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A short story is a work of fictional narrative prose with a few characters, limited setting,and a
single major event. A short story is meant to be read in a single sitting.

2. What are its elements?

1. Characters – are the people, animals, strange creatures or objects that think, talk and act.

Types of Charactersa.
A. Protagonist – one who undergoes a change or learns something during the course of
the story-the one who takes the leading part

B. Antagonist – the who contends with the protagonist

2. Setting – provides the locale (place) and period (time) of the short story-it may be real or a
make believe place and time

3. Plot – is the series o fevents which leads to a climax, or high point o finterest

Parts of a Plot:

a. Exposition – the characters andsetting are introduces, as is the conflict – the struggle
between a character and some other force.

a.1 Types of Conflict

a. Man vs Man (could be a specific person or society in general

b.) Man vs Nature (could be weather conditions or animals)

c.Man vs Himself (could involve personal life circumstances or psychological issues)

b. Rising Action – during this time the tension builds as the conflict becomes more evident

c. Climax – this is the highest point of interest in the story-It involves important discovery
ordecision. During this time, one of the battling forces wins and the conflict isresolved

d. Falling Action – the event that immediately follows the climax-During this part, the story
draws to a close

e. Resolution – the part of the story in which loose ends are tied up

ExpositionClimaxResolutionLeah’sparents goaway,leaving Leahalone at theirhome for

thefirst time.Leah watcheshorror movies.She wakesup, alarmed atthe noise. Shedecides
tocheck thebasementdoor. Shegets locked inthe basement.Leah’s parents arrived home
ust as Leah panics.Leahexplains toher parentswhy shewas in thebasement. Leah
realizesthat shelearned animportantlesson aboutherself.

Kinds of Plot
a. Man in a Hole – considered as the oldest and most popular kind of plot. This story begins
with a character or a group of persons trapped in some kind of a hole or problem. The story
goes on to show how the characters manage to get out of their predicament.
b. Man on the Road – some short stories achieve their unifying effect through a single
character journeying through life, encountering various stages of adventure and growth-This
type of plot tends to be episodic but because all events happened to the same person, unity
is established.

c. Man in a Tub – this type of plot involves two important factors. First, there must be an
unstructured and usually, an ordinary event. Then, second, a realization or insight from the
experience of such event.

4. Theme – is a general truth about life-This is considered as the message of the story to the
readers Ex: Greed brings one’s downfall.

5. Point of View – is the way in which the story is narrated. It is the method, the vantage
point, that writers use to tell the story.

Types of Point of View:

a. First Person – the narrator, using theword “I” tells the story andparticipates in it.Ex: I
turned back to my bucket andsponge, and I could feel the tearsburning in my eyes. I wanted
somuch to go to the ball but mystepsisters would not hear of it.

b. Limited third person – the narrator,who is not in the story, tells the storythrough the use of
“she” or “he”. Thenarrator cannot see into the minds ofthe characters.Ex: Tears in her eyes,
Cinderella turnedback to her bucket and sponge. Shejumped when the door to the
roomslammed behind her as herstepsisters left for the ball.

c. Omniscient third person – the narrator,who is not in the story tells the storythrough the
use of “she” or “he.” Thenarrator can see into the minds of thecharacters and tell their
thoughts.Ex: Hurt and disappointed, Cinderellaturned back to her bucket and sponge.The
thought of missing the ball broughttears to her eyes. Cinderella jumpedwhen the door
slammed behind her.

Evaluation: Read the short story: How Much Land Does A Man Need, by Leo Tolstoy
Identify the elements of the short story