father, the
land of decorated loops from which depend tufted Son, the Spirit, the Holy Mary, and the Holy
objects, probably pomegranates. Immediately above Catholic Church (L111 6 ) Small black crosses,
the cross (LII, 3) hovers with outspread wings the rudely painted, abound, and black paint was used
dove of the Holy Spirit, having a cross patie on elsewhere in the little retreat,-but sparingly, as
head, and "Holy Trinity, Holy Ma(ry), Jesus the most of the designs and texts were executed in
Christ " written large, under it (chapter I X , 3). red haematite colour.
The scene shown on p]. L, fig. 8 (LI, z) was 48. The inner room, or oratory, was irregularly
painted on the blank wall (LV, 8) to the left, or pentagonal in shape, and was about 8 feet across.
west, of the lower window. I t seems to represent Just inside the doorway leading to it, high up
two tall slender columns ornamented with twisted on the left hand side, a ledge had been provided
decoration, and, a t the necking of the column, and in the plastering, on which a swallow might build,
a little below it, decked each with a pair of gar- and here the nest of thirteen or fourteen centuries
lands. The columns support massive capitals en- ago still remained in place, with the droppings,
riched with leafy sprays and hung round with within a few inches of the window through which
fruits ( l ) and tendrils. These are surmounted by the bird gained access: "Yea, the swallow hat11
pinnacles of an unknown nature; they are high found a nest for herself where she may lay her
conical roofs, overshadowed by what appear to be young," and it was even beside the altar.
trees, or spiral ornaments. A large bird (falcon?) This altar, or shrine, of the oratory was approx-
with extended claws, is seen in profile in the space imately oriented, and was a deep ledge hewn in
between them. Three more of the conical structures, the living rock on the eastward side of the cave,
depicted below in a row between the columns, lead X L I X , 5 (see LV, 5). Two hewn-out niches close
one to suppose that they may be dwelling-places. to the altar recess, and another below it, may have
I t has been suggested that the scene represents served for piscina and aumbries. The inscription
the pillars on which hermits, such as S. Simon between them is given in pl. LIII, r r , and translated
Stylites, spent their lives in prayer and meditation, in chapter I X , I I (sect. 52). I t has been suggested
and that these were each surmounted by a conical that this may possibly have been an agraphoi~,or
shelter; or these ribbings and arabesques may unwritten Saying of our Lord, or it may have been
merely have been borrowed from like designs in merely a precept of one of the Coptic fathers. The
the fantastic decoration of manuscripts The copy altar and detail of surroundings can be seen in the

elevation of the east wall of the oratory given in of the wady. Painted on the wide inner splay of
the upper part of pl. LV. the west side of the opening, the quaint figure of
Two large recesses, north-east and north-west, a saint clad in a short tunic can be descried, and
were hewn out, and used as cupboards; they orig- some Coptic inscriptions scrawled in red, such as
inated as fissures in the cave. I n the former of LIV, 1 3 (chapter I X , 13); the lower part of this
these, the cleft had been filled up, waist-high, showed signs of having been replastered.
and plastered; another walling had been added, The inscription LIV, 14 occurred at the end of
about three feet further in, and in this were two the east wall of the oratory, between the double
small round holes neatly plastered. Part of this niche alongside the altar and the window; it was
inner wall was removed, to see if there were any scribbled on the curve of the dome. The position
manuscripts or other objects hidden behind it, but of no. 15 was the top of the south-west wall. No. 16
the space lay empty and continued for about ten was done in thin charcoal on the upper side (right)
feet further, narrowing inwards to a mere crevice. of the high window over the entrance to the oratory.
The second, or north-west, recess was arranged as No. 17 was outlined in red, on the doming of the
a cupboard, with carefully improvised cup-hooks cave, in the outer or living-room, where its position
in horizontal array. On the wall under the main was directly over the basin hewn in the foot-end
cupboard (LV, I) was a painted cross, pl. X L I X , of the sleeping-bench. No. 18, of similar shape,
fig. I, eighteen inches high, in twisted rope-pattern was also placed on the west side of the living-
of two strands, without fimbriation, and having room, and was thickly painted in, solid.
squared ends and wide terminals of three twists The inscriptions 19-22 do not belong to this
each. The letters Alpha and Omega are placed cave but were discovered in a large cavernous
in chief, on either side. quarry about half a mile away, u p a valley forking
On the chamber wall between the doorway and north-west from that of the hermitage. From the
lower window, the cross, seen in pl. LIII, 7, was style of these inscriptions, and the reference in
painted in black with middle line in red. The one of them t o well-remembered persecution, the
twisted rope of the stem was of double loops, the Professor thinks it probable that they belong to
arms of single loops, and the four terminals were the reign of Constantine, and the cave near b y
lengthened to a triple twist. may therefore have sheltered some of the refugees
Yet another of these symbols, figured on pl. LI, in the persecution, or become a hermitage a couple
I (see chapter IX, I) hore witness in the hermitage. of centuries before Mena fitted it for his use.
A large black cross of eight points is contained 49. The most curious feature of the furnishing
in a circle, about a foot in diameter. Each vesica of the cell was the abundance of pegs and hooks.
within the double points is occupied with a small No less than thirty-nine pegs of flint or bone wit-
device, two concentric circles above and again nessed to the orderliness of the recluse. They
below, and a t the two sides the letters X C and IC, occurred on every plain and handy part of the
respectively, (Christ Jesus). The wide black-lined walls, and in neat array, as recorded, in the smaller
circular border is enriched with lines and triangles cupboard-recess. I n pairs, they seem to have sup-
in black and red, interspersed with black spots. ported a curtain over an inscription and elsewhere,
The cross has an inner cross and outer triangles and perhaps a frontal before the altar. Others were
of red, upon its field. A t the intersection, four very strong and placed high, a s though for his cloak
pomegranates on leafy stalks radiate. and flask. The roof of the oratory was roughly
Another decorative design, as yet unmentioned, domed and plastered, and in the centre a stout ox-
is the irregular meander in red and black, shown bone, driven in, still remained bound b y a leatheru
in pl. LIII, 12. thong which had served for the attachment of a
Along the western side of the rock-chamber, lamp.
opposite the altar, ran a raised footing, smoothly The arrangement of the little retreat, the succes-
plastered, to form a dais or low bench. sive coats of whitewashing, the disposition of these
The reveal of the lower window, before described, pegs and hooks, the scrupulous tidiness of the
is given in side view on pl. L, fig. 6 (LV, 6). Here dwelling and its several amenities, give a new
the hermit looked out from the oratory and across conception of the daily round of a recluse of the
his room to the rocky steep on the opposite side Vth or VIth century. Slovenliness and dirt had

no place in the religious life here, but cleanliness a "Life of Apa Kaparios of Tohe." The martyr
was next t o godliness, and an ordered domesticity Ptolemy of Dendereh confessed his faith at "Tohe
must have borne a share in Mena's piety, in his of the Horses" (CRUM,Copt. MSS in Ryl. Lib.,p. 46).
remote fastness, far from the inspection of the There is also, in the same collection (p. I ~ z ) a,
world. letter from the headmen of Tohe to their superior
Having now described the hermitage, it only re- concerning work upon a dyke.
mains to add, further, that the solitary was provided 3. On the front of the hermitage below the figure
with means of access t o the plateau above him. of a dove are the words in large letters, "The
Coasting along the footing of the cliff eastward blessed Trinity, the blessed Ma[ria];" below, in
from his dwelling (XLIX, z) and level with its smaller letters, the contractions for " Iesous P-
entrance, we still pursue a narrow way which Christos." The cross, with a border of pomegranates
led to the upper desert above his cave roof, b y a and supported on each side by a dove and a uni-
rocky ascent partly built up as a stairway, with corn (emblems of peace and chastity), stands above
a low retaining-wall above. This was probably his an inscription which originally had fourteen lines;
daily haunt. Here the little level tongues of desert, only nine lines remain, the rest being destroyed.
flint-covered, run back between the several zvadys, The inscription consists of a list of holy names.
to join the boundless plateau of the upper desert
stretching to the Libyan wilds. I. The Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit,
Jesus Christ, remember Mena. Amen, so be it. 2. our father Michael, our father Adam,
3. our fathers the patriarchs, our fathers
4. the prophets, our fathers the apos-
5. tles, our fathers all the martyrs,
C H A P T E R IX 6. Apa Apollo, Apa Anoup, A p a P-hib,
l I 1 E COPTIC INSCRIPTIONS (PLS. LI-LIV) 7. Apa Patermoute, Apa Ouenobir,
8. Apa Pamoune, Apa-Isak (?), Apa Pshoi',
(Assistant Professor) g. ..... . Apa Iohanes, Apa Iakob.
50. I . THE:decorative circle at the top of the Apollo, Anoup and P-hib are the three saints
plate contains the usual form of the Coptic cross; of Bawit, and are usually mentioned together.
within the curve at the end of the horizontal arms Ouenobir is probably Onnofrios.
are (Christos) on the left, E (Iesous) on the 4. Above no. 3 were the words, "The Father,
right. The position of the words is unusual, Christos the Son, the Holy Spirit, Amen," followed by a
being generally placed after Iesous, a s in English. few broken letters probably reading "So be it, so
2 . On the outer side of the wall dividing the be it."
living-room and the oratory, beside the lower 5. An inscription in three lines of which the first
window, is a decorative design enclosing a n inscrip- is written black, the other two in red; it was be-
tion in six lines. tween the door and window on the outer side of
the wall.
I. Jesus Christ, .make remembrance of my
brother P-hib, and I. The Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit,
2. Mena the little and Dorothe the little, the 2. Make remembrance of my brother, Mina
sons the little, the
3. of Father MGuses; and Pisrael the little .
3. inhabitant of Temui . . [the rest though
4. Iakob the little; the beloved father A p a legible does not convey any meaning].
Iakob T h e name of the village suggests that it is the
5. the inhabitant of Tohe. Make remembrance same a s the modern village of Tema, zo miles east-
of Mena. A- south-east of the hermitage.
6. men. S o be it. 51. 6. Over the lamp-recess, east of the doorway
A town or village of Tohe is known elsewhere leading to the oratory, were seven lines of inscrip-
in Coptic writings. The catalogue of the library tion:
of the monastery of Apa Helias (BOURIANT, Rec. I. The Father, the Son, the Spirit,
des Trav. X I , 134) shows that that library contained 2. the blessed Mary, the blessed

3. Catholic 52. 11. The most complete and therefore the most
4 . Church, interesting of the inscriptions was under the altar
5. which is holy. Amen. S o be it. inside the oratory. I t appears to consist of religious
6. All the hosts of God, texts, some taken from the Sermon on the Mount,
7. make remembrance. Amen. others apparently from the sayings of saints. I t
8. The back of the lamp-recess has five lines, was originally enclosed in a plain border. The
which are more untidily written than any of the whole of the upper part has disappeared, leaving
other inscriptions, possibly on account of the com- only the last five lines.
parative inaccessibility of the space on which they I. from evening to dawn. Do not [injure?]
are traced. 2. the little ones, lest [thou] be confused(?).
r . 0 God, make remembrance Do not run [after?]
z. of Abraham the little, 3. men on account of ease, lest thy
3. the inhabitant of Sahrashet. 4. poverty be in vain. Judge not, lest
The last two lines may perhaps read, "God in 5. thou be judged. Forgive that thou mayest
his court eternal, good." Sahrashet is the name of be forgiven.
two villages (AMJ~L., Gdog., p. 409), of which little Below, outside the border, are the words "For-
or nothing is known. Abraham of Sahrashet was give me."
perhaps one of the recluses living in the hermitage. 12. This is merely a meander decoration without
There were evidently two for there are two hand- inscription.
writings, but there is nothing to show whether 13. On the west side of the window are four
they were contemporary or consecutive. I would inscriptions, of which the second, written in large
suggest that Abraham of Sahrashet was the earlier uncertain letters, is by a different hand from the
of the two, and that the second was Mena the other three.
little, mentioned in no. 5.
g. At the side of the lamp-recess, beside the a) I. [Illegible].
rudely drawn figure of a lamp on a tall stand, is z. Apa Iakob, the inhabitant of Tohe, Apa
the contraction of the word Iesous. Iohanes, the inhabitant of . . .
10. Below the candle-hollow and lamp-recess is
3. [Illegible].
a triple inscription, each part enclosed within a b) I. Apa Apollo, Apa Anoup, Apa P-hib,
plain border. All three are merely lists of holy 2. Apa Ieremi, Apa Makari,

names. 3. Apa Sarmata.

a) r. Iakob c) I.A s also
2. the man of To- 2.the remembrance
3. he, Apa 3. [of the brethlren all
g. Peheou. g. [who] suffered
5. Amen. 5. in the forty days.
b) This was evidently the chief part of the d) [Too fragmentary for translation.]
inscription in lines of considerable length, but only The enigmatic reference to the suffering "in the
the first few letters of each line still remain. forty days" may be an allusion to some perse-
r . The Father . .. cution lasting that length of time.
z. Our ... 14. Too fragmentary to be legible.
3. Apa . .. 15. Part of an inscription commemorating "My
g. as, Ama (?) . .. brother Ioanes."
5. .... 16. Only the word "life" remains.
6. the Ama ... 17 and 18. Decorative designs of a cross within
7. Amon . .. a square.
8. Apa Isak. 53. 19. The remaining inscriptions were all found
c) I. Apa Apollo, in the quarry. Only a few lines are legible, ". . . the
z. Father Ouenobri. month of Parmhat a Power (l)ruled over us, from
3. Amen. the twelfth of Parmhat to the twenty ...
of Parm-

oute a great terror came upon us. On the baptismal "The convent" and "the saints" occur in the
Sabbath ..." broken lines.
The actual date in Parmoute is defaced, only The omission of the third Person of the Trinity
the word "twenty" remains. A s the length of is unusual. The inscription is perhaps in the nature
time from the twelfth of Parmhat to the twenty- of a tombstone, a commemoration of the dead over
second of Parmoute is forty days, this may have a grave.
been the actual date, and it would probably then [The forty days of persecution must have been
give the reason for the commemoration of the toward the end of pagan supremacy, to be so
brethren in no. 13. prominently in mind. I t was probably the last
20. Partly in Greek, partly in Coptic. Greatly persecution under Licinius 323 A. D., as that was
defaced. certainly very brief, being stopped by the war with
21. Almost illegible. The name "Apa Ioanes" Constantine. The actual duration is not recorded
appears. by Eusebius or others. The period of persecution
22. The first three lines only are legible. in the inscription was during March and April;
after that Licinins had to reserve his energies, and
I. B y the will reduce internal discord, in preparations for the great
2. of God and His struggle at the beginning of July, so the dates
3. Son, let not .. fairly agree. F. P,]
B. = Belfast; B. M. = British Museum; Br. = Brussels; Ca. = Cairo; C. E. = Cambridge Ethnological; C. F. = Cambridge Fitz-
william; CL. = Ny Carlsberg; Ch. = Chicago; Co. = Copenhagen; E. = Edinburgh; G. = Glasgow, H. = Hague, I. = Ipswich;
K. = Kyoto; M. = Manchester; Ox. = Oxford; R. = Rochdale; res. = in sererue; U. C. = University College; Up. = Uppsala.

I. 159 M,; 442 Ca.; 442 M.; 446 U. C. XXIII. I C. F.; 2 K .
11. I, 2 Ox.; 3 U.C.; 4 Ca.; 5 res.; 6 Ca.; 7 all X X I V . G.
museums; 8 Ca.; g res.; 10, 11 Up.; 12-14, X X V . Ca.
16, 17 M.; 15 Ca. X X V I . I , 2 U. C.
111. I U. C.; 2 M.; 3 reserved; 4 G.; 5 Br.; XXVII. U. C.
6-8 U. C.; 10 Ox.; 11 Ca.; 13 Ox.; 14 U. XXVIII. I G.; 218 K.; 492 pot Co.
C.; 18 M,; 19 U. C. X X I X . res.
IV. 1-4 H.; 5, 6 Co.; 7 M.; 8 U.C.; g left; .
X X X . 2-4 Ca.:. -5 left:. 7-10 res.
10-12 U. C. X X X I . I B;.; 2 Co.; 3, 4 U. C.
V. 2,3Br.;4-7U.C.;8Co.; g, Iores.; 11c.E.; XXXII. 6 R.
13 M,; 14-17 U. C.; 18-20 G.; 21, 2 2 U. X X X I I I . 10 B.; 11 K . ; 12, 13 B.
C.; 23, 24 Ox.; 25, 26 M.; 27 Co.; 28 Ox.; X X X V . 4, 5 left; 7-9 B. M. Christian; 10 K.
29 U. C. X X X V I . 1-4 left; 5 B. M. Gr.-Ro.
VI. I U. C.; 2 Ca.; 4 Br.; 5 Up.; 6 C. E.; 7 Co.; X X X V I I . 7 B. M. Gr.-Ro.
8 Ca.; 9-14 G. XLV. 5-8, 10 B. M. Christian; g Ca.
VII. I U.C.; 2 M.; 3 K.; 4 CL.; 5 Ch.; 6 M,; XLVI. 2 Minieh; 3-5, 7 B. M. Christian.
7-9 H.; 10 U. C.; 13 U. C. XLVII. 3-7 B. M. Christian.
VIII. I res.; 4 R . ; 5 X I I ; 6 M.; 7 U.C.; 8 M,: XLIX. 3 U. C.
g XII; 10 U. C.; 11 Ch.; 12 CL.; 13 Co.;
14 Ch.; 15, 16 CL.; 17 Ca.; 18-20 U. C.; Among the duplicates and unimportant objects
2 1 Ca. not illustrated here, adzes were sent, 484 R . ;
IX. 221U.C.; z51G.; 42oC0.;423R.; 461M.; 511 H., Up.; 712 I.; girdle knives 531 CL.; 765 C.E.,
464K.; 485 Ch.; 531 CL.; 534 K . ; 602 Co.; M. Flint knives 414 M,; 484 R. Needles 329 G., I.:
710 I. 484 R .
X. 251 G.; 329 I.; 461 &l.;490 CL.; 534 K . ;
611 Up.; 702 res.; 710 I. Part of a large blue-green glazed bowl of Aohmes
XII. I Ca.; 2 res.; 3 , 4 Up.; 5 Ca.; 6 , 7 Ox. Nefertari went to Carlsberg. A large quantity of
XIII. 384 Co. the usual beads and small vases which were of
X I V . 537 U. C. Eugenics; 541 M. familiar types and undated were sent also to the
XXII. I C. F. above Museums.

Aba, 10, 11 Bronze, Syrian, 6

Aby, 11 Brunton, Mr. and Mrs., I
Ada, 10 Byzantine inscriptions, 18
Adu, 11
Adu-aqer, 10 Caton-Thompson, Miss, I, 21
Adzes of copper, 4, 5, 6 Cats' tomb, 11
Alabaster vases, 7, g Cemeteries upper and lower, 3
Altar genealogy, 10 Cemetery of Oxyrhynkhos, 13, 16-18
Ameny, 10, 11 Ceremonial a t tombs, 3
Ameuy-senb-senbefen, 11 Chapel tombs, 16
Anatef, X I Charioteers stele, I I
Anher-nekht, 12 Chisels of copper, 5 , 6, g
Anher-auf-onkh, 12 Cividale sculpture, 17
Antef stele, 10 Colonnades, 13
Antef-onkh-iunes 10 Columbarium, 18
Antet, 11 Comb of king Zet, 4
Apse tombs, 16 Copper plating of wood, 5
Aramaic inscriptions, I see adze, chisel
Arch flattened, 15 Coptic chapel, 18
Arrow-points, 4 Deir, a fort, 3
Art, 10 hermitage, 20-26
Art-herru, 12, 19 Courtiers tombs 1-8
Ash mounds of tombs, 16 construction, 2
Ast-ar-das, 12 date, I
Ata, 10 plans, z
Athenaeus on courtier burial, 8 reused, 2
Aunena, 11 Cowley, Dr., I
Axe, Syrian, 6 Cremation, Roman, 16
Axes of copper, 5, 6 Cross on capital, 16
Cubit, 3, 8
Bach, M. Henri, I Cylinder seals, 4, 5
Balls of white stone, 7
Ba-she, name, 4 Dada-erdats, 10
Beba, 11 Dadat, so, 11
Bekk, 4 Dadati, 11
Bener-en-at, 10 Da-merti, 12
Benson, Mrs., I Deda, 11
Blade for a stick, 6 Dorothe, 24
Borers of copper, 6
Bricks built while soft, 8 Ebony rod, 6
sizes of, 4 Eucharistic chapel tombs, 16

Falcon head of Horus, 11 Ivory label, 4

Fenen, 12 lions, 6
Flaying knife, 5 wand, 7
Flint flakes, 6
Flint knife on stele, 4 Jewish early settlement, I
Flint knives for cutting, 6 Justinian-period of tombs, 16, 17, 18
scraping, 6
scrapers, 6
Fresco in tomb, 17 Ka-hetep, axe of, 5
Ka-tem, seal, 5
Gaming pieces of ivory, 6 , 7 Kema, 11
Gardiner, Dr. Alan, 19 Kems, I I
Genealogy of family, 10 Kemt, 10
Girdle knife, 5 Kesti, I I
Giron, M., I Rhofra, scarab, 7
Glass cups broken on tomb mounds, 16 Khosekhemui bowl fragment, 7
Glass jars engraved, 16 fort, 3, g
Goldwork, 10 Killing of courtiers, 8
Granary model, 7 Knives of copper, 5 , 6

Hapa, 10 Lion and yoke (?), 5

Harakhti, 12
Lions, ivory, 6
bark of, 4 Lioness, tame, 7
Hather-em-hat, 10
Henut, 11
Herculio, 19 Measurements of graves, 3
Her-ka, 4 Meh, 12
Hermitage, 20-26 Meua, hermitage of, 24
columns painted, zz Menkau, 10
cooking-stove, 21 Menti, 10
decoration, 21-23 Mentu, 10
inscriptions, 24-26 Mentu-S&-hather, 10
lampstand, 22 Mentu-uza, 12
larder, 21 Mentuhetep stele, 10, 19
living-room, 20, 21 Merefka stele, 4
oratory, 23 Merenra, lid of, 7
pegs and hooks, 23 Merneit, queen, I
swallow's nest, 2 2 Mer-nesut, 3, 4
Heruza, 12 Merti, 12
Hetep-neb stele, 4 Merti-heru, 12
Hor, 12 Mery, 12
Hunt, Prof., I Mesu, 11
Mesy, 10
Iakob, 24 Meydum temple, 4
Ienamon, 19 Min-hetepu, 12
Imhetep, 12 Montgomerie-Neilson, Mr., I

Inaros, Art-herru, 12, 19 Morton, Miss, I

Inscriptions of jars, 18 Mouses, 24
Iohannes, 18 Murray, Miss M. A., 24
Ivory arrow points, 4 Muses, statues of, 14
hair pin, 6 Mut, 1 1

Neb-tau, 10 Ranef-senb, 11
Needles of copper, 5 Ran-senb, 11
Nefer-hetep-senb, I I Rans-onkh, I o
Nefkhet, 10 R e d ochre on arrows, 4
Neha, 11 Registers, g
Neheh, 11, 12 Rehetu-tet, 10
Neitaqert, 1 2 Rebwet-twet, 19
Nekau, I Rere, 12
Nekht sealing, 5 Rosette band on theatre, I5
Nekht, 11, 12 Ruru, 12
Nekhta, 11
Nes-her, 1 2 Sacrifice of courtiers, 3
Nesmau, 12 Si-sebek, I I
Nes-mehti, 12 Sit-hather, I I
Nesuti-em-heb, 11 Sit-hor-em-hat, ro
Netahpartax, I z Sit-sebek, I I
Neter-shedti stele, 4 Sgt-user, 10
Newel of stair, 14, I5 Saw-knife of copper, 6
Nezert, 11 Scarab, a Christian emblem, r g
Nubu-dadat, I I of Old Kingdom, 5
Sebekdadu, I o
Sehek-hetep, 10
Ochre on arrows, 4 Sebek-hetepsenb-neferu, I I
Officials tombs, 3 Sebek-nekht, 10
Onkh, 10 Sebek-ox, 11
Onkhes, 10 Sebelien, Prof., 6
Onkh-ef-sen stele, 4 Sehetep, 10
Onkhet, 11 Sehetep-ab-ra, 10
Onkh-ka, 4, 6 Senbehu, 10
Oratory, Coptic, 2 3 , 25 Senbtesi, 11
Oxyrhynkhos, 11-18 Senen, 10
Senonkh, 10
Papia, 19 Sent, 10
Papyri, early Hebrew, I Sentu-onkh, ro
Paulak'ios, 18 Senusert, 11
Persecution by Licinius, 25, 2 6 Senusert I11 stele, I I
Pert-heb, 10 Servants familiar, 10
Pert-nefer, 10 Shema, 10, 19
Peteos, 19 Shennu, 11
Petrie, Lady, I, 2 2 Shepset, 10
P-hib, 24 Shrine of brickwork, 3, 8
Phocaeus, base of statue, 13 Shrine, figure of, 5
Pisrael, 24 Skeletons of courtiers, 7, 8
Platform tombs, 16 movement during burial, 8
Porphyry bowl, 7 on left side, 8
Portico of theatre, I5 Skulls measured, g
Pot marks, 11 Sneferu-hetep, I I
Pottery, foreign, 5, 7 Spiral stairway, 14, I5
Psemtek I, I Statue, female, VIth century, I7
Steles on graves, 4
Quarry inscriptions, 23, 25, 26 Stone vases, 7, g

Subterranean hall tombs, I7

Un-nefer shrine, I I, 12
Upuat on stele, 1 1
Syrian axe, 6
Upuat-nefer, 10
Taharqa, I
Taheru, 12 Vases of stone, 7
Tarnit, 10 Vivianus, 19
Tanit emblem, 4
Walker, Mr. G. W . H., l
Tata, sealing of, 5
Walls of soft bricks, 8
Tau, 1 1
Tausert, rz Wand of ivory, 7
Tem-ka cylinder, 5 Weights, g
Thahent 11
Wings under solar bark, 4
Theatre, position, 1 3 Women, tombs of, 3
description, 14, 1 5
Theodoros inscription, 18 Zed-her, 12
Thes-ast, 1 2 Zeren, 4
Tohe, 24 Zer, king, I
ivory labels, 4
Tools of copper, 5
Zet, king, I, 3
copper axe and adze, 4, 5




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Cleveland, Ohio


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