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Heatlines and other visualization techniques for conﬁned heat transfer systems

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.11.075

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Heatlines and other visualization techniques for confined

heat transfer systems

Pallab Sinha Mahapatraa,1 , Achintya Mukhopadhyayb , Nirmal K. Mannab ,

Koushik Ghoshb

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600036, India

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India

Abstract

Efficient visualization techniques are required to understand the flow physics

for any numerical simulation. For convective heat transfer problems, most

widely used techniques to visualize the fluid flow and heat transfer are stream-

lines and isotherms respectively. These methods are not sufficient to address

the degrees of complexity associated with the complicated convective prob-

lems. Thus, different visualization techniques have been developed to rep-

resent the results depending on the problem. In this article, an effort has

been made to collate visualization techniques in literature for convective heat

transfer system like, heatlines, energy streamlines, energy flux vectors, proper

orthogonal decomposition (POD), Poincare map etc. The fundamentals of

different techniques are briefly discussed, applications of these techniques are

shown with proper examples. The usefulness and limitations of these tech-

niques are also discussed. Heatline is found to be the best visualization tool

for two dimensional steady situations. However, in 3D and transient scenario

Lagrangian approach or POD can be used.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer; visualization techniques; heatlines;

energy flux vectors; POD

1. Introduction

Advancement of numerical modeling techniques helps in solving the com-

plex nature of the convective heat transfer problems. Compared to the exper-

1

Corresponding author; email: pallab@iitm.ac.in

Preprint submitted to International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer December 1, 2017

imental results, it is easier to get information for all primitive variables from

numerical studies. The physical state of the systems is generally represented

by the primitive variables like temperature, velocity or pressure. However, to

get physical insight of the convective heat transfer problems efficient numer-

ical visualization techniques should be followed. This will help in extracting

the appropriate information of the problem and will also help to explain the

results. For complex flow behavior characterization, extra care is needed not

only in the analysis but also in the visualization of the flow. It should be

noted that proper visualization technique needs to be chosen to eliminate

any false interpretation of the results.

Streamlines, isotherms and velocity vectors are the most popular visual-

ization techniques for the numerical simulation. Apart from streamlines, the

other two can be plotted directly from the primary variables using suitable

plotting softwares. Reserchers have developed different visualization tools to

explain the flow physics and behavior of the system. Kimura and Bejan [1]

proposed a visualization technique for convective heat transfer using heat-

function and heatlines. Heatlines help in visualization of the energy flow in

the domain. The methodology has been extended by others [2–8]. Heatlines

have been used in different type of problems like, convective heat transfer

[7, 9, 10], weak unsteady problem [3], reacting flows [5], turbulent flows [11]

etc. Costa [4, 6] presented a unified approach for visualization by consid-

ering the physical and numerical aspects of the heatfunction and heatlines

in a conjugate transport problem. Mahmud and Fraser [12] introduced an

alternative visualization technique for convective heat transfer called energy

streamlines. Transport of different other forms of energy like thermal, elec-

trical, chemical, magnetic, potential and kinetic energy are considered in

the energy streamlines. Hooman [13] introduced another visualization tool

called energy flux vectors to bridge the gap between the heatlines and energy

streamlines. These vectors are tangent to the heatlines and represents the

flow of energy for a two dimensional system. Energy flux vectors have been

used in different types of flow configurations [14–18], although this does not

give any quantitative estimation of energy transfer. The limitations and use-

fulness of heatlines and other methods will be discussed in details afterward.

Guo et al. [19] demonstrated “field synergy principle” concept by pre-

senting an analogy between conduction and convection. According to this

theory the included angle of the velocity vector and the temperature gra-

dient at intersection is an important parameter for estimating heat transfer

enhancement. This concept of field synergy was further improved and used

2

by several researchers [20–22]. However, Bejan [23] pointed out that the 1983

concept of “heatlines” reappeared in 1998 under the new name of “synergy”.

This topic is discussed later in this paper.

Streamfunction and streamlines are generally used to describe the mo-

mentum transport during fluid flow [24]. For analyzing steady two dimen-

sional flow visualization, Costa [25] proposed a visualization tool using mo-

mentum function and momentum lines. In this method, two momentum

function are defined, one in each momentum direction. The momentum vec-

tors and the momentum lines provide the information related to momentum

transport and interacting forces. Momentum function requires steady mo-

mentum equations, that can be presented in a divergence-free form. This

also implies that the method would not work in presence of source terms like

body forces unless the source term itself can be expressed in a divergence

free form. In a convective heat transfer system specifically during natural

convection or flow through porous media, it is not possible to define momen-

tum function. The details of this function and solution methodology will not

be discussed in this article due to its limited applications. Interested readers

can find the details in [25].

Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is a low order modeling tech-

nique to identify the coherent structures and energetic modes that represent

the flow behavior. The inherent dynamics of the systems can be studied by

using POD. POD has been used extensively in many areas [26–28]. Ding et

al. [26] used snapshot method of POD on numerical data for faster result gen-

erations. They showed the use of POD for interpolating results at off-design

parameters. Mahapatra et al. [29] used POD to identify the modal structure

and the related energies in an alternately active localized heat source in a

confined convective system. In the coherent structures if temporal period-

icity is observed then spectral methods like Dynamic mode decomposition

(DMD) needs to be used. DMD differentiates the modes based on the lin-

ear amplification [30]. The extension of DMD proposed by Williams et al.

[31] can be used for decomposing nonliear dataset. In highly turbulent flow,

the frequency of a single coherent structure becomes variable and due to the

presence of other intermittent structures, the decomposition becomes diffi-

cult. The intermediate decompositions between the above two extrema can

be obtained from spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) [30].

The detailed discussion about these methods are out of the scope of this

work.

There are already existing techniques to numerically visualize the data.

3

However, the information about many of them are somewhat scattered in

the literature, limiting their effective use in different heat transfer problems.

For example, even though it is known that isotherms will not properly rep-

resent the convective heat transfer situations, isotherms are generally used

more frequently than heatlines although the concept of heatlines have been

available for more than three decades. The present review highlights the

limitations and usefulness of heatlines and other visualization tools that can

be used depending on the situations. This review provides the description

of different techniques available for convective heat transfer with suitable

examples, including our own results. For example, for weak transient sce-

nario, heatlines can be used, but energy flux vectors will be a better choice in

case of a transient scenario. However, energy flux vectors, like velocity vec-

tors, do not provide the same level of quantitative information as heatlines.

Similarly, recent literature shows development of visualization tools like La-

grangian tracking, Poincare maps, and modal decomposition techniques that

can be useful for transient and three-dimensional problems where heatlines

cannot be used. In addition, there are recent extensions of the concept of

heatlines to problems with source terms, which are also beyond the original

formulation of heatlines. The purpose of the present review is to present

all these techniques in a unified, coherent manner which can be of utility to

computational heat transfer community, especially in extracting useful infor-

mation from problems with complex physics. A very brief description of the

fundamentals of different visualization techniques are presented in Section

2; the suitability of different techniques are discussed in Section 3; different

techniques are illustrated with appropriate examples in Section 4 and finally

the conclusions and future road map are pointed out in Section 5.

2.1. Heatlines and streamlines

Heatfunction incorporates both conductive and convective heat fluxes.

The total flow of energy across each heatline is zero. After the demonstra-

tion of the heatlines as an effective visualization tool by Kimura and Bejan

[1], heatlines are being used in different convective heat and mass transfer

problems [2–5, 8, 32]. According to Costa [4] and Deng and Tang [24], a

unified definition of streamfunction (ψ) and heatfunction (H) can be derived

to satisfy the continuity and the net energy balance, respectively. The non-

dimensional transport equation for continuity and energy, without any source

4

term can be written in a general form as,

∂ ∂φ ∂ ∂φ

Uφ − Γ + Vφ−Γ = 0. (1)

∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂Y

Here, φ is the dependent variable, Γ is the diffusion coefficient of φ, whereas,

U and V are the velocity components in the coordinate directions of X and

Y respectively. The general function Φ(X, Y ), which is parallel to the flux

∂φ ∂φ

(J) in the X (Jφ,X = U φ − Γ ∂X ) and Y direction (Jφ,Y = V φ − Γ ∂Y ) can be

expressed as,

∂Φ ∂φ

− = Jφ,Y = V φ − Γ

∂X ∂Y (2)

∂Φ ∂φ

= Jφ,X = U φ − Γ .

∂Y ∂X

From the definition, as Φ and J are parallel, there is no flux crossing the

constant line. So, no flow can take place across the streamlines and similarly

heat flux is zero across each heatline. Heatlines and streamlines provides the

corridor to transport heat and fluid respectively. Now, when φ in Eq. 1 is

unity, it represents the continuity equation, and Eq. 2 defined the stream-

function (Ψ). Similarly, when φ in Eq. 1 is non-dimensional temperature

(θ), it represents the energy equation, and Eq. 2 defined the heatfunction

(H). The diffusion coefficients (Γ) in the continuity and energy equations

are 0 and thermal diffusivity (α) respectively. By cross partial differentiation

and elimination of gradient terms of Eq. 2 we can get a conduction type

equation,

∂ 2Φ ∂ 2 Φ ∂(V φ) ∂(U φ)

+ + − = 0. (3)

∂X 2 ∂Y 2 ∂X ∂Y

Now, this Eq. 3, needs to be solved with proper boundary conditions to get

the function Φ. It is possible to solve Eq. 3 through the same numerical

procedure that we have for the primitive variables by considering zero con-

vection coefficients [4]. For conjugate heat transfer problem, at the interface

∂θ ∂θ

of fluid (f ) and solid (s), the energy balance constraints are ∂X |f = α ∂X |s

∂θ ∂θ

and ∂Y |f = α ∂Y |s . The velocity constraint at the interface is U = V = 0.

Considering these constraints at the interface between the fluid and solid,

the streamfuntion and heatfunction conditions will be,

∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ ∂Ψ

|f = |s , |f = |s , (4)

∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂Y

∂H ∂H ∂H ∂H

|f = |s , |f = |s . (5)

∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂Y

5

Therefore, the diffusion coefficient is consistent in both solid and liquid side

[24]. However, Costa [4] calculated the diffusion coefficient at the interface

by considering harmonic mean of 1 on the fluid side and 1/α on the solid

side.

Heatfunction can also be derived from the energy equation with source

term if it can be expressed in a divergence free form. For example, in the

solidification/melting process has source term of the form [33]

Se = − − . (6)

∂t ∂x ∂y

Here, h is the enthalpy, u and v are the velocities in the coordinate direction

x and y respectively. For a steady situation or weak transient cases, by

neglecting the transient term, the source term can be written as,

∂(ρu∆h) ∂(ρv∆h)

Se = − − . (7)

∂x ∂y

The heatfunctions after combining sensible and latent heat into the total

enthalpy (ht ) can be written as,

∂H ∂T

= ρuht − k

∂x ∂x

(8)

∂H ∂T

= ρvht − k .

∂y ∂y

Concept of heatlines has also been extended to visualize the heat transfer

from a sphere [34]. In spherical coordinate system, heatfunctions can be

defined as [34],

1 ∂H ∂T

2

= ρur cp T − k

r sin θ ∂θ ∂r (9)

1 ∂H k ∂T

− = ρuθ cp T − .

r sin θ ∂r r ∂θ

For more details about solving for heatfunction and streamfunction in differ-

ent types of problems refer to [4, 7, 24, 34, 35].

Mobedi et al. [36] showed that, as all the primitive variables are known

beforehand while solving for the heatfunction equation, Eq. 3 is linear. Thus,

for Eq. 3, a superposition method can be applied and therefore, the heatfunc-

tion equation can be separated into two heatfunction equations corresponding

6

to diffusion (HD ) and convection (HC ). According to this, total heatfunc-

tion H = HD + HC . Then separate heatfunction equations for diffusion and

convection can be generated as,

∂ 2 HD ∂ 2 HD

+ = 0, (10)

∂X 2 ∂Y 2

∂ 2 HC ∂ 2 HC ∂(U θ) ∂(V θ)

2

+ 2

= − . (11)

∂X ∂Y ∂Y ∂X

2.2. Energy streamlines and energy flux vectors

Mahmud and Fraser [12] presented an alternative visualization technique

~

for convective heat transfer problem by using energy flux density vector (E)

and energy streamlines (Φ). The corresponding lines, energy streamlines,

can be generated by solving a Poisson equation; for convective heat transfer

that takes the form of,

∂ 2Φ ∂ 2Φ ~ ~

~ .k̂ = ∂ Ex − ∂ Ey .

+ = − ~ ×E

∇ (12)

∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂y ∂x

Here, Ex and Ey are the energy flux densities in the x and y directions

respectively, and k̂ is the unit vector in the z direction. For a two dimen-

sional convective heat transfer system, E ~ and its components in Cartesian

coordinate system can be written as,

~ 1 2

E = ρ~v v + h − ~v .~σ − k∇T, (13)

2

1 2 2

∂T

Ex = ρux ux + uy + h − (ux σxx + uy σyx ) − k , (14)

2 ∂x

1 2 2

∂T

Ey = ρuy ux + uy + h − (ux σxy + uy σyy ) − k . (15)

2 ∂y

Here, ρ is the density, u is the velocity, h is the enthalpy, k is the thermal

conductivity and ~σ is the viscous

p stress tensor. In Eq. 13 the velocity mag-

nitude v is defined as v = u2x + u2y . The solution of energy streamlines

requires proper boundary conditions and application of appropriate bound-

ary conditions is not straightforward [12]. The boundary conditions of energy

streamlines are similar to that of the heatlines. Energy streamlines contain

energy fluxes like kinetic energy and contribution of energy due to surface

7

forces, which are not considered in the definition of heatlines. Thus, energy

streamlines can give a more complete picture for configurations where these

effects are important. On the other hand, for situations, where these effects

are not important, as seen in a majority of heat transfer problems, the en-

ergy streamlines and heatlines would give nearly identical pictures. Thus,

simultaneous use of heatlines and energy streamlines can bring out quanti-

tative information about the contribution of the additional energy fluxes in

the energy stream function.

Hooman [13] introduced a new technique, called energy flux vectors, for

convective visualization which is similar to the flux vectors in the definition

of Bejan’s [1] heatlines. Hooman [13] defined that the energy flux vectors are

locally tangent to the heatlines and are having the following form,

~ ∂T ~ ∂T ~

E (x, y) = ρcp~u (T − Tref ) − k i + ρcp~v (T − Tref ) − k j. (16)

∂x ∂y

the temperature and ~i and ~j are the unit vectors in the coordinate directions

x and y respectively. Tref is the reference temperature used in the system.

The vector plots of Eq. 16 represents the energy flux vectors and this does

not need any further solution schemes or proper boundary conditions. This

technique can be applied for situations where heatlines cannot be applied,

namely, transient problems, three-dimensional flows, and energy equations

with source terms. However, quantitative estimates of heat transfer cannot

be obtained from the energy flux vectors.

Guo et al. [19] first proposed the concept of field synergy, after finding

the relation between conduction and convection in the system. Heatline and

synergy principle are based on the similar concept. In most of the studies

[19, 21, 37, 38] synergy angle have been calculated as the angle associated

between the isotherms and streamlines whereas, Hung and Ting [22] used

the intersection angle of the heatline and streamline as the synergy angle.

According to Hung and Ting [22], to identify the coordination between the

temperature gradient and velocity, heatlines and streamlines are better visu-

alization method. An examination of the expression for heat flux shows that

for purely diffusive heat transfer in absence of fluid motion, the heat flux is

parallel to temperature gradient. Thus, the heatlines are perpendicular to

8

the isotherms. This is effectively the concept of the heat flux lines in conduc-

tion heat transfer. On the other hand, for a hypothetical purely convective

heat transfer without any diffusive flux, the heat flux vector is parallel to the

velocity vector. Thus, heatlines are parallel to the streamlines. In a realistic

convective-diffusive flow, the alignment of the heatline with the streamline

and its orientation with respect to the isotherms can be used to assess the

relative strength of the advection and diffusion in the heat transfer process.

Inside thermal boundary layer, where the streamwise diffusion is negligible,

the strength of the heat source is equal to the wall heat flux qw ,

Z δ

∂T

ρcp (u.∇T ) dy = −k = qw . (17)

0 ∂y w

R1 layer thickness. The nondimensional form of Eq.

17 is, N u = ReP r 0 Ū .∇T̄ dY . Here, N u is the Nusselt number, Re is

Reynolds number and P r is the Prandtl number of the fluid. The vector dot

product of non-dimensional velocity and temperature gradient can be writ-

ten as Ū .∇T̄ = |Ū ||∇T̄ |cosβ . β is the included angle of velocity and heat

flow vector (temperature gradient). Therefore, the strength of the convec-

tion is dependent on the synergy between “velocity” and “heat flow vector”

[21]. The heat transfer enhances with the increase of synergy. Therefore,

for enhanced heat transfer and higher values of Nusselt number or for better

synergy, (a) included angle β should be smaller i.e. the velocity and heat

flow vector should be almost parallel; (b) all scalar fields should have simul-

taneous large values; (c) the velocity and temperature profile should be as

uniform as possible at each cross section [21].

Recently, Bejan [23] pointed out that “...synergy is a remake of heatlines,

and that synergy has no physical connection with heat transfer enhancement”.

Also, in a multidymensional flow field it is not possible to control the local

angles between the heat flux lines and stream flow lines. Therefore, from the

design perspective this is not a good parameter. Although, few researchers

have used synergy as an optimization tool and applied synergy principle for

heat transfer enhancement, its practical use is quiestionable [23] and cannot

be directly used for flow visualization.

Speetjens [39] provided a Lagrangian description of heat transfer which

is analogous to the fluid motion description. According to this approach,

9

the trajectories of “fluid parcel” in Lagrangian form (~x(t)) describes the

streamfunction. In general, the fluid trajectories can be described as [40],

d~x ∂ρ

= ~u, + ∇(ρ~u) = 0. (18)

dt ∂t

Similarly, the heat transfer can be described as the motion of the “heat

parcels” with “density” T , location ~xT and velocity ~uT . The thermal stream-

line motion according to the Lagrangian description is [40],

d~xT ∂T

= ~uT , + ∇(T ~uT ) = 0. (19)

dt ∂t

Due to the continuity of the fluid flow ~x(t) and ~xT (t) will move into a coherent

structure and cannot simply end inside the domain. The structure or path

formed by ~x(t) will create the “flow topology” [41] whereas, the trajecteries

of ~xT (t) will create the “thermal topology”. This method can describe the

heat transfer behavior for both 2D and 3D transient situations [40].

CFD result sets and large data systems during experiments provide a huge

volume of data that are very hard to interpret. Reduced order modeling

approaches like POD help to get the internal modal structures with less

computational power. For different thermo fluidic problems [26, 29] POD is

used to identify the energetic modes in correlation with the fluid flow. By

using “optimal basis functions” and a “fluctuating entity” POD performs a

linear analysis, on any type of data. As described in our earlier work [29], a

variable of size m × n (m is the size of the row and n is the size of column) at

a time instant t can be recasted into a vector (u). N successive time instants

of these vectors can be arranged in different columns of a snapshot matrix

U of dimensions mn × N as, U = [u1 , u2 , u3 ......uN ]. In POD, the data is

decomposed into spatial (φ) and temporal (a) functions, such that,

Nm

X

u (r, t) = ak (t)φk (r). (20)

k=1

to form the N dimensional correlation matrix C = U U T . The solution of lin-

ear eigenvalue problem Cσ k = λk σ k , are used to construct the eigenvectors σ k

10

where, k = 1, 2, ..., Nm . The eigenvalues are real and could be confirmed from

the symmetry of the correlation matrix. The energy content in the eigenvec-

tors could be estimated from the magnitude of the eigenvalues. Eigenvectors

are ordered according to the eigenvalues [26]. P The spatial eigenfunctions or

eigenmodes (φ) can be obtained from φk (r) = N k

n=1 σn (t)u (r, tn ). The tem-

poral coefficients (a(t)) can be calculated as [26], ak (tn ) = (u (r, tn ) , φk (r));

k = 1, 2, ..., Nm and n = 1, 2, ..., N . It is also possible to construct temporal

eigenmodes by defining the correlation matrix as U T U [42].

3. Discussion

3.1. 2D problem

For the convective heat transfer problems visualizations of both heat and

fluid flows are important. Isotherms are the well known and mostly used

visualization technique for heat transfer problems. In a convective heat

transfer system isotherm does not represent the flow of the heat [43]. On

the other hand, the usefulness of heatlines is mostly confined to the 2D

steady convective heat transfer problems with simple boundary conditions

[24]. Mukhopadhyay et al. [5] extended the heatlines concept for the 2D

reacting flows. They showed that an energy equation with source term can

also be written in divergence free form, provided the source term itself is a

divergence free one. Although applications of heatlines have been limited to

steady flows, its extension to unsteady problems involving natural convec-

tion in cylindrical enclosures have been made by Aggarwal and Manhapra

[3]. Heatlines are known to apply to divergence-free problems. To apply it

to unsteady problems it is assumed that the flow is steady at the instant of

visualization which is valid for weak unsteady nature of the flow. Heatlines

have also been used to analyze heat transfer in a turbulent flow with the

inclusion of additional turbulent flux terms into the heatfunction equation

[11]. For turbulent boundary layers, effective diffusion coefficient can be used

in the heatlines formulation [7].

Heatfunction cannot be measured directly during experiments. However,

heatfunction and heatlines have been used in many convective heat transfer

research. For 2D steady situations heatline is the best visualization tool

available today. To visualize the heat transport in 2D transient problems,

energy streamlines, energy flux vectors and the variants of different vector

and scalar potentials [44] can be used. Among these, energy flux vector

is easy to implement in a CFD code. Energy flux vectors also show the

11

heatline paths, as these are tangent to the heatlines. Energy flux vectors have

several advantages compared to heatlines or energy streamlines, namely, does

not require the solution of any partial deferential equation, can be defined

for transient problem, divergence free form of energy equation is also not

required. Energy flux vector is a visualization tool that can be used easily

and thus, researchers are using it in different types of convective problems

[15–18, 45].

3.2. 3D problem

Visualization of 3D and transient problems are important but less com-

monly discussed. For transient 3D problem energy streamlines cannot be

defined and an imaginary path for energy flow pathlines can be used [12].

Energy pathlines or streaklines can be defined from the time averaged energy

flux density vectors. Bednarz et al. [46] reported numerical simulation and

experimental results of natural convection inside a 3D cavity in a magnetic

field. They have used streaklines and force vectors to numerically visualize

the data. Another approach could be to redefine heatlines, where integration

needs to be done on tangent to the transport vector with proper interpolation

scheme [39, 40, 47]. Mallinson [47] have used vector potential for this interpo-

lation. The implementation of this method is very complex, as a vector field

needs to be considered that required a 2D Poisson equation to be solved on

each boundary [47]. Speetjens [39] provided the general Lagrangian descrip-

tion of heat transfer for transient, 2D or even 3D geometries. In steady flow

conditions, streamlines can be used to visualize the flow path. On the other

hand, in transient situations Poincare-section is required. Poincare-section

represents the positions of the “fluid parcels” after each time period. For

transient heat transfer visualization Poincare-section alone is not sufficient

to capture the flow path, as the “heat parcel” can exit the domain through

the non-adiabatic boundary before creating the footprint on the Poincare-

section [40]. Therefore, tracking of the thermal trajectories as well as the

Poincare-section are required for heat transfer visualization. However, due

to topological complexity the visualization of 3D chaotic heat transfer prob-

lem is complicated.

As explained earlier, POD is a reduced order modeling technique that

provides the statistical correlation between different time instances of the

temperature or velocity fields. POD gives the internal modal structures of

different energetic modes. These modal structures are important to under-

stand the physics of the problem; the energy associated with the modes helps

12

C D

(a) (b) (c) (d)

A B

(i) (ii)

(e) (f) (g) (h)

(i) (ii)

Figure 1: (Color online) (a) Differentially heated enclosure with left wall hot and right

wall cold at P r = 7.2 and Ra = 105 for two heatfunction boundary conditions (i) Π(A) =

Π(B) = 0 and (ii) Π(C) = Π(D) = 0. Used with permission from [51]. (b) Bottom heated

side cooled curved geometry at P r = 7.2 and Ra = 105 . Used with permission from [51].

(c) Heatlines in a porous traingular cavities with inclined hot walls and horizontal cold

walls for P r = 7.2, Da = 10−2 , Re = 1 and Gr = 105 [52]. (d) Heatlines for linerly heating

left walls at P r = 0.015, Ra = 5 × 105 and Da = 10−5 [53]. (e) Heatlines in a double

heater enclosure having both side cold wall and top surface adiabatic for Ra = 105 with

heater aspect ratio (i)A = 0 and (ii) A = 2.5 [54]. (f) Heatlines in a porous rectangular

enclosure with natural convection in the left half and conduction on the right half [6].

(g) Heatlines in a L-shape enclosure for Hartman number Ha = 100, Rayleigh number

Ra = 105 , nanofluid volume fraction φ = 0.04 and Prandtl number P r = 6.2. Used with

permission from [55]. (h) Energy transport from the solid thick left wall to a nanofluid

filled open cavity at Ra = 105 [56].

lent flow field, the temporal frequency and growth rate of the time evolving

data can be extracted using DMD. Though, both POD and DMD exists in

the field of turbulent flow for sometime now, the usage of these methods

in the convective heat transfer community is still at an early stage [49, 50].

POD could be very efficient visualization tool for both 2D and 3D transient

problems.

13

4. Application of different visualization tools

4.1. Heatlines and energy streamlines

Heatlines have been used in different types of convective problems as

shown in Fig. 1. Heatlines were used to visualize the heat transfer inside an

enclosure of various shapes [51–53, 55, 57], in presence of other external forces

(as long as external energy did not appear as a source term in the energy

equation), like magnetic field [55] etc. It is also possible to define heatfunc-

tion with suspended particles or in the case of nanofluids [55, 56, 58], in case

of convective-conductive conjugate heat transfer problems [6], as long as the

energy equation is free from source term. Mukhopadhyay et al. [5] extended

the classical heatfunction formulation to use in the reacting flow situation.

It should be noted that for complicated geometry, the implementation of the

boundary conditions for heatfunction will be challenging. In Fig. 1(a), heat-

lines are shown for two different boundary conditions inside a differentially

heated enclosure. Heatlines in other shapes of enclosure are shown in Fig.

1(b)-(d) and (g). It should be noted that, in Fig. 1(a)-(c), the Prandtl num-

ber of the liquid is higher (P r = 7.2), whereas liquid metal (P r = 0.05) is

used in the problem shown in Fig. 1(d). Thus, no circulating cell is observed

in Fig. 1(d). Energy transport inside an enclosure with protruded heater

arrangement is shown in Fig. 1(e). Heatlines in a partially filled enclosure

is shown in Fig. 1(f). Here, convective heat transfer is occurring on the left

half whereas, conduction on the right half of the enclosure. Heatlines in a L

shaped enclosure filled with nanofluid under the influence of magnetic force

is shown in Fig. 1(g). Convective heat transfer in an open cavity filled with

nanofluid is shown in Fig. 1(h) using heatlines.

Mobedi et al. [36] used superposition method to separate the heatfunction

into the convective and diffusive part. This helps in identifying the relative

importance of convective heat transport over diffusion. As shown in Fig. 2,

at high Rayleigh number (Ra = 106 ) total heat transfer from the hot wall to

the cold wall is dominated by the convection.

Energy streamlines have been used by different researchers [12, 59] to vi-

sualize the energy flow inside different geometries during natural convection.

In Fig. 3(a) energy streamlines is used to describe the energy flow during

natural covection in an enclosure with a baffle in the left wall. In Fig. 3(b)

the energy streamlines are shown for a lid driven cavity. Energy transport is

shown by using the energy streamlines during natural convection inside the

annular space in Fig. 3(c).

14

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 2: (Color online) (a) Diffusion, (b) convection and (c) total heatlines in a partially

heated cavity for Ra = 106 . Used with permission from [36].

Hooman [13] used energy flux vectors to show the energy transport in-

side an enclosure filled with clear fluid as well as porous material. In Fig.

4(a)(i) the physical domain of the problem studied by Mahapatra et al. [16]

is shown. Here, the natural convection in an enclosure with pulsating heat-

ing was studied. The side walls of the enclosure were maintained at lower

temperature (TC ) than the two heaters located at the bottom wall. The

heaters (temperature of TH ) could be alternately set to “ON” and “OFF”

at different switching frequencies. When the heater was active, the thermal

plume forms at the top of the heater. During alternately switching “ON”

and “OFF” the heater, the thermal plume alternately moved from one active

heater to the other. With the energy flux vectors this motion of the thermal

plume was captured as shown in Fig. 4(a)(ii) and (a)(iii). Chakravarty et

al. [45] used energy flux vectors to show the energy transport during natu-

ral convection inside a cylindrical enclosure with heat generating truncated

conical porous bed, as shown in Fig. 4(b). They observed energy flow inside

the porous bed at higher Darcy number, as shown in Fig. 4(b)(i). Saleh

et al. [15] used energy flux vectors to show the energy circulation inside a

top-open enclosure and heated from the side. Along the free surface at the

top they have assumed the Newton’s law of cooling and studied the effect

of Marangoni number (0 ≤ M a ≤ 1000), Biot number (0 ≤ Bi ≤ 6) and

the Prandtl number (0.054 ≤ P r ≤ 6.2). A representative figure from their

study is shown in Fig. 4(c). Recently, Malik and Nayak [18] used energy flux

vectors to shown the energy transport during MHD convection of nanofluid

inside a porous enclosure (see Fig. 4(d)). Various other type of applications

of energy flux vectors can be found in [60–62].

15

(a)

(i) (ii)

(b) (c)

Figure 3: (Color online) (a) Energy streamlines during natural convection with a baffle at

the left wall for (i) Ra = 103 and (ii) Ra = 5 × 103 [12]. (b) Lid driven cavity at Re = 100

[12]. (c) Natural convection in an anulous for Ra = 5 × 103 [12].

POD has been widely used in turbulent flows, combustions and many

other fluid dynamic fields. However, the use of POD in convective heat and

mass transfer system is very limited. Ding et al. [26] studied natural convec-

tion in a differentially heated cavity and used POD to show different modal

structures. In another work, Mahapatra et al. [29] have shown the modal

structures of the eigenmodes inside an enclosure with pulsating heat source.

They used POD to understand the nonlinear characteristics of the flow be-

havior from different energy modes. Three coherent structures and the FFT

of the modes are shown in Fig. 5(a). POD modes for the isocontours of

temperatures for a 3D turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection [63] are shown

in Fig. 5(b). POD has also been used for fast dynamical modeling of tem-

perature distribution inside a room for control of air conditioning [64]. First

two most significant energetic modes of a representative case are shown in

Fig. 5(c).

Streamlines and iso-contours of different variables like velocity, pressures

and temperatures are most widely used for visualization of fluid flow and

16

(a) (b) Da=10-6 Da=10-10

y,v 0.8 1 1

0.6

Heater

Adiabatic wall 0.4

0.75 0.75

Cold walls 0.2

TC TC L 0.5

(ii) 0.5

0.8

0.25 0.25

On 0.6

Off 0.4

time

0 0

x,u 0.2

TH TH 0.5 0.25 0 0.5 0.25 0

(i) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 (i) (ii)

(iii) Ra=1010

(c) (d)

(i) (ii)

Figure 4: (Color online) (a) Natural convection was studied in an enclosure with alternately

active heaters [16]. (i) The physical domain of the system is shown. Energy flux vectors

are shown when the (ii) left heater is active at nondimensional time τ = 1.0 and (iii) right

heater is active at nondimensional time τ = 1.05. The representative conditions are for

Ra = 106 and switchover time period Z = 0.1. (b) Natural convection inside a cylindrical

enclosure with a heat generating porous bed [45]. Energy flux vectors are shown for (i)

Da = 10−6 and (ii) Da = 10−10 for Ra = 1010 . (c) Convection at Gr = 7 × 105 for

Marangoni number M a = 1000, Biot number Bi = 1 at Prandtl number P r = 0.054 [15].

(d) MHD convection of nanofluid in porous enclosure for Ha = 50, Da = 10−3 and φ = 0.2

at (i) Gr = 104 and (ii) Gr = 106 [18].

heat transfer behavior. Apart from standard visualization tools, there are few

other specific visualization methods that are generally used depending on the

problem specification. During complex flow behavior, time-periodic nature

of the flow or in case of nonlinear heat and fluid flow time series analysis

and subsequently Poincare map (see Fig. 6(a), (b)) and phase plots [68]

are used for visualization. Along with the fluid flow, viscous dissipation and

entropy generation is also an important parameter [65, 69–75]. Contours of

entropy generation distribution inside an enclosure during natural convection

for different active wall locations are shown in Fig. 6(c). Entropy generation

during heat transfer and fluid friction is shown in 6(d). During the entropy

generation analysis, iso-contours of Bejan number (the ratio of the entropy

generation due to heat transfer and the total entropy generation) is also

17

(a) (b)

Mode2

Mode3

Mode1 (i) Mode2 (ii)

0.4

Mode1

0.3 Mode2

Mode3

PSD

0.2

0.1

0 −1 0 1 2

10 10 10 10

Frequency

Mode3 (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)

Figure 5: (Color online) (a) Natural convection in an enclosure with alternately active

heaters [29] is shown for switching frequency Z = 0.1 for Rayleigh number Ra = 106 .

The problem geometry is shown in Fig. 4(a)(i). Coherent structures of the flow are

presented in (i-iii) whereas, the FFT of different modes are shown in (iv). (b) Isocontours

of temperatures at Ra = 6 × 108 for (i) POD mode n = 1 and (ii) POD mode n = 2 [63].

(c) Most energetic eigenfunctions of temperature distribution at (i) Mode1 and (ii) Mode

2 [64].

cavity is shown in Fig. 6(e). To identify the mixing of liquids, researchers

[67] have used tracer particles as an identifier. As shown in Fig. 6(f), De

et al. [67] used velocity vectors and tracer particles to visualize the mixing

during electroosmotic stirring. This kind of visualization techniques can also

be used during the convective heat transfer inside an enclosure.

5. Conclusions

There are existing reviews on methods like heatlines, entropy generation

etc. however, this article presents the holistic view of all available numeri-

cal tools to visualize convective heat transfer problems in confined systems.

In most of the convective heat transfer articles, results are presented using

streamlines and isotherms as the contour plots. Here, we have listed different

other methods that could be used as possible alternatives or additional tools

to properly represent the results. It has been identified that for 2D steady

state heat transfer situations heatlines are best visualization technique, as it

can give quantitative information about the heat transfer rate. For transient

and 3D problems the extensions of heatlines or other methods could be used.

18

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(i) (ii)

(e)

(i) (ii)

(f)

(i) (ii)

Figure 6: (Color online) (a) Heat transfer visualization using Poincare-sections and thermal

trazectories in the time-space domain. (i) perspective view and (ii) projection in the x-y

plane [40]. (b) Flow visualization map at (i) steady and (ii) and time varying conditioned

shown using streamlines and poincare map [39]. (c) Entropy generation during natural

convection for different active walls positions at A = 2 and Ra = 106 [65]. (d) Entropy

generation due to (i) heat transfer and (ii) fluid friction at Ra = 103 and P r = 0.025 inside

an enclosure with inclination angle 30o [66]. (e) Energy transport lines in an enclosure

where back wall is heated for P r = 0.71 and Ra = 104 [47]. (i) Rake of lines are leaving

from y = 0.01 on heated wall and (ii) 0.1 and 0.5 up the heated wall. (f) Velocity vector

and (ii) distribution of passive tracer inside an enclosure [67].

During dynamic analysis of the system behavior, Poincare map, phase plot

etc. could be used. To identify mixing, particle tracer can be used to rep-

resent the effectiveness of mixing. Overall entropy generation in the system

in terms of fluid friction and heat transfer can also be used as an extra post

processing tool to represent the system behavior. Modal analyses like POD,

DMD or SPOD can be used not only for the representation but also to control

the system, faster data generation etc. These lower order models can predict

data based on the available results. For convective heat transfer domain the

lower order modeling approach is fairly new and could be effective tools in

future for fundamental understanding of the internal physics as well as for

controlling or optimizing system level design.

19

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