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§ 1910.21 29 CFR Ch.

XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

employment and place of employment Subpart C [Reserved]


covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14,
§ 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any dif-
Subpart D—Walking-Working
ferent standard on exposure to ethyl-
ene oxide which would otherwise be ap-
Surfaces
plicable by virtue of those sections.
(i) 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA). Sec- AUTHORITY: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupa-
tional Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29
tion 1910.1050 shall apply to the expo-
U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor’s
sure of every employee to MDA in Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754), 8–76 (41 FR
every employment and place of em- 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), or 1–90 (55 FR 9033),
ployment covered by § 1910.13, § 1910.14, as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.
§ 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any dif-
ferent standard on exposure to MDA § 1910.21 Definitions.
which would otherwise be applicable by (a) As used in § 1910.23, unless the con-
virtue of those sections. text requires otherwise, floor and wall
(j) Formaldehyde. Section 1910.1048 opening, railing and toe board terms
shall apply to the exposure of every shall have the meanings ascribed in
employee to formaldehyde in every em- this paragraph.
ployment and place of employment (1) Floor hole. An opening measuring
covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, less than 12 inches but more than 1
§ 1910.15 or § 1910.16 in lieu of any dif- inch in its least dimension, in any
ferent standard on exposure to form- floor, platform, pavement, or yard,
aldehyde which would otherwise be ap- through which materials but not per-
plicable by virtue of those sections. sons may fall; such as a belt hole, pipe
(k) Cadmium. Section 1910.1027 shall opening, or slot opening.
apply to the exposure of every em- (2) Floor opening. An opening meas-
ployee to cadmium in every employ- uring 12 inches or more in its least di-
ment and place of employment covered mension, in any floor, platform, pave-
by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different ment, or yard through which persons
standard on exposures to cadmium that may fall; such as a hatchway, stair or
would otherwise be applicable by virtue ladder opening, pit, or large manhole.
of those sections. Floor openings occupied by elevators,
(l) 1,3-Butadiene (BD). Section dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery,
1910.1051 shall apply to the exposure of or containers are excluded from this
every employee to BD in every employ- subpart.
ment and place of employment covered (3) Handrail. A single bar or pipe sup-
by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, ported on brackets from a wall or par-
or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different tition, as on a stairway or ramp, to fur-
standard on exposure to BD which nish persons with a handhold in case of
would otherwise be applicable by virtue tripping.
of those sections. (4) Platform. A working space for per-
(m) Methylene chloride (MC). Section sons, elevated above the surrounding
1910.1052 shall apply to the exposure of floor or ground; such as a balcony or
every employee to MC in every employ- platform for the operation of machin-
ment and place of employment covered ery and equipment.
by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different (5) Runway. A passageway for per-
standard on exposure to MC which sons, elevated above the surrounding
would otherwise be applicable by virtue floor or ground level, such as a
of that section when it is not present footwalk along shafting or a walkway
in sealed, intact containers. between buildings.
(6) Standard railing. A vertical barrier
[43 FR 28473, June 30, 1978, as amended at 43 erected along exposed edges of a floor
FR 45809, Oct. 3, 1978; 43 FR 53007, Nov. 14, opening, wall opening, ramp, platform,
1978; 44 FR 5447, Jan. 26, 1979; 46 FR 32022,
or runway to prevent falls of persons.
June 19, 1981; 49 FR 25796, June 22, 1984; 50 FR
51173, Dec. 13, 1985; 52 FR 46291, Dec. 4, 1987; (7) Standard strength and construction.
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57 FR 35666, Aug. 10, 1992; 57 FR 42388, Sept. Any construction of railings, covers, or
14, 1992; 59 FR 41057, Aug. 10, 1994; 61 FR 56831, other guards that meets the require-
Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997] ments of § 1910.23.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.21

(8) Stair railing. A vertical barrier (9) Tread. The horizontal member of a
erected along exposed sides of a stair- step.
way to prevent falls of persons. (10) Tread run. The horizontal dis-
(9) Toeboard. A vertical barrier at tance from the leading edge of a tread
floor level erected along exposed edges to the leading edge of an adjacent
of a floor opening, wall opening, plat- tread.
form, runway, or ramp to prevent falls (11) Tread width. The horizontal dis-
of materials. tance from front to back of tread in-
(10) Wall hole. An opening less than 30 cluding nosing when used.
inches but more than 1 inch high, of (c) As used in § 1910.25, unless the con-
unrestricted width, in any wall or par- text requires otherwise, portable wood
tition; such as a ventilation hole or ladders terms shall have the meanings
drainage scupper. ascribed in this paragraph.
(11) Wall opening. An opening at least (1) Ladders. A ladder is an appliance
30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in usually consisting of two side rails
any wall or partition, through which joined at regular intervals by cross-
persons may fall; such as a yard-arm pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on
doorway or chute opening. which a person may step in ascending
(b) As used in § 1910.24, unless the con- or descending.
text requires otherwise, fixed indus- (2) Stepladder. A stepladder is a
trial stair terms shall have the mean- selfsupporting portable ladder, non-
ing ascribed in this paragraph. adjustable in length, having flat steps
and a hinged back. Its size is des-
(1) Handrail. A single bar or pipe sup-
ignated by the overall length of the
ported on brackets from a wall or par-
ladder measured along the front edge of
tition to provide a continuous hand-
the side rails.
hold for persons using a stair.
(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a
(2) Nose, nosing. That portion of a
non-self-supporting portable ladder,
tread projecting beyond the face of the
nonadjustable in length, consisting of
riser immediately below.
but one section. Its size is designated
(3) Open riser. The air space between by the overall length of the side rail.
the treads of stairways without upright (4) Extension ladder. An extension lad-
members (risers). der is a non-self-supporting portable
(4) Platform. An extended step or ladder adjustable in length. It consists
landing breaking a continuous run of of two or more sections traveling in
stairs. guides or brackets so arranged as to
(5) Railing. A vertical barrier erected permit length adjustment. Its size is
along exposed sides of stairways and designated by the sum of the lengths of
platforms to prevent falls of persons. the sections measured along the side
The top member of railing usually rails.
serves as a handrail. (5) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder
(6) Rise. The vertical distance from is a non-self-supporting portable lad-
the top of a tread to the top of the next der, nonadjustable in length, consisting
higher tread. of two or more sections of ladder so
(7) Riser. The upright member of a constructed that the sections may be
step situated at the back of a lower combined to function as a single lad-
tread and near the leading edge of the der. Its size is designated by the overall
next higher tread. length of the assembled sections.
(8) Stairs, stairway. A series of steps (6) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a
leading from one level or floor to an- self-supporting portable ladder, non-
other, or leading to platforms, pits, adjustable in length, consisting of two
boiler rooms, crossovers, or around ma- sections hinged at the top to form
chinery, tanks, and other equipment equal angles with the base. The size is
that are used more or less continuously designated by the length of the side
or routinely by employees, or only oc- rails measured along the front edge.
casionally by specific individuals. A se- (7) Extension trestle ladder. An exten-
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ries of steps and landings having three sion trestle ladder is a self-supporting
or more risers constitutes stairs or portable ladder, adjustable in length,
stairway. consisting of a trestle ladder base and

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§ 1910.21 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

a vertically adjustable single ladder, (18) Wane. Wane is bark, or the lack
with suitable means for locking the of wood from any cause, on the corner
ladders together. The size is designated of a piece.
by the length of the trestle ladder base. (19) Decay. Decay is disintegration of
(8) Special-purpose ladder. A special- wood substance due to action of wood-
purpose ladder is a portable ladder destroying fungi. It is also known as
which represents either a modification dote and rot.
or a combination of design or construc- (20) Compression failure. A compres-
tion features in one of the general-pur- sion failure is a deformation (buckling)
pose types of ladders previously de- of the fibers due to excessive compres-
fined, in order to adapt the ladder to sion along the grain.
special or specific uses. (21) Compression wood. Compression
(9) Trolley ladder. A trolley ladder is a wood is an aberrant (abnormal) and
semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in highly variable type of wood structure
length, supported by attachments to an occurring in softwood species. The
overhead track, the plane of the ladder wood commonly has density somewhat
being at right angles to the plane of higher than does normal wood, but
motion. somewhat lower stiffness and tensile
(10) Side-rolling ladder. A side-rolling strength for its weight in addition to
ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjust- high longitudinal shrinkage.
able in length, supported by attach- (22) Low density. Low-density wood is
ments to a guide rail, which is gen- that which is exceptionally light in
erally fastened to shelving, the plane of weight and usually deficient in
the ladder being also its plane of mo- strength properties for the species.
tion. (d) As used in § 1910.26, unless the con-
text requires otherwise, portable metal
(11) Wood characteristics. Wood char-
ladder terms shall have the meanings
acteristics are distinguishing features
ascribed in this paragraph.
which by their extent and number de-
(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance
termine the quality of a piece of wood.
usually consisting of two side rails
(12) Wood irregularities. Wood irreg- joined at regular intervals by cross-
ularities are natural characteristics in pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on
or on wood that may lower its dura- which a person may step in ascending
bility, strength, or utility. or descending.
(13) Cross grain. Cross grain (slope of (2) Step ladder. A step ladder is a self-
grain) is a deviation of the fiber direc- supporting portable ladder, nonadjust-
tion from a line parallel to the sides of able in length, having flat steps and a
the piece. hinged back. Its size is designated by
(14) Knot. A knot is a branch or limb, the overall length of the ladder meas-
imbedded in the tree and cut through ured along the front edge of the side
in the process of lumber manufacture, rails.
classified according to size, quality, (3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a
and occurrence. The size of the knot is non-self-supporting portable ladder,
determined as the average diameter on nonadjustable in length, consisting of
the surface of the piece. but one section. Its size is designated
(15) Pitch and bark pockets. A pitch by the overall length of the side rail.
pocket is an opening extending parallel (4) Extension ladder. An extension lad-
to the annual growth rings containing, der is a non-self-supporting portable
or that has contained, pitch, either ladder adjustable in length. It consists
solid or liquid. A bark pocket is an of two or more sections traveling in
opening between annual growth rings guides or brackets so arranged as to
that contains bark. permit length adjustment. Its size is
(16) Shake. A shake is a separation designated by the sum of the lengths of
along the grain, most of which occurs the sections measured along the side
between the rings of annual growth. rails.
(17) Check. A check is a lengthwise (5) Platform ladder. A self-supporting
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separation of the wood, most of which ladder of fixed size with a platform pro-
occurs across the rings of annual vided at the working level. The size is
growth. determined by the distance along the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.21

front rail from the platform to the base standard railing is a vertical barrier
of the ladder. erected along exposed edges of floor
(6) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder openings, wall openings, ramps, plat-
is a non-self-supporting portable lad- forms, and runways to prevent falls of
der, non-adjustable in length, con- persons.
sisting of two or more sections so con- (6) Pitch. Pitch is the included angle
structed that the sections may be com- between the horizontal and the ladder,
bined to function as a single ladder. Its measured on the opposite side of the
size is designated by the overall length ladder from the climbing side.
of the assembled sections. (7) Fastenings. A fastening is a device
(7) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a to attach a ladder to a structure, build-
self-supporting portable ladder, non-ad- ing, or equipment.
justable in length, consisting of two (8) Rungs. Rungs are ladder cross-
sections, hinged at the top to form pieces of circular or oval cross-section
equal angles with the base. The size is on which a person may step in ascend-
designated by the length of the side ing or descending.
rails measured along the front edge. (9) Cleats. Cleats are ladder cross-
(8) Extension trestle ladder. An exten- pieces of rectangular cross-section
sion trestle ladder is a self-supporting placed on edge on which a person may
portable ladder, adjustable in length, step in ascending or descending.
consisting of a trestle ladder base and (10) Steps. Steps are the flat cross-
a vertically adjustable single ladder, pieces of a ladder on which a person
with suitable means for locking the may step in ascending or descending.
ladders together. The size is designated
(11) Cage. A cage is a guard that may
by the length of the trestle ladder base.
be referred to as a cage or basket guard
(9) Special-purpose ladder. A special-
which is an enclosure that is fastened
purpose ladder is a portable ladder
to the side rails of the fixed ladder or
which represents either a modification
to the structure to encircle the climb-
or a combination of design or construc-
ing space of the ladder for the safety of
tion features in one of the general-pur-
the person who must climb the ladder.
pose types of ladders previously de-
fined, in order to adapt the ladder to (12) Well. A well is a permanent com-
special or specific uses. plete enclosure around a fixed ladder,
(e) As used in § 1910.27, unless the con- which is attached to the walls of the
text requires otherwise, fixed ladder well. Proper clearances for a well will
terms shall have the meanings ascribed give the person who must climb the
in this paragraph. ladder the same protection as a cage.
(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance (13) Ladder safety device. A ladder
usually consisting of two side rails safety device is any device, other than
joined at regular intervals by cross- a cage or well, designed to eliminate or
pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on reduce the possibility of accidental
which a person may step in ascending falls and which may incorporate such
or descending. features as life belts, friction brakes,
(2) Fixed ladder. A fixed ladder is a and sliding attachments.
ladder permanently attached to a (14) Grab bars. Grab bars are indi-
structure, building, or equipment. vidual handholds placed adjacent to or
(3) Individual-rung ladder. An indi- as an extension above ladders for the
vidual-rung ladder is a fixed ladder purpose of providing access beyond the
each rung of which is individually at- limits of the ladder.
tached to a structure, building, or (15) Through ladder. A through ladder
equipment. is one from which a man getting off at
(4) Rail ladder. A rail ladder is a fixed the top must step through the ladder in
ladder consisting of side rails joined at order to reach the landing.
regular intervals by rungs or cleats and (16) Side-step ladder. A side-step lad-
fastened in full length or in sections to der is one from which a man getting off
a building, structure, or equipment. at the top must step sideways from the
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(5) Railings. A railing is any one or a ladder in order to reach the landing.
combination of those railings con- (f) As used in § 1910.28, unless the con-
structed in accordance with § 1910.23. A text requires otherwise, scaffolding

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§ 1910.21 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

terms shall have the meaning ascribed (13) Interior hung scaffold. A scaffold
in this paragraph. suspended from the ceiling or roof
(1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a structure.
scaffold upon which the platform rests (14) Ladder jack scaffold. A light duty
and which may be supported by ledg- scaffold supported by brackets at-
ers. tached to ladders.
(2) Boatswain’s chair. A seat sup- (15) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal
ported by slings attached to a sus- scaffold member which extends from
pended rope, designed to accommodate post to post and which supports the
one workman in a sitting position. putlogs or bearer forming a tie between
(3) Brace. A tie that holds one scaf- the posts.
(16) Light duty scaffold. A scaffold de-
fold member in a fixed position with
signed and constructed to carry a
respect to another member.
working load not to exceed 25 pounds
(4) Bricklayers’ square scaffold. A scaf- per square foot.
fold composed of framed wood squares (17) Manually propelled mobile scaffold.
which support a platform limited to A portable rolling scaffold supported
light and medium duty. by casters.
(5) Carpenters’ bracket scaffold. A scaf- (18) Masons’ adjustable multiple-point
fold consisting of wood or metal brack- suspension scaffold. A scaffold having a
ets supporting a platform. continuous platform supported by bear-
(6) Coupler. A device for locking to- ers suspended by wire rope from over-
gether the component parts of a tubu- head supports, so arranged and oper-
lar metal scaffold. The material used ated as to permit the raising or low-
for the couplers shall be of a structural ering of the platform to desired work-
type, such as a drop-forged steel, mal- ing positions.
leable iron, or structural grade alu- (19) Maximum intended load. The total
minum. The use of gray cast iron is of all loads including the working load,
prohibited. the weight of the scaffold, and such
(7) Crawling board or chicken ladder. A other loads as may be reasonably an-
plank with cleats spaced and secured at ticipated.
equal intervals, for use by a worker on (20) Medium duty scaffold. A scaffold
roofs, not designed to carry any mate- designed and constructed to carry a
rial. working load not to exceed 50 pounds
(8) Double pole or independent pole per square foot.
scaffold. A scaffold supported from the (21) Mid-rail. A rail approximately
base by a double row of uprights, inde- midway between the guardrail and
pendent of support from the walls and platform, used when required, and se-
constructed of uprights, ledgers, hori- cured to the uprights erected along the
zontal platform bearers, and diagonal exposed sides and ends of platforms.
bracing. (22) Needle beam scaffold. A light duty
scaffold consisting of needle beams
(9) Float or ship scaffold. A scaffold
supporting a platform.
hung from overhead supports by means
(23) Outrigger scaffold. A scaffold sup-
of ropes and consisting of a substantial
ported by outriggers or thrustouts pro-
platform having diagonal bracing un- jecting beyond the wall or face of the
derneath, resting upon and securely building or structure, the inboard ends
fastened to two parallel plank bearers of which are secured inside of such a
at right angles to the span. building or structure.
(10) Guardrail. A rail secured to (24) Putlog. A scaffold member upon
uprights and erected along the exposed which the platform rests.
sides and ends of platforms. (25) Roofing bracket. A bracket used in
(11) Heavy duty scaffold. A scaffold de- sloped roof construction, having provi-
signed and constructed to carry a sions for fastening to the roof or sup-
working load not to exceed 75 pounds ported by ropes fastened over the ridge
per square foot. and secured to some suitable object.
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(12) Horse scaffold. A scaffold for light (26) Runner. The lengthwise hori-
or medium duty, composed of horses zontal bracing or bearing members or
supporting a work platform. both.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.21

(27) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated (g) As used in § 1910.29, unless the con-
platform and its supporting structure text requires otherwise, manually pro-
used for supporting workmen or mate- pelled mobile ladder stand and scaffold
rials or both. (tower) terms shall have the meaning
(28) Single-point adjustable suspension ascribed in this paragraph.
scaffold. A manually or power-operated (1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a
unit designed for light duty use, sup- scaffold upon which the platform rests
ported by a single wire rope from an and which may be supported by ledg-
overhead support so arranged and oper- ers.
ated as to permit the raising or low- (2) Brace. A tie that holds one scaf-
ering of the platform to desired work- fold member in a fixed position with
ing positions. respect to another member.
(29) Single pole scaffold. Platforms (3) Climbing ladder. A separate ladder
resting on putlogs or crossbeams, the with equally spaced rungs usually at-
outside ends of which are supported on tached to the scaffold structure for
ledgers secured to a single row of posts climbing and descending.
or uprights and the inner ends of which (4) Coupler. A device for locking to-
are supported on or in a wall. gether the components of a tubular
(30) Stone setters’ adjustable multiple- metal scaffold which shall be designed
point suspension scaffold. A swinging- and used to safely support the max-
type scaffold having a platform sup- imum intended loads.
ported by hangers suspended at four (5) Design working load. The max-
points so as to permit the raising or imum intended load, being the total of
lowering of the platform to the desired all loads including the weight of the
working position by the use of hoisting men, materials, equipment, and plat-
machines. form.
(31) Toeboard. A barrier secured along (6) Equivalent. Alternative design or
the sides and ends of a platform, to features, which will provide an equal
guard against the falling of material. degree or factor of safety.
(32) Tube and coupler scaffold. An as- (7) Guardrail. A barrier secured to
sembly consisting of tubing which uprights and erected along the exposed
serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, sides and ends of platforms to prevent
and runners, a base supporting the falls of persons.
posts, and special couplers which serve (8) Handrail. A rail connected to a
to connect the uprights and to join the ladder stand running parallel to the
various members. slope and/or top step.
(33) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A (9) Ladder stand. A mobile fixed size
sectional, panel, or frame metal scaf- self-supporting ladder consisting of a
fold substantially built up of prefab- wide flat tread ladder in the form of
ricated welded sections which consist stairs. The assembly may include hand-
of posts and horizontal bearer with in- rails.
termediate members. Panels or frames (10) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal
shall be braced with diagonal or cross scaffold member which extends from
braces. post to post and which supports the
(34) Two-point suspension scaffold bearer forming a tie between the posts.
(swinging scaffold). A scaffold, the plat- (11) Mobile scaffold (tower). A light,
form of which is supported by hangers medium, or heavy duty scaffold mount-
(stirrups) at two points, suspended ed on casters or wheels.
from overhead supports so as to permit (12) Mobile. ‘‘Manually propelled.’’
the raising or lowering of the platform (13) Mobile work platform. Generally a
to the desired working position by fixed work level one frame high on
tackle or hoisting machines. casters or wheels, with bracing diago-
(35) Window jack scaffold. A scaffold, nally from platform to vertical frame.
the platform of which is supported by a (14) Runner. The lengthwise hori-
bracket or jack which projects through zontal bracing and/or bearing members.
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a window opening. (15) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated


(36) Working load. Load imposed by platform and its necessary vertical, di-
men, materials, and equipment. agonal, and horizontal members used

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§ 1910.22 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

for supporting workmen and materials. (3) To facilitate cleaning, every floor,
(Also known as a scaffold tower.) working place, and passageway shall be
(16) Toeboard. A barrier at platform kept free from protruding nails, splin-
level erected along the exposed sides ters, holes, or loose boards.
and ends of a scaffold platform to pre- (b) Aisles and passageways. (1) Where
vent falls of materials. mechanical handling equipment is
(17) Tube and coupler scaffold. An as- used, sufficient safe clearances shall be
sembly consisting of tubing which allowed for aisles, at loading docks,
serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, through doorways and wherever turns
and runners, a base supporting the or passage must be made. Aisles and
posts, and uprights, and serves to join passageways shall be kept clear and in
the various members, usually used in good repairs, with no obstruction
fixed locations. across or in aisles that could create a
(18) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A hazard.
sectional, panel, or frame metal scaf- (2) Permanent aisles and passageways
fold substantially built up of prefab- shall be appropriately marked.
ricated welded sections, which consist (c) Covers and guardrails. Covers and/
of posts and bearers with intermediate or guardrails shall be provided to pro-
connecting members and braced with tect personnel from the hazards of open
diagonal or cross braces. pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.
(d) Floor loading protection. (1) In
(19) Tubular welded sectional folding
every building or other structure, or
scaffold. A sectional, folding metal
part thereof, used for mercantile, busi-
scaffold either of ladder frame or inside
ness, industrial, or storage purposes,
stairway design, substantially built of
the loads approved by the building offi-
prefabricated welded sections, which
cial shall be marked on plates of ap-
consist of end frames, platform frame,
proved design which shall be supplied
inside inclined stairway frame and
and securely affixed by the owner of
braces, or hinged connected diagonal
the building, or his duly authorized
and horizontal braces, capable of being
agent, in a conspicuous place in each
folded into a flat package when the
space to which they relate. Such plates
scaffold is not in use.
shall not be removed or defaced but, if
(20) Work level. The elevated plat-
lost, removed, or defaced, shall be re-
form, used for supporting workmen and
placed by the owner or his agent.
their materials, comprising the nec-
(2) It shall be unlawful to place, or
essary vertical, horizontal, and diago-
cause, or permit to be placed, on any
nal braces, guardrails, and ladder for
floor or roof of a building or other
access to the work platform.
structure a load greater than that for
§ 1910.22 General requirements. which such floor or roof is approved by
the building official.
This section applies to all permanent
places of employment, except where § 1910.23 Guarding floor and wall
domestic, mining, or agricultural work openings and holes.
only is performed. Measures for the (a) Protection for floor openings. (1)
control of toxic materials are consid- Every stairway floor opening shall be
ered to be outside the scope of this sec- guarded by a standard railing con-
tion. structed in accordance with paragraph
(a) Housekeeping. (1) All places of em- (e) of this section. The railing shall be
ployment, passageways, storerooms, provided on all exposed sides (except at
and service rooms shall be kept clean entrance to stairway). For infrequently
and orderly and in a sanitary condi- used stairways where traffic across the
tion. opening prevents the use of fixed stand-
(2) The floor of every workroom shall ard railing (as when located in aisle
be maintained in a clean and, so far as spaces, etc.), the guard shall consist of
possible, a dry condition. Where wet a hinged floor opening cover of stand-
processes are used, drainage shall be ard strength and construction and re-
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

maintained, and false floors, platforms, movable standard railings on all ex-
mats, or other dry standing places posed sides (except at entrance to
should be provided where practicable. stairway).

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.23

(2) Every ladderway floor opening or (8) Every floor hole into which per-
platform shall be guarded by a stand- sons can accidentally walk shall be
ard railing with standard toeboard on guarded by either:
all exposed sides (except at entrance to (i) A standard railing with standard
opening), with the passage through the toeboard on all exposed sides, or
railing either provided with a swinging (ii) A floor hole cover of standard
gate or so offset that a person cannot strength and construction. While the
walk directly into the opening. cover is not in place, the floor hole
(3) Every hatchway and chute floor shall be constantly attended by some-
opening shall be guarded by one of the one or shall be protected by a remov-
following: able standard railing.
(i) Hinged floor opening cover of (9) Every floor hole into which per-
standard strength and construction sons cannot accidentally walk (on ac-
equipped with standard railings or per- count of fixed machinery, equipment,
manently attached thereto so as to or walls) shall be protected by a cover
leave only one exposed side. When the that leaves no openings more than 1
opening is not in use, the cover shall be inch wide. The cover shall be securely
closed or the exposed side shall be held in place to prevent tools or mate-
guarded at both top and intermediate rials from falling through.
positions by removable standard rail- (10) Where doors or gates open di-
ings. rectly on a stairway, a platform shall
(ii) A removable railing with be provided, and the swing of the door
toeboard on not more than two sides of shall not reduce the effective width to
the opening and fixed standard railings less than 20 inches.
with toeboards on all other exposed (b) Protection for wall openings and
sides. The removable railings shall be holes. (1) Every wall opening from
kept in place when the opening is not which there is a drop of more than 4
in use. feet shall be guarded by one of the fol-
lowing:
Where operating conditions necessitate (i) Rail, roller, picket fence, half
the feeding of material into any hatch- door, or equivalent barrier. Where
way or chute opening, protection shall there is exposure below to falling ma-
be provided to prevent a person from terials, a removable toe board or the
falling through the opening. equivalent shall also be provided. When
(4) Every skylight floor opening and the opening is not in use for handling
hole shall be guarded by a standard materials, the guard shall be kept in
skylight screen or a fixed standard position regardless of a door on the
railing on all exposed sides. opening. In addition, a grab handle
(5) Every pit and trapdoor floor open- shall be provided on each side of the
ing, infrequently used, shall be guarded opening with its center approximately
by a floor opening cover of standard 4 feet above floor level and of standard
strength and construction. While the strength and mounting.
cover is not in place, the pit or trap (ii) Extension platform onto which
opening shall be constantly attended materials can be hoisted for handling,
by someone or shall be protected on all and which shall have side rails or
exposed sides by removable standard equivalent guards of standard speci-
railings. fications.
(6) Every manhole floor opening shall (2) Every chute wall opening from
be guarded by a standard manhole which there is a drop of more than 4
cover which need not be hinged in feet shall be guarded by one or more of
place. While the cover is not in place, the barriers specified in paragraph
the manhole opening shall be con- (b)(1) of this section or as required by
stantly attended by someone or shall the conditions.
be protected by removable standard (3) Every window wall opening at a
railings. stairway landing, floor, platform, or
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

(7) Every temporary floor opening balcony, from which there is a drop of
shall have standard railings, or shall be more than 4 feet, and where the bottom
constantly attended by someone. of the opening is less than 3 feet above

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§ 1910.23 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

the platform or landing, shall be guard- (3) Regardless of height, open-sided


ed by standard slats, standard grill floors, walkways, platforms, or run-
work (as specified in paragraph (e)(11) ways above or adjacent to dangerous
of this section), or standard railing. equipment, pickling or galvanizing
Where the window opening is below the tanks, degreasing units, and similar
landing, or platform, a standard toe hazards shall be guarded with a stand-
board shall be provided. ard railing and toe board.
(4) Every temporary wall opening (d) Stairway railings and guards. (1)
shall have adequate guards but these Every flight of stairs having four or
need not be of standard construction. more risers shall be equipped with
(5) Where there is a hazard of mate- standard stair railings or standard
rials falling through a wall hole, and handrails as specified in paragraphs
the lower edge of the near side of the (d)(1) (i) through (v) of this section, the
hole is less than 4 inches above the width of the stair to be measured clear
floor, and the far side of the hole more of all obstructions except handrails:
than 5 feet above the next lower level, (i) On stairways less than 44 inches
the hole shall be protected by a stand- wide having both sides enclosed, at
ard toeboard, or an enclosing screen ei- least one handrail, preferably on the
ther of solid construction, or as speci- right side descending.
fied in paragraph (e)(11) of this section. (ii) On stairways less than 44 inches
wide having one side open, at least one
(c) Protection of open-sided floors, plat-
stair railing on open side.
forms, and runways. (1) Every open-
(iii) On stairways less than 44 inches
sided floor or platform 4 feet or more
wide having both sides open, one stair
above adjacent floor or ground level
railing on each side.
shall be guarded by a standard railing
(iv) On stairways more than 44 inches
(or the equivalent as specified in para-
wide but less than 88 inches wide, one
graph (e)(3) of this section) on all open
handrail on each enclosed side and one
sides except where there is entrance to
stair railing on each open side.
a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The
(v) On stairways 88 or more inches
railing shall be provided with a
wide, one handrail on each enclosed
toeboard wherever, beneath the open side, one stair railing on each open
sides, side, and one intermediate stair railing
(i) Persons can pass, located approximately midway of the
(ii) There is moving machinery, or width.
(iii) There is equipment with which (2) Winding stairs shall be equipped
falling materials could create a hazard. with a handrail offset to prevent walk-
(2) Every runway shall be guarded by ing on all portions of the treads having
a standard railing (or the equivalent as width less than 6 inches.
specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this sec- (e) Railing, toe boards, and cover speci-
tion) on all open sides 4 feet or more fications. (1) A standard railing shall
above floor or ground level. Wherever consist of top rail, intermediate rail,
tools, machine parts, or materials are and posts, and shall have a vertical
likely to be used on the runway, a height of 42 inches nominal from upper
toeboard shall also be provided on each surface of top rail to floor, platform,
exposed side. Runways used exclusively runway, or ramp level. The top rail
for special purposes (such as oiling, shall be smooth-surfaced throughout
shafting, or filling tank cars) may have the length of the railing. The inter-
the railing on one side omitted where mediate rail shall be approximately
operating conditions necessitate such halfway between the top rail and the
omission, providing the falling hazard floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The
is minimized by using a runway of not ends of the rails shall not overhang the
less than 18 inches wide. Where persons terminal posts except where such over-
entering upon runways become thereby hang does not constitute a projection
exposed to machinery, electrical equip- hazard.
ment, or other danger not a falling haz- (2) A stair railing shall be of con-
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

ard, additional guarding than is here struction similar to a standard railing


specified may be essential for protec- but the vertical height shall be not
tion. more than 34 inches nor less than 30

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.23

inches from upper surface of top rail to (5)(i) A handrail shall consist of a
surface of tread in line with face of lengthwise member mounted directly
riser at forward edge of tread. on a wall or partition by means of
(3) [Reserved] brackets attached to the lower side of
(i) For wood railings, the posts shall the handrail so as to offer no obstruc-
be of at least 2-inch by 4-inch stock tion to a smooth surface along the top
spaced not to exceed 6 feet; the top and and both sides of the handrail. The
intermediate rails shall be of at least 2- handrail shall be of rounded or other
inch by 4-inch stock. If top rail is made section that will furnish an adequate
of two right-angle pieces of 1-inch by 4- handhold for anyone grasping it to
inch stock, posts may be spaced on 8- avoid falling. The ends of the handrail
foot centers, with 2-inch by 4-inch in- should be turned in to the supporting
termediate rail. wall or otherwise arranged so as not to
(ii) For pipe railings, posts and top constitute a projection hazard.
and intermediate railings shall be at (ii) The height of handrails shall be
least 11⁄2 inches nominal diameter with not more than 34 inches nor less than
posts spaced not more than 8 feet on 30 inches from upper surface of hand-
centers. rail to surface of tread in line with face
(iii) For structural steel railings, of riser or to surface of ramp.
posts and top and intermediate rails (iii) The size of handrails shall be:
shall be of 2-inch by 2-inch by 3⁄8-inch When of hardwood, at least 2 inches in
angles or other metal shapes of equiva- diameter; when of metal pipe, at least
lent bending strength with posts 11⁄2 inches in diameter. The length of
spaced not more than 8 feet on centers. brackets shall be such as will give a
(iv) The anchoring of posts and fram- clearance between handrail and wall or
ing of members for railings of all types any projection thereon of at least 3
shall be of such construction that the inches. The spacing of brackets shall
completed structure shall be capable of not exceed 8 feet.
withstanding a load of at least 200 (iv) The mounting of handrails shall
pounds applied in any direction at any be such that the completed structure is
point on the top rail. capable of withstanding a load of at
(v) Other types, sizes, and arrange- least 200 pounds applied in any direc-
ments of railing construction are ac- tion at any point on the rail.
ceptable provided they meet the fol- (6) All handrails and railings shall be
lowing conditions: provided with a clearance of not less
(a) A smooth-surfaced top rail at a than 3 inches between the handrail or
height above floor, platform, runway, railing and any other object.
or ramp level of 42 inches nominal; (7) Floor opening covers may be of
(b) A strength to withstand at least any material that meets the following
the minimum requirement of 200 strength requirements:
pounds top rail pressure; (i) Trench or conduit covers and their
(c) Protection between top rail and supports, when located in plant road-
floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair ways, shall be designed to carry a
treads, equivalent at least to that af- truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000
forded by a standard intermediate rail; pounds.
(4) A standard toeboard shall be 4 (ii) Manhole covers and their sup-
inches nominal in vertical height from ports, when located in plant roadways,
its top edge to the level of the floor, shall comply with local standard high-
platform, runway, or ramp. It shall be way requirements if any; otherwise,
securely fastened in place and with not they shall be designed to carry a truck
more than 1⁄4-inch clearance above rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds.
floor level. It may be made of any sub- (iii) The construction of floor open-
stantial material either solid or with ing covers may be of any material that
openings not over 1 inch in greatest di- meets the strength requirements. Cov-
mension. Where material is piled to ers projecting not more than 1 inch
such height that a standard toeboard above the floor level may be used pro-
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

does not provide protection, paneling viding all edges are chamfered to an
from floor to intermediate rail, or to angle with the horizontal of not over 30
top rail shall be provided. degrees. All hinges, handles, bolts, or

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§ 1910.24 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

other parts shall set flush with the for fire exit purposes, to construction
floor or cover surface. operations to private residences, or to
(8) Skylight screens shall be of such articulated stairs, such as may be in-
construction and mounting that they stalled on floating roof tanks or on
are capable of withstanding a load of at dock facilities, the angle of which
least 200 pounds applied perpendicu- changes with the rise and fall of the
larly at any one area on the screen. base support.
They shall also be of such construction (b) Where fixed stairs are required.
and mounting that under ordinary
Fixed stairs shall be provided for ac-
loads or impacts, they will not deflect
downward sufficiently to break the cess from one structure level to an-
glass below them. The construction other where operations necessitate reg-
shall be of grillwork with openings not ular travel between levels, and for ac-
more than 4 inches long or of slatwork cess to operating platforms at any
with openings not more than 2 inches equipment which requires attention
wide with length unrestricted. routinely during operations. Fixed
(9) Wall opening barriers (rails, roll- stairs shall also be provided where ac-
ers, picket fences, and half doors) shall cess to elevations is daily or at each
be of such construction and mounting shift for such purposes as gauging, in-
that, when in place at the opening, the spection, regular maintenance, etc.,
barrier is capable of withstanding a where such work may expose employ-
load of at least 200 pounds applied in ees to acids, caustics, gases, or other
any direction (except upward) at any harmful substances, or for which pur-
point on the top rail or corresponding poses the carrying of tools or equip-
member. ment by hand is normally required. (It
(10) Wall opening grab handles shall is not the intent of this section to pre-
be not less than 12 inches in length and clude the use of fixed ladders for access
shall be so mounted as to give 3 inches to elevated tanks, towers, and similar
clearance from the side framing of the
structures, overhead traveling cranes,
wall opening. The size, material, and
etc., where the use of fixed ladders is
anchoring of the grab handle shall be
such that the completed structure is common practice.) Spiral stairways
capable of withstanding a load of at shall not be permitted except for spe-
least 200 pounds applied in any direc- cial limited usage and secondary access
tion at any point of the handle. situations where it is not practical to
(11) Wall opening screens shall be of provide a conventional stairway. Wind-
such construction and mounting that ing stairways may be installed on
they are capable of withstanding a load tanks and similar round structures
of at least 200 pounds applied hori- where the diameter of the structure is
zontally at any point on the near side not less than five (5) feet.
of the screen. They may be of solid con- (c) Stair strength. Fixed stairways
struction, of grillwork with openings shall be designed and constructed to
not more than 8 inches long, or of carry a load of five times the normal
slatwork with openings not more than live load anticipated but never of less
4 inches wide with length unrestricted. strength than to carry safely a moving
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 concentrated load of 1,000 pounds.
FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, (d) Stair width. Fixed stairways shall
1984] have a minimum width of 22 inches.
(e) Angle of stairway rise. Fixed stairs
§ 1910.24 Fixed industrial stairs.
shall be installed at angles to the hori-
(a) Application of requirements. This zontal of between 30° and 50°. Any uni-
section contains specifications for the form combination of rise/tread dimen-
safe design and construction of fixed sions may be used that will result in a
general industrial stairs. This classi- stairway at an angle to the horizontal
fication includes interior and exterior
within the permissible range. Table D–
stairs around machinery, tanks, and
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

1 gives rise/tread dimensions which will


other equipment, and stairs leading to
or from floors, platforms, or pits. This produce a stairway within the permis-
section does not apply to stairs used sible range, stating the angle to the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.25

horizontal produced by each combina- and establish minimum requirements


tion. However, the rise/tread combina- for the construction, care, and use of
tions are not limited to those given in the common types of portable wood
Table D–1. ladders, in order to insure safety under
normal conditions of usage. Other
TABLE D–1 types of special ladders, fruitpicker’s
Tread ladders, combination step and exten-
Rise (in
Angle to horizontal inches) run (in sion ladders, stockroom step ladders,
inches)
aisle-way step ladders, shelf ladders,
30°35′ .................................................... 61⁄2 11 and library ladders are not specifically
32°08′ .................................................... 63⁄4 103⁄4 covered by this section.
33°41′ .................................................... 7 101⁄2
35°16′ .................................................... 71⁄4 101⁄4
(b) Materials—(1) Requirements appli-
36°52′ .................................................... 7 ⁄2
1 10 cable to all wood parts. (i) All wood
38°29′ .................................................... 73⁄4 93⁄4 parts shall be free from sharp edges and
40°08′ .................................................... 8 91⁄2
41°44′ .................................................... 81⁄4 91⁄4
splinters; sound and free from accepted
43°22′ .................................................... 81⁄2 9 visual inspection from shake, wane,
45°00′ .................................................... 83⁄4 83⁄4 compression failures, decay, or other
46°38′ .................................................... 9 8 ⁄2
1

48°16′ .................................................... 91⁄4 81⁄4


irregularities. Low density wood shall
49°54′ .................................................... 91⁄2 8 not be used.
(ii) [Reserved]
(f) Stair treads. All treads shall be rea- (2) [Reserved]
sonably slip-resistant and the nosings (c) Construction requirements. (1) [Re-
shall be of nonslip finish. Welded bar served]
grating treads without nosings are ac- (2) Portable stepladders. Stepladders
ceptable providing the leading edge can longer than 20 feet shall not be sup-
be readily identified by personnel de- plied. Stepladders as hereinafter speci-
scending the stairway and provided the fied shall be of three types:
tread is serrated or is of definite non- Type I—Industrial stepladder, 3 to 20 feet for
slip design. Rise height and tread width heavy duty, such as utilities, contractors,
shall be uniform throughout any flight and industrial use.
of stairs including any foundation Type II—Commercial stepladder, 3 to 12 feet
structure used as one or more treads of for medium duty, such as painters, offices,
the stairs. and light industrial use.
(g) Stairway platforms. Stairway plat- Type III—Household stepladder, 3 to 6 feet
forms shall be no less than the width of for light duty, such as light household use.
a stairway and a minimum of 30 inches (i) General requirements. (a) [Reserved]
in length measured in the direction of (b) A uniform step spacing shall be
travel. employed which shall be not more than
(h) Railings and handrails. Standard 12 inches. Steps shall be parallel and
railings shall be provided on the open level when the ladder is in position for
sides of all exposed stairways and stair use.
platforms. Handrails shall be provided (c) The minimum width between side
on at least one side of closed stairways rails at the top, inside to inside, shall
preferably on the right side descending. be not less than 111⁄2 inches. From top
Stair railings and handrails shall be in- to bottom, the side rails shall spread at
stalled in accordance with the provi- least 1 inch for each foot of length of
sions of § 1910.23. stepladder.
(i) Vertical clearance. Vertical clear- (d)–(e) [Reserved]
ance above any stair tread to an over- (f) A metal spreader or locking device
head obstruction shall be at least 7 feet of sufficient size and strength to se-
measured from the leading edge of the curely hold the front and back sections
tread. in open positions shall be a component
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 of each stepladder. The spreader shall
FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, have all sharp points covered or re-
1984] moved to protect the user. For Type III
ladder, the pail shelf and spreader may
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

§ 1910.25 Portable wood ladders. be combined in one unit (the so-called


(a) Application of requirements. This shelf-lock ladder).
section is intended to prescribe rules (3) Portable rung ladders.

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§ 1910.25 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

(i) [Reserved] (iv) Safety feet and other auxiliary


(ii) Single ladder. (a) Single ladders equipment shall be kept in good condi-
longer than 30 feet shall not be sup- tion to insure proper performance.
plied. (v)–(ix) [Reserved]
(b) [Reserved] (x) Ladders shall be inspected fre-
(iii) Two-section ladder. (a) Two-sec- quently and those which have devel-
tion extension ladders longer than 60 oped defects shall be withdrawn from
feet shall not be supplied. All ladders of service for repair or destruction and
this type shall consist of two sections, tagged or marked as ‘‘Dangerous, Do
one to fit within the side rails of the Not Use.’’
other, and arranged in such a manner (xi) Rungs should be kept free of
that the upper section can be raised grease and oil.
and lowered. (2) Use. The following safety pre-
(b) [Reserved] cautions shall be observed in connec-
(iv) Sectional ladder. (a) Assembled tion with the use of ladders:
combinations of sectional ladders (i) Portable rung and cleat ladders
longer than lengths specified in this shall, where possible, be used at such a
subdivision shall not be used. pitch that the horizontal distance from
(b) [Reserved] the top support to the foot of the lad-
(v) Trestle and extension trestle ladder. der is one-quarter of the working
(a) Trestle ladders, or extension sec- length of the ladder (the length along
tions or base sections of extension tres- the ladder between the foot and the top
tle ladders longer than 20 feet shall not support). The ladder shall be so placed
be supplied. as to prevent slipping, or it shall be
(b) [Reserved] lashed, or held in position. Ladders
(4) Special-purpose ladders. shall not be used in a horizontal posi-
(i) [Reserved] tion as platforms, runways, or scaf-
(ii) Painter’s stepladder. (a) Painter’s folds;
stepladders longer than 12 feet shall (ii) Ladders for which dimensions are
not be supplied. specified should not be used by more
(b) [Reserved] than one man at a time nor with ladder
(iii) Mason’s ladder. A mason’s ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by
is a special type of single ladder in- more than one man is anticipated. In
tended for use in heavy construction such cases, specially designed ladders
work. with larger dimensions of the parts
(a) Mason’s ladders longer than 40 should be procured;
feet shall not be supplied. (iii) Portable ladders shall be so
(b) [Reserved] placed that the side rails have a secure
(5) Trolley and side-rolling ladders—(i) footing. The top rest for portable rung
Length. Trolley ladders and side-rolling and cleat ladders shall be reasonably
ladders longer than 20 feet should not rigid and shall have ample strength to
be supplied. support the applied load;
(ii) [Reserved] (iv) Ladders shall not be placed in
(d) Care and use of ladders—(1) Care. front of doors opening toward the lad-
To insure safety and serviceability the der unless the door is blocked upon,
following precautions on the care of locked, or guarded;
ladders shall be observed: (v) Ladders shall not be placed on
(i) Ladders shall be maintained in boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases
good condition at all times, the joint to obtain additional height;
between the steps and side rails shall (vi)–(vii) [Reserved]
be tight, all hardware and fittings se- (viii) Ladders with broken or missing
curely attached, and the movable parts steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side
shall operate freely without binding or rails, or other faulty equipment shall
undue play. not be used; improvised repairs shall
(ii) Metal bearings of locks, wheels, not be made;
pulleys, etc., shall be frequently lubri- (ix) Short ladders shall not be spliced
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

cated. together to provide long sections;


(iii) Frayed or badly worn rope shall (x) Ladders made by fastening cleats
be replaced. across a single rail shall not be used;

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.26

(xi) Ladders shall not be used as corrosion unless inherently corrosion-


guys, braces, or skids, or for other than resistant.
their intended purposes; (i)–(ii) [Reserved]
(xii) Tops of the ordinary types of (iii) The spacing of rungs or steps
stepladders shall not be used as steps; shall be on 12-inch centers.
(xiii) On two-section extension lad- (iv) [Reserved]
ders the minimum overlap for the two (v) Rungs and steps shall be cor-
sections in use shall be as follows: rugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with
skid-resistant material, or otherwise
Overlap treated to minimize the possibility of
Size of ladder (feet) (feet)
slipping.
Up to and including 36 ........................................ 3 (2) General specifications—straight and
Over 36 up to and including 48 ........................... 4 extension ladders. (i) The minimum
Over 48 up to and including 60 ........................... 5
width between side rails of a straight
ladder or any section of an extension
(xiv) Portable rung ladders with rein-
ladder shall be 12 inches.
forced rails (see paragraphs (c)(3) (ii)(c)
(ii) The length of single ladders or in-
and (iii)(d) this section) shall be used
dividual sections of ladders shall not
only with the metal reinforcement on
exceed 30 feet. Two-section ladders
the under side;
shall not exceed 48 feet in length and
(xv) No ladder should be used to gain
over two-section ladders shall not ex-
access to a roof unless the top of the
ceed 60 feet in length.
ladder shall extend at least 3 feet above (iii) Based on the nominal length of
the point of support, at eave, gutter, or the ladder, each section of a multisec-
roofline; tion ladder shall overlap the adjacent
(xvi) [Reserved] section by at least the number of feet
(xvii) Middle and top sections of sec- stated in the following:
tional or window cleaner’s ladders
should not be used for bottom section Normal length of ladder (feet) Overlap
(feet)
unless the user equips them with safety
shoes; Up to and including 36 ........................................ 3
(xviii) [Reserved] Over 36, up to and including 48 .......................... 4
Over 48, up to 60 ................................................ 5
(xix) The user should equip all port-
able rung ladders with nonslip bases
(iv) Extension ladders shall be
when there is a hazard of slipping. Non-
equipped with positive stops which will
slip bases are not intended as a sub-
insure the overlap specified in the
stitute for care in safely placing, lash-
table above.
ing, or holding a ladder that is being
(3) General specifications—step ladders.
used upon oily, metal, concrete, or slip-
(i)–(ii) [Reserved]
pery surfaces;
(iii) The length of a stepladder is
(xx) The bracing on the back legs of measured by the length of the front
step ladders is designed solely for in- rail. To be classified as a standard
creasing stability and not for climbing. length ladder, the measured length
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 shall be within plus or minus one-half
FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, inch of the specified length. Step-
1984] ladders shall not exceed 20 feet in
length.
§ 1910.26 Portable metal ladders. (iv)–(vi) [Reserved]
(a) Requirements—(1) General. Specific (vii) The bottoms of the four rails are
design and construction requirements to be supplied with insulating nonslip
are not part of this section because of material for the safety of the user.
the wide variety of metals and design (viii) A metal spreader or locking de-
possibilities. However, the design shall vice of sufficient size and strength to
be such as to produce a ladder without securely hold the front and back sec-
structural defects or accident hazards tions in the open position shall be a
such as sharp edges, burrs, etc. The component of each stepladder. The
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metal selected shall be of sufficient spreader shall have all sharp points or
strength to meet the test require- edges covered or removed to protect
ments, and shall be protected against the user.

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§ 1910.27 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

(4) General specifications—trestles and (iv) The top of the ladder must be
extension trestle ladders. (i) Trestle lad- placed with the two rails supported,
ders or extension sections or base sec- unless equipped with a single support
tions of extension trestle ladders shall attachment.
be not more than 20 feet in length. (v) When ascending or descending,
(ii) [Reserved] the climber must face the ladder.
(5) General specifications—platform lad- (vi) Ladders must not be tied or fas-
ders. (i) The length of a platform ladder tened together to provide longer sec-
shall not exceed 20 feet. The length of tions. They must be equipped with the
a platform ladder shall be measured hardware fittings necessary if the man-
along the front rail from the floor to ufacturer endorses extended uses.
the platform. (vii) Ladders should not be used as a
(ii) [Reserved] brace, skid, guy or gin pole, gangway,
(b) [Reserved] or for other uses than that for which
(c) Care and maintenance of ladders— they were intended, unless specifically
(1) General. To get maximum service- recommended for use by the manufac-
ability, safety, and to eliminate unnec- turer.
essary damage of equipment, good safe (viii) See § 1910.333(c) for work prac-
practices in the use and care of ladder tices to be used when work is per-
equipment must be employed by the formed on or near electric circuits.
users. [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
The following rules and regulations FR 49745, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
are essential to the life of the equip- 1984; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990]
ment and the safety of the user.
(2) Care of ladders. § 1910.27 Fixed ladders.
(i)–(iii) [Reserved] (a) Design requirements—(1) Design
(iv) Ladders must be maintained in considerations. All ladders, appur-
good usable condition at all times. tenances, and fastenings shall be de-
(v) [Reserved] signed to meet the following load re-
(vi) If a ladder is involved in any of quirements:
the following, immediate inspection is (i) The minimum design live load
necessary: shall be a single concentrated load of
(a) If ladders tip over, inspect ladder 200 pounds.
for side rails dents or bends, or exces- (ii) The number and position of addi-
sively dented rungs; check all rung-to- tional concentrated live-load units of
side-rail connections; check hardware 200 pounds each as determined from an-
connections; check rivets for shear. ticipated usage of the ladder shall be
(b)–(c) [Reserved] considered in the design.
(d) If ladders are exposed to oil and (iii) The live loads imposed by per-
grease, equipment should be cleaned of sons occupying the ladder shall be con-
oil, grease, or slippery materials. This sidered to be concentrated at such
can easily be done with a solvent or points as will cause the maximum
steam cleaning. stress in the structural member being
(vii) Ladders having defects are to be considered.
marked and taken out of service until (iv) The weight of the ladder and at-
repaired by either maintenance depart- tached appurtenances together with
ment or the manufacturer. the live load shall be considered in the
(3) Use of ladders. (i). A simple rule design of rails and fastenings.
for setting up a ladder at the proper (2) Design stresses. Design stresses for
angle is to place the base a distance wood components of ladders shall not
from the vertical wall equal to one- exceed those specified in § 1910.25. All
fourth the working length of the lad- wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet
der. the requirements of § 1910.25(b).
(ii) Portable ladders are designed as a For fixed ladders consisting of wood
one-man working ladder based on a 200- side rails and wood rungs or cleats,
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pound load. used at a pitch in the range 75 degrees


(iii) The ladder base section must be to 90 degrees, and intended for use by
placed with a secure footing. no more than one person per section,

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.27

single ladders as described in metals from electrolytic action when


§ 1910.25(c)(3)(ii) are acceptable. such metals are joined.
(b) Specific features—(1) Rungs and (6) Welding. All welding shall be in
cleats. (i) All rungs shall have a min- accordance with the ‘‘Code for Welding
imum diameter of three-fourths inch in Building Construction’’ (AWSD1.0–
for metal ladders, except as covered in 1966).
paragraph (b)(7)(i) of this section and a (7) Protection from deterioration. (i)
minimum diameter of 11⁄8 inches for Metal ladders and appurtenances shall
wood ladders. be painted or otherwise treated to re-
(ii) The distance between rungs, sist corrosion and rusting when loca-
cleats, and steps shall not exceed 12 tion demands. Ladders formed by indi-
inches and shall be uniform throughout vidual metal rungs imbedded in con-
the length of the ladder.
crete, which serve as access to pits and
(iii) The minimum clear length of to other areas under floors, are fre-
rungs or cleats shall be 16 inches.
quently located in an atmosphere that
(iv) Rungs, cleats, and steps shall be causes corrosion and rusting. To in-
free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or
crease rung life in such atmosphere, in-
projections which may be a hazard.
dividual metal rungs shall have a min-
(v) The rungs of an individual-rung
imum diameter of 1 inch or shall be
ladder shall be so designed that the
painted or otherwise treated to resist
foot cannot slide off the end. A sug-
gested design is shown in figure D–1. corrosion and rusting.
(ii) Wood ladders, when used under
conditions where decay may occur,
shall be treated with a nonirritating
preservative, and the details shall be
such as to prevent or minimize the ac-
cumulation of water on wood parts.
(iii) When different types of mate-
rials are used in the construction of a
ladder, the materials used shall be so
treated as to have no deleterious effect
one upon the other.

FIGURE D–1—SUGGESTED DESIGN FOR RUNGS


ON INDIVIDUAL-RUNG LADDERS.
(2) Side rails. Side rails which might
be used as a climbing aid shall be of
such cross sections as to afford ade-
quate gripping surface without sharp
edges, splinters, or burrs.
(3) Fastenings. Fastenings shall be an
integral part of fixed ladder design.
(4) Splices. All splices made by what-
ever means shall meet design require-
ments as noted in paragraph (a) of this
section. All splices and connections
shall have smooth transition with
original members and with no sharp or
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extensive projections.
(5) Electrolytic action. Adequate means
shall be employed to protect dissimilar

139
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§ 1910.27 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

(4) Clearance in back of ladder. The


distance from the centerline of rungs,
cleats, or steps to the nearest perma-
nent object in back of the ladder shall
be not less than 7 inches, except that
when unavoidable obstructions are en-
countered, minimum clearances as
shown in figure D–3 shall be provided.

MINIMUM LADDER CLEARANCES

FIGURE D–2—RAIL LADDER WITH BAR STEEL


RAILS AND ROUND STEEL RUNGS
(c) Clearance—(1) Climbing side. On
fixed ladders, the perpendicular dis-
tance from the centerline of the rungs
to the nearest permanent object on the FIGURE D–3—CLEARANCE FOR UNAVOIDABLE
climbing side of the ladder shall be 36 OBSTRUCTION AT REAR OF FIXED LADDER
inches for a pitch of 76 degrees, and 30 (5) Clearance in back of grab bar. The
inches for a pitch of 90 degrees (fig. D– distance from the centerline of the
2 of this section), with minimum clear- grab bar to the nearest permanent ob-
ances for intermediate pitches varying ject in back of the grab bars shall be
between these two limits in proportion not less than 4 inches. Grab bars shall
to the slope, except as provided in sub- not protrude on the climbing side be-
paragraphs (3) and (5) of this para- yond the rungs of the ladder which
graph. they serve.
(2) Ladders without cages or wells. A (6) Step-across distance. The step-
clear width of at least 15 inches shall across distance from the nearest edge
be provided each way from the center- of ladder to the nearest edge of equip-
line of the ladder in the climbing ment or structure shall be not more
space, except when cages or wells are than 12 inches, or less than 21⁄2 inches
necessary. (fig. D–4).
(3) Ladders with cages or baskets. Lad-
ders equipped with cage or basket are
excepted from the provisions of sub-
paragraphs (1) and (2) of this para-
graph, but shall conform to the provi-
sions of paragraph (d)(1)(v) of this sec-
tion. Fixed ladders in smooth-walled
wells are excepted from the provisions
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of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph,


but shall conform to the provisions of
paragraph (d)(1)(vi) of this section.
EC27OC91.003

140
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.27

FIGURE D–5—DEFLECTOR PLATES FOR HEAD


HAZARDS

FIGURE D–4—LADDER FAR FROM WALL


(7) Hatch cover. Counterweighted
hatch covers shall open a minimum of
60 degrees from the horizontal. The dis-
tance from the centerline of rungs or
cleats to the edge of the hatch opening
on the climbing side shall be not less FIGURE D–6—RELATIONSHIP OF FIXED LADDER
than 24 inches for offset wells or 30 TO A SAFE ACCESS HATCH
inches for straight wells. There shall be (iii) Cages shall extend a minimum of
not protruding potential hazards with- 42 inches above the top of landing, un-
in 24 inches of the centerline of rungs less other acceptable protection is pro-
or cleats; any such hazards within 30 vided.
inches of the centerline of the rungs or (iv) Cages shall extend down the lad-
cleats shall be fitted with deflector der to a point not less than 7 feet nor
plates placed at an angle of 60 degrees more than 8 feet above the base of the
from the horizontal as indicated in fig- ladder, with bottom flared not less
ure D–5. The relationship of a fixed lad- than 4 inches, or portion of cage oppo-
der to an acceptable counterweighted site ladder shall be carried to the base.
hatch cover is illustrated in figure D–6. (v) Cages shall not extend less than
(d) Special requirements—(1) Cages or 27 nor more than 28 inches from the
wells. (i) Cages or wells (except on centerline of the rungs of the ladder.
chimney ladders) shall be built, as Cage shall not be less than 27 inches in
shown on the applicable drawings, cov- width. The inside shall be clear of pro-
ered in detail in figures D–7, D–8, and jections. Vertical bars shall be located
D–9, or of equivalent construction. at a maximum spacing of 40 degrees
(ii) Cages or wells (except as provided around the circumference of the cage;
in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph) this will give a maximum spacing of
conforming to the dimensions shown in approximately 91⁄2 inches, center to
figures D–7, D–8, and D–9 shall be pro- center.
vided on ladders of more than 20 feet to (vi) Ladder wells shall have a clear
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EC27OC91.005 EC27OC91.006

a maximum unbroken length of 30 feet. width of at least 15 inches measured


each way from the centerline of the
ladder. Smooth-walled wells shall be a

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§ 1910.27 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

minimum of 27 inches from the center-


line of rungs to the well wall on the
climbing side of the ladder. Where
other obstructions on the climbing side
of the ladder exist, there shall be a
minimum of 30 inches from the center-
line of the rungs.

FIGURE D–7—CAGES FOR LADDERS MORE THAN


20 FEET HIGH
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FIGURE D–8—CLEARANCE DIAGRAM FOR FIXED LADDER IN WELL


EC27OC91.008

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.27

(3) Ladder extensions. The side rails of


through or side-step ladder extensions
shall extend 31⁄2 feet above parapets and
landings. For through ladder exten-
sions, the rungs shall be omitted from
the extension and shall have not less
than 18 nor more than 24 inches clear-
ance between rails. For side-step or off-
set fixed ladder sections, at landings,
the side rails and rungs shall be carried
to the next regular rung beyond or
above the 31⁄2 feet minimum (fig. D–10).

FIGURE D–9—CAGES—SPECIAL APPLICATIONS.


(2) Landing platforms. When ladders
are used to ascend to heights exceeding
20 feet (except on chimneys), landing
platforms shall be provided for each 30
feet of height or fraction thereof, ex-
cept that, where no cage, well, or lad-
der safety device is provided, landing
platforms shall be provided for each 20
feet of height or fraction thereof. Each
ladder section shall be offset from adja-
cent sections. Where installation con-
ditions (even for a short, unbroken
length) require that adjacent sections
be offset, landing platforms shall be
provided at each offset.
(i) Where a man has to step a dis-
tance greater than 12 inches from the
centerline of the rung of a ladder to the
nearest edge of structure or equipment,
a landing platform shall be provided. FIGURE D–10—OFFSET FIXED LADDER
The minimum step-across distance SECTIONS
shall be 21⁄2 inches. (4) Grab bars. Grab bars shall be
(ii) All landing platforms shall be spaced by a continuation of the rung
equipped with standard railings and spacing when they are located in the
toeboards, so arranged as to give safe horizontal position. Vertical grab bars
access to the ladder. Platforms shall be shall have the same spacing as the lad-
not less than 24 inches in width and 30 der side rails. Grab-bar diameters shall
inches in length. be the equivalent of the round-rung di-
(iii) One rung of any section of ladder ameters.
shall be located at the level of the (5) Ladder safety devices. Ladder safe-
landing laterally served by the ladder. ty devices may be used on tower, water
Where access to the landing is through tank, and chimney ladders over 20 feet
the ladder, the same rung spacing as in unbroken length in lieu of cage pro-
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used on the ladder shall be used from tection. No landing platform is re-
the landing platform to the first rung quired in these cases. All ladder safety
below the landing. devices such as those that incorporate
EC27OC91.010

143
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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding § 1910.28 Safety requirements for scaf-
attachments shall meet the design re- folding.
quirements of the ladders which they (a) General requirements for all scaf-
serve. folds. (1) Scaffolds shall be furnished
(e) Pitch—(1) Preferred pitch. The pre- and erected in accordance with this
ferred pitch of fixed ladders shall be standard for persons engaged in work
considered to come in the range of 75 that cannot be done safely from the
degrees and 90 degrees with the hori- ground or from solid construction, ex-
zontal (fig. D–11). cept that ladders used for such work
shall conform to §§ 1910.25 and 1910.26.
(2) The footing or anchorage for scaf-
folds shall be sound, rigid, and capable
of carrying the maximum intended
load without settling or displacement.
Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes,
loose brick, or concrete blocks shall
not be used to support scaffolds or
planks.
(3) [Reserved]
(4) Scaffolds and their components
shall be capable of supporting without
failure at least four times the max-
imum intended load.
(5) Scaffolds and other devices men-
tioned or described in this section shall
be maintained in safe condition. Scaf-
folds shall not be altered or moved
horizontally while they are in use or
occupied.
(6) Any scaffold damaged or weak-
ened from any cause shall be imme-
diately repaired and shall not be used
FIGURE D–11—PITCH OF FIXED LADDERS until repairs have been completed.
(2) Substandard pitch. Fixed ladders (7) Scaffolds shall not be loaded in
shall be considered as substandard if excess of the working load for which
they are installed within the sub- they are intended.
standard pitch range of 60 and 75 de- (8) All load-carrying timber members
grees with the horizontal. Substandard of scaffold framing shall be a minimum
fixed ladders are permitted only where of 1,500 f. (Stress Grade) construction
it is found necessary to meet condi- grade lumber. All dimensions are nomi-
tions of installation. This substandard nal sizes as provided in the American
pitch range shall be considered as a Lumber Standards, except that where
critical range to be avoided, if possible. rough sizes are noted, only rough or
(3) Scope of coverage in this section. undressed lumber of the size specified
will satisfy minimum requirements.
This section covers only fixed ladders
(NOTE: Where nominal sizes of lumber
within the pitch range of 60 degrees
are used in place of rough sizes, the
and 90 degrees with the horizontal.
nominal size lumber shall be such as to
(4) Pitch greater than 90 degrees. Lad- provide equivalent strength to that
ders having a pitch in excess of 90 de- specified in tables D–7 through D–12
grees with the horizontal are prohib- and D–16.)
ited. (9) All planking shall be Scaffold
(f) Maintenance. All ladders shall be Grade as recognized by grading rules
maintained in a safe condition. All lad- for the species of wood used. The max-
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ders shall be inspected regularly, with imum permissible spans for 2- × 9-inch
the intervals between inspections being or wider planks are shown in the fol-
determined by use and exposure. lowing table:

144
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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

Material involving the use of corrosive sub-


Nominal
stances or chemicals.
Full thickness un- (22) Wire or fiber rope used for scaf-
thickness
dressed lumber lumber fold suspension shall be capable of sup-
porting at least six times the intended
load.
Working load
(p.s.f.) ............... 25 50 75 25 50
(23) When acid solutions are used for
Permissible span cleaning buildings over 50 feet in
(ft.) ................... 10 8 6 8 9 height, wire rope supported scaffolds
shall be used.
The maximum permissible span for 11⁄4 (24) The use of shore scaffolds or
× 9-inch or wider plank of full thick- lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.
ness is 4 feet with medium loading of 50 (25) Lumber sizes, when used in this
p.s.f. section, refer to nominal sizes except
(10) Nails or bolts used in the con- where otherwise stated.
struction of scaffolds shall be of ade- (26) Scaffolds shall be secured to per-
quate size and in sufficient numbers at manent structures, through use of an-
each connection to develop the de- chor bolts, reveal bolts, or other equiv-
signed strength of the scaffold. Nails alent means. Window cleaners’ anchor
shall not be subjected to a straight pull bolts shall not be used.
and shall be driven full length. (27) Special precautions shall be
(11) All planking or platforms shall taken to protect scaffold members, in-
be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or cluding any wire or fiber ropes, when
secured from movement. using a heat-producing process.
(12) An access ladder or equivalent (b) General requirements for wood pole
safe access shall be provided. scaffolds. (1) Scaffold poles shall bear
(13) Scaffold planks shall extend over on a foundation of sufficient size and
their end supports not less than 6 strength to spread the load from the
inches nor more than 18 inches. poles over a sufficient area to prevent
settlement. All poles shall be set
(14) The poles, legs, or uprights of
plumb.
scaffolds shall be plumb, and securely
(2) Where wood poles are spliced, the
and rigidly braced to prevent swaying
ends shall be squared and the upper
and displacement.
section shall rest squarely on the lower
(15) Materials being hoisted onto a section. Wood splice plates shall be
scaffold shall have a tag line. provided on at least two adjacent sides
(16) Overhead protection shall be pro- and shall not be less than 4 feet 0
vided for men on a scaffold exposed to inches in length, overlapping the abut-
overhead hazards. ted ends equally, and have the same
(17) Scaffolds shall be provided with a width and not less than the cross-sec-
screen between the toeboard and the tional area of the pole. Splice plates of
guardrail, extending along the entire other materials of equivalent strength
opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. may be used.
Standard Wire one-half-inch mesh or (3) Independent pole scaffolds shall be
the equivalent, where persons are re- set as near to the wall of the building
quired to work or pass under the scaf- as practicable.
folds. (4) All pole scaffolds shall be securely
(18) Employees shall not work on guyed or tied to the building or struc-
scaffolds during storms or high winds. ture. Where the height or length ex-
(19) Employees shall not work on ceeds 25 feet, the scaffold shall be se-
scaffolds which are covered with ice or cured at intervals not greater than 25
snow, unless all ice or snow is removed feet vertically and horizontally.
and planking sanded to prevent slip- (5) Putlogs or bearers shall be set
ping. with their greater dimensions vertical,
(20) Tools, materials, and debris shall long enough to project over the ledgers
not be allowed to accumulate in quan- of the inner and outer rows of poles at
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tities to cause a hazard. least 3 inches for proper support.


(21) Only treated or protected fiber (6) Every wooden putlog on single
rope shall be used for or near any work pole scaffolds shall be reinforced with a

145

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)
3⁄16 × 2-inch steel strip or equivalent se- prevent tipping. The planks that meet
cured to its lower edge throughout its the corner putlog at an angle shall be
entire length. laid first, extending over the diago-
(7) Ledgers shall be long enough to nally placed putlog far enough to have
extend over two pole spaces. Ledgers a good safe bearing, but not far enough
shall not be spliced between the poles. to involve any danger from tipping.
Ledgers shall be reinforced by bearing The planking running in the opposite
blocks securely nailed to the side of direction at right angles shall be laid
the pole to form a support for the ledg- so as to extend over and rest on the
er. first layer of planking.
(8) Diagonal bracing shall be provided (14) When moving platforms to the
to prevent the poles from moving in a next level, the old platform shall be
direction parallel with the wall of the left undisturbed until the new putlogs
building, or from buckling. or bearers have been set in place, ready
(9) Cross bracing shall be provided be- to receive the platform planks.
tween the inner and outer sets of poles
(15) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4
in independent pole scaffolds. The free
inches or the equivalent and not less
ends of pole scaffolds shall be cross
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
braced.
(10) Full diagonal face bracing shall high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
be erected across the entire face of pole 1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
scaffolds in both directions. The braces toeboards, shall be installed at all open
shall be spliced at the poles. sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
(11) Platform planks shall be laid above the ground or floor. Toeboards
with their edges close together so the shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
platform will be tight with no spaces height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
through which tools or fragments of accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
material can fall. this section.
(12) Where planking is lapped, each (16) All wood pole scaffolds 60 feet or
plank shall lap its end supports at least less in height shall be constructed and
12 inches. Where the ends of planks erected in accordance with tables D–7
abut each other to form a flush floor, through D–12 of this section. If they are
the butt joint shall be at the centerline over 60 feet in height they shall be de-
of a pole. The abutted ends shall rest signed by a registered professional en-
on separate bearers. Intermediate gineer and constructed and erected in
beams shall be provided where nec- accordance with such design. A copy of
essary to prevent dislodgment of the typical drawings and specifications
planks due to deflection, and the ends shall be made available to the em-
shall be nailed or cleated to prevent ployer and for inspection purposes.
their dislodgment. (17) Wood-pole scaffolds shall not be
(13) When a scaffold turns a corner, erected beyond the reach of effective
the platform planks shall be laid to firefighting apparatus.
TABLE D–7—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY
Maximum height of scaffold

20 feet 60 feet

Uniformly distributed load ................................................ Not to exceed 25 pounds per


square foot..
Poles or uprights .............................................................. 2 by 4 in ....................................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ............................................... 6 ft. 0 in ........................................ 10 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold .............................................. 5 ft. 0 in ........................................ 5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs to 3 ft. 0 in. width .............................. 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
Bearers or putlogs to 5 ft. 0 in. width .............................. 2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in .................. 2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in. (rough).
Ledgers ............................................................................ 1 by 4 in ....................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in.
Planking ........................................................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in. (rough) ...................... 2 by 9 in.
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Vertical spacing of horizontal members .......................... 7 ft. 0 in ........................................ 7 ft. 0 in.


Bracing, horizontal and diagonal ..................................... 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins .............................................................................. 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
Toeboards ........................................................................ 4 in. high (minimum) .................... 4 in. high (minimum).

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

TABLE D–7—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY—Continued
Maximum height of scaffold

20 feet 60 feet

Guardrail .......................................................................... 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.


All members except planking are used on edge.

TABLE D–8—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAX- TABLE D–9—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAX-
IMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE IMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE
SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY SCAFFOLDS—HEAVY DUTY
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 50 pounds Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 75 pounds
per square foot. per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft. Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft.
Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in. Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 8 ft. 0 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 6 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold ........... 5 ft. 0 in. Maximum width of scaffold ........... 5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs ........................ 2 by 9 in. or 3 by 4 in. Bearers or putlogs ........................ 2 by 9 in. or 3 by 5 in.
Spacing of bearers or putlogs ...... 8 ft. 0 in. (rough).
Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. Spacing of bearers or putlogs ...... 6 ft. 0 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal 9 ft. 0 in. Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in.
members. Vertical spacing of horizontal 6 ft. 6 in.
Bracing, horizontal ........................ 1 by 6 in. or 11⁄4 by 4 in. members.
Bracing, diagonal .......................... 1 by 4 in. Bracing, horizontal and diagonal .. 2 by 4 in.
Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in. Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in.
Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in. Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in.
Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum). Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in. Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
All members except planking are used on edge. All members except planking are used on edge.

TABLE D–10—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDEPENDENT POLE
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY
Maximum height of scaffold

20 feet 60 feet

Uniformly distributed load ................................................ Not to exceed 25 pounds per


square foot..
Poles or uprights .............................................................. 2 by 4 in ....................................... 4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ............................................... 6 ft. 0 in ........................................ 10 ft. 0 in.
Pole spacing (transverse) ................................................ 6 ft. 0 in ........................................ 10 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers ............................................................................ 11⁄4 by 4 in ................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in.
Bearers to 3 ft. 0 in. span ................................................ 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
Bearers to 10 ft. 0 in. span .............................................. 2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in .................. 2 by 9 (rough) or 3 by 8 in.
Planking ........................................................................... 11⁄4 by 9 in ................................... 2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members .......................... 7 ft. 0 in ........................................ 7 ft. 0 in.
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal ..................................... 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins .............................................................................. 1 by 4 in ....................................... 1 by 4 in.
Toeboards ........................................................................ 4 in. high ...................................... 4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail .......................................................................... 2 by 4 in ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
All members except planking are used on edge.

TABLE D–11—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND TABLE D–11—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND
MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDE- MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDE-
PENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY PENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY—
Continued
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 50 pounds
per square foot. Bracing, horizontal ........................ 1 by 6 in. or 11⁄4 by 4 in.
Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft. Bracing, diagonal .......................... 1 by 4 in.
Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in. Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 8 ft. 0 in. Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in.
Pole spacing (transverse) ............. 8 ft. 0 in. Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum).
Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal 6 ft. 0 in.
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

members. All members except planking are used on edge.


Spacing of bearers ....................... 8 ft. 0 in.
Bearers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. (rough) or 2 by
10 in.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

TABLE D–12—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND structural metals when used must be
MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDE- designed to carry an equivalent load.
PENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS—HEAVY DUTY (2) A medium-duty tube and coupler
scaffold shall have all posts, runners,
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 75 pounds and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D.
per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold ......... 60 ft. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more
Poles or uprights .......................... 4 by 4 in. than 6 feet apart by 8 feet along the
Pole spacing (longitudinal) ........... 6 ft. 0 in. length of the scaffold shall have bear-
Pole spacing (transverse) ............. 8 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers ......................................... 2 by 9 in.
ers of nominal 21⁄2-inch O.D. steel tub-
Vertical spacing of horizontal 4 ft. 6 in. ing. Posts spaced not more than 5 feet
members. apart by 8 feet along the length of the
Bearers ......................................... 2 by 9 in. (rough). scaffold shall have bearers of nominal
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal .. 2 by 4 in.
Tie-ins ........................................... 1 by 4 in.
2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Other struc-
Planking ........................................ 2 by 9 in. tural metals when used must be de-
Toeboards ..................................... 4 in. high (minimum). signed to carry an equivalent load.
Guardrail ....................................... 2 by 4 in. (3) A heavy-duty tube and coupler
All members except planking are used on edge. scaffold shall have all posts, runners,
and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D.
TABLE D–13—TUBE AND COUPLER steel tubing, with the posts spaced not
SCAFFOLDS—LIGHT DUTY more than 6 feet apart by 6 feet 6
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 25 p.s.f.
inches along the length of the scaffold.
post spacing (longitudinal) ............ 10 ft. 0 in. Other structural metals when used
Post spacing (transverse) ............. 6 ft. 0 in. must be designed to carry an equiva-
lent load.
Working levels Additional planked Maximum height
(4) Tube and coupler scaffolds shall
levels be limited in heights and working lev-
1 8 125 ft. els to those permitted in tables D–13,
2 4 125 ft. 14, and 15, of this section. Drawings and
3 0 91 ft. 0 in. specifications of all tube and coupler
scaffolds above the limitations in ta-
TABLE D–14—TUBE AND COUPLER bles D–13, 14, and 15 of this section
SCAFFOLDS—MEDIUM DUTY shall be designed by a registered pro-
fessional engineer and copies made
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 50 p.s.f.
Post spacing (longitudinal) ........... 8 ft. 0 in.
available to the employer and for in-
Post spacing (transverse) ............. 6 ft. 0 in. spection purposes.
(5) All tube and coupler scaffolds
Additional planked shall be constructed and erected to
Working levels Maximum height
levels support four times the maximum in-
1 6 125 ft.
tended loads as set forth in tables D–13,
2 0 78 ft. 0 in. 14, and 15 of this section, or as set forth
in the specifications by a registered
TABLE D–15—TUBE AND COUPLER professional engineer, copies which
SCAFFOLDS—HEAVY DUTY shall be made available to the em-
ployer and for inspection purposes.
Uniformly distributed load ............. Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. (6) All tube and coupler scaffolds
Post spacing (longitudinal) ........... 6 ft. 6 in. shall be erected by competent and ex-
Post spacing (transverse) ............. 6 ft. 0 in.
perienced personnel.
(7) Posts shall be accurately spaced,
Additional planked erected on suitable bases, and main-
Working levels Maximum height
levels
tained plumb.
1 6 125 ft. (8) Runners shall be erected along the
length of the scaffold located on both
(c) Tube and coupler scaffolds. (1) A the inside and the outside posts at even
light-duty tube and coupler scaffold height. Runners shall be interlocked to
shall have all posts, bearers, runners, form continuous lengths and coupled to
and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. each post. The bottom runners shall be
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

steel tubing. The posts shall be spaced located as close to the base as possible.
no more than 6 feet apart by 10 feet Runners shall be placed not more than
along the length of the scaffold. Other 6 feet 6 inches on centers.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

(9) Bearers shall be installed trans- (2) Spacing of panels or frames shall
versely between posts and shall be se- be consistent with the loads imposed.
curely coupled to the posts bearing on (3) Scaffolds shall be properly braced
the runner coupler. When coupled di- by cross bracing or diagonal braces, or
rectly to the runners, the coupler must both, for securing vertical members to-
be kept as close to the posts as pos- gether laterally, and the cross braces
sible. shall be of such length as will auto-
(10) Bearers shall be at least 4 inches matically square and aline vertical
but not more than 12 inches longer members so that the erected scaffold is
than the post spacing or runner spac- always plumb, square, and rigid. All
ing. Bearers may be cantilevered for brace connections shall be made se-
use as brackets to carry not more than cure.
two planks. (4) Scaffold legs shall be set on ad-
(11) Cross bracing shall be installed justable bases or plain bases placed on
across the width of the scaffold at least mud sills or other foundations ade-
every third set of posts horizontally quate to support the maximum in-
and every fourth runner vertically. tended load.
Such bracing shall extend diagonally (5) The frames shall be placed one on
from the inner and outer runners up- top of the other with coupling or stack-
ward to the next outer and inner run- ing pins to provide proper vertical
ners. alinement of the legs.
(12) Longitudinal diagonal bracing
(6) Where uplift may occur, panels
shall be installed at approximately a
shall be locked together vertically by
45-degree angle from near the base of
pins or other equivalent suitable
the first outer post upward to the ex-
means.
treme top of the scaffold. Where the
(7) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4
longitudinal length of the scaffold per-
inches or the equivalent and not less
mits, such bracing shall be duplicated
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
beginning at every fifth post. In a simi-
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
lar manner, longitudinal diagonal brac-
1- × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
ing shall also be installed from the last
toeboards, shall be installed at all open
post extending back and upward to-
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
ward the first post. Where conditions
above the ground or floor. Toeboards
preclude the attachment of this brac-
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
ing to the posts, it may be attached to
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
the runners.
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
(13) The entire scaffold shall be tied
this section.
to and securely braced against the
building at intervals not to exceed 30 (8) All tubular metal scaffolds shall
feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically. be constructed and erected to support
(14) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 four times the maximum intended
inches or the equivalent and not less loads.
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches (9) To prevent movement, the scaf-
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of fold shall be secured to the building or
1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and structure at intervals not to exceed 30
toeboards, shall be installed at all open feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet (10) Maximum permissible spans of
above the ground or floor. Toeboards planking shall be in conformity with
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in paragraph (a)(9) of this section.
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in (11) Drawings and specifications for
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of all frame scaffolds over 125 feet in
this section. height above the base plates shall be
(d) Tubular welded frame scaffolds. (1) designed by a registered professional
Metal tubular frame scaffolds, includ- engineer and copies made available to
ing accessories such as braces, brack- the employer and for inspection pur-
ets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc., poses.
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

shall be designed and proved to safely (12) All tubular welded frame scaf-
support four times the maximum in- folds shall be erected by competent and
tended load. experienced personnel.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

(13) Frames and accessories for scaf- building wall. Planking shall be nailed
folds shall be maintained in good re- or bolted to outriggers.
pair and every defect, unsafe condition, (5) Where there is danger of material
or noncompliance with this section falling from the scaffold, a wire mesh
shall be immediately corrected before or other enclosure shall be provided be-
further use of the scaffold. Any broken, tween the guardrail and the toeboard.
bent, excessively rusted, altered, or (6) Where additional working levels
otherwise structurally damaged frames are required to be supported by the
or accessories shall not be used. outrigger method, the plans and speci-
(14) Periodic inspections shall be fications of the outrigger and scaf-
made of all welded frames and acces- folding structure shall be designed by a
sories, and any maintenance, including registered professional engineer.
painting, or minor corrections author- (f) Masons’ adjustable multiple-point
ized by the manufacturer, shall be suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaffold
made before further use. shall be capable of sustaining a work-
(e) Outrigger scaffolds. (1) Outrigger ing load of 50 pounds per square foot
beams shall extend not more than 6 and shall not be loaded in excess of
feet beyond the face of the building. that figure.
The inboard end of outrigger beams, (2) The scaffold shall be provided
measured from the fulcrum point to with hoisting machines that meet the
the extreme point of support, shall be requirements of a nationally recog-
not less than one and one-half times nized testing laboratory. Refer to
the outboard end in length. The beams § 1910.7 for definition of nationally rec-
shall rest on edge, the sides shall be ognized testing laboratory.
plumb, and the edges shall be hori-
zontal. The fulcrum point of the beam TABLE D–16—MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND
shall rest on a secure bearing at least MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF OUT-
RIGGER SCAFFOLDS
6 inches in each horizontal dimension.
The beam shall be secured in place Medium
Light duty
against movement and shall be se- duty
curely braced at the fulcrum point Maximum scaffold load ............... 25 p.s.f. ..... 50 p.s.f.
against tipping. Outrigger size ............................. 2 × 10 in .... 3 × 10 in.
(2) The inboard ends of outrigger Maximum outrigger spacing ....... 10 ft 0 in .... 6 ft 0 in.
beams shall be securely supported ei- Planking ...................................... 2 × 9 in ...... 2 × 9 in.
Guardrail ..................................... 2 × 4 in ...... 2 × 4 in.
ther by means of struts bearing against Guardrail uprights ....................... 2 × 4 in ...... 2 × 4 in.
sills in contact with the overhead Toeboards (minimum) ................ 4 in ............ 4 in.
beams or ceiling, or by means of ten-
sion members secured to the floor (3) The platform shall be supported
joists underfoot, or by both if nec- by wire ropes in conformity with para-
essary. The inboard ends of outrigger graph (a)(22) of this section, suspended
beams shall be secured against tipping from overhead outrigger beams.
and the entire supporting structure (4) The scaffold outrigger beams shall
shall be securely braced in both direc- consist of structural metal securely
tions to prevent any horizontal move- fastened or anchored to the frame or
ment. floor system of the building or struc-
(3) Unless outrigger scaffolds are de- ture.
signed by a licensed professional engi- (5) Each outrigger beam shall be
neer, they shall be constructed and equivalent in strength to at least a
erected in accordance with table D–16. standard 7-inch, 15.3-pound steel I-
Outrigger scaffolds designed by a reg- beam, be at least 15 feet long, and shall
istered professional engineer shall be not project more than 6 feet 6 inches
constructed and erected in accordance beyond the bearing point.
with such design. A copy of the de- (6) Where the overhang exceeds 6 feet
tailed drawings and specifications 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be com-
showing the sizes and spacing of mem- posed of stronger beams or multiple
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

bers shall be kept on the job. beams and be installed in accordance


(4) Planking shall be laid tight and with approved designs and instruc-
shall extend to within 3 inches of the tions.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

(7) If channel iron outrigger beams sional engineer, and supervised by a


are used in place of I-beams, they shall competent, designated person.
be securely fastened together with the (g) Two-point suspension scaffolds
flanges turned out. (swinging scaffolds). (1) Two-point sus-
(8) All outrigger beams shall be set pension scaffold platforms shall be not
and maintained with their webs into less than 20 inches no more than 36
vertical position. inches wide overall. The platform shall
(9) A stop bolt shall be placed at each be securely fastened to the hangers by
end of every outrigger beam. U-bolts or by other equivalent means.
(10) The outrigger beam shall rest on (2) The hangers of two-point suspen-
suitable wood-bearing blocks. sion scaffolds shall be made of wrought
(11) All parts of the scaffold such as iron, mild steel, or other equivalent
bolts, nuts, fittings, clamps, wire rope, material having a cross-sectional area
and outrigger beams and their fas- capable of sustaining four times the
tenings, shall be maintained in sound maximum intended load, and shall be
and good working condition and shall designed with a support for guardrail,
be inspected before each installation intermediate rail, and toeboard.
and periodically thereafter. (3) When hoisting machines are used
(12) The free end of the suspension on two-point suspension scaffolds, such
wire ropes shall be equipped with prop- machines shall be of a design tested
er size thimbles and be secured by and approved by a nationally recog-
splicing or other equivalent means. nized testing laboratory. Refer to
The running ends shall be securely at- § 1910.7 for definition of nationally rec-
tached to the hoisting drum and at ognized testing laboratory.
least four turns of rope shall at all
(4) The roof irons or hooks shall be of
times remain on the drum.
wrought iron, mild steel, or other
(13) Where a single outrigger beam is
equivalent material of proper size and
used, the steel shackles or clevises
design, securely installed and an-
with which the wire ropes are attached
chored. Tie-backs of three-fourth inch
to the outrigger beams shall be placed
manila rope or the equivalent shall
directly over the hoisting drums.
serve as a secondary means of anchor-
(14) The scaffold platform shall be
age, installed at right angles to the
equivalent in strength to at least 2-
face of the building whenever possible
inch planking. (For maximum planking
spans see paragraph (a)(9) of this sec- and secured to a structurally sound
tion.) portion of the building.
(15) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 (5) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4
inches or the equivalent and not less inches or the equivalent and not less
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and 1- × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
toeboards, shall be installed at all open toeboards, shall be installed at all open
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
above the ground or floor. Toeboards above the ground or floor. Toeboards
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
this section. this section.
(16) Overhead protection shall be pro- (6) Two-point suspension scaffolds
vided on the scaffold, not more than 9 shall be suspended by wire or fiber
feet above the platform, consisting of ropes. Wire and fiber ropes shall con-
2-inch planking or material of equiva- form to paragraph (a)(22) of this sec-
lent strength laid tight, when men are tion.
at work on the scaffold and an over- (7) The blocks for fiber ropes shall be
head hazard exists. of standard 6-inch size, consisting of at
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

(17) Each scaffold shall be installed least one double and one single block.
or relocated in accordance with designs The sheaves of all blocks shall fit the
and instructions, of a registered profes- size of rope used.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

(8) All wire ropes, fiber ropes, slings, eighth inch. The stringers shall be tied
hangers, platforms, and other sup- together with the tie rods not less than
porting parts shall be inspected before one-quarter inch in diameter, passing
every installation. Periodic inspections through the stringers and riveted up
shall be made while the scaffold is in tight against washers on both ends.
use. The flooring strips shall be spaced not
(9) On suspension scaffolds designed more than five-eighth inch apart ex-
for a working load of 500 pounds no cept at the side rails where the space
more than two men shall be permitted may be 1 inch. Ladder-type platforms
to work at one time. On suspension shall be constructed in accordance with
scaffolds with a working load of 750 table D–17.
pounds, no more than three men shall (ii) Plank-type platforms shall be
be permitted to work at one time. Each composed of not less than nominal 2 ×
workman shall be protected by a safety 8-inch unspliced planks, properly
lifebelt attached to a lifeline. The life- cleated together on the underside
line shall be securely attached to sub-
starting 6 inches from each end; inter-
stantial members of the structure (not
vals in between shall not exceed 4 feet.
scaffold), or to securely rigged lines,
The plank-type platform shall not ex-
which will safely suspend the workman
tend beyond the hangers more than 18
in case of a fall.
(10) Where acid solutions are used, inches. A bar or other effective means
fiber ropes are not permitted unless shall be securely fastened to the plat-
acid-proof. form at each end to prevent its slipping
(11) Two-point suspension scaffolds off the hanger. The span between hang-
shall be securely lashed to the building ers for plank-type platforms shall not
or structure to prevent them from exceed 10 feet.
swaying. Window cleaners’ anchors (iii) Beam platforms shall have side
shall not be used for this purpose. stringers of lumber not less than 2 × 6
(12) The platform of every two-point inches set on edge. The span between
suspension scaffold shall be one of the hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when
following types: beam platforms are used. The flooring
(i) The side stringer of ladder-type shall be supported on 2- and 6-inch
platforms shall be clear straight- crossbeams, laid flat and set into the
grained spruce or materials of equiva- upper edge of the stringers with a snug
lent strength and durability. The rungs fit, at intervals of not more than 4 feet,
shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or securely nailed in place. The flooring
hickory, at least 11⁄8 inch in diameter, shall be of 1 × 6inch material properly
with seven-eighth inch tenons mortised nailed. Floorboards shall not be spaced
into the side stringers at least seven- more than one-half inch apart.
TABLE D–17—SCHEDULE FOR LADDER-TYPE PLATFORMS
Length of platform (feet)

12 14 & 16 18 & 20 22 & 24 28 & 30

Side stringers, minimum cross section (finished sizes):


At ends (in.) ...................................................................... 13⁄4 × 23⁄4 13⁄4 × 23⁄4 13⁄4 × 3 13⁄4 × 3 13⁄4 × 31⁄2
At middle (in.) ................................................................... 13⁄4 × 33⁄4 13⁄4 × 33⁄4 13⁄4 × 4 13⁄4 × 41⁄4 13⁄4 × 5
Reinforcing strip (minimum) 1 ................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................
Rungs 2 ..................................................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................
Tie rods:
Number (minimum) ........................................................... 3 4 4 5 6
Diameter (minimum) ......................................................... 1⁄4 in 1⁄4 in 1⁄4 in 1⁄4 in 1⁄4 in.

Flooring, minimum finished size (in.) ....................................... ⁄ × 23⁄4


12 ⁄ × 23⁄4
12 ⁄ × 23⁄4
12 ⁄ × 3⁄4
12 ⁄ × 23⁄4
12

1 A 1⁄8x7⁄8-in. steel reinforcing strip or its equivalent shall be attached to the side or underside full length.
2 Rungs shall be 11⁄8-in. minimum, diameter with at least 7⁄8-in. diameter tenons, and the maximum spacing shall be 12 in. cen-
ter to center.

(h) Stone setters’ adjustable multiple- working load of 25 pounds per square
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

point suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaf-


fold shall be capable of sustaining a

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

foot and shall not be overloaded. Scaf- power units or manually operated
folds shall not be used for storage of winches, shall be a type tested and list-
stone or other heavy materials. ed by a nationally recognized testing
(2) The hoisting machine and its sup- laboratory. Refer to § 1910.399(a)(77) for
ports shall be of a type tested and list- definition of listed, and § 1910.7 for na-
ed by a nationally recognized testing tionally recognized testing laboratory.
laboratory. Refer to § 1910.399(a)(77) for (2) [Reserved]
definition of listed, and § 1910.7 for na- (3) All power-operated gears and
tionally recognized testing laboratory. brakes shall be enclosed.
(3) The platform shall be securely fas-
(4) In addition to the normal oper-
tened to the hangers by U-bolts or
other equivalent means. ating brake, all-power driven units
(4) The scaffold unit shall be sus- must have an emergency brake which
pended from metal outriggers, iron engages automatically when the nor-
brackets, wire rope slings, or iron mal speed of descent is exceeded.
hooks which will safely support the (5) Guards, mid-rails, and toeboards
maximum intended load. shall completely enclose the cage or
(5) Outriggers when used shall be set basket. Guardrails shall be no less than
with their webs in a vertical position, 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent in-
securely anchored to the building or stalled no less than 36 inches nor more
structure and provided with stop bolts than 42 inches above the platform. Mid-
at each end. rails shall be 1 by 6 inches or the equiv-
(6) The scaffold shall be supported by alent, installed equidistant between
wire rope conforming with paragraph the guardrail and the platform.
(a)(22) of this section, suspended from Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4
overhead supports. inches in height.
(7) The free ends of the suspension (6) The hoisting machines, cables,
wire ropes shall be equipped with prop- and equipment shall be regularly serv-
er size thimbles, secured by splicing or iced and inspected after each installa-
other equivalent means. The running
tion and every 30 days thereafter.
ends shall be securely attached to the
hoisting drum and at least four turns (7) The units may be combined to
of rope shall remain on the drum at all form a two-point suspension scaffold.
times. Such scaffold shall comply with para-
(8) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 graph (g) of this section.
inches or the equivalent and not less (8) The supporting cable shall be
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches straight for its entire length, and the
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of operator shall not sway the basket and
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and fix the cable to any intermediate
toeboards, shall be installed at all open points to change his original path of
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet travel.
above the ground or floor. Toeboards (9) Equipment shall be maintained
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in and used in accordance with the manu-
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in facturers’ instructions.
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of (10) Suspension methods shall con-
this section. form to applicable provisions of para-
(9) When two or more scaffolds are graphs (f) and (g) of this section.
used on a building or structure they (j) Boatswain’s chairs. (1) The chair
shall not be bridged one to the other
seat shall be not less than 12 by 24
but shall be maintained at even height
inches, and of 1-inch thickness. The
with platforms butting closely.
(10) Each scaffold shall be installed seat shall be reinforced on the under-
or relocated in accordance with designs side to prevent the board from split-
and instructions of a registered profes- ting.
sional engineer, and such installation (2) The two fiber rope seat slings
or relocation shall be supervised by a shall be of 5⁄8-inch diameter, reeved
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competent designated person. through the four seat holes so as to


(i) Single-point adjustable suspension cross each other on the underside of
scaffolds. (1) The scaffolding, including the seat.

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

(3) Seat slings shall be of at least 3⁄8- height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
inch wire rope when a workman is con- accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
ducting a heat producing process such this section.
as gas or arc welding. (l) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds. (1) The
(4) The workman shall be protected squares shall not exceed 5 feet in width
by a safety life belt attached to a life- and 5 feet in height.
line. The lifeline shall be securely at- (2) Members shall be not less than
tached to substantial members of the those specified in Table D–18.
structure (not scaffold), or to securely (3) The squares shall be reinforced on
rigged lines, which will safely suspend both sides of each corner with 1- by 6-
the worker in case of a fall. inch gusset pieces. They shall also have
(5) The tackle shall consist of correct braces 1 by 8 inches on both sides run-
size ball bearing or bushed blocks and ning from center to center of each
properly spliced 5⁄8-inch diameter first- member, or other means to secure
grade manila rope. equivalent strength and rigidity.
(6) The roof irons, hooks, or the ob- (4) The squares shall be set not more
ject to which the tackle is anchored than 5 feet apart for medium duty scaf-
shall be securely installed. Tiebacks folds, and not more than 8 feet apart
when used shall be installed at right for light duty scaffolds. Bracing 1 × 8
angles to the face of the building and inches, extending from the bottom of
securely fastened to a chimney. each square to the top of the next
(k) Carpenters’ bracket scaffolds. (1) square, shall be provided on both front
The brackets shall consist of a tri- and rear sides of the scaffold.
angular wood frame not less than 2 by
TABLE D–18—MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR
3 inches in cross section, or of metal of
BRICKLAYERS’ SQUARE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS
equivalent strength. Each member
shall be properly fitted and securely Members Dimensions
joined. (inches)
(2) Each bracket shall be attached to Bearers or horizontal members ....................... 2 by 6.
the structure by means of one of the Legs ................................................................. 2 by 6.
following: Braces at corners ............................................. 1 by 6.
Braces diagonally from center frame ............... 1 by 8.
(i) A bolt no less than five-eighths
inch in diameter which shall extend (5) Platform planks shall be at least
through the inside of the building wall. 2- by 9-inch nominal size. The ends of
(ii) A metal stud attachment device. the planks shall overlap the bearers of
(iii) Welding to steel tanks. the squares and each plank shall be
(iv) Hooking over a well-secured and supported by not less than three
adequately strong supporting member. squares.
The brackets shall be spaced no more (6) Bricklayers’ square scaffolds shall
than 10 feet apart. not exceed three tiers in height and
(3) No more than two persons shall shall be so constructed and arranged
occupy any given 10 feet of a bracket that one square shall rest directly
scaffold at any one time. Tools and ma- above the other. The upper tiers shall
terials shall not exceed 75 pounds in ad- stand on a continuous row of planks
dition to the occupancy. laid across the next lower tier and be
(4) The platform shall consist of not nailed down or otherwise secured to
less than two 2- by 9-inch nominal size prevent displacement.
planks extending not more than 18 (7) Scaffolds shall be level and set
inches or less than 6 inches beyond upon a firm foundation.
each end support. (m) Horse scaffolds. (1) Horse scaffolds
(5) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 shall not be constructed or arranged
inches or the equivalent and not less more than two tiers or 10 feet in
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches height.
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of (2) The members of the horses shall
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and be not less than those specified in
toeboards, shall be installed at all open Table D–19.
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sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet (3) Horses shall be spaced not more
above the ground or floor. Toeboards than 5 feet for medium duty and not
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in more than 8 feet for light duty.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.28

(4) When arranged in tiers, each horse shall be designed based on design re-
shall be placed directly over the horse quirements for the special span. The
in the tier below. overhang of each end of the platform
(5) On all scaffolds arranged in tiers, planks shall be not less than 1 foot and
the legs shall be nailed down to the not more than 18 inches.
planks to prevent displacement or (5) When one needle beam is higher
thrust and each tier shall be substan- than the other or when the platform is
tially cross braced. not level the platform shall be secured
against slipping.
TABLE D–19—MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR
HORSE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS (6) All unattached tools, bolts, and
nuts used on needle beam scaffolds
Members Dimensions shall be kept in suitable containers.
(inches)
(7) One end of a needle beam scaffold
Horizontal members or bearers ....................... 3 by 4. may be supported by a permanent
Legs ................................................................. 11⁄4 by 41⁄2. structural member conforming to para-
Longitudinal brace between legs ..................... 1 by 6.
Gusset brace at top of legs ............................. 1 by 8. graphs (a) (4) and (8) of this section.
Half diagonal braces ........................................ 11⁄4 by 41⁄2. (8) Each man working on a needle
beam scaffold 20 feet or more above the
(6) Horses or parts which have be- ground or floor and working with both
come weak or defective shall not be hands, shall be protected by a safety
used. life belt attached to a lifeline. The life-
(7) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 line shall be securely attached to sub-
inches or the equivalent and not less stantial members of the structure (not
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches scaffold), or to securely rigged lines,
high with a mid-rail, when required, of which will safely suspend the workman
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent and in case of a fall.
toeboards, shall be installed at all open (o) Plasterers’, decorators’, and large
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet area scaffolds. (1) Plasterers’, decora-
above the ground or floor. Toeboards tors’, lathers’, and ceiling workers’ in-
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in side scaffolds shall be constructed in
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with the general require-
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
ments set forth for independent wood
this section.
pole scaffolds.
(n) Needle beam scaffold. (1) Wood nee-
dle beams shall be in accordance with (2) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4
paragraph (a) (5) and (9) of this section, inches or the equivalent and not less
and shall be not less than 4 by 6 inches than 36 inches or more than 42 inches
in size, with the greater dimension high, with a mid-rail, when required, of
placed in a vertical direction. Metal 1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and
beams or the equivalent conforming to toeboards, shall be installed at all open
paragraph (a) (4) and (8) of this section sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet
may be used. above the ground or floor. Toeboards
(2) Ropes or hangers shall be provided shall be a minimum of 4 inches in
for supports. The span between sup- height. Wire mesh shall be installed in
ports on the needle beam shall not ex- accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of
ceed 10 feet for 4- by 6-inch timbers. this section.
Rope supports shall be equivalent in (3) All platform planks shall be laid
strength to 1-inch diameter first-grade with the edges close together.
manila rope. (4) When independent pole scaffold
(3) The ropes shall be attached to the platforms are erected in sections, such
needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a sections shall be provided with con-
properly made eye splice. The loose end necting runways equipped with sub-
of the rope shall be tied by a bowline stantial guardrails.
knot or by a round turn and one-half (p) Interior hung scaffolds. (1) [Re-
hitch. served]
(4) The platform span between the (2) The suspended steel wire rope
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needle beams shall not exceed 8 feet shall conform to paragraph (a)(22) of
when using 2-inch scaffold plank. For this section. Wire may be used pro-
spans greater than 8 feet, platforms viding the strength requirements of

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§ 1910.28 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

paragraph (a)(22) of this section are tened, held, or equipped with devices so
met. as to prevent slipping.
(3) For hanging wood scaffolds, the (5) The wood platform planks shall be
following minimum nominal size mate- not less than 2 inches nominal in
rial is recommended: thickness. Both metal and wood plat-
(i) Supporting bearers 2 by 9 inches form planks shall overlap the bearing
on edge. surface not less than 12 inches. The
(ii) Planking 2 by 9 inches or 2 by 10 span between supports for wood shall
inches, with maximum span 7 feet for not exceed 8 feet. Platform width shall
heavy duty and 10 feet for light duty or be not less than 18 inches.
medium duty. (6) Not more than two persons shall
(4) Steel tube and coupler members occupy any given 8 feet of any ladder-
may be used for hanging scaffolds with jack scaffold at any one time.
both types of scaffold designed to sus- (r) Window-jack scaffolds. (1) Window-
tain a uniform distributed working jack scaffolds shall be used only for the
load up to heavy duty scaffold loads purpose of working at the window
with a safety factor of four. opening through which the jack is
placed.
(5) When a hanging scaffold is sup-
(2) Window jacks shall not be used to
ported by means of wire rope, such wire
support planks placed between one win-
rope shall be wrapped at least twice
dow jack and another or for other ele-
around the supporting members and
ments of scaffolding.
twice around the bearers of the scaf-
(3) Window-jack scaffolds shall be
fold, with each end of the wire rope se-
provided with suitable guardrails un-
cured by at least three standard wire-
less safety belts with lifelines are at-
rope clips.
tached and provided for the workman.
(6) All overhead supporting members Window-jack scaffolds shall be used by
shall be inspected and checked for one man only.
strength before the scaffold is erected. (s) Roofing brackets. (1) Roofing
(7) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 brackets shall be constructed to fit the
inches or the equivalent and not less pitch of the roof.
than 36 inches or more than 42 inches (2) Brackets shall be secured in place
high, with a mid-rail, when required, of by nailing in addition to the pointed
1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and metal projections. The nails shall be
toeboards, shall be installed at all open driven full length into the roof. When
sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet rope supports are used, they shall con-
above the ground or floor. Toeboards sist of first-grade manila of at least
shall be a minimum of 4 inches in three-quarter-inch diameter, or equiva-
height. Wire mesh shall be installed in lent.
accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of (3) A substantial catch platform shall
this section. be installed below the working area of
(q) Ladder-jack scaffolds. (1) All lad- roofs more than 20 feet from the
der-jack scaffolds shall be limited to ground to eaves with a slope greater
light duty and shall not exceed a than 3 inches in 12 inches without a
height of 20 feet above the floor or parapet. In width the platform shall ex-
ground. tend 2 feet beyond the projection of the
(2) All ladders used in connection eaves and shall be provided with a safe-
with ladder-jack scaffolds shall be ty rail, mid-rail, and toeboard. This
heavy-duty ladders and shall be de- provision shall not apply where em-
signed and constructed in accordance ployees engaged in work upon such
with §§ 1910.25 and 1910.26. roofs are protected by a safety belt at-
(3) The ladder jack shall be so de- tached to a lifeline.
signed and constructed that it will bear (t) Crawling boards or chicken ladders.
on the side rails in addition to the lad- (1) Crawling boards shall be not less
der rungs, or if bearing on rungs only, than 10 inches wide and 1 inch thick,
the bearing area shall be at least 10 having cleats 1 × 11⁄2 inches. The cleats
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inches on each rung. shall be equal in length to the width of


(4) Ladders used in conjunction with the board and spaced at equal intervals
ladder jacks shall be so placed, fas- not to exceed 24 inches. Nails shall be

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.29

driven through and clinched on the un- rigged lines, which will safely suspend
derside. The crawling board shall ex- the workman in case of a fall.
tend from the ridge pole to the eaves (v) Scope. This section establishes
when used in connection with roof con- safety requirements for the construc-
struction, repair, or maintenance. tion, operation, maintenance, and use
(2) A firmly fastened lifeline of at of scaffolds used in the maintenance of
least three-quarter-inch rope shall be buildings and structures.
strung beside each crawling board for a [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43
handhold. FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10,
(3) Crawling boards shall be secured 1984; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988]
to the roof by means of adequate ridge
hooks or equivalent effective means. § 1910.29 Manually propelled mobile
(u) Float or ship scaffolds. (1) Float or ladder stands and scaffolds (tow-
ship scaffolds shall support not more ers).
than three men and a few light tools, (a) General requirements—(1) Applica-
such as those needed for riveting, bolt- tion. This section is intended to pre-
ing, and welding. They shall be con- scribe rules and requirements for the
structed in accordance with paragraphs design, construction, and use of mobile
(u) (2) through (6) of this section, un- work platforms (including ladder
less substitute designs and materials stands but not including aerial ladders)
provide equivalent strength, stability, and rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers).
and safety. This standard is promulgated to aid in
(2) The platform shall be not less providing for the safety of life, limb,
than 3 feet wide and 6 feet long, made and property, by establishing minimum
of three-quarter-inch plywood, equiva- standards for structural design require-
lent to American Plywood Association ments and for the use of mobile work
Grade B-B, Group I, Exterior. platforms and towers.
(3) Under the platform, there shall be (2) Working loads. (i) Work platforms
two supporting bearers made from 2 × and scaffolds shall be capable of car-
4-inch, or 1 × 10-inch rough, selected rying the design load under varying
lumber, or better. They shall be free of circumstances depending upon the con-
knots or other flaws and project 6 ditions of use. Therefore, all parts and
inches beyond the platform on both appurtenances necessary for their safe
sides. The ends of the platform shall and efficient utilization must be inte-
extend about 6 inches beyond the outer gral parts of the design.
edges of the bearers. Each bearer shall (ii) Specific design and construction
be securely fastened to the platform. requirements are not a part of this sec-
(4) An edging of wood not less than 3⁄4 tion because of the wide variety of ma-
× 11⁄2 inches, or equivalent, shall be terials and design possibilities. How-
placed around all sides of the platform ever, the design shall be such as to
to prevent tools from rolling off. produce a mobile ladder stand or scaf-
(5) Supporting ropes shall be 1-inch fold that will safely sustain the speci-
diameter manila rope or equivalent, fied loads. The material selected shall
free from deterioration, chemical dam- be of sufficient strength to meet the
age, flaws, or other imperfections. test requirements and shall be pro-
Rope connections shall be such that tected against corrosion or deteriora-
the platform cannot shift or slip. If two tion.
ropes are used with each float, each of (a) The design working load of ladder
the two supporting ropes shall be stands shall be calculated on the basis
hitched around one end of a bearer and of one or more 200-pound persons to-
pass under the platforms to the other gether with 50 pounds of equipment
end of the bearer where it is hitched each.
again, leaving sufficient rope at each (b) The design load of all scaffolds
end for the supporting ties. shall be calculated on the basis of:
(6) Each workman shall be protected
Light—Designed and constructed to carry a
by a safety lifebelt attached to a life- working load of 25 pounds per square foot.
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line. The lifeline shall be securely at- Medium—Designed and constructed to carry
tached to substantial members of the a working load of 50 pounds per square
structure (not scaffold), or to securely foot.

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§ 1910.29 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)
Heavy—Designed and constructed to carry a have a standard (4-inch nominal)
working load of 75 pounds per square foot. toeboard.
All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be (vii) All work levels 10 feet or higher
capable of supporting at least four above the ground or floor shall have a
times the design working load. guardrail of 2- by 4-inch nominal or the
(iii) The materials used in mobile equivalent installed no less than 36
ladder stands and scaffolds shall be of inches or more than 42 inches high,
standard manufacture and conform to with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by
standard specifications of strength, di- 4-inch nominal lumber or equivalent.
mensions, and weights, and shall be se- (viii) A climbing ladder or stairway
lected to safely support the design shall be provided for proper access and
working load. egress, and shall be affixed or built into
(iv) Nails, bolts, or other fasteners the scaffold and so located that its use
used in the construction of ladders, will not have a tendency to tip the
scaffolds, and towers shall be of ade- scaffold. A landing platform shall be
quate size and in sufficient numbers at provided at intervals not to exceed 30
each connection to develop the de- feet.
signed strength of the unit. Nails shall (4) Wheels or casters. (i) Wheels or
be driven full length. (All nails should casters shall be properly designed for
be immediately withdrawn from dis- strength and dimensions to support
mantled lumber.) four (4) times the design working load.
(v) All exposed surfaces shall be free
(ii) All scaffold casters shall be pro-
from sharp edges, burrs or other safety
vided with a positive wheel and/or
hazards.
swivel lock to prevent movement. Lad-
(3) Work levels. (i) The maximum
der stands shall have at least two (2) of
work level height shall not exceed four
(4) times the minimum or least base di- the four (4) casters and shall be of the
mensions of any mobile ladder stand or swivel type.
scaffold. Where the basic mobile unit (iii) Where leveling of the elevated
does not meet this requirement, suit- work platform is required, screw jacks
able outrigger frames shall be em- or other suitable means for adjusting
ployed to achieve this least base di- the height shall be provided in the base
mension, or provisions shall be made to section of each mobile unit.
guy or brace the unit against tipping. (b) Mobile tubular welded frame scaf-
(ii) The minimum platform width for folds—(1) General. Units shall be de-
any work level shall not be less than 20 signed to comply with the require-
inches for mobile scaffolds (towers). ments of paragraph (a) of this section.
Ladder stands shall have a minimum (2) Bracing. Scaffolds shall be prop-
step width of 16 inches. erly braced by cross braces and/or di-
(iii) The supporting structure for the agonal braces for securing vertical
work level shall be rigidly braced, members together laterally. The cross
using adequate cross bracing or diago- braces shall be of a length that will
nal bracing with rigid platforms at automatically square and align
each work level. vertical members so the erected scaf-
(iv) The steps of ladder stands shall fold is always plumb, square, and rigid.
be fabricated from slip resistant treads. (3) Spacing. Spacing of panels or
(v) The work level platform of scaf- frames shall be consistent with the
folds (towers) shall be of wood, alu-
loads imposed. The frames shall be
minum, or plywood planking, steel or
placed one on top of the other with
expanded metal, for the full width of
coupling or stacking pins to provide
the scaffold, except for necessary open-
ings. Work platforms shall be secured proper vertical alignment of the legs.
in place. All planking shall be 2-inch (4) Locking. Where uplift may occur,
(nominal) scaffold grade minimum 1,500 panels shall be locked together
f. (stress grade) construction grade vertically by pins or other equivalent
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lumber or equivalent. means.


(vi) All scaffold work levels 10 feet or (5) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
higher above the ground or floor shall a scaffold or his qualified designated

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor § 1910.29

agent shall be permitted to erect or su- shall be designed so that the horizontal
pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed- bearers provide supports for multiple
ing 50 feet in height above the base, un- planking levels.
less such structure is approved in writ- (7) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
ing by a registered professional engi- the scaffold or his qualified designated
neer, or erected in accordance with in- agent shall be permitted to erect or su-
structions furnished by the manufac- pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-
turer. ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-
(c) Mobile tubular welded sectional less such structure is approved in writ-
folding scaffolds—(1) General. Units in- ing by a licensed professional engineer,
cluding sectional stairway and sec- or erected in accordance with instruc-
tional ladder scaffolds shall be de- tions furnished by the manufacturer.
signed to comply with the require- (d) Mobile tube and coupler scaffolds—
ments of paragraph (a) of this section. (1) Design. Units shall be designed to
(2) Stairway. An integral stairway comply with the applicable require-
and work platform shall be incor- ments of paragraph (a) of this section.
porated into the structure of each sec- (2) Material. The material used for
tional folding stairway scaffold. the couplers shall be of a structural
(3) Bracing. An integral set of piv- type, such as a drop-forged steel, mal-
oting and hinged folding diagonal and leable iron or structural grade alu-
horizontal braces and a detachable minum. The use of gray cast iron is
work platform shall be incorporated prohibited.
into the structure of each sectional (3) Erection. Only the manufacturer of
folding ladder scaffold. the scaffold or his qualified designated
(4) Sectional folding stairway scaffolds. agent shall be permitted to erect or su-
Sectional folding stairway scaffolds pervise the erection of scaffolds exceed-
shall be designed as medium duty scaf- ing 50 feet in height above the base, un-
folds except for high clearance. These less such structure is approved in writ-
special base sections shall be designed ing by a licensed professional engineer,
as light duty scaffolds. When upper sec- or erected in accordance with instruc-
tional folding stairway scaffolds are tions furnished by the manufacturer.
used with a special high clearance base, (e) Mobile work platforms—(1) Design.
the load capacity of the entire scaffold Units shall be designed for the use in-
shall be reduced accordingly. The tended and shall comply with the re-
width of a sectional folding stairway quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
scaffold shall not exceed 41⁄2 feet. The tion.
maximum length of a sectional folding (2) Base width. The minimum width of
stairway scaffold shall not exceed 6 the base of mobile work platforms shall
feet. not be less than 20 inches.
(5) Sectional folding ladder scaffolds. (3) Bracing. Adequate rigid diagonal
Sectional folding ladder scaffolds shall bracing to vertical members shall be
be designed as light duty scaffolds in- provided.
cluding special base (open end) sections (f) Mobile ladder stands—(1) Design.
which are designed for high clearance. Units shall comply with applicable re-
For certain special applications the quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
six-foot (6′) folding ladder scaffolds, ex- tion.
cept for special high clearance base (2) Base width. The minimum base
sections, shall be designed for use as width shall conform to paragraph
medium duty scaffolds. The width of a (a)(3)(i) of this section. The maximum
sectional folding ladder scaffold shall length of the base section shall be the
not exceed 41⁄2 feet. The maximum total length of combined steps and top
length of a sectional folding ladder assembly, measured horizontally, plus
scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet 6 inches five-eighths inch per step of rise.
for a six-foot (6′) long unit, 8 feet 6 (3) Steps. Steps shall be uniformly
inches for an eight-foot (8′) unit or 10 spaced, and sloped, with a rise of not
feet 6 inches for a ten-foot (10′) long less than nine (9) inches, nor more than
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unit. ten (10) inches, and a depth of not less


(6) End frames. The end frames of sec- seven (7) inches. The slope of the steps
tional ladder and stairway scaffolds section shall be a minimum of fifty-

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§ 1910.30 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–16 Edition)

five (55) degrees and a maximum of (3) Wood platforms used on the floor
sixty (60) degrees measured from the in front of machines shall be substan-
horizontal. tially constructed.
(4) Handrails. (i) Units having more (c) Veneer machinery. (1) Sides of
than five (5) steps or 60 inches vertical steam vats shall extend to a height of
height to the top step shall be equipped not less than 36 inches above the floor,
with handrails. working platform, or ground.
(ii) Handrails shall be a minimum of (2) Large steam vats divided into sec-
29 inches high. Measurements shall be tions shall be provided with substantial
taken vertically from the center of the walkways between sections. Each
step. walkway shall be provided with a
(5) Loading. The load (see paragraph standard handrail on each exposed side.
(a)(2)(ii)(a) of this section) shall be ap- These handrails may be removable, if
plied uniformly to a 31⁄2 inches wide necessary.
area front to back at the center of the (3) Covers shall be removed only from
width span with a safety factor of four that portion of steaming vats on which
(4). men are working and a portable railing
shall be placed at this point to protect
§ 1910.30 Other working surfaces. the operators.
(4) Workmen shall not ride or step on
(a) Dockboards (bridge plates). (1) Port- logs in steam vats.
able and powered dockboards shall be
strong enough to carry the load im- [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49
posed on them. FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]
(2) Portable dockboards shall be se-
cured in position, either by being an- Subpart E—Exit Routes and
chored or equipped with devices which Emergency Planning
will prevent their slipping.
(3) Powered dockboards shall be de- AUTHORITY: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Sec-
signed and constructed in accordance retary of Labor’s Order No. 12–71 (36 FR 8754),
with Commercial Standard CS202–56 8–76 (41 FR 25059), 9–83 (48 FR 35736), 1–90 (55
(1961) ‘‘Industrial Lifts and Hinged FR 9033), 6–96 (62 FR 111), 3–2000 (65 FR 50017),
5–2002 (67 FR 65008), 5–2007 (72 FR 31160), or 4–
Loading Ramps published by the U.S.
2010 (75 FR 55355), as applicable; and 29 CFR
Department of Commerce, which is in- 1911.
corporated by reference as specified in
§ 1910.6. § 1910.33 Table of contents.
(4) Handholds, or other effective This section lists the sections and
means, shall be provided on portable paragraph headings contained in
dockboards to permit safe handling. §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39.
(5) Positive protection shall be pro-
vided to prevent railroad cars from § 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.
being moved while dockboards or
(a) Every employer is covered.
bridge plates are in position. (b) Exit routes are covered.
(b) Forging machine area. (1) Machines (c) Definitions.
shall be so located as to give (i) enough
clearance between machines so that § 1910.35 Compliance with Alternate Exit Route
the movement of one operator will not Codes.
interfere with the work of another, (ii) § 1910.36 Design and construction requirements
ample room for cleaning machines and for exit routes.
handling the work, including material (a) Basic requirements.
and scrap. The arrangement of ma- (b) The number of exit routes must be ade-
chines shall be such that operators will quate.
not stand in aisles. (c) Exit discharge.
(2) Aisles shall be provided of suffi- (d) An exit door must be unlocked.
cient width to permit the free move- (e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.
(f) The capacity of an exit route must be ade-
ment of employees bringing and remov- quate.
lpowell on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB

ing material. This aisle space is to be (g) An exit route must meet minimum height
independent of working and storage and width requirements.
space. (h) An outdoor exit route is permitted.

160

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