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Chapter 9:

Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population

9.1 H : p  .2; H : p  .2;


0 1

9.2 H 0
: No change in interest rates is warranted
H 1
: Reduce interest rates to stimulate the economy

9.3 H :p 0
 p : There is no difference in the percentage of underfilled cereal
A B

packages
H :p1 A
 p : Lower percentage after the change
B

9.4

a. Motorist group perspective:


H₀: Increasing the motorway speed limit would be safe.
H₁: It would not be safe.

b. Road Safety group perspective:


H₀: Increasing the motorway speed limit would not be safe.
H₁: It would be safe.

9.5
H₀:   5 minutes
H₁:  > 5 minutes

9.6 H : T  T No difference in the total number of votes between Bush and Gore
0 B G

H : T T Gore with more votes


1 B G

9.7 A random sample is obtained from a population with a variance of 625 and the sample mean is
computed. Test the null hypothesis H 0 :   100 versus the alternative H 1 :   100 . 2
= 625 Compute the critical value xc and state the decision rule
a. n = 25. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(25)/ 25 =
108.225

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9-1
9-2 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

b. n = 16. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(25)/ 16 =
110.28125
c. n = 44. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(25)/ 44 =
106.1998
d. n = 32 Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(25)/ 32 = 107.26994

9.8 A random sample of n = 25 is obtained from a population with a variance  2 and the
sample mean is computed. Test the null hypothesis H 0 :   100 versus the alternative

H 1
:   100 with alpha = .05. Compute the critical value xc and state the decision rule
a.  2 = 225. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(15)/ 25 = 104.935
b.  2 = 900. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(30)/ 25 = 109.87
c.  2
= 400. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(20)/ 25 = 106.58
d.  2
= 600. Reject H 0
if x  xc  0  z  n = 100 +1.645(24.4949)/ 25 = 108.0588

9.9 A random sample is obtained from a population with variance = 400 and the sample
mean is computed to be 70. Consider the null hypothesis H 0 :   80 versus the
alternative H :
1
 80 . Compute the p-value
x  0 70  80
a. n = 25. z  = = -2.50. p  value  P( z p  2.50) = .0062
 n 20 25
x  0 70  80
b. n = 16. z  = = -2.00. p  value  P( z p  2.00) = .0228
 n 20 16
x  0 70  80
c. n = 44. z  = = -3.32. p  value  P( z p  3.32) = .0004
 n 20 44
x  0 70  80
d. n = 32. z  = = -2.83. p  value  P( z p  2.83) = .0023
 n 20 32

9.10 A random sample of n = 25, variance =  2 and the sample mean is = 70. Consider the
null hypothesis H 0 :   80 versus the alternative H 1 :   80 . Compute the p-
value
x  0 70  80
a.  2 = 225. z  = = -3.33. p  value  P ( z p  3.33) = .0004
 n 15 25
x  0 70  80
b.  2 = 900. z  = = -1.67. p  value  P( z p  1.67) = .0475
 n 30 25

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Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-3

x  0 70  80
c.  2 = 400. z  = = -2.50. p  value  P( z p  2.50) = .0062
 n 20 25
x  0 70  80
d.  2 = 600. z  = = -2.04. p  value  P( z p  2.04) = .0207
 n 24.4949 25

9.11 H : 0
 16 ; H :
1
 16 ; reject H 0
if Z.10 < -1.28
15.84  16
Z = -1.6, therefore, Reject H 0
at the 10% level.
.4 16

9.12 H : 0
 50 ; H :
1
 50 ; reject H 0
if Z.10 < -1.28
48.2  50
Z = -1.8, therefore, Reject H 0
at the 10% level.
3 9

9.13 a. H : 0
 3; H :1
 3 ; reject H 0
if Z.05 > 1.645
3.07  3
Z = 1.4, therefore, Do Not Reject H 0 at the 5% level.
.4 64
b. p-value = 1 – FZ(1.4) = 1 - .9192 = .0808
c. the p-value would be higher – the graph should show that the p-value now
corresponds to the area in both of the tails of the distribution whereas before it was
the area in one of the tails.
d. A one-sided alternative is more appropriate since we are not interested in detecting
possible low levels of impurity, only high levels of impurity.

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9-4 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.14 Test H :0


 100 ; H :
1
 100 , using n = 25 and alpha = .05
x  0 106  100
a. x  106, s  15 . Reject if  tn 1, = 2.00. Since 2.00 is greater than
s n 15 25
the critical value of 1.711, there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
x  0 104  100
b. x  104, s  10 . Reject if  tn 1, , = 2.00. Since 2.00 is greater than
s n 10 25
the critical value of 1.711, there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
x  0 95  100
c. Assuming a one-tailed test, x  95, s  10 . Reject if  tn 1, , = -2.50.
s n 10 25
Since -2.50 is less than the critical value of 1.711, there is insufficient evidence to
reject the null hypothesis.
x  0 92  100
d. Assuming a one-tailed upper test, x  92, s  18 . Reject if  tn 1, , =
s n 18 25
-2.22. Since -2.22 is less than the critical value of 1.711, there is insufficient
evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

9.15 Test H : 0
 100 ; H :1
 100 , using n = 36 and alpha = .05

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Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-5

x  0 106  100
a. x  106, s  15 . Reject if  tn 1,  , = 2.40. Since 2.40 is greater
s n 15 36
than -1.690, there is insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
x  0 104  100
b. x  104, s  10 . Reject if  tn 1, , = 2.40. Since 2.40 is greater
s n 10 36
than -1.690, there is insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
x  0 95  100
c. x  95, s  10 . Reject if  tn 1, , = -3.00. Since -3.00 is less than
s n 10 36
the critical value of -1.690, there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
x  0 92  100
d. x  92, s  18 . Reject if  tn 1, , = -2.67. Since -2.67 is less than
s n 18 36
the critical value of -1.690, there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

9.16 H : 0
 3; H 1 :   3;

2.4  3
t = -3.33, p-value is < .005. Reject H 0
at any common level of alpha
1.8 100

9.17 H : 0
 4; H 1 :   4; reject H 0
if 2.576 > t1561,.005 > -2.576
4.27  4
t = 8.08, p-value is < .010. Reject H 0
at any common level of alpha.
1.32 1562

9.18 H : 0
 0; H 1 :   0;
.078  0
t = 3.38, p-value is < .010. Reject H 0
at any common level of alpha
.201 76

9.19 H : 0
 3; H 1 :   3; reject H 0
if t171,.01 > 2.326
3.31  3
t = 5.81, p-value is < .01. Reject H 0
at any common level of alpha.
.7 172

9.20 H : 0
 0; H 1 :   0;
2.91  0
t = -3.35, p-value is < .005. Reject H 0
at any common level of alpha.
11.33 170

9.21 H : 0
 125.32; H 1 :   125.32; reject H 0
if |t15, .05/2 | > 2.131
131.78  125.32
t = 1.017, p-value is > .200. Do not reject H 0
at the .05 level.
25.4 16

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9-6 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.22 a. No, the 95% confidence level provides for 2.5% of the area in either tail. This does not
correspond to a one-tailed hypothesis test with an alpha of 5% which has 5% of the area in
one of the tails.
b. Yes.

9.23 H : 0
 10; H 1 :   10;
8.82  10
t = -1.554, p-value is between .100 and .050. Do not reject H 0
at
2.4013 10
common levels of alpha.

9.24 H : 0
 20; H 1 :   20; reject H 0
if |t8, .05/2 | > 2.306
20.3556  20
t = 1.741, therefore, do not reject H 0
at the 5% level
.6126 9

9.25 H : 0
 78.5; H 1 :   78.5; reject H 0
if |t7, .10/2 | > 1.895
74.5  78.5
t = -1.815, therefore, do not reject H 0
at the 10% level
6.2335 8

9.26

H₀:   75; H₁:  < 75; reject H₀ if t₂₄, .₀₅ < - 1.711

t = 70.2 – 75 = - 2.857, therefore reject H₀ at the 5% level.


8.4 / √25
.

9.27 a. H :0
 400; H 1 :   400;
381.35  400
t = -1.486, p-value = .0797, therefore, reject H 0 at alpha levels
48.60 15
greater than 7.97%
b. Yes, with a larger sample size, the standard error would be smaller and hence, the
calculated value of t would be larger. This would yield a smaller p-value and hence
the company’s claim could be rejected at a lower significance level than part a.

9.28 A random sample is obtained to test the null hypothesis of the proportion of women who
said yes to a new shoe model. H 0 : p  .25; H 1 : p  .25; . What value of the sample
proportion is required to reject the null hypothesis with alpha = .03?

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Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-7

a. n = 400. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 +1.88
(.25)(1  .25) / 400 = .2907
b. n = 225. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 +1.88
(.25)(1  .25) / 225 = .30427
c. n = 625. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 +1.88
(.25)(1  .25) / 625 = .28256
d. n = 900. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 +1.88
(.25)(1  .25) / 900 = .2771

9.29 A random sample is obtained to test the null hypothesis of the proportion of women who
would purchase an existing shoe model. H 0 : p  .25; H 1 : p  .25; . What value of the
sample proportion is required to reject the null hypothesis with alpha = .05?
a. n = 400. Reject H 0 if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 – 1.645
(.25)(1  .25) / 400 = .2144
b. n = 225. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 – 1.645
(.25)(1  .25) / 225 = .2025
c. n = 625. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 – 1.645
(.25)(1  .25) / 625 = .2215
d. n = 900. Reject H 0
if pˆ  pˆ c  p0  z p0 (1  p0 ) / n = .25 – 1.645
(.25)(1  .25) / 900 = .22626

9.30 H : p  .25; H : p  .25;


0 1

.2908  .25
z = 1.79, p-value = 1 – FZ(1.79) = 1 - .9633 = .0367
(.25)(.75) / 361
Therefore, reject H 0 at alpha greater than 3.67%

9.31

H₀: p  0.25; H₁: p < 0.25 reject H₀ if Z < - 1.645


n = 360
p = 69/360 = 0.192
0.192 – 0.25 = -2.542. (i.e. < -1.645). Therefore reject H₀ at the 5% level.
√0.25(1-0.25)/360

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-8 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.32 H : p  .5; H : p  .5;


0 1

.45  .5
z = -1.26, p-value = 2[1 – FZ(1.26)] = 2[1 – .8962] = .2076
(.5)(.5) /160
The probability of finding a random sample with a sample proportion this far or further
from .5 if the null hypothesis is really true is .2076

9.33 H : p  .5; H : p  .5; reject H


0 1 0
if |z.10/2 | > 1.645
.5226  .5
z = .64, p-value = 2[1 – FZ(.64)] = 2[1 – .7389] = .5222
(.5)(.5) /199
Therefore, do not reject H 0 at the 10% alpha level. The p-value shows the probability
of finding a random sample with a sample proportion this far or farther from .5 if the null
hypothesis is really true is .5222

9.34 H : p  .5; H : p  .5;


0 1

.56  .5
z = .85, p-value = 1 – FZ(.85) = 1 – .8023 = .1977
(.5)(.5) / 50
Therefore, reject H 0 at alpha levels in excess of 19.77%
9.35 H : p  .75; H : p  .75;
0 1

.686  .75
z = -1.94, p-value = 1 – FZ(1.94) = 1 – .9738 = .0262
(.25)(.75) /172
Therefore, reject H 0 at alpha levels in excess of 2.62%

9.36 H : p  .75; H : p  .75;


0 1

.6931  .75
z = -1.87, p-value = 1 – FZ(1.87) = 1 – .9693 = .0307
(.75)(.25) / 202
Therefore, reject H 0 at alpha levels in excess of 3.07%

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-9

9.37 Compute the probability of Type II error and the power for the following
 5.041  5.10 
a.   5.10 .   P( x  xc |    * = P ( x  5.041|  *  5.10) = P  z  
 .1 16 
= P(z ≤ -2.36) = .0091. Power = 1 – .0091 = .9909
 5.041  5.03 
b.   5.03 .   P ( x  xc |    * = P ( x  5.041|  *  5.03) = P  z  
 .1 16 
= P(z ≤ .44) = .6700. Power = 1 – .6700 = .3300
 5.041  5.15 
c.   5.15 .   P( x  xc |    * = P ( x  5.041|  *  5.15) = P  z  
 .1 16 
= P(z ≤ -4.36) = .0000. Power = 1 – .0000 = 1.0000
 5.041  5.07 
d.   5.07 .   P( x  xc |    * = P ( x  5.041|  *  5.07) = P  z  
 .1 16 
= P(z ≤ -1.16) = .1230 . Power = 1 – .1230 = .8770

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9-10 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.38 What is the probability of Type II error if the actual proportion is


 
 
.46  p *
.54  p *
a. P  .52 .   P(.46  pˆ  .54 | p  p* ) = P  z
 p* (1  p* ) p* (1  p* ) 
 
 n n 
 
 .46  .52 .54  .52 
= P z  = P(-2.94 ≤ z ≤ .98) = .4984 + .3365 = .8349
 .52(1  .52) .52(1  .52) 
 600 600 
 
 .46  .58 .54  .58 
b. P  .58 .   P(.46  pˆ  .54 | p  p* ) = P  z 
 .58(1  .58) .58(1  .58) 
 600 600 
= P(-5.96 ≤ z ≤ -1.99) = .5000 – .4767 = .0233
 
 .46  .53 .54  .53 
c. P  .53 .   P(.46  pˆ  .54 | p  p* ) = P  z 
 .53(1  .53) .53(1  .53) 
 600 600 
= P(-3.44 ≤ z ≤ .49) = .4997 + .1879 = .6876
 
 .46  .48 .54  .48 
d. P  .48 .   P(.46  pˆ  .54 | p  p* ) = P  z 
 .48(1  .48) .48(1  .48) 
 600 600 
= P(-.98 ≤ z ≤ 2.94) = .3365 + .4984 = .8349
 
 .46  .43 .54  .43 
e. P  .43 .   P(.46  pˆ  .54 | p  p* ) = P  z 
 .43(1  .43) .43(1  .43) 
 600 600 
= P(1.48 ≤ z ≤5.44) = .5000 – .4306 = .0694

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-11

X  50
9.39 a. H 0
is rejected when < -1.28 or when X < 48.2. Given an X = 48.2 hours,
3 9
the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.
48.2  49
b. The power of the test = 1 -  = 1 – P(Z > ) = 1 – P(Z > -.80) = .2119
3 9

X 3
9.40 a. H 0
is rejected when > 1.645 or when X > 3.082. Since the sample mean is
.4 64
3.07% which is less than the critical value, the decision is do not reject the null
hypothesis.
3.082  3.1
b. The  = P(Z < ) = 1 – FZ(.36) = .3594. Power of the test = 1 -  = .6406
.4 64
X 4
9.41 a. H 0
is rejected when –2.5758 < < 2.5758 or when 3.914 < X < 4.086.
1.32 1562
Since the sample mean was 4.27, which is greater than the upper critical value, the
decision is to reject the null hypothesis.
3.914  3.95 4.086  3.95
b.  = P( <Z< ) = P(-1.08 > Z > 4.07) = .8599
1.32 1562 1.32 1562

p  .5
9.42 H 0
is rejected when < -1.28 or when p < .477
.25 / 802
.477  .45
The power of the test = 1 -  = 1 – P(Z > ) = 1-P(Z > 1.54) = .9382
(.45)(.55) / 802

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-12 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.43
a. H₀: p  0.25; H₁: p < 0.25 reject H₀ if Z < - 1.645

n = 340
p̂ = 61/340 = 0.179
Reject when:

P – 0.25 < -1.645


√0.25(1-0.25)/340

0.179 – 0.25 = -3.024. (i.e. < -1.645). Therefore reject H₀ at the 5% level.
√0.25(1-0.25)/340
Or when:
p̂ < 0.25 + – 1.645√0.25(1-0.25)/340 = 0.25 – 0.0386 = 0.2114

b. 0.2114 – 0.2 = 0.53 Probability = 1 - 0.7019 = 0.2981(29.8%)


√(0.8)(0.2)/340

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Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-13

p  .5
9.44 a. H 0
is rejected when –1.645 > > 1.645 or when .442 > p > .558. Since
.25 /199
the sample proportion is .5226 which is within the critical values. The decision is that
there is insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
.442  .6 .558  .6
b.  = P( < Z< ) = 1-P(-4.55 < Z < -1.21) = .1131
(.6)(.4) /199 (.6)(.4) /199

30.8  32
9.45 a.   P ( Z  ) = P(Z < -2.4) = 0.0082
3 36
30.8  32
b.   P( Z  ) = P(Z < -1.2) =0.1151.
3 9
The larger probability of a Type I error is due to the smaller sample size which increases
the standard error of the mean.
30.8  31
c.   P ( Z  ) = P(Z > -.4) =0.6554
3 36

.14  .09
9.46 a.   P( Z  ) = P(Z > 1.75 ) = 0.0401
(.09)(.91) /100
.14  .09
b.   P( Z  ) = P(Z > 3.49 ) = 0.0002 . The smaller probability of a
(.09)(.91) / 400
Type I error is due to the larger sample size which lowers the standard error of the mean.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-14 Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition
th

.14  .20
c.   P( Z  ) = P(Z < -1.5) = .0668
(.2)(.8) /100
d. i) lower, ii) higher

(n  1) s 2 24(165)
9.47 a. H :   100; H 1 :   100;  
2 2 2
 = 39.6,
0
 2
100
 2
(24,.025)  39.36,  2
(24,.010)  42.98
Therefore, reject H 0
at the 2.5% level but not at the 1% level of significance.
(n  1) s 2 28(165)
H 0 :   100; H 1 :   100;   
2 2 2
b. = 46.2,
 2
100
 2
(28,.025)  44.46,  2
(28,.010)  48.28
Therefore, reject H 0
at the 2.5% level but not at the 1% level of significance.

(n  1) s 2 24(159)
H 0 :   100; H 1 :   100;   
2 2 2
c. = 38.16,
 2
100
 2
(24,.050)  36.42,  2
(24,.025)  39.36
Therefore, reject H 0
at the 5% level but not at the 2.5% level of significance.

(n  1) s 2 37(67)
H 0 :   100; H 1 :   100;   
2 2 2
d. = 24.79,
 2
100
 2
(37,.100)  48.36,  2
(37,.05)  52.19
Therefore, do not reject H 0
at any common level of significance.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-15

9.48 H 0
:  2  500; H 1 :  2  500; reject H 0
if  2(7,.10) > 12.02
(n  1) s 2 7(933.982)
2   = 13.0757, Therefore, reject H at the 10% level
 2
500 0

9.49 a. s2 = 5.1556
b. H 0 :  2  2.25; H 1 :  2  2.25; reject H 0
if  2(9,.05) > 16.92
9(5.1556)
2  = 20.6224. Reject H 0
at the 5% level
2.25

9.50 H 0
:  2  300; H 1 :  2  300;
29(480)
2  = 46.4, p-value = .0214. Reject H 0
at the 5% level
300

9.51 The hypothesis test assumes that the population values are normally distributed
H 0 :   2.0; H 1 :   2.0; reject H 0 if  (19,.05) > 30.14
2

19(2.36) 2
 
2
= 26.4556. Do not reject H at the 5% level
(2) 2 0

9.52 H 0
:   18.2; H 1 :   18.2;
24(15.3) 2
2  = 16.961.
(18.2) 2
Do not reject H 0 at the 10% level since  2 >15.66 =  2 (24,.10)

9.53 a. The null hypothesis is the statement that is assumed to be true unless there is sufficient
evidence to suggest that the null hypothesis can be rejected. The alternative
hypothesis is the statement that will be accepted if there is sufficient evidence to
reject the null hypothesis
b. A simple hypothesis assumes a specific value for the population parameter that is
being tested. A composite hypothesis assumes a range of values for the population
parameter.
c. One sided alternatives can be either a one-tailed upper (> greater than) or a one-tailed
lower (< less than) statement about the population parameter. Two sided alternatives
are made up of both greater than or less than statements and are written as ( not
equal to).
d. A Type I error is falsely rejecting the null hypothesis. To make a Type I error, the
truth must be that the null hypothesis is really true and yet you conclude to reject the
null and accept the alternative. A Type II error is falsely not rejecting the null
hypothesis when in fact the null hypothesis is false. To make a Type II error, the null
hypothesis must be false (the alternative is true) and yet you conclude to not reject the
null hypothesis.

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9-16 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

e. Significance level is the chosen level of significance that establishes the probability
of a making a Type I error. This is represented by alpha. The power of the test, 1 –
β, is the ability of the hypothesis test to identify correctly a false null hypothesis and
reject it.

9.54 The p-value indicates the likelihood of getting the sample result at least as far away from
the hypothesized value as the one that was found, assuming that the distribution is really
centered on the null hypothesis. The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence against
the null hypothesis.

9.55 a. X  45, s  10.5409


b. H :
0
 40; H 1 :   40; reject H 0
if t(9,.05) > 1.833
45  40
t = 1.50, therefore, do not reject H 0
at the 5% level
10.5409 10

9.56 a. False. The significance level is the probability of making a Type I error – falsely
rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact the null is true.
b. True
c. True
d. False. The power of the test is the ability of the test to correctly reject a false null
hypothesis.
e. False. The rejection region is farther away from the hypothesized value at the 1%
level than it is at the 5% level. Therefore, it is still possible to reject at the 5% level
but not at the 1% level.
f. True
g. False. The p-value tells the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis.

9.57 a. X  333 / 9  37; sx  312 8 = 6.245


H : 0
 40; H 1 :   40; reject H 0
if t8,.05 < -1.86
37  40
t = -1.44, therefore, do not reject H 0
at the 5% level
6.245 9

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-17

776  800
9.58 a.   P ( Z  ) = P(Z < -2) = .0228
120 100)
776  740
b.   P( Z  ) = P(Z > 3) = .0014
120 100
c. i) smaller ii) smaller
d. i) smaller ii) larger

9.59 a. H : p  .25; H : p  .25; reject H


0 1 0
if z.05 < -1.645
.215  .25
z = -1.90, therefore, reject H 0 at the 5% level
(.25)(.75) / 545
p  .25
b. H 0 is rejected when < -1.645 or when p < .2195
(.25)(.75) / 545
.2195  .2
i) power = 1 – P(Z > ) = 1 – P(Z > 1.14) = .8729
(.2)(.8) / 545
.2195  .25
ii) power = 1 – P(Z > ) = 1 – P(Z > -1.64) = .0505
(.25)(.75) / 545
.2195  .3
iii) power = 1 – P(Z > ) = 1 – P(Z > -4.1) = .0000
(.3)(.7) / 545

9.60 H : p  .5; H : p  .5;


0 1

.4808  .5
z = -.39, p-value = 2[1-FZ(.39)] = 2[1-.6517] = .6966
(.5)(.5) /104
Therefore, reject H 0 at levels in excess of 69.66%

9.61
H₀: p = 0.5; H₁: p > 0.5

n = 95

p̂ = 54/95 = 0.568

Z = 0.568 – 0.5 = 1.33,


     √0.5(1- 0.5)/95

p-value = 0.0918, therefore reject H₀ at alpha levels in excess of 9.18%

9.62 H : p  .25; H : p  .25; reject H


0 1 0
if z.05 > 1.645

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-18 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

.3333  .25
z = 2.356, therefore, reject H 0
at the 5% level
(.25)(.75) /150

9.63 H : p  .2; H : p  .2;


0 1

.2746  .2
z = 2.22, p-value = 1-FZ(2.22) = 1-.9868 = .0132
(.2)(.8) /142
Therefore, reject H 0 at levels in excess of 1.32%
9.64 Cost Model where W = Total Cost: W = 1,000 + 5X
W  1, 000  5(400)  3, 000
125
 2W  (5)2 (625)  15, 625,  W  125,  W   25
25
H 0 : W  3000; H1: W  3000;
Using the test statistic criteria: (3050 – 3000)/25 = 2.00 which yields a p-value of .0228,
therefore, reject H 0 at the .05 level.
Using the sample statistic criteria: X crit  3, 000  (25)(1.645)  3041.1 , X calc  3, 050 ,
since X calc  3, 050 > X crit  3041.1 , therefore, reject H 0
at the .05 level.

9.65 H 0
:   39, H 1 :   39
40  39
t40   1.19 . Probability of X = 40 given that  is 39 is .1170. Therefore, the
50
71
Vice President’s claim is not very strong.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-19

9.66 Per capita consumption of fruits and vegetables


x = 172.79; s = 19.254
x 
H 0 :   170; H 1 :   170; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
172.79  170
= 8.075 Since 8.075 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
19.254 3108
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Per capita consumption of snack foods


x = 114.11; s = 9.541
x  0
H :
0
 114; H 1 :   114; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

114.11  114
= 0.66. Since 0.66 is greater than the critical value of -1.645, there is no
9.541 3108
sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Per capita consumption of soft drinks


x = 66.81; s = 7.5
x  0
H :
0
 65; H 1 :   65; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

66.81  65
= 13.487. Since 13.487 is greater than the critical value of -1.645,
7.5 3108
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Per capita consumption of meat


x = 70.38; s = 12.694
x  0
H :
0
 70; H 1 :   70; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

70.38  70
= 1.69. Since 1.69 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
12.694 3108
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-20 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.67 Obesity rates of adults in the U.S. population.


x = 28.29; s = 3.625
x 
H 0 :   28; H 1 :   28; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
28.29  28
= 4.461. Since 4.461 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
3.625 3140
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Low-income preschool obesity rate in the U.S. population


x = 14.19; s = 3.716
x 
H 0 :   13; H 1 :   13; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
14.19  13
= 16.589. Since 16.589 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
3.716 2691
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

9.68 H 0
:   40, H 1 :   40; X  49.73  42.86 reject H 0
One-Sample T: Salmon Weight
Test of mu = 40 vs mu > 40

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean


Salmon Weigh 39 49.73 10.60 1.70

Variable 95.0% Lower Bound T P


Salmon Weigh 46.86 5.73 0.000
At the .05 level of significance we have strong enough evidence to reject Ho that the true
mean weight of salmon is no different than 40 in favor of Ha that the true mean weight is
significantly greater than 40.

X crit  Ho  tcrit ( S x ) : 40 + 1.686(1.70) = 42.8662


Population mean for  = .50 (power=.50): tcrit = 0.0: 42.8662 + 0.0(1.70) = 42.8662
Population mean for  = .25 (power=.75): tcrit = .681: 42.8662 + .681(1.70) = 44.0239
Population mean for  = .10 (power=.90): tcrit = 1.28: 42.8662 + 1.28(1.70) = 45.0422
Population mean for  = .05 (power=.95): tcrit = 1.645: 42.8662 + 1.645(1.70) = 45.6627

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-21

Power curve
For beta = .50 .25 .10 and .05
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Power

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
40 41 42 43 44 45 46
PopMean

9.69 a. H : 0
 1.6; H 1 :   1.6; reject H 0
if |z.05|> 1.645
1.615  1.6
z = 1.20, p-value =2[1-FZ(1.2)]= 0.2302.
.05 16
Do not reject H 0 at the 10% level
b. H 0
:   .05; H 1 :   .05; reject H 0
if  2(15,.10)  22.31
15(.086) 2
 
2
= 44.376. Reject H at the 10% level
(.05) 2 0

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-22 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.70 a. Assume that the population is normally distributed


One-Sample T: Grams:
Test of mu = 5 vs mu not = 5
Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean
Grams:11-34 12 4.9725 0.0936 0.0270

Variable 95.0% CI T P
Grams:11-34 ( 4.9130, 5.0320) -1.02 0.331

x  4.9725; s  .0936 , H :0


 5; H 1 :   5; reject H 0
if |t(11, .025| > 2.201
4.9725  5
t = -1.018. Do not reject H 0
at the 5% level
.0936 12

b. Assume that the population is normally distributed


H 0 :   .025; H 1 :   .025; reject H 0 if  (11,.05)  19.68
2

11(.0936) 2
2  = 154.19. Therefore, reject H at the 5% level
(.025) 2 0

9.71 x  333 / 9  37; s  312000 8 = 197.484


H 0
:   6; H 1 :   6; reject H 0
if  2(8,.10)  13.36
8(197.484) 2
2  = 8666.651 . reject H at the 10% level
(6) 2 0

9.72 Obesity rates of adults in the U.S. population.


x = 28.29; s = 3.625
x 
H 0 :   28; H 1 :   28; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
28.29  28
= 4.461. Since 4.461 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
3.625 3140
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Low-income preschool obesity rate in the U.S. population


x = 14.19; s = 3.716
x 
H 0 :   13; H 1 :   13; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
14.19  13
= 16.589. Since 16.589 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
3.716 2691
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-23

9.73 Obesity rates of adults in California


x = 23.34; s = 3.224
x  0
H :
0
 28; H 1 :   28; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

23.34  28
= -11.00. Since -11.00 is smaller than the critical value of 1.645,
3.224 58
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Low-income preschool obesity rate in California


x = 16.18; s = 2.535
x 
H 0 :   13; H 1 :   13; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
16.18  13
= 9.462. Since 9.462 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
2.535 57
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Obesity rates of adults in Michigan.


x = 29.49; s = 1.397
x  0
H :
0
 28; H 1 :   28; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

29.49  28
= 9.743. Since 9.743 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
1.397 83
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Low-income preschool obesity rate in Michigan


x = 14.02; s = 2.533
x 
H 0 :   13; H 1 :   13; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
14.02  13
= 3.662. Since 3.662 is greater than the critical value of 1.645,
2.533 82
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Obesity rates of adults in Minnesota.


x = 27.24; s = 0.907
x  0
H : 0
 28; H 1 :   28; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

27.24  28
= -7.778. Since -7.778 is smaller than the critical value of 1.645,
0.907 87
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-24 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

Low-income preschool obesity rate in Minnesota


x = 12.51; s = 2.919
x 
H 0 :   13; H 1 :   13; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
12.51  13
= -1.576. Since -1.576 is smaller than the critical value of 1.645,
2.919 87
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Obesity rates of adults in Florida.


x = 26.82; s = 4.054
x  0
H : 0
 28; H 1 :   28; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

26.82  28
= -2.39. Since -2.39 is smaller than the critical value of 1.645,
4.054 67
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Low-income preschool obesity rate in Florida


x = 12.51; s = 2.919
x 
H 0 :   13; H 1 :   13; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
13.53  13
= 0.993. Since 0.993 is smaller than the critical value of 1.645,
4.338 66
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

9.74 Mean weights of Men in the first interview


x = 27.98; s = 5.468
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
27.98  30
= -16.985. Since -16.985 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
5.468 2108
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Mean weights of Men in the second interview


x = 28.07; s = 5.447
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
28.07  30
= -15.562. Since -15.562 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
5.447 1925
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-25

There is no difference in the results obtained from the first and second
Interviews for men.

Mean weights of Women in the first interview


x = 28.93; s = 7.022
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
28.93  30
= -7.238. Since -7.238 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
7.022 2274
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Mean weights of Women in the second interview


x = 29.02; s = 7.071
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
29.02  30
= -6.385. Since -6.385 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
7.071 2132
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
There is no difference in the results obtained from the first and second
Interviews for women.

9.75 Mean weights of Immigrants in the first interview


x = 27.63; s = 5.272
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
27.63  30
= -13.261. Since -13.261 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
5.272 870
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Mean weights of Immigrants in the second interview


x = 27.75; s = 5.317
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
27.75  30
= -11.856. Since -11.856 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
5.317 787
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
There is no difference in the results obtained from the first and second
Interviews for immigrants

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


9-26 th
Statistics for Business & Economics, 7 edition

9.76 Mean weights of White people in the first interview


x = 27.85; s = 6.065
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
27.85  30
= -17.18. Since -17.18 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
6.065 2357
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Mean weights of White people in the second interview


x = 27.92; s = 6.117
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
27.92  30
= -16.019. Since -16.019 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
6.117 2213
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
There is no difference in the results obtained from the first and second
Interviews for White people.

9.77 Mean weights of Hispanic people in the first interview


x = 28.83; s = 5.566
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
28.83  30
= -6.622. Since -6.622 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
5.566 999
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Mean weights of Hispanic people in the second interview


x = 28.90; s = 5.603
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
28.90  30
= -5.984. Since -5.984 is smaller than the critical value of -1.645,
5.603 934
there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.
There is no difference in the results obtained from the first and second
Interviews for Hispanic people.

9.78 Mean weights of people who have been diagnosed with high blood pressure in the

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education


Chapter 9: Hypothesis Tests of a Single Population 9-27

first interview
x = 30.15; s = 6.613
x  0
H :0
 30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if
s n
 tn 1,

30.15  30
= 0.913. Since 0.913 is greater than the critical value of -1.645,
6.613 1522
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

Mean weights of people who have been diagnosed with high blood pressure in
the second interview
x = 30.29; s = 6.651
x 
H 0 :   30; H 1 :   30; . Reject if s n0  tn1,
30.29  30
= 1.656. Since 1.656 is greater than the critical value of -1.645,
6.651 1420
there is no sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis.

There is no difference in the results obtained from the first and second
Interviews for people diagnosed with high blood pressure.

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