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ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE DESCENT OF MAN – Darwin’s another book that

said that man evolved from ape-like creatures.
THE BIG BANG THEORY - it postulates the
explosion of matter and energy created the LUCY – the nickname of the oldest and most
universe. complete skeleton of any erect walking
hominid found anywhere in the world. (Donald
CONTINENTAL DRIFT – this refers to the breaking
Johanson and Tom Gray)
apart of the huge landmass first formed on Earth
into separate pieces which today form the AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFARENSIS – the scientific
continents. (Alfred Wegener) name of Lucy. Which means southern ape from
Afar Region.
PANGEA- the name of the super continent that
was believed to be the origin of the present ZINJANTHROPUS – a cranium found at Olduvai
continents. Gorge in Tanzania. (Louis and Mary Leaky)

PLATE TECTONICS -is a scientific theory describing HOMINID- refers to human family.
the large-scale motion of seven large plates and
Types of Hominids:
the movements of a larger number of smaller
plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic - Australopithecus Afarensis (the most
processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 ancient ancestor)
billion years ago. (Harry Hess) - Australopithecus africanus ((taller and
- Ocean-ocean convergence has a larger brain capacity than
- Ocean-continent convergence afarensis)
- Continent-continent collisions - Australopithecus robustus (has larger
cranium than the previous two hominids)
CONTINENt – a large land mass on the surface - Australopithecus boisei (its scull was
of the earth. similar to robustus but it has ridge on the
(Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, top of the skull.
South America, Antarctica) HOMO HABILIS – believed to be the first true

BEGINNING OF LIFE o It literally means “handy man”

THEORY OF CREATION – God created HOMO ERECTUS – literally means “erect man”.
everything o It has a brain size of about 800 to
THEORY OF EVOLUTION – explains that 900 mL.
everything in this world was not created rather o Its pelvis and leg bones was fully
a product evolution from one species to upright and bipedal.
another. o Java Man (Pithecanthropus
CHARLES DARWIN – Wrote the “Origin of the o Peking Man (Sinanthropus
Species” that explained the fact of evolution pekinensis)
and the major mechanism of evolution through
natural selection. HOMO SAPIENS – man the wise or thinking man

GALAPAGOS ISLAND – is the place where o Larger brain with a taller

Darwin explored and he saw different types of braincase
species that supported his theory of evolution. o Neanderthal man
people, more modern that homo sapiens
PALEOLITHIC AGE (old stone age) –in this age, geography- deals with human culture
the use of simple stone tools would characterize and its impact on the earth.
this period B. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY- studies the
natural features of the earth.
o Hunting
o It examines landforms and
o Nomadic communities
o No permanent place
NEOLITHIC AGE (new stone age)- in this period,
agriculture is already used 1. LOCATION – determines where a
particular place can be found.
o Farming
o Absolute location – the exact
o Domesticating animals
point where a place is.
o Burials
o Global Position System (GPS) –
METAL AGE - use of metals as tools provides a pinpoint accuracy in
locating a specific place.
o Using metals in agriculture o Longitude lines – imaginary lines
o Political and social institutions that run from north to south.
o Smelting (the process by which o Prime meridian – is at 0 degree
metal is extracted from ore) longitude that runs through
o Creating weapons made up of Greenwich, England.
metals o International Date Line (IDL) – at
180 degrees longitude as its
o Eastern hemisphere – east (or
COMMON ERA – the period that marks what is right) of the prime meridian
traditionally believed to be the birth of Jesus o Western hemisphere – is west (or
Christ left) of the prime meridian to the
ANNO DOMINI – the year of our Lord IDL.
o Equator – the point of reference
PERIODIZATION IN HISTORY that divides the globe into the
Northern and Southern
Note: According to GREEN, “Periodization is
rooted in historical theory”.
2. PLACE – describes the human and
3 divisions of eras in world history: physical characteristics of a location
a. Ancient
Greece is a peninsula that is dominated
b. Medieval
by rough mountains and narrow valleys
c. Modern
GEOGRAPHY – The study of the patterns and describes and analyzes how human
processes of human (built) and environmental adapt to their environment and how
(natural) landscapes, where landscapes their adaptation oftentimes lead to
comprise real (objective) and perceived modification of the environment.
(subjective) space. Example: Rise terraces in Southeast Asia
4. MOVEMENT – Explains how people,
ideas, and animals move from one place
to another and analysis the various MESOPOTAMIA
factors that influence such movement.
SUMER- the oldest civilization ever
5. REGION – grouping of places based on
common characteristics.
MESOPOTAMIA- the land between two rivers
(Tigris-Euphrates Rivers)
Religion in Mesopotamia
LANDFORMS – physical features of the
o People were polytheistic (believe
Earth’s surface.
in many gods) (60)
Examples: hills, mountains, plains, o Anu – the sky god, the ruler of the
valleys, plateaus gods.
o Enlil of Nippur – god of wind,
Examples of bodies of water:
cloud, and air (50)
Oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, o Ziggurats – temples to particular
waterfalls gods

CLIMATE – the regular pattern of weather Government in Mesopotamia

conditions in a particular place
o Lugal – big man (ruler)
WEATHER - the condition of the atmosphere o Ensi – other term of lugal in Urk
at a particular place and time such as the o City-state- the name of their
temperature and if it is windy, rainy or sunny. urban places or big places
o Code of Hammurabi – a code
PREVAILING WINDS – winds that blow consisting of 282 regulations
predominantly from a single general pertaining to socio-economic
direction. concerns of the people
TRADE WINDS – steady winds blowing from System of Writing of Mesopotamia
east to west above and below the equator.
o Cuneus – latin word meaning
CLIMATE CHANGE- believed to be the most “wedge”
serious effect of global warming. o Cuneiform – system of writing
CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION using pieces of sharpened reeds
that were pressed into wet clays.
CULTURE – particular way of life in a certain o Behistun Rock – had inscriptions in
group Akkadian, Elamite and Old
CULTURAL DIFFUSION – the process by which Persian
cultural ideas spread to different groups of o Darius the Great – ordered carved
people and to different places. on the mountainside in Iran


intellectual, cultural, and material o It was named Akkadian in
development in human society. recognition of Sargon I of Akkad
who was the first to successfully
unite Mesopotamia using bronze
weapons and infantry formations.
o Ur-Nammu – the king of Summer
and Akkad
 He was responsible in the
construction of ziggurats
o Assyrians were masters of the art
o They had iron-wielding Assyrian
o Were believed to have come
from somewhere northeast of the
o Army was recognized as most
Black Sea
disciplined during that time
o They belong to the group Aryans
o Nineveh (capital of Assyria)
who developed their own distinct
became the largest city at that
language known as Indo-
o Ashurbanipal – headed the
 Such language became
Assyrian Empire
the basis of all languages
CHALDEAN EMPIRE used in Europe and India
o They invades northern
o Nebuchadnezzar – ruled the
Mesopotamia in 1600 BCE
Babylon and rebuilt it
o They won because of their iron
o He was also responsible for the
making of the Hanging Gardens
as an offer to his wife PHOENICIANS
o He enslaves Jews from Israel
o Their greatest contribution was
PERSIAN EMPIRE the alphabet.
 It has only 22 symbols
o Allowed a policy of tolerance that
flourished local cultures LYDIANS
o Cyrus the Great – conquered all
o They first introduce the use of
of the Fertile Crescent and most of
coins in trade
Asia Minor.
o They used gold and silver and
 He freed the captive Jews
shaped them into disks of equal
o Marduk – Chief god of Babylon
o Cambyses- the son of Cyrus that
successfully conquered Egypt HEBREWS
o Darius the Great – he divided the
empire into provinces called o Their history was derived from the
satrapy and placed under the Bible
administration of a satrap or o They were originally nomadic
governor. herders from Mesopotamia
o Zoroaster- a Persian prophet who o Cannan – also know an the
attempted to provide an answer, Promised Land, lately known as
an explanation about the Palestine
government of two opposing o They were led by Abraham
forces, the good and evil. o They were led by Moses to be free
 Eventually, his teaching from the reign of Ramses II across
became an official religion Sinai Peninsula
of the Persian Empire.  This journey is called Exodus
 Zend-Avesta – a book o Judaism – the basis on the belief in
written by Zoroaster, the one God (monotheism)
sacred book of the o They believed that God is eternal,
followers of his faith. omnipotent, all powerful
o Ten Commandments – given to  His death and resurrection
Moses by God in his journey in Mt. symbolized immortality and
Sinai life after death
o Torah – the first five books of the o Isis – wife of Osiris
Bible.  Collected the pieces and
brought back Osiris life
 God of creation and love
ANCIENT EGYPT  Woman with a throne
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING OF EGYPT o Horus – incarnation of the living
o Egypt – “the gift oF Nile” pharaoh
according to Herodotus.  Son of Isis
o Nile river- the longest river in the  Falcon god
world o Anubis – jackal-headed god of
 It has a steady and slow graveyard
current  Patron of embalmers
 It served as a unifying  Responsible of weighing
factor for the ancient the hearts of dead
Egyptians o They believed that the heart
 It deposited rich silt that should be lighter than a feather
kept riverbanks fertile o Ka – soul
 It was surrounded by o Canopic jar – the jar where organs
deserts called Red Lands or of dead people were placed
Deshret. o Natron – a mixture of sodium
 To the west were the bicarbonate or sodium chloride
Libyan desert and Sahara o Ut – latin word for “to put into
Desert. aromatic resins”
 To the south was the o Mummy – a Persina word which
Nubian Desert means pitch or bitumen used in
 East was the Arabian embalming
Desert. o Sarcophagus – where the dead
body was placed
RELIGION o Book of the Dead – significant
o It was central to Egyptian life source of information pertaining
o Polytheistic to the Egyptian belief in the
o Amon –Re – chief god afterlife
 He had given birth to o Tuat – underworld
 God of righteousness
 Upholder of moral order o Pharaoh – great house
o Osiris – ruler of Nile and spirits of  Ruler of Egypt and also
the dead worshipped as the God
 He was killed by his brother Horus
Seth o Theocracy – government of
 His body was cut into ancient Egypt
pieces  A form of government
 His death signifies wherein the ruler is
resumption of the flooding believed to be god or of
of Nile divine origin

o Hieroglyphics – Egyptian’s own o Pharaohs succeeded to

system of writing reestablish central authority
 A pictographic system of o They ruled from Thebes
writing o Military campaigns were
o Scribes – specially educated launched in Nubia
people to master hieroglyphics o Introduced mummification
o Rosetta Stone – the stone where a
NEW KINGDOM (C. 1570 1090 BCE)
hieroglyphic was inscribed
 The inscriptions were o Ahmose I – founder of the 18th
Greek, Demotic Egyptian, Dynasty
and hieroglyphics  Defeated the Hyksos
o Thomas Young and Jean Francois  Reestablished Egypt
Champollion – successfully o Thutmose III- referred as
deciphered the hieroglyphics “Napoleon of Egypt)
o Hatshepsut – her reign was
considered as time of
comparative peace and stability
SPREAD OF CULTURE o Thutmose III – her named was
purged from all record and her
statues were destroyed
o Upper Egypt – the first cataract of o Amenhotep III – the Egyptian
the Nile empire reached its zenith
o The first dynasty began at o Amenhotep IV – known as heretic
Memphis pharaoh because he attempted
 Menes (Aha) united the to introduce the worship of only
upper and lower Egypt by one god, Aton.
marrying a Memphite o Tutankhamen (King Tut) – a 9 yr
heiress old child who became Pharaoh
 Pharaohs began to o Howard Carter and Lord
accumulate power Carnarvon – discovered the tomb
o Step Pyramid – was built for Djoser of Tutankhamen
 Imhotep – architect of the o Rameses II – one of the greatest
pyramid pharaoh of Egypt.
 He reclaimed Palestine
OLD KINGDOM (C. 2572- 2134 BCE)  He freed the Hebrews to go
o This was the Age of Pyramids to their “promised land”
o Construction of irrigation
o Sphinx – a mythological creature
 With a lion body but has a
human head
 Killed travelers that could
not answer his riddle
 But killed himself when
someone answered his