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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents 2

CHAPTER 1: Problem and Its Background 3-13


Introduction 3
Background of the Study 5
Theoretical Framework 7
Conceptual Framework 9
Statement of the Problem 11
Significance of the Study 13
Scope and Limitations 13
Definition of Terms 14

CHAPTER 2: Review of the Related Literature 16-23


Local Literature and Studies 16
Foreign Literature 20
Foreign Studies 22
Synthesis 22

CHAPTER 3: Methodology 24-28

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CHAPTER I

PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

ROTC has been a long established part of the educational system as a training

ground for army reserve members."The most prominent argument on behalf of ROTC is

the traditional “citizen soldier” rationale, which emphasizes how ROTC can broaden the

military’s exposure to high levels of the civilian mind. In this line of argument, officers

trained by ROTC are more likely to balance military virtues with a commitment to the

norms of civil society and the constitutional order. This balance is good for America

because, among other things, it can enhance effective civilian control of the military.

The contemporary viability of the citizen soldier concept has occasioned much debate,

but it continues to be a useful and important aspiration in a polity in which deep respect

for constitutional principles coexists with substantial defense obligations and needs."

(Dawns, 2011)

ROTC strives to develop the leadership skills of a student not only in theory but

also as an application to the military training that the program has. Military discipline and

military courtesy are tenets of the curriculum, infusing these to produce able-bodied and

military-ready students that can be called to service in times of need. The country’s

disadvantage in terms of weapons and materials for combat is greatly emphasized

when the Philippines is under threat, therefore at least training the students to have the

capability to fight and defend is a form of heightening the military capabilities to some

extent. The discipline that ROTC students develop under the training is tantamount to

the maturity of a person, especially the clarity of mind that they display under pressure.

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The ideal ordeal is that students who finished ROTC can be used as reserves for the

AFP or Armed Forces of the Philippines.

However this army training curriculum for students faced problems since its

creation, resulting to countless that aimed to finish the program.“Discontent over ROTC

- its content, conduct, the competence of its training staff and the corruption that often

plagued the individual units - had been well known for years. Casual surfing of Filipino

student websites often reveals short essays or articles about the perceived

pointlessness of the program. Student groups also occasionally took up the matter in

their roster of grievances." (ARESCOM, 2016) Not only was its application deemed

ineffective but students also suffer from unjust offices who abuse their powers. The

span of ROTC's life has been plagued with protests from students and parents as well

who wish to abolish this training.

The ROTC program was made optional and voluntary, and this led to a decline in

the number of young men taking up the program in preparation for a possible military

career. It has resulted in the loss of potential leaders for our military – young men

who would be interested in a military career without necessarily having to join the

Philippine Military Academy.

Changes were made and now that President Duterte promised more changes,

ROTC is pushed to be mandatory to all students. Dissent over this was present in the

form of contradictions that ROTC is not the way to make the students devoted to their

country, and that the program brought more problems than achieving the goal that it

pursues to attain.

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The question remains of whether ROTC is really necessary to reach the hearts of

the students to raise their sense of patriotism to the country. “To attain effective

changes, it is essential that a superior authority take the initiative and force thoughtful

action.” (Ringgold, 1959) Imperfections to the curriculum and implementation of ROTC

cannot be denied, and the harnessing of these aspects should also be a part of the

changes that the program should pursue before it can be fully utilized by the students.

This research will determine whether the proposed mandatory implementation of

ROTC by President Duterte is a way to strengthen patriotism to the students or a form

of militarization through the perception of senior high students of the Polytechnic

University of the Philippines.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education has always been a priority for Filipino families as the necessary

weapon in establishing one's self in the platform of the world. It is the conceived idea

that attaining proper and formal education enables a person to be competitive and to

develop character as well as attitude. The field of education itself has evolved to suit the

learning needs of the youth today. The goal of learning is not only limited to the concept

of instilling lessons of Mathematics or Science to the minds of students but also the

development of a child's character and sense of self in order to pursue growth that can

be a foundation to being a productive and responsible citizen.

Long before education became available to all social classes in the Philippines, a

form of ROTC was already created during the Spanish occupation when students from

the University of Santo Tomas were made into a battalion to help in the war against

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invading English troops. This shows how the need for people to fight was the cause for

the creation of what is now called ROTC.

"ROTC aims provide military education and training for students to mobilize them

for national defense preparedness. Its specific objectives include preparation of college

students for service in the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the event of an

emergency and their training to become reservists and into commissioned officers of the

AFP" (Wikipedia) In 1939, ROTC was made mandatory by President Manuel L. Quezon,

a move that was later rallied into abolishment over the death of Cadet Sergeant Major

Mark Welson Chua.

Revisions to make the program better were done by the Congress, resulting to

the creation of the National Service Training Program or NSTP. NSTP removed ROTC

as a prerequisite to graduate for the male students and the women were also included

to the change. They were now also required to participate in the national service. NSTP

became another option to take up in order to still continue the point of harnessing a

sense of patriotism in the students. The call for abolishing ROTC was rekindled when

students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines was reported to have been

tortured by ROTC officers. The program was once again put into the spotlight, where

protests started again.

Today ROTC is still present, but President Duterte wishes to make it mandatory

to all students as a form of instilling patriotism to the hearts of the Filipinos at a young

age. This research aims to determine if the senior high students that can be affected by

this mandatory implementation also shares this perception or if this move is a sign of

invigorating the militarization of the Philippines.

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Institutional arguments rely not on aggregations of individual action, or on

patterned interaction games between individuals, but on “institutions that structure

action” (Clemens and Cook 1999: 442). Institutions are emergent, “higher-order” factors

above the individual level, constraining or constituting the interests and political

participation of actors “without requiring repeated collective mobilization or authoritative

intervention to achieve these regularities” (Jepperson 1991: 145).

As the new administration sits after election, proposed reforms occur on the

certain programs such as the reinstatement of mandatory ROTC. But certain groups,

specifically Anakbayan and National Union of Students of the Philippines (NUSP)

already express their anti-sentiments due to some abuses and incidents that are

reported before or even at the present time that it is not mandatory.

Institutional arguments are not about aggregations of individual action, but

higher-order factors above the individual level that influence political processes and

outcomes and tend to produce regular patterns or stasis.

Considering that the government as an institution with given power to provide the

welfare of its constituencies by means policies should consider the stance of any

persons or groups that will be affected by those policies. In the first place, the institution

must act in accordance with what’s for the betterment of the people who elected them

without any authoritative intervention. The government should consider the rallies,

collective mobilizations and oppressions made by some youth organizations and other

groups who are fighting to stop the violence inside ROTC program. It should not just

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look for the mandate of the higher officials hence; take those oppressions as a tool to

improve their policies.

Primarily, the national governments together with the ROTC as an institution are

the main concern here. The subsequent incidents and abuses inside the ROTC

program show that the government lacks in intervention to address those issues. The

only concern of the current administration is the instilling of nationalism and patriotism

thru mandatory ROTC without ratifying or reforming the ROTC Program. In lieu with

this, Anakbayan and NUSP now push for the abolishment of the said program because

they believe that making it mandatory will worsen the situation and instilling patriotism

and nationalism can be achieved by other means than the program of ROTC.

If the government will listen to the people or use these mobilizations as a tool to

improve the ROTC Program, there will be no next mobilization that will happen or if the

government will improve and will give attention to the issues inside and address it

properly, most of the people will support the action of the government.

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Present
System of
ROTC

Reinstatement Problems
Nature of
ROTC of Mandatory faced by
ROTC
ROTC

A means of
Instiliing
Nationalism or
Militarization?

The nature of Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Program in the Philippines is to provide

additional arms to the military force in times of war in the form of the students with proper

military training as well as proper leadership and discipline.Alongside with this, graduating from

ROTC can heighten the quality of protection and discipline that a student can have. One of the

goals of ROTC is to promote nationalism and patriotism, yet the problems arose as some

officers’ abuse their powers. Problems faced by ROTC can be seen inside the program, the

incidents and violence revealed by some students show that the program needs attention and

reform and this problem is the main reason why some youth organizations are totally against the

reinstatement of mandatory ROTC and push for the abolishment of the said program.

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CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM

•Instilling patriotism
• Reserve Officers' and nationalism of
Training Corps citizens
Officers •Preparing for threats
of domestic and
• Senior High School international terrorism
Students •Maintaining public
• Boon and Bane of
ROTC
PROCESS safety and security.
•Strengthening disaster
and emergency
• State responses to the
people
• Bringing back •Strengthening disaster
mandatory and emergency
INPUT Reserve Officers'
Training Corps
responses to the
people

OUTPUT
Figure 1.Conceptual paradigm showing the possible effects of mandatory ROTC on the

respondents, senior high school students and the state.

This shows the possible outcomes if they pursue mandatory Reserve Officers’

Training Corps in the Philippines. The key players (senior high school students, ROTC

officers) are the first ones to be affected if ever the mandatory implementation of ROTC

comes to life. The effects may be positive (nationalism and patriotism) or negative

(abuse of powers by the officials) Either way, the state is the key factor to be affected by

all these.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

At the end of this study, the researchers aim to answer the following questions

with regards to the mandatory reinstatement of Reserved Officers’ Training Corps

Program by the Duterte Administration:

1. Is the proposed mandatory implementation of ROTC a move to promote

militarization among the youth or to simply revive their patriotism for the country?

2. How will the youth accept the program?

3. What changes are needed for ROTC to become successful in achieving its

goals?

4. How can the government sustain the proposed changes in the program?

5. What are the other benefits of the ROTC program to the youth?

6. What are the other means that the government can use to revive the youth’s

patriotism and nationalism?

7. What is the government’s alternative plan if the mandatory implementation of

ROTC will not push through?

8. What problems can arise when ROTC will be implemented mandatorily?

Mark Welson Chua was a student of University of Santo Tomas and the first

victim of ROTC’s abuse of power after he exposed alleged irregularities inside the

ROTC department of the university. Chua, received death threats after his revelation.

His ROTC commandant advised him to undergo security training at Fort Bonifacio. Until

15 March 2001, he was able to meet the agent, but he was never seen alive. His body

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was found floating in Pasig River, wrapped in a carpet, hands and feet were tied and his

face wrapped in cloth and packing tape.

His death became the catalyst for the passage of Republic Act 9163 or the

"National Service Training Program Law", which removed completion of mandatory

ROTC as a precondition for graduation for male college students in the Philippines. As a

result, students were allowed to choose either ROTC or community service. But still, the

abuse made by some officers is inevitable. Last 2014, students from Polytechnic

University of the Philippines revealed their hazing experience inside the campus

performed by some ROTC officials.

The general problem in this study is the reinstatement of ROTC, per se. Given

the situations that happened before, why is it that the present administration still wants

to pursue it? Is this toinstill patriotism and discipline the youth of this nation or is this for

militarization?

Senator Win Gatchalian had already filed Senate Bill No. 200, the Mandatory Act,

on June 30. As a staunch supporter of ROTC, Gatchalian believes that this will

stimulate the love, patriotism and nationalism for the country.

But some youth organizations like National Union of Students of the Philippines

(NUSP) and militant group Anakbayan expressed their opposition against the actions

made by the government. They believe that there are other ways or programs that youth

can instill ‘discipline’ and ‘good citizenship.’ They’re pushing for the abolition of ROTC

as it never instilled nationalism, social responsibility, or discipline. Making it mandatory

again would result to an increase in the number of hazing and abuse victims.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

To the students. This research aims to raise awareness to the senior high

students who will be a part of the ROTC program if ever its mandatory implementation

becomes a reality or not. This can be used as a guide to students as a basis if they

decide to join ROTC or not.

To the ROTC officers. This study can be used for them as a reading tool that can

heighten their knowledge concerning the problems of the program. As a part of the body

of the ROTC program, the officers have a huge role to the betterment and improvement

of the training.

To the future researchers. This research can be used as reference to the studies

of the same sphere of subjects to upcoming researchers.

To the society. This study can be utilized as a guide for the people whether or not

they find the proposed mandatory implementation of ROTC agreeable and a useful tool

for instilling patriotism to the students or a form of militarization.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

This study focused on the perception of the Senior High School students in the

reinstatement of mandatory Reserve Officers’ Training Corps in the Philippines under

President Rodrigo Duterte Administration. The respondents of the study were

composed of 400 senior high school students (50 each from Science and Technology,

Engineering, Mathematics Strand1, Arts and Design Trace2, Accountancy, Business and

Management Strand- Business Administration3, Humanities and Social Sciences

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Strand4, and General Academic Strand5 and 20 each under Technical-Vocational

Tracks).

The researchers considered working on this study to find out how these high

school students view ROTC, if it intends to promote patriotism or if it only for

militarization. And to analyze the reasons why it should be reinstated after the series of

corruption scandals and youth protests against the course.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

 ROTC - Reserved Officers Training Corps

 Militarization – to adapt for military use

 Patriotism – love for or devotion to one’s country

 Nationalism – a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all

others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as

opposed to those of other nations or supranational.

 Fascism – a way of organizing a society in which a government ruled by dictator

controls the lives of the people and in which people are not allowed to disagree

with the government.

 Military Courtesy – pertains to the wholesome relationships between juniors and

seniors, between young and old, with all persons. It includes an essential

element of a full and proper appreciation of the rights of others. It also includes

special acts and ceremonial procedures, which are prescribed in official

regulations.

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 Military Discipline –is a state of order and obedience existing within a command.

It involves the ready subordination of the will of the individual for the good of the

group. It is an extension and specialized application of the discipline that

demands habitual but reasoned obedience that preserves initiative and functions

unfalteringly even in the absence of the commander.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Presented in this chapter are foreign and local literatures and studies gathered

from books and online resources used by the researchers in the pursuit of this paper in

order to have a more accurate study. This helped the researchers have a better

understanding and a wider perspective on this study

LOCAL LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The establishment of the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) primarily

focuses on its main goals: to instill the senses of nationalism and patriotism among the

youth, to prepare them for a noteworthy leadership and citizenship and utmost, to

develop leaders and militia of high-quality in the future ready to defend and stand up for

the betterment of the state and its people. The future of morale and safety of a nation

lies on the shoulders of our armed forces. It is vital even at a young age, being able-

bodied for such trainings to actively engage in our progress and emancipating safety of

the nation and the public’s development as well.

As a sub-field of Strategic Studies and Political Science, the study of civil-military

relations, focuses on the (Lovell, 1974) “threat posed by the military institution (the

existence of a large professional army) to the popular rule by a civilian government, and

to the individual citizen’s political and civil rights.”1

1John P. Lovell, “Civil Military Relations: Traditional and Modern Concepts Reappraised,” Civil -Military
Relations: Changing Concepts in the Seventies (New York; London: The Free Press and Collier MacMillan
Publishers, 1974). p. 11.

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The military program’s model was in parallel with that of the United States of

America which started in 1862 where it was instigated as an elective for college

students.2 (Changco & Santiago, 2013)

The pioneer unit of the ROTC was the University of the Philippines ROTC Unit or

the UP Vanguards which was established in 19223. Followed by the founding of the

ROTC units in National University, Ateneo de Manila, Liceo de Manila, and Colegio de

San Juan de Letran, until number of schools nationwide adopted the military program

after the endorsement of the Commonwealth Act No. 1.

As cited in Article VI, Section 35 of the Commonwealth Act No. 1 or the National

Defense Act of 1935, the concept of ROTC came into its being with only schools and

institutions designated by the President to maintain and establish a Reserve Officers’

Training Units, mandatory for every physically fit student to pursue a course of military

instruction designed to qualify him for a commission as a Third Lieutenant of reserve

with a power to choose where would he want to render service.

During the Second World War, the army reserves produced by the ROTC

program were first put into action. The ROTC cadets from the 33 colleges and

universities who have active units took part and were first seen in action during the

Second World War. Cadets from different Metro Manila units took part in the defense of

Bataan, while in the Visayas, 45 percent of the 75th Infantry Regiment of the US Armed

Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) were ROTC cadets of Silliman University. 4

2
Data taken from “Reviving Mandatory ROTC”, The Lasallian, September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2016
3UP ROTC,The Vanguards, www.uprotc.org” , Retrieved August 7, 2016
4Data taken from “Reviving Mandatory ROTC”, The Lasallian, September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2016

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In 1967, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order No. 59, making

ROTC a mandatory course in all colleges and universities with an enrollment of at least

250 male students. A noteworthy development during this period was a program called

“Rainbow Rangers-Sunday soldiers.” It provided an alternative to what was basically a

ceremony-centered ROTC training program. It exposed the cadets to small unit tactics,

unconventional warfare and home defense techniques.

The mandatory ROTC program was scrummed in the college level’s curriculum

in year 2002, after the reported death of a ROTC cadet Mark Wilson Chua 5, student of

University of Santo Tomas, allegedly killed by his co-cadets and upper-class men after

exposing corruption in the UST ROTC corps.

Following the passage of Republic Act 9163, an Act Establishing the National

Service Training Program (NSTP), unlike the ROTC, on the other hand, lets college

students to choose and complete at least one of its three components to be able to

graduate for a period of only two (2) academic semesters6: the ROTC program, which

provides military training; Literacy Training Service (LTS), which provides training on

teaching basic reading and math; and Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), which

involves students in activities contributing to community welfare, such as caring for the

environment, public safety, health, sports, and entrepreneurship, as defined in Section 3

of RA 9163.

5Data taken from “Military men suspected in UST student’s slay” Inquirer News, March 28, 2001
6Section6. Duration and Equivalent Course Unit, [REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9163] AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE
NATIONAL SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM (NSTP) FOR THE TERTIARY LEVEL STUDENTS, AMENDING
FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7077 PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1706, AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSE

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“What is needed to support the Armed Forces is a citizen army of well-trained

reserves that can make life difficult for any invader. Just as the threat of war with Japan

served as an impetus for the build-up of our Armed Forces before World War II, let us

use the threats that come from bullies in the neighborhood to prepare our youth for the

defense of the homeland. It is time to restore the mandatory two-year basic ROTC

military training program that existed in the past. Whatever mistakes or abuses were

committed then should not be allowed to happen again.” 7Said Brig. Gen. Rolando

Jungco, Commander, Armed Forces of the Philippines Civil Relations Service (CRS).

Several bills were filed at the House of Representatives but none of them

reached second reading. Movements coming from the uniformed sector have been

blabbing about the reinstatement of the ROTC, until President Rodrigo Duterte’s 1 st

State of the Nation Address came where he mentioned his stand that ROTC must be

put back in to practice and should be held mandatory for all college students.

It was then Valenzuela City Congressman now Senator Win Gatchalian filed and

sponsored House Bill No. 2338, which seeks to make Reserve Officers' Training Corps

(ROTC) mandatory to every male student in the tertiary education. He said that the bill

aims to optimize the students for service through appropriate physical and mental

training. He also exposed that he was also a product of ROTC in college. “We need to

help them develop their national spirit, and promote self-confidence and camaraderie.

Our youth should also be physically strong and alert without having to spend

membership in a gym,” 8Gatchalian said.

7In an interview with Ramon Farolan of the Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 8, 2013
8
Retrieved from www.wingatchalian.com

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The ROTC program, according to the Organization of Generals and Flag

Officers, prepares male students for national defense and trains them with leadership

skills and the basics of military service in order to produce capable Armed Forces

reservists.9

FOREIGN LITERATURE

Establishment of the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps or Student Military

Training Service in different countries has three foremost objectives namely: to allow

students to grasp basic military skills and theory, and enhance their understanding of

defense and consciousness of national security.

On an article by John Chan in World Socialist Web Site on the 10th day of May

2007- Chinese government is imposing nationwide military training for students of the

country to achieve not only the three main goals of the latter but also to strengthen the

submission of students to “organization” and “discipline”, as well as to instill the values

of “patriotism”, “collectivism” and “revolutionary heroism”. On this article he discussed

why should a government call for a compulsory national military training for students in

high school and tertiary level and how will it effect on their educational record.

Scholarship is one of the reasons why a student of the American government

underwent with this course. On the article written by David L. Leal, Students in Uniform:

ROTC, the Citizen-Soldiers, and the Civil-Military Gap, it tell in details how and when

the ROTC rooted in the country, what are the parallel benefit if a student will participate

in the said course and the equal responsibility as a student taking part of the program.

9 “Generals' group wants mandatory ROTC revived”, GMA News Online, July 24, 2013

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In the United States of America there was a time that this course was banned

mainly because of lack of academic standards and some instructor and students

believed that this is just a dummy for the military during the Vietnam War last 1960.

University that banned this program includes the most notable institutions in the United

States like Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Brown, Dartmouth, Stanford and Columbia, also

known as the elite schools in the higher education. In the article “The Pendulum Swing:

The Fall and Return of ROTC to Elite Campuses, and Why It Matters” by Donald

Downs, the author/writer give the good standing why the ROTC is needed to be

reinstated in the elite universities and how this program can be beneficial with the

school and to the students.

Who will be best fitted to enter the ROTC in the America? Young fitted men or

women? This was the question answered in the book of Michael S. Neiberg entitled:

Making Citizen-Soldiers: ROTC and the Ideology of American Military Service. On this

book, it focuses the discussion on the history of ROTC in America; its creation and

evolution, who founded the program and where the concept came from. It also gives a

short review on the pathways that the course had gone through the years.

During the time of the Pres. Roosevelt, those young boys aged 16 to 19 are put

in training with the compulsory in nature. There are several records showing the rise

and fall of the number of young boys who entered the said course. The best place to

have this training was in a public school. This was been justified in the article of Lewis

Paul Todd, “Does the Probability of Compulsory Military Training Pose a Problem for the

Public Schools?”

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FOREIGN STUDIES

Luke Pereira, “The History and Impact of Army ROTC at Suny College at

Brookport” 2003, the study gives a brief discussion on the history of the ROTC and how

it evolved in the United States. It also tackles the benefit of students in engaging in the

military course. It also shows how wide the influence of the training in the country. This

study could also give a glance on how this mandatory training or course affects the

academic status of the participants during the entire participation.

Tayfun Sonmez, “Bidding for Army Career Specialties: Improving the ROTC

Branching Mechanism”, this study gave a reasonable solution on how to increase the

number of participants of the training corps. It tackles on modifying the merit and

incentives system so that it will encourage numbers of students and they will not doubt

to participate in the program of the institution. This study gave an emphasis on the

“priority based system” which is most effective in the said program.

Developing Leaders through High School Junior ROTC: Integrating Theory and

Practice of Robert C. Funk is a study that deals on how to develop a leadership in the

high school level. This study aims to maximize the participation of the high school

student in the leadership training dubbed as JROTC. The author viewed that it will

enhance the knowledge of the student in leadership skills, their understanding of their

part as a citizen of the country and their personal growth.

SYNTHESIS

The reason for ROTC’s establishment has always been about raising the sense

of patriotism and nationalism in the youth with the proper training in order for them to

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become leaders and citizens with discipline that can be added to the militia for the

protection of the country. The history of ROTC in the country showed how the program

was created out of goals that serve the betterment of the students as citizens and the

heightened quality protection that they can provide. Even though problems arose

throughout its implementation before and in the present, the fact remains that the goals

of ROTC are purely nationalistic in nature. However, the goals of other countries with

ROTC are more on the students to grasp the military skills and theory as well as raising

the awareness with defense and national security. In comparison, they are more

militaristic in nature and focus less on the benefits that ROTC can bring to the growth of

a student’s sense of self and leadership. Although American studies pursued the ways

on how to increase the students who will take up ROTC and suggested changes to the

way the program works in order for more students to participate and increase their

leadership skills. The literature and studies presented showed a comparison of the

reasons why ROTC is implemented in schools in different countries, whether they are

more militaristic in nature or patriotic and engages to the self-growth of the students.

Also, the literature gathered can be used as guidance on how to improve ROTC in the

Philippines for a better and more comprehensive application that can lessen the abuse

that sprout from improper implementation of the program.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter focuses on the research methodology used by the researchers in

the success of this study, highlighting the methods, techniques and procedures of data

gathering, the strategy of inquiry, the population and sampling design, as well as the

research instruments and the statistical tools and mechanisms for the accuracy in data

analysis.

RESEARCH METHOD AND DESIGN

The Descriptive method of research was used in the study. It is a fact finding

study with adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings.10 (Aquino, 1974)

Descriptive research describes what is.11 (Manuel &Medel, 1976) It is concerned with

conditions of relationships that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs, processes that are

going on; effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing.12 (Best, 1970) It

describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current conditions, practices,

situations, or any phenomena.

Since the study was concerned with the perception of Senior High Schools

students that would be most likely to be affected by the proposed reinstatement of the

mandatory ROTC program in the academe, the descriptive method of research being

the most appropriate method as it is defined to be a purposive way of gathering,

10Aquino, Gaudencio V. “Essentials of Research and Thesis Writing”. Alemars -Pheonix Publishing House,
1974
11Manuel, Bienvenido B. and Medel, Paz C. “A Practical Guide in Methodology of Research and The sis

Writing”. GIC Enterprises and Company, Inc., 1976


12Best, John W. “Research in Education.Second Edition”. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1970

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analyzing, classifying and tabulating data about a prevailing condition and then making

accurate interpretation about the data gathered was the method used by the

researchers.

POLITICAL RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE

For the fact that this study will be dealing with perspective, the researchers in

order to know what is to know is an anti-foundationalist position because interpretation

will be based on socially constructed realities and perceptions with shared positions with

both interpretivism and positivism using realist perspective as the main contention

because the state as the key actor is pursuing for national security.

MIXED-METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PARADIGM

The researchers based the study in a framework of a mixed method of qualitative

and quantitative research as qualitative research is defined to be the framework

analysis best suitable for the accuracy of the data since this study will be dealing with

perceptions of key informants and the use of quantitative research to be able to gather

the perceptions of the target population, the Senior High School students of PUP Manila

Campus. The mixed-methodology is preferred by the researchers to be able to provide

bigger pictures.

Qualitative data are in depth descriptions of circumstances, people, interactions,

observed behaviours, events, attitudes, thoughts and beliefs and direct quotes from

people who have experienced or are experiencing the phenomenon. (Patton, 2002)

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It is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups

ascribe to a social or human problem. In qualitative research the qualitative data is

collected by the researcher and analyzed using one of the qualitative data analysis

methods.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Given that under a descriptive method of research, there are three research

techniques: (1) the case study, (2) the survey and (3) the content-analysis through key

informants interview, the researches chose to use the survey method or otherwise

known as the normative survey, a fact-finding study to be able to come up with

adequate and accurate interpretation and the key-informants interview from those who

had a firsthand knowledge on the issue and could give a wider angle through their

responses. Knowing the advantages of using a survey technique and key informants

interview technique in a descriptive research, the researchers decided to use both as it

reveals data which made it possible to easier formulation of generalizations having a

high degree of relativity due to proper sampling procedures and selection of samples as

it is easier to obtain data and responses from a survey and an interview.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE

The survey technique or approach used by the researchers was a self-

constructed survey for data gathering on the quantitative level using mixtures of closed

questions that can be answerable by yes or no and the use of Likert Scale where only a

sample or portion of the population is involved, as defined by Trecee and Trecee, Jr.

This is concerned with looking into the similarity of the elements the researchers wanted

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to find out. Since the study is about the perception, being it as a descriptive design, it is

the most appropriate method in gathering data.

The researchers decided to execute a questionnaire method for data collection

simply because it is easy to construct and as students, the researchers could not

provide for ways that would cost them much, also data gathered are easy to tabulate

and it is not that time consuming for them to be able to finish the study within the given

time frame. Using a guided response type of questionnaire, also called as the closed

form or restricted type, specifically a recognition type of guided response type of

questionnaire survey where respondent of the survey is guided in making his replies.

The instrument used by the researchers in order to obtain and gather data and

information needed by the study in a qualitative level is a key informant interview to 3

notable persons that are expert on the issue and will also answer the questions on the

questionnaires but with their own perspectives and opinions.

RESPONDENTS’ POPULATION AND SAMPLING

The study “Reinstating Mandatory ROTC: A Means of Instilling Patriotism and

Nationalism or Pacing Towards Militarization?” would like to determine the perception of

students specifically that of the Senior High School Students of the Polytechnic

University of the Philippines in the issue of reinstating the mandatory ROTC program for

college students as mentioned by President Rodrigo Duterte in his 1 st State of the

Nation Address, where the population seemed to be the one to be affected if the bill will

take into effect.

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The respondents are a total of 400 randomly selected Senior High School

students belonging to eight (8) strands or tracks offered in the Polytechnic University of

the Philippines13, main campus as the cluster samples. Each cluster has 50

respondents selected as samples for data gathering. Sampling size for each cluster are

as follows:

Academic Tracks:

Cluster A Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) – 50


Cluster B Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) – 50
Cluster C Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) – 50
Cluster D General Academic (GA) – 50

Technical-Vocational Livelihood Tracks:

Cluster E Information and Communications Technology (TVL-ICT) – 50


Cluster F Home Economics- Cookery – 25*
Home Economics- Bartending – 25*14
Cluster G Tourism- Local Tour Guiding Services – 17*
Tourism- Travel Services – 17*
Tourism- Tourism Promotion Services – 16*15

The sampling size of the population was determined by pure random sampling

and was decided to have the total number of 400 respondents based on clusters which

are represented by the strands present in Senior High School classes at the Polytechnic

University of the Philippines, Main Campus to be able to obtain an equal representation

among students’ perceptions.

13 Data taken from PUP Website: Senior High Schools Class Lists and Schedules. www.pup.edu.ph.
Retrieved August 9, 2016
14 Provided that there are 2 strands under the Home Economics track, the sample size of 50 is divided into 2.
15 Under the Tourism track, there are 3 strands offered, the sample size of 50 is divided into 3, provided that

it is not a whole number, sample size was determined by the researchers according to number of students in
a class.

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On the premise of the qualitative data gathering, to be able to weigh the

perceptions and the result of this study, the researchers will interview three (3) experts

on this field: (1) a retired Major in the Philippines Army, (Ret.) Major Mario Jose Chico,

PA. (2) an officer of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Cadet Bonifacio

Nuraña Jr. and (3) former Polytechnic University of the Philippines Cadet Adrian Dy.

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