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MALAYSIAN MS 544 : PART 5 : 2001

STANDARD
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CODE OF PRACTICE FOR STRUCTURAL


USE OF TIMBER :
PART 5 : TIMBER JOINTS

ICS : 91.080.20
Descriptors : permissible stress design, timber joint, solid timbe fabricated with mechanical fasteners,
joint groups, timber grade, working loads, permissible loads, spacing, edge, end distances

© Copyright

DEPARTMENT OF STANDARDS MALAYSIA


DEVELOPMENT OF MALAYSIAN STANDARDS
The Department of Standards Malaysia (DSM) is the national standardisation
and accreditation body.

The main function of the Department is to foster and promote standards,


standardisation and accreditation as a means of advancing the national
economy, promoting industrial efficiency and development, benefiting the health
and safety of the public, protecting the consumers, facilitating domestic and
international trade and furthering international cooperation in relation to standards
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and standardisation.

Malaysian Standards are developed through consensus by committees which


comprise of balanced representation of producers, users, consumers and others
with relevant interests, as may be appropriate to the subject in hand. These
standards where appropriate are adoption of international standards. Approval of
a standard as a Malaysian Standard is governed by the Standards of Malaysia
Act 1996 (Act 549). Malaysian Standards are reviewed periodically. The use of
Malaysian Standards is voluntary except in so far as they are made mandatory by
regulatory authorities by means of regulations, local by-laws or any other similar
ways.

The Department of Standards appoints SIRIM Berhad as the agent to develop


Malaysian Standards. The Department also appoints SIRIM Berhad as the agent
for distribution and sale of Malaysian Standards.

For further information on Malaysian Standards, please contact:

Department of Standards Malaysia OR SIRIM Berhad


Level 1 & 2, Block C4, Parcel C 1, Persiaran Dato' Menteri
Federal Government Administrative Centre P.O. Box 7035, Section 2
62502 Putrajaya 40911 Shah Alam
Malaysia Selangor D.E.

Tel: 60 3 88858000 Tel: 60 3 5544 6000


Fax: 60 3 88885060 Fax: 60 3 5510 8095
http://www.dsm.gov.my http://www.sirim.my

Email: central@dsm.gov.my
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

CONTENTS
Page
Committee representation iv

Foreword vi

1 Scope 1

2 Referenced documents 1

3 Joint groups 2
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4 Timber grade 3

5 Anti-corrosion treatment 3

6 Tendency to split 3

7 Eccentric joints 4

8 Shear stress in the jointed member 4

9 Nailed joints 5

10 Screwed joints 12

11 Bolted joints 15

12 Coach screws 25

13 Split-ring connectors 28

14 Shear plate connectors 37

Tables

1 Group classification of timbers for use in joint design 2

2 Dry basic single shear lateral loads for one nail inserted at right angles to
side grain 5

3 Dry basic single shear lateral loads for one nail in a plywood to timber joint 6

4 Modification factor k1 for duration of loading for different fasteners 9


MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

CONTENTS (continued)
Page

5 Values of factor k17 for use in the design of multiple nail and screw joints 9

6 Minimum spacing, edge and end distances for nails 10

7 Basic withdrawal loads for one nail inserted at right angles to side grain 11

8 Dry basic single shear lateral loads for one wood screw inserted at right angles to
side grain 12
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9 Minimum spacing, edge and end distances for screws 13

10 Dry basic withdrawal loads for one wood screw inserted at right angles to side
grain 14
11 Maximum permissible withdrawal load per screw 14

12 Dry basic loads for one bolt in single shear 16

13 Basic working loads for a bolted joint system loaded parallel to grain 18

14 Basic working loads for a bolted joint system loaded perpendicular to grain 19

15 Values of factor K17 for use in the design of multiple connector joints of bolts,
coach screws, split ring and shear plates 21

16 Minimum required size of washers for structural bolted joints 24

17 Design parameters for bolts under axial load 24

18 Dry basic withdrawal loads for coach screws in side grain 27

19 Maximum permissible withdrawal loads per coach screws 27

20 Sizes of split-ring connectors and minimum sizes of washers 28

21 Dimensions of circular grooves for split-ring connectors 29

22 Dry basic loads for one split-ring connector unit 30


MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

CONTENTS (continued)
Page

23 End distances for split-ring and shear-plate connectors 32

24 Edge distances for split-ring and shear-plate connectors 32

25 Spacing modification factor, k~,for split-ring and shear-plate connectors 33

26 End distances modification factor, k~,for split-ring and shear-plate connectors 35

27 Loaded, edge distances modification factor, kD, for split-ring and shear-plate
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connectors 36

28 Sizes of shear-plate connectors and minimum sizes of washers 37

29 Dry basic loads for one shear-plate connector unit 40

30 Limiting values for permissible loads on one shear-plate connector unit 41

Figures

1 Shear stress in the jointed member 4

2 Illustration of a longitudinal and rotational joint 8

3 Graph of Hankinson formula 20

4 Spacing, edge and end distances for bolted joints 23

5 Coach screw 26

6 Timber thicknesses and fastener lengths for coach screws 26

7 Spacing, edge and end distances for split-ring and shear-plate connectors 36

8 Dimension of circular recesses for shear-plate connector units conforming

to BS 1579 38

III
MS 544: PART 5: 2001

Committee representation

The Building and Civil Engineering Industry Standards Committee (ISC D) under whose supervision this Malaysian
Standard was developed, comprises representatives from the following Government Ministries, Trade, Commerce
and Manufacturing Associations, and Scientific and Professional Bodies:

Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia


Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia
Department of Standards Malaysia
Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Jabatan Bornba dan Penyelamat
Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia
Master Builders Association Malaysia
Ministry of Housing and Local Government (Housing Department)
Ministry of Works (Public Works Department)
The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia
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Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

The development of this Malaysian Standard is under the supervision of the following representatives of the CIDB
Standard Committee:

Ir. Mohamed bin Mohd Nuruddin General Manager Technology Development Division
Megat Kamil Azmi bin Megat Rus Kamarani Senior Manager Standard and Quality Unit
Puan Zainora bt Zainal Manager Standard and Quality Unit
Puan Hanishahani Othman The Secretary of CIDB Standard Committee

The Technical Committee on Structural Use of Timber which developed this Malaysian Standard consists of the

following representatives:

Dr. Abdul Rashid bin H]. Ab. Malik (Chairman) Forest Research Institute Malaysia

Puan Hanishahani Othman (Secretary) Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia

Tuan Hj. Mohd Shukari bin Midon Forest Research Institute Malaysia

Encik Hilmi bin Md. Tahir Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

Encik Chow Wah/


Puan Dang Anom Md. Zin Jabatan Perumahan Negara

Prof. Madya Dr. Sabaruddin bin Mohd. Universiti Sains Malaysia

Prof. Dr. Zainai bin Mohamed/


Dr. Abd. Latif bin Saleh Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Prof Madya lr. Dr. Mohd Zamin bin Jumaat Universiti Malaya

Dr. Mohd Ariff bin Jamaludin Universiti Putra Malaysia

Encik Mohd Nor Zamri bin Mat Amin Malaysian Timber Industry Board

Ir. Yap Chin Tian Timber Trade Federation Malaysia

Tuan H]. Wahab bin Abdul Razak. General Lumber Fabricators and Builders Bhd

Dr. Peter Kho Chin Seng Sarawak Timber Association

Encik Lall Singh Gill Malaysian Wood Moulding and Joinery Council

Encik Mohamad Omar bin Mohamad Khaidzir Forest Research Institute Malaysia

iv
MS544: PART5: 2001

Committee representation (continued)


The Working Group on Timber Joints which developed this Malaysian Standard consists of the following

representatives:

Tuan H]. Mohd Shukari bin Midon (Chairman) Forest Research Institute Malaysia

Puan Hanishahani Bte Othman (Secretary) Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia

Encik Hilmi bin Md. Tahir Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

Ir. Yap Chin han Timber Trade Federation Malaysia

Dr. Peter Kho Chin Seng Sarawak Timber Association

Mr. Nicolas Roulant General Lumber Fabricators and Builders Bhd


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Prof. Madya Ir. Dr. Mohd Zamin bin Jumaat Universiti Malaya

Dr. Mohd. Ariff bin Jamaludin Universiti Putra Malaysia

YM. Engku Abdul Rahman bin Chik Syntek Sdn. Bhd

Encik Chu Yue Pun

Encik Mohd Nor Zamri bin Mat Amin Malaysian Timber Industry Board

V
MS544: PART 5:2001

FOREWORD
This Malaysian Standard was developed by the Technical Committee on Structural Use of
Timber established at the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) under
the authority of the Building and Civil Engineering Industry Standards Committee.

01DB is the Standards-Writing Organisation (SWO) appointed by SIRIM Berhad to develop


standards for the construction industry.

In the development of this standard, the following references were referred to:

a) BS 5268: Part 2: 1996, Code of practice for permissible stress design, materials
and workmanship; and
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b) AS 1720.1-1 988, SAA Timber structures code: Part 1 - Design methods.

MS 544 consists of the following parts and sections, under the general title, ‘Code of practice
for structural use of timber’

Part 1 : General
Part 2 : Permissible stress design of solid timber
Part 3 : Permissible stress design of glued laminated timber
Part 4 : Timber panel products
Section 1: Structural plywood
Section 2: Marine plywood
Section 3: Cement bonded particleboard
Section 4: Oriented strand board
Part 5 : Timber joints
Part 6 : Workmanship, inspection and maintenance
Part 7 : Testing
Part 8 : Design, fabrication and installation of prefabricated timber for roof trusses
Part 9 : Fire resistance of timber structures
Section 1 : Method of calculating fire resistance of timber members
Part 10 : Preservative treatment of structural timbers
Part 11 : Recommendation for the calculation basis for span tables
Section 1 : Domestic floor joists
Section 2 : Ceiling joists
Section 3 : Ceiling binders
Section 4: Domestic rafters
Part 12 : Laminated veneer lumber for structural application.

Compliance with a Malaysian Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal

obligations.

Vi
MS544: PART5: 2001

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE STRUCTURAL USE TIMBER:


PART 5 : TIMBER JOINTS

1. Scope
This part applies to joints in solid timber fabricated with mechanical fasteners described by
Malaysian Standard. These include joints fabricated with the following mechanical fasteners:

a) nails;
b) wood screws;
c) bolts;
d) coach screws;
e) split-ring connectors; and
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f) shear-plate connectors.
NOTES:

1. Design rules for specialised and patented mechanical fasteners and for variants of conventional fasteners are not
included in this code.

2. This Standard doe.s not specifically cover glued timber-to-timber or timber-to-plywood connections as occurred in
fabricated components such as stressed skin panels or plywood webbed beams. In such cases, joint design can be
based on the timber components in the connection, provided that the joint is fabricated using a rigid, durable
adhesive. Phenolic type adhesives meet these requirements. The design of fabricated components comprising glued
connections is therefore based on the fact that with correct bonding practice and quality control, a joint is developed
in which the adhesive bond strength and durability will be superior to the components comprising the joint. Reference
may be made to AS 1720.1: 1988, Appendix D2 for information on methods for assessing the deformation of joints.

2. Referenced documents
The following referenced documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text,
constitute provision of this Malaysian Standard. For dated references, where there are
subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications the Malaysian Standard
shall be amended or revised accordingly. For undated references, the latest edition of the
publication referred apply.

MS 544: Part 2: Permissible stress design of solid timber

MS 544 : Part 4: Timber panel products:


Section 1: Structural plywood
Section 2: Marine plywood

NZS 3603: 1981 Code of practice for timber design : Section 4 Joints —

Timber design handbook-Malaysian Forest Record No. 42 FRIM -

Structural timber joints-Malaysian Forest Record No. 32 FRIM -

AS 1393 Coach screws (metric series) (with ISO hexagon heads)

AS 1476 Metric wood screws

AS 2334 Steel nails Metric series


-

1
MS 544: PART5: 2001

AS 1111 ISO metric hexagon bolts and screws — Products grade C

BS 373 Methods of testing small clear specimens of timber

BS 1579 Connectors for timber

ASTM D143 Standard methods of testing small clear specimens of timber

Air seasoning properties of some Malaysian timbers -Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet
No.41 MTIB-

The strength properties of some Malaysian timbers Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet
-

No. 34- MTIB


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3. Joint groups
For the purpose of joint design, timber species have been classified into five joint groups: Ji,
J2, J3, J4 and J5. The joint group classifications for specific timbers are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Group classification of timbers for use in joint design

Joint Strength Timbers


group group

J1 SG1 Balau Bitis Chengal Penaga

Bekak Belian Balau, red


J2 SG2/ Agoho Delek Kern pas Keranji
SG3 Dedaru Kembang semangkok Kekatong Kulim
Kelat Mertas Mata ulat Perah
Merbatu Penyau Petaling Surian batu
Pauh kijang Tualang
Ranggu

J3 504 Berangan Dedali Derum Giam


Kapur Kasai Keruntum Mempening
Malabera Meranti bakau Merawan Merbau
Meransi Nyalin Perupok Punah
Merpauh Resak Simpoh
Rengas

J4 SG5 Alan bunga Babai Balik angin bopeng Biritangor


Brazil Nut Gerutu Kedondong Kayu kundur
Kungkur Kelendang Keruing Ketapang
Meranti, dark red Melunak Mempisang Mengkulang
Meranti white Nyatoh Petai Penarahan
Ramin Rubberwood Sepetir Sen gkuang
Tembusu Teak

J5 SG6/ Ara Bayur Batal Durian


SG7 Damar minyak Geronggang Jelutong Jongkong
Jenitri Kasah Laran Meranti, light red
Machang Medang Melantai/ Kawang Meranti ,yellow
Mersawa Pelajau Pulai Sesendok
Terap Terentang

2
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Where joints comprise more than one species of timber, the design load to be used in the
absence of other information is that appropriate to the weakest species in the joint.

4~ Timber grade
No allowance for the various grade of timber has been made in design data for fasteners.
Design loads for joints have been based on the assumption that there are no loose knots,
severe sloping grain, gum veins, gum or resin pockets, pith, holes or splits near any fastener.
Accordingly, all of these defects shall be avoided at fastener locations.

5. Anti-corrosion treatment
The loads specified for nails, screws, bolts and coach screws apply to fasteners that are not
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treated against corrosion. Some forms of anti-corrosion treatment may affect fastener
performance.

The loads specified for timber connectors apply to fasteners that are treated against
corrosion. Fasteners used in wet timber or in timber, which will be exposed to the wet
exposure condition, should be non-corrodable or are treated by an anti-corrosive process.

6. Tendency to split
Special precautions shall be specified in the use of timber that has a tendency to split to an
extent that may be detrimental to connector strength. In the absence of other guidance, the
criterion for tendency to split shall be based on the parameter cx defined by:

where,

c is the tangential shrinkage, in %; and

y is the tangential cleavage strength of green timber, in Newton per millimetre


(N/mm), as measured by BS 373 or ASTM D143.
Species for which cx > 0.8 often have a high tendency to split, particularly in exposed
locations; species for which cx < 0.55 may be considered to have a negligible tendency to split.
NOTES:

1. Information on shrinkage and cleavage for specific species can be obtained from the following:
a) Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No: 41: Air-seasoning properties of some Malaysian timbers.
b) Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No: 34: The strength properties of some Malaysian timbers.
3
2. It will be found that most hardwoods that have a basic density of less than 700 kg/m will have splitting parameter
c~> 0.8; most rainforest hardwoods of higher density have a splitting parameter a < 0.8.

3
MS 544: PART5 :2001

7. Eccentric joints
When it is impracticable to ensure that all the members meeting at a joint are arranged
symmetrically, with their centrelines intersecting on a common axis which is also the axis of
resistance of the fasteners or group of fasteners, the combined effects of primary stresses
and secondary stresses due to the resulting bending and shear stress shall be checked.

8. Shear stress in the jointed member


The effective cross-section of a jointed member should be used when calculating its strength.
The method of determining the effective cross-section is given in the appropriate clauses for
each type of fastener. In addition, it should be shown that the shear stress condition shown in
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Figure 1 is satisfied in the jointed member.

Unloaded edge

hI

Figure 1. Shear stress in the jointed member

V = Fsina

3V
shall not exceed ‘C adm
2 bhe

where,

V is the shearing force at the section;

B is the thickness of the member;

4
MS544: PART5 :2001

he is the depth of member less the distance from the unloaded edge to the centre of the
bolt (see Figure 1); and

‘C adm permissible shear stress as given by MS 544: Part 2.

9. Nailed joints
9.1 Lateral loads

9.1.1 Basic working loads

The basic working loads for plain shank, low carbon steel nails specified in AS 2334 or
equivalent whether driven by hand or by gun, in single shear in timber fabricated in the dry
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condition is given in Table 2. For plywood to timber joints the basic working loads are given in
Table 3.

A nailed joint should normally contain at least two nails.

In general, the species in joint groups Ji and J2 of Table 1 require to be pre-drilled. Driving
nails into holes pre-drilled to a diameter slightly less than the diameter of the nail results in a
small increase in the holding power. The diameter of the pre-drilled holes should not be
greater than four-fifths of the diameter of the nail.
Table 2. Dry basic single shear lateral loads for one nail inserted
at right angles to side grain

Diameter of nail Standard thickness of Basic lateral load (N) for timber in joint group:
members (mm)

(mm) SWG Head side Point-side Ji J2 J3 J4 J5

2.0 14 13 19 248 197 158 126 99


2.3 13 16 22 310 246 197 157 123
2.6 12 19 25 377 300 239 191 150
3.0 11 22 29 473 375 300 240 188
3.3 10 25 32 551 437 350 280 219
3.7 9 29 38 660 523 419 335 262
4.1 8 32 44 779 618 495 395 309
4.5 7 38 51 900 715 572 457 359
4.9 6 44 57 1035 822 657 526 411
5.4 5 51 67 1205 958 767 613 480
5.9 4 57 76 1390 1103 882 703 555
6.4 3 64 89 1575 1250 1000 801 626

5
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 3. Dry basic single shear lateral load for one nail in a plywood to timber joint

Nominal” Nail (mm) Penetration of nail to Basic Lateral load (N) for timber in group
plywood timber~(mm)
thickness ~_________

(mm) Diameter Minimum Standard Minimum JI J2 J3 J4 J5


length

6 2.6 40 34 13 339 270 215 172 135


3.0 45 39 15 426 337 270 216 169
3.3 45 39 17 496 393 315 252 197
3.7 55 49 19 594 471 377 301 236
4.1 60 55 21 701 556 445 355 278
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9 2.6 40 31 13 342 273 218 175 138


3.0 45 36 15 429 340 273 219 172
3.3 45 36 17 494 396 318 255 200
3.7 55 46 19 597 474 380 304 239
4.1 60 51 21 704 559 448 358 281

12 2.6 40 28 13 345 276 221 178 141


3.0 45 33 15 432 343 276 222 175
3.3 45 33 17 502 399 321 258 203
3.7 55 43 19 600 477 383 307 242
4.1 60 48 21 707 562 451 361 284

15 2.6 40 25 13 348 279 224 181 144


3.0 45 30 15 435 346 279 225 178
3.3 45 32 17 505 402 324 261 206
3.7 55 40 19 603 480 386 310 245
4.1 60 45 21 710 565 454 364 287

18 2.6 43 25 13 351 282 227 184 147


3.0 47 29 15 438 349 282 228 181
3.3 50 32 17 508 405 327 264 209
3.7 56 38 19 606 483 389 313 248
4.1 62 44 21 713 568 457 367 290

21 2.6 46 25 13 354 285 230 187 150


3.0 50 29 15 441 352 285 231 184
3.3 53 32 17 511 408 330 267 212
3.7 59 38 19 609 486 392 316 251
4.1 65 44 21 716 571 460 370 293

NOTES:

1. Plywood should be structural or marine plywood depending on service condition, see MS 544: Part 4: Section 1
and 2.

2. The basic load is based on the standard nail penetration, If the penetration is less than the standard but not less
than the minimum, the basic load should be reduced proportionately. If the penetration is more than the standard, no
increase in basic load is allowed.

6
MS 544: PART5:2001

9.1.2 Permissible loads


The permissible load Fadm of a laterally loaded nail shall be taken to be given by:
Fadm - k1 k2 k13 k14 k16 k17 F

where;

k1 = the factor for duration of load given in Table 4;

k2 = 1.0 for dry timber


= 1 .0 for annular ring shank and helical threaded shank nails under all
exposure conditions
= 0.7 for wet timber;

k13 1.0 for nails in side grain


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= 0.7 for nails in end grain;

k14 = 1.0 for nails in single shear


= 0.9 times the numbers of shear plane, provided that each of the member in a
multiple shear joint has a thickness of not less than 0.7 of the standard
thickness for point side member given in Table 2;

= 1.25 for nails driven through close fitting holes into metal side plates
= 1 .0 for timber to timber joint;
k17 = factor for multiple nailed joints given in Table 5.1 for longitudinal joints and

Table 5.2 for rotational joints; and

F = basic working load given in Table 2.

For longitudinal joints containing n nails, F~,the design load capacity of the joint, shall be

taken to be given by
= nFadm

For rotational joints containing n nails, M~,the design in-plane moment capacity of the joint,
shall be taken to be given by

n
M~ = Fadmrmax~ (rj/rma,~f’2
1=1

where;

r, is the distance from the P~nail to the centroid of the nail group; and

rmax is the maximum value of r1

Longitudinal and rotational joints are illustrated in Figure 2.

7
MS 544: PART5:2001

~aI 7

• •••• • •
Fn~ • • • • • • •
~. F,~
• • •• • ••

(a) Longitudinal joint


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Circle of radius 0.7 r

M~
.‘ I • II
•,i. • • ~ I
N •~‘ I
•‘~. • I
• ~ ‘
—~‘~ I
I

r max
na= 14

k~i

(b) Rotational joint

Figure 2. Illustration of a longitudinal and rotational joint

8
MS 544: PART5:2001

Table 4. Modification factor k1 for duration of loading for different fasteners

Fastener Duration of loading

Long term Medium term Short and very short term

Nails and screws 1.0 1.125 1.25

Bolts, coach 1.0 1.25 1.5


screw, split-rings
and shear- plates
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Table 5. Values of factor k17 for use in the design of multiple nail and screw joints
(Comprising of Table 5.1 and 5.2)

Table 5.1. For longitudinal tension joints

Value of 1c17
Condition of timber •

Fasteners
flal 4 flat 5 fla; = 10 flal 20
Wet
1.00 0.90 0.80 0.75
ry 1.00 0.94 0.90 0.85

NOTE. flaf number of fasterners in each row per interface. See Figure 2(a)

Table 5.2. For rotational joints

flar = number of nails per interface k


17
2 1.00
5 1.05
10 1.10
20 1.15
100 or greater 1.20

NOTES:

fla = number of nails within the circle of radius 0.7 rmax

r, = distance from fth nail to centroid of nail group

rmax = maximum value of r


1
See Figure 2 (b).

9
MS544: PART5:2001

9.1.3 Spacings, edge and end distances

Table 6 provides recommended minimum spacings, edge and end distances for nails in terms
of nail diameter d. For spacings at an angle to the grain, interpolation by means of
Hankinson’s formula may be used.
NOTE. For timber that has a tendency to split (see Clause 6) some mitigation measures such as pre-drilling or
increased spacing are recommended. The fabrication of prototype joints is a useful method of checking the efficacy
of mitigation measures.

Table 6. Minimum spacing, edge and end distances for nails

Minimum distance
Spacing type
Holes not predrilled Holes predrilled to 80 percent of
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nail diameter

End distance 20d lOd


Edge distance Sd Sd
Between nails
- Along grain 20d lOd
- Across grain 1 Od 3d

9.1.4 Nail length and timber thickness

For the basic loads to apply, the nails ~Iiouldfully penetrate the tabulated standard thickness
of members or, for members receiving the nail point, should penetrate to an equivalent depth.
Where the thickness of members is less than those tabulated, the basic load should be
reduced proportionately. No increase in basic load is allowed for thickness of members
greater than that in Table 2.

The nail should be considered as non-load bearing if the penetration of the head side or point
side is less than 5d.

9.1.5 Improved nails

For sc~uaregrooved or square twisted nails of steel with a yield stress of not less than 375
N/mm the basic loads given in Table 2 should be multiplied by 1.2. The nominal diameter of
,

the nail should be assumed to be 0.75 times the distance between diagonally opposite
corners of the cross-section.

9.1.6 Slant driving

The direction of the slant should be such that the joint will not loosen under load.

9.1.7 Avoidance of splitting

The basic loads for nails have been derived on the assumption that splitting of the timber
does not occur to any significant extent. In wet timber which shows a marked tendency to
split, (see Clause 6), the use of predrilied holes of diameter 80 percent of the nail diameter is
recommended.

10
MS 544: PART5:2001

9.2 Withdrawal loads

9.2.1 Basic working loads

The basic working loads in withdrawal for plain shank, low carbon steel nails as specified in
AS 2334 driven by hand, into side grain of timber are given in Table 7.
Table 7. Basic withdrawal loads for one nail inserted at right angles to side grain

Diameter of nail Basic withdrawal load (N/mm of penetration) for timber in group

(mm) SWG Ji J2 J3 J4 J5
4.1
2.0 14 5.8 2.9 2.0 1.4
2.3 13 6.7 4.7 3.3 2.3 1.6
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2.6 12 7.6 5.3 3.7 2.6 1.8


3.0 11 8.7 6.1 4.3 3.0 2.1
3.3 10 9.6 6.7 4.7 3.4 2.3
3.7 9 10.7 7.5 5.3 3.8 2.6
4.1 8 11.9 8.3 5.9 4.2 2.8
4.5 7 13.1 9.1 6.5 4.6 3.1
4.9 6 14.2 9.9 7.0 5.0 3.4
5.4 5 15.7 10.9 7.7 5.5 3.7
6.9 3 17.1 11.9 8.5 6.0 4.1
6.4 3 18. 6 13.0 9.2 6.5 4.4

NOTES:

1. No withdrawal load should be carried by a nail driven into the end grain of timbers.

2. The penetration ofthe nail should not be less than 15 mm.

9.2.2 Permissible loads

The permissible load F adm of a single nail in withdrawal from side grain shall be taken to be

given by
Fadm = k1k2 F

where;

k1 = 1.0 for all duration of loading;

k2 = 1.0 for both wet and dry timber which subsequently will not change
appreciably in moisture content.
= 0.25 where cyclic changes in moisture content can occur after nailing; and

F = the basic working load in withdrawal given in Table 7.

11
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

9.2.3 Changes in moisture content

The values of basic resistance to withdrawal given in Table 7 apply to round wire nails driven
into timber which subsequently will riot change appreciably in moisture content. Where large
changes in moisture content of the timber subsequently to nailing are expected, the values
given in Table 7 should be multiplied by 0.25.

9.2.4 Improved nails

The values of basic resistance to withdrawal given in Table 7 should be multiplied by 1 .5 for
ringed-shank or annularly-threaded nails. No reduction in basic resistance to withdrawal of
these nails need be made where timber seasons subsequent to nailing. However, no load in
withdrawal should be carried by ringed-shank or annularly-threaded nails driven into the end
grain of the timber.
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10. Screwed joints

10.1 Lateral loads

10.1.1 Basic working loads

The basic working loads for plain steel wood screws as specified in AS 1476, whether driven
by hand or by machine, in single shear in dry timber are given in Table 8.
NOTE. In the absence of specific data, these loads may also be used for other forms of steel screws intended for the
fabrication of timber joints. Loads for other diameters may be derived by linear interpolation in direct proportion to
diameter raised to the power of 1.7.

Table 8. Dry basic single shear lateral loads for one wood screw
inserted at right angles to side grain

Diameter of screw Standard thickness of Basic lateral load (N) for timber in group:
members (mm)
(mm) Gauge Head-side Point-side Ji J2 J3 J4 J5

2.7 4 10 19 498 410 340 282 229


3.1 5 11 22 587 484 401 333 270
3.4 6 12 24 655 540 448 371 302
3.8 7 13 27 748 617 511 424 344
4.2 8 15 29 843 695 576 477 388
4.5 9 16 32 915 755 625 518 421
4.9 10 17 34 1012 835 692 574 466
5.2 11 18 37 1087 897 742 616 500
5.6 12 20 39 1187 976 811 672 546
6.3 14 22 44 1366 1126 933 774 628
7.0 16 25 49 1548 1276 1057 877 712
7.7 18 27 54 1734 1430 1184 982 798

10.1.2 Permissible loads

The permissible load Fadm for a laterally loaded screw shall be taken to be given by:

Fadm = k1 k2 k13 k16 k17 F

12
MS 544: PART5:2001

where;

= the factor for duration of load given in Table 4;

k2 = 1.0 for dry timber


= 0.7 for wet timber;

k13 = 1.0 for screws in side grain


= 0.7 for screws in end grain;

k16 = 1.25 where the load is applied through metal side plates of adequate strength
to transfer the load and the screws are a close fit to the holes in these plates
= 1.0 otherwise;

= factor for multiple screw joints given in Tables 5.1 and 5.2; and
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F = basic working load given in Table 8.

10.1.3 Spacings, edge and end distances


Table 9 provides recommended minimum spacings, edge and end distances for screws
stated in terms of the shank diameter d.

Table 9. Minimum spacing, edge and end distances for screws

Spacing type Minimum distance

End distance lOd

Edge distance 5d

Between screws
-along grain lOd
-across grain 3d

NOTE. d = shank diameter of screws.

For spacing at an angle to the grain, interpolation according to Hankinson’s formula may be

used.

10.1.4 Screw length and timber thickness

For the basic loads to apply, the screws should fully penetrate the tabulated standard
thickness of members, or for members receiving the screw point should penetrate to an
equivalent depth. Where the thickness of members are less than those tabulated the basic
load should be reduced proportionately. No increase in basic load is allowed for thickness of
members greater than those in Table 8. The penetration of the point should be not less than
0.6 of the standard point side member.

13
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

10.1.5 Pre-drilling

The values given in Table 8 apply when the correct size lead holes have been drilled. The
diameter of the hole for the shank must be equal to the diameter of the shank, and the lead
hole for the threaded portion of the screw must not be greater than 7/8 of the root diameter of
the screw adjacent to the shank. Screws installed directly without pre-drilling have the same
value given in Table 8, provided that the timber does not split.

10.2 Withdrawal loads

10.2.1 Basic working loads

The basic working loads for plain wood screws as specified in AS 1476 driven by hand or by
machine from the side grain of dry timber are given in Table 10. The maximum working load
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that may be applied to any one screw shall not exceed the value appropriate to the diameter
and metal from which the screw is manufactured as given in Table 11. Loads for other
diameters may be obtained by linear interpolation in all tables.

The basic working loads for wood screws driven into end grain shall not exceed 70 % of the
values given in Table 10.
Table 10. Dry basic withdrawal loads for one wood screw inserted
at right angles to side grain

Diameter of screw Basic withdrawal loads (N/mm of penetration for timber) in group

(mm) Gauge Ji J2 J3 J4 J5
2.7 4 26.5 19.2 14.1 10.3 7.3
3.1 5 30.2 21.9 16.1 11.8 8.4
3.4 6 33.0 24.0 17.6 12.9 9.1
3.8 7 36.8 26.7 19.6 14.3 10.2
4.2 8 40.5 29.4 21.5 15.8 11.2
4.5 9 43.2 31.4 23.0 16.9 12.0
4.9 10 46.9 34.0 25.0 18.3 13.0
5.2 11 49.7 36.0 26.4 19.4 13.8
5.6 12 53.3 38.7 28.4 20.8 14.8
6.3 14 59.7 43.3 31.8 23.3 16.5
7.0 16 66.1 47.9 35.2 25.8 18.3
7.7 18 72.4 52.5 38.5 28.2 20.0

Table 11. Maximum permissible withdrawal load per screw

Maximum permissible withdrawal load, N

Metal
Screw size number

4 I 6 8 10 I 12 I 14 I 18
Shank diameter (mm)
2.74 3.45 4.17 4.88 5.59 6.30 7.72
Steel and 18/8 stainless steel 730 1110 1650 2270 2960 3780 5600
Brass and silicon bronze 560 850 1270 1750 2280 2910 4310
Aluminium alloy 430 650 970 1340 1740 2230 3300

14
MS544: PART5:2001

10.2.2 Permissible loads


The permissible load Fadm for a screw in withdrawal shall be taken to be given by the lesser of
the value given in Table 11 and the value:

Fadm = k1 k2k13F

where,

k1 = 1.0 for all duration of loading;

k2 = 1.Ofordrytimber
= 0.7 for wet timber;

k13 1.0 for screws in side grain


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= 0.7 for screws in end grain; and

F = basic working load given in Table 10.


NOTE. The penetration of the screw point should not be less than 15 mm.

11. Bolted joints


11.1 General

The basic working loads given in 11.2.1 and 11.2.2 are applicable to steel bolts as specified in
AS 1111, when fitted into pre-drilled holes of diameter approximately 10 % greater than the
bolt diameter and when fitted with washers as given in 11.2.5.

11.2 Lateral Loads

11.2.1 Basic working load parallel and perpendicular to grain

The dry basic working load F for a single bolt bearing parallel and perpendicular to the grain
and acting in single shear is given for a selection of bolt diameter and effective timber
thickness in Table 12.

15
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 12. Dry basic loads for one bolt in single shear
Effective* Bolt Basic load (kN) for timber in group
diameter ,~
J2 J3 J4 J5
•timber
thickness b -_____

(mm) (mm) Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp
12.7 6.3 0.80 0.53 0.63 0.37 0.50 0.28 0.41 0.20 0.29 0.13
9.5 1.21 0.65 0.96 0.45 0.76 0.33 0.60 0.24 0.42 0.15
12.7 1.58 0.76 1.26 0.53 0.98 0.38 0.79 0.28 0.55 0.18
15.9 1.92 0.85 1.52 0.60 1.19 0.44 0.96 0.31 0.66 0.20
19.0 2.22 0.95 1.76 0.67 1.38 0.49 1.10 0.36 0.76 0.23
22.2 2.46 1.04 1.97 0.73 1.55 0.54 1.24 0.38 0.85 0.25
19.0 6.3 1.12 0.79 0.90 0.56 0.71 0.41 0.58 0.30 0.41 0.19
9.5 1.74 0.97 1.39 0.68 1.09 0.50 0.89 0.36 0.61 0.24
12.7 2.33 1.13 1.86 0.80 1.46 0.59 1.18 0.42 0.80 0.28
15.9 2.82 1.27 2.24 0.90 1.76 0.66 1.42 0.48 0.97 0.31
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19.0 3.30 1.42 2.63 1.01 2.06 0.73 1.66 0.53 1.14 0.35
22.2 3.71 1.56 2.95 1.10 2.30 0.80 1.85 0.59 1.27 0.37
25.4 4.10 1.69 3.25 1.20 2.54 0.88 2.04 0.64 1.40 0.41
25.4 6.3 1.30 1.02 1.09 0.74 0.88 0.54 0.72 0.40 0.52 0.24
9.5 2.22 1.30 1.79 0.92 1.42 0.67 1.13 0.48 0.80 0.31
12.7 3.01 1.51 2.41 1.07 1.91 0.78 1.54 0.56 1.07 0.36
15.9 3.72 1.70 2.96 1.20 2.34 0.88 1.87 0.64 1.30 0.41
19.0 4.36 1.90 3.48 1.34 2.72 0.98 2.18 0.71 1.51 0.46
22.2 4.91 2.08 3.91 1.48 3.06 1.08 2.46 0.78 1.69 0.50
25.4 5.46 2.26 4.34 1.60 3.40 1.16 2.72 0.84 1.88 0.54
38.1 6.3 1.30 1.34 1.14 1.03 0.95 0.76 0.76 0.56 0.55 0.36
9.5 2.84 1.87 2.38 1.37 1.92 1.00 1.58 0.72 1.12 0.47
12.7 4.22 2.24 3.41 1.60 2.70 1.16 2.20 0.84 1.54 0.54
15.9 5.28 2.54 4.25 1.80 3.36 1.32 2.71 0.95 1.88 0.61
19.0 6.29 2.84 5.04 2.02 3.96 1.46 3.20 1.07 2.22 0.68
22.2 7.16 3.12 5.72 2.21 4.51 1.62 3.63 1.16 2.50 0.76
25.4 8.32 3.40 6.62 2.40 5.21 1.75 4.19 1.27 2.89 0.82
50.8 6.3 1.30 1.34 1.14 1.10 0.95 0.86 0.76 0.66 0.55 0.44
9.5 2.84 2.34 2.50 1.76 2.08 1.28 1.76 0.95 1.27 0.60
12.7 4.94 2.92 4.10 2.11 3.06 1.55 2.74 1.13 1.93 0.72
15.9 6.65 3.37 5.38 2.40 4.28 1.75 3.48 1.27 2.44 0.82
19.0 8.00 3.79 6.44 2.69 5.10 1.96 4.14 1.42 2.88 0.91
22.2 9.18 4.16 7.37 2.95 5.83 2.15 4.72 1.56 3.28 1.10
25.4 10.37 4.52 8.30 3.20 6.55 2.34 528 1.69 3.66 1.09
76.2 9.5 2.84 2.56 2.50 1.81 2.08 1.58 1.76 1.22 1.27 0.82
12.7 4.94 3.84 4.33 2.98 3.60 2.17 3.06 1.61 2.22 1.03
15.9 7.43 4.75 6.53 3.50 5.41 2.56 4.61 1.90 3.17 1.20
19.0 10.30 50 8.57 3.98 6.91 2.92 5.71 2.11 4.04 1.37
22.2 12.58 6.18 10.22 4.40 8.17 3.23 6.67 2.34 4.68 1.51
25.4 14.52 6.74 11.71 4.80 9.31 3.50 7.56 2.53 5.27 1.63
28.6 15.94 7.33 12.85 5.20 10.16 3.79 8.23 2.74 5.75 1.76
101.6 12.7 4.94 3.98 4.33 3.16 3.60 2.47 3.06 1.90 2.22 1.26
15.9 7.43 5.62 6.53 4.37 5.41 3.20 4.61 2.38 3.17 1.55
19.0 10.30 6.85 9.02 5.15 7.49 3.76 6.38 2.76 4.39 1.76
22.2 13.43 7.86 11.80 5.77 9.79 4.22 8.14 3.08 5.76 1.98
25.4 16.99 8.74 14.11 6.34 11.40 4.63 9.42 3.37 6.66 2.17
28.6 19.62 9.61 15.96 6.89 12.80 5.05 10.48 3.66 7.36 2.36
31.7 21.74 10.41 17.59 7.46 14.02 5.45 11.44 3.94 7.99 2.54
127.0 15.9 7.43 5.62 6.53 4.45 5.41 3.48 4.61 2.68 3.17 1.78
19.0 10.30 7.49 9.02 5.94 7.49 4.39 6.38 3.28 4.39 2.14
22.2 13.43 9.12 11.80 6.92 9.79 5.08 8.34 3.73 6.02 2.40
25.4 16.99 10.42 14.92 7.73 12.38 5.65 10.55 4.15 7.62 2.66
28.6 20.53 11.53 18.02 8.48 14.72 6.20 12.20 4.52 8.65 2.92
31.7 24.31 12.72 20.22 9.23 16.33 6.74 13.50 4.90 9.55 3.17

16
MS544: PART5:2001

Table 12. Dry basic loads for one bolt in single shear (continued)

Effective Bolt Basic load (kN) for timber in group


timber diameter
thickness* Ji J2
(mm) (mm) Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp
152.4 19.0 10.30 7.49 9.02 5.94 7.49 4.64 6.38 3.56 4.39 2.36
22.2 13.43 9.61 11.80 7.63 9.79 5.72 8.34 4.27 6.02 2.78
25.4 16.99 11.94 14.92 8.93 12.38 6.52 10.55 4.82 7.62 3.11
28.6 20.53 13.26 18.02 9.91 14.98 7.26 12.74 5.34 9.20 3.42
31.7 24.31 14.74 21.34 10.85 17.72 7.94 15.08 5.83 10.75 3.73
203.2 22.2 13.43 9.61 11.80 7.63 9.79 5.95 8.34 4.57 6.02 3.05
25.4 16.99 11.94 14.92 9.48 12.38 7.40 10.55 5.69 7.62 3.78
28.6 20.53 14.52 18.02 11.53 14.98 8.82 12.74 6.62 9.20 7.32
31.7 24.31 17.36 21.34 13.56 17.72 9.92 15.08 7.36 10.90 4.79
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*the loads for intermediate thickness may be obtained by linear interpolation.


The units for timber thickness and bolt diameter are direct conversion from imperial units.

11.2.2 Basic working load for a bolted joint system

a) Parallel and perpendicular to grain

For a bolt in other than a two-member joint, the basic working load shall be multiples
of F11 for parallel loading as shown in Table 13 and F1 for perpendicular loading as
shown in Table 14 for the appropriate type of joint.

b) Other angles to grain

For systems loaded at an angle a to the grain, the basic working load is given by use
of Hankinson’s formula as follows:-
FF
II

Fsin2ci+F cos2a
1 1

Hankinson’s formula is conveniently evaluated by means of the nomogram given in Figure 3.

17
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 13. Basic working loads for a bolted joint system loaded parallel to grain

Type of joint Effective timber thickness b Basic load F


11

1. Two member Smaller of 2b and 2b F


1 2 11
I I 1I~I~1

2. Three member Smaller of 2b and b


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2 F
1 2 11

II I

3. Multiple member i) Between A and B — i) F


11
Smaller of b and b
1 C —2
ii) Between B and ii) F
Smaller of b and b 11
2 3
A b iii) etc. iii) etc.
1
B b
2 =
Total basic load sum of basic
I C j b
3
loads (i), (ii), etc.

ID / b4

18
MS 544: PART5 :2001

Table 14. Basic working loads for a bolted joint system loaded perpendicular to grain

Type of joint Effective timber thickness b Basic load F ~

1. Two member 2b, but not exceeding twice F ~


thickness of side member.
b,

ft~

b but not exceeding twice i) 2F


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2. Three member i)

~
2 1
b
2
b
1 thickness of thinner side
member.

ii) 2 b, but not exceeding ii) 2 F


thickness of inner 1
member.

4. Multiple member 1) Between A and B — 1) F


1
thinner of b, and b
ii) Between B and C —2 ii) F
thinner of b and b 1
iii) Between C 2and D —3 ii) F
thinner of b and b 1
iv) etc. 3 4

~ Total basic load etc.


iv) = sum of basic
loads (i), (ii), (iii) etc.
~

19
MS 544: PART5 :2001

F;
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Fi

Figure 3. Graph of Hankinson formula

EXAMPLE

Given F
11
= 9.0 kN, F
1
= 6.0 kN, cx = 60

To find Fcc connect F


11
= 9.0 to F
1
= 6.0.

At intersection with 60 line, construct line parallel to grid line to axis at Fcc = 6.5.

11.2.3 Permissible loads

The permissible load F adm of a laterally loaded bolt system shall be taken to be given by:

20
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

11.2.3 Permissible loads

The permissible load F adm of a laterally loaded bolt system shall be taken to be given by:

F adm = k1 k2 k16 k17 F

where,

k1 = the factor for duration of load given in Table 4;

= 1.Ofordrytimber
= 0.7 for wet timber;

k16 = 1 .25 for bolts that transfer load through metal side plates of adequate
strength and the bolts are a close fit to the holes in these plates provided that
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b/d > 5 for loads acting parallel to grain and b/d > 10 for loads acting
perpendicular to the grain (where b denotes the effective timber thickness
and d is the bolt diameter)

= 1.0 otherwise;

k17 = factor for multiple bolted joint given in Table 15; and

F = basic working load as derived in 11.2.2.

Table 15. Values of factor k17 for use in the design of multiple connector joints of
bolts, coach screws, split ring and shear plates

~[ Value of k
joint 17
fla4 fla 5 fib =10 tjo =15 17o 16

1.00 0.95 0.80 0.65 0.62


restraint*) 1.00 0.95 0.80 0.55 0.50
restraint*) 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

of fasteners in each row per interface.

restraint’ refers to the possibility of restraint to timber shrinkage due to the joint detail.

21
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

11.2.4 Spacings, edge and end distances

Spacings, edge and end distances shall comply with the following requirements:

a) Loads parallel to grain

The basic working loads given in Tables 12 and 13 apply to joints in which the edge,
end and between- fastener spacings are not less than those shown in Figure 4a. The
distance a indicated in the figure shall be at least (n 2)d with a minimum of 2.5d,

where n is the total number of bolts in the joint and d is the diameter of the bolt.

Similarly, the required end distance ‘par shall be at least 7d in tension joints in both wet
and dry timber and 4d in compression joints and in joints subjected to bending
moment for both moisture conditions. However, lesser end distances may be used in
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tension joint provided that the basic load is reduced in proportion to the reduction in
end distance.
Nevertheless, in no case shall the end distance for tension joints be less than 6d for
wet timber and 4dfor dry timber.

b) Loads perpendicular to grain

The minimum edge, end and between-fastener spacing shall not be less than those
shown in Figure 4b. The distance a shall be at least 2.5d for a bid ratio of 2, and it
shall be increased proportionately so that it is at least 5d for a bid ratio of 6 or more,
where b is the thickness of the member loaded perpendicular to the grain.

c) Loads acting at an angle to the grain

For loads acting at an angle 00 to 30° to the grain, the spacings, edge and end
distances may be taken as for loads parallel to the grain. For loads acting at an angle
of 30° to 90° to the grain, the spacings, edge and end distances may be taken as for
loads acting perpendicular to the grain.

22
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

(a) Load applied parallel to grain


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par

(b) Load applied perpendicular to grain

Figure 4. Spacing, edge and end distances for bolted joints

23
MS 544 : PART 5 : 2001

11.2.5 Washers

In all timber-to-timber bolted structural joints, every bolt shall be provided with a washer at
each end, of a size not less than that stated in Table 16. If smaller washers are used, then the
basic working load given in 11.2 shall be reduced in proportion to the dimension of the washer
diameter or side length.

Table 16. Minimum required size of washers for structural bolted joints

Washer size (mm)


diameter
. . .
Thickness Mm. diameter for round Mm. side length for square
washers washers
1.6 30 25
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2.0 36 32
2.5 45 40
3.0 55 50
4.0 65 57
5.0 75 65
6.0 85 75

11.3 Axial loads

Where bolts are loaded axially, the basic working load of the bolt shall be taken as the lesser
of the axial strength of the bolt and the bearing strength of the timber under the washer when
loaded perpendicular to the grain. The design axial strength of bolts and the effective
diameter for use in computing the bearing pressure on the timber are given in Table 17.

Table 17. Design parameters for bolts under axial load

Bolt diameter Axial strength of bolt Effective diameter of a standard washer* in bearing
(mm) (kN) (mm)
M6 4.0 16
M8 7.5 21
M10 11.5 — 27
31
M12 17
M16 32 31
M20 50 50
M24 72 60
M30 115 69
M36 165 78

* Standard washers are washers having the minimum dimensions shown in Table 16. The effective diameter is less

than the actual diameter because it includes an allowance for bending ofthe washer.

24
MS544: PART5 :2001

12. Coach screws

12.1 General

The basic working loads given in the following clauses are applicable to steel coach screws
as specified in AS 1393 and as shown in Figure 5.

12.2 Lateral loads

For coach screws bearing laterally in dry timber, the provision of Clause 11 for bolts shall
apply, subject to the following conditions:

a) for the purpose of Clause 11, a coach screw shall be considered to be a bolt of
diameter equal to the shank diameter of the screw;
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b) the screws shall be fitted with washers as specified in 11.2.5;

c) in a two-member joint, the thinner member shall have a minimum thickness of three
times the shank diameter of the coach screw;
d) The diameter of the hole for the shank shall not be less than the shank diameter of
the screw nor exceed it by more than 1 mm or 10 percent of the shank diameter,
whichever is the lesser. The diameter of the hole for the threaded portion of the screw
shall not exceed the root diameter of the screw. The depth of the hole shall not be
less than the intended depth to which the screw is to be driven. The screw shall not
be hammered into place but turned with a hand operated or machine operated
wrench; and

e) Timber thickness and screw lengths as shown in the Figure 6 shall be such that:

i) thickness of first member, t1 > 3d


ii) depth of penetration into second member for species in joint groups:
,

JlandJ2 t~ >7d
J3 t~ >8d
J4andJ5 t~>lOd

For the lesser values of t~the basic load shall be reduced in proportion to the
decrease in t~ and the coach screw shall be considered as non-load bearing if
is less than 4d.
t~

25
MS 544: PART5:2001

Head ~~:~—;i~ ID .

D = Shank or nominal diameter

S = Length of shank or unthreaded portion


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T = Length of threaded portion

Figure 5. Coach screw

Figure 6. Timber thicknesses and fastener lengths for coach screws

26
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

12.3 Withdrawal loads


12.3.1 Basic working loads

The basic working loads for coach screw in withdrawal from the side grain are given in Table
18.

12.3.2 Permissible loads

The permissible withdrawal load Fadm for a coach screw in withdrawal shall be taken to be
given by:

Fadm = k1 k2k13F

but not greater than the value given in Table 19


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where;

k1 = 1.0 for coach screw for all duration of loading;

k2 = 1.Ofordrytimber
= 0.7 for wet timber;

k13 = 1.0 for coach screws in side grain


= 0.7 for coach screws in end grain; and

F = basic working load for coach screws in side grain, given in Table 18.

Table 18. Dry basic withdrawal loads for coach screws in side grain
Shank Basic withdrawal load, N per mm penetration of tread for timber in group
diameter
(mm) J1 J2 J3 J4 J5
6 57 41 30 22 16
8 75 54 40 29 21
10 93 68 50 36 26
12 111 80 59 43 31
16 146 106 78 57 40
20 181 131 96 71 50

Table 19. Maximum permissible withdrawal loads per coach screws

Nominal diameter of coach screw (mm) Maximum permissible withdrawal load N

6 2000
8 4000
10 6000
12 9000
16 20000
20 31500

27
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

13. Split-ring connectors


13.1 General
13.1.1 Connector sizes
The recommendations contained in this clause are applicable to the sizes of split-ring
connectors given in Table 20 and conforming to BS 1579.
Table 20. Sizes of split-ring connectors and minimum sizes of washers

Nominal size of Nominal size and thread Minimum size of round or square washers
connectors diameter of bolt
Diameter or length of I Thickness
side
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(mm)
(mm) J (mm)
64 M12 50 3
102 M20 75 I
NOTE. The sizes given in this table are metric conversions of the imperial sizes given in BS 1579.

13.1.2 Bolts and washers

The diameter of the bolts to be used with the connectors are given in Table 20.

Round or square washers should be fitted between the timber and the head and nut of the
bolt. The minimum size of washer to be used with each connector is given in Table 20.
13.1.3 Joint preparation

To prepare a connectored joint, the positions of the bolt holes should be set out accurately
with reference to the point of intersection of the centre-lines of the members. One of the
following two procedures should be used when drilling the bolt holes:

a) fit the members together in their correct positions and clamp while drilling the bolt
holes through all the members; and

b) drill the bolt holes in the individual members using jigs or templates to locate the bolt
holes accurately.

Bolt holes should be within 2 mm ol their specified position. The contact surfaces of the
timber members should be grooved to the dimensions given in Table 21.

The grooves for split-rings may be cut simultaneously with the drilling of the bolt holes if
procedure b) is used.

28
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 21. Dimensions of circular grooves for split-ring connectors

Split-ring size Dimensions of groove


(mm) (mm)

64 65.0 4.6 9.5

102

13.2 Effective cross section

The effective cross-section of each member at a joint should be determined by deducting the
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projected area from the gross area of the cross-section of the connector recess (i.e. 705 mm2
for each 64 mm split-ring, or 1455 mm2 for each 102 mm split-ring) and the projected area of
the groove. The depths of the connector grooves are given in Table 21.

When assessing the effective cross-section of multiple connector joints, all connectors and
their bolts that lie within a distance of 0.75 connector diameters, measured parallel to the
grain from a given cross-section should be considered as occurring at that cross-section.
Then the effective cross section should be determined by deducting the given net projected
areas of the connector grooves and bolt holes from the gross area of the cross-section being
considered.

13.3 Basic loads

The basic working loads for parallel and perpendicular to the joint in dry timber are given in
Table 22. These loads apply to a connector unit comprising one split-ring in the contact faces
of a timber-to-timber joint with its bolt in single shear. When loaded at an angle a to the grain,
the basic load is given by use of Hankinson’s formula or evaluated by means of the graph as
given in Figure 3.

29
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Cl)
Ui

Table 22. Dry basic loads for one split-ring connector unit
01
Actual thickness of Basic load~(kN) for timber in group
members~
0
0
Split-ring Bolt Connectors Connectors on Ji J2 J3 J4 J5
diameter diameter on one side both sides and
only on same bolt
Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp
(mm) (mm) ~mm) (mm)

64 M12 22 32 10.37 6.77 7.82 5.16 5.96 3.97 4.54 3.06 3.36 2.29
0
25 40 12.69 8.27 9.57 6.31 7.29 4.86 5.55 3.75 4.11 2.80
29 50 15.48 10.08 11.67 7.70 8.89 5.93 6.77 4.57 5.01 3.42

102 M20 29 41 22.34 13.57 17.55 10.62 13.52 8.38 10.41 6.62 7.8 5.09
32 50 26.67 16.20 20.96 12.68 16.14 10.01 12.43 7.90 9.31 6.08

36 63 31.34 19.03 24.63 14.90 18.97 11.76 14.61 9.29 10.94 7.14
41 75 33.34 20.25 26.20 15.85 20.18 12.51 15.54 9.88 11.64 7.60

1) Loads for intermediate thickness may be obtained by linear interpolation.


MS544: PART5:2001

13.4 Permissible loads


The permissible load Fadm for split-ring connector shall be taken to be given by:

Fadm k1 1(2 k17 k18 F

where;

k1 = factor for duration of load given in Table 4;

k2 = 1.Ofordrytimber

= 0.7 for wet timber;

k17 factor for multiple connector joints given in Table 15;


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k18 = 1.0 for standard and end distance, edge distance and connector spacing as
given in Tables 23, 24 and 25 respectively
= modification factor for the relevant connector spacing (ks), end distance (kc) and
edge distance (k0) which are less than the corresponding standard values as
given in Tables 25, 26 and 27 respectively.
(The lowest factor of the values of k5 kc and kD is to be used (see 13.5); and

F = basic load given in Table 22.

13.5 Spacing, edge and end distances

Associated with each size of split-ring connector is standard end distance, edge distance and
spacing between connectors which permit the basic load to apply. These standard distance s
are given in Table 23 to Table 25. If the end distance, edge distance or spacing is less than
the standard, but more than the minimum, the basic load should be modified as given in 13.4.

No increase in load is permitted if end distance, edge distance or centre spacing exceed the
standard values. The definition of end distance, edge distance and spacing is illustrated in
Figure 7.

If split-ring connectors are used in wet timber, the standard end distance should be multiplied
by 1 .5. One-half of this increased end distance should be taken as the minimum end distance,
with a permissible load of one-half of that permitted for the standard end distance.

31
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 23. End distances for split-ring and shear-plate connectors

1~
Type of end Angle 1) of load End distance
distance to grain cc (mm)
Connector size
64 mm split-ring or 67mm 102mm split-ring or 102mm
shear-plate shear-plate

(degrees) Minimum Standard Minimum Standard

Unloaded 0 64 102 83 140


45 67 121 86 159
90 70 140 89 178
Loaded Oto9O 70 140 89 178
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For intermediate angles and end distances, values should be obtained by linear interpolation.

Table 24. Edge distances for split-ring and shear-plate connectors

Type of edge Angle 1) of load Edge” distance


distance to grain cx (mm)
Connector size
64mm split-ring or67 mm 102mm split-ring or 102mm
shear-plate shear-plate

(Degrees) Minimum Standard Minimum Standard

Unloaded Oto9O 44 44 70 70
Loaded 0 44 44 70 70
45 44 54 70 79
90 44 64 70 87
45to90 44 70 70 95

“ For intermediate angles and end distances, values should be obtained by linear interpolation.

32
MS 544: PART5 :2001

Table 25. Spacing modification factor, k9, for split-ring and shear-plate connectors
Spacing
Angle of Angle ~ of (mm)
load to connector
grain a axisto grain k~=0.75 ks =0.80 k~=0.85 ks =0.90 k~=0.95 k =1.00
5
(degrees) B Minimum Standard
(degrees)
64 mm split-ring or 6 7 mm shear-plate
0 0 89 105 121 140 156 171
15 89 102 117 130 146 157
30 89 98 108 114 124 132
45 89 92 95 105 108 112
60 89 92 92 95 95 98
75 89 89 89 92 92 91
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90 89 89 89 89 89 89

15 0 89 102 114 127 140 152


15 89 102 111 124 133 145
30 89 98 105 114 124 129
45 89 95 98 105 108 114
60 89 92 95 98 102 103
75 89 92 92 95 95 97
90 89 89 92 92 95 95
30 0 89 98 105 114 124 130
15 89 95 105 111 121 127
30 89 95 102 108 114 119
45 89 92 95 105 108 111
60 89 92 95 98 102 104
75 89 92 92 95 95 99
90 89 92 92 95 95 98
45 0 89 ~2 95 102 105 108
15 89 92 95 102 105 108
30 89 92 95 102 105 107
45 89 92 95 102 105 106
60 89 92 95 98 102 106
75 89 92 95 98 102 105
90 89 92 95 98 102 105
60 to 90 0 89 89 89 89 89 89
15 89 89 89 89 89 90
30 89 89 80 92 92 93
45 89 92 92 95 95 97
60 89 92 92 95 98 102
75 89 92 95 98 102 106
90 89 92 95 102 105 108

33
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 25. Spacing modification factor, k5, for split-ring and shear-plate connectors
(continued)

Angle of Angle” of Spacing


load to connector (mm)
grain cc axisto grain k~=0.75 k~=0.80 i(~=0.85 k~=0.90 k~=0.95 k =1.00
5
(degrees) 0 Minimum Standard
(degrees)
102 mm split-ring or 102mm shear-plate

0 0 127 146 168 187 210 229


15 127 143 162 178 197 213
30 127 140 149 162 171 183
45 127 133 140 146 149 157
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60 127 130 133 133 142 140


75 127 127 127 130 130 130
90 127 127 127 127 127 127

15 0 127 143 159 171 187 203


15 127 140 152 168 181 195
30 127 137 146 159 168 178
45 127 1~3 140 149 156 161
60 127 130 133 140 142 147
75 127 130 133 133 137 140
90 127 130 130 133 137 137
30 0 127 137 146 159 168 178
15 127 137 146 156 165 175
30 127 133 143 149 159 168
45 127 133 140 146 152 160
60 127 133 137 143 146 152
75 127 130 137 140 145 148
90 127 130 137 140 143 146
45 0 127 133 137 143 146 152
15 127 133 137 143 146 152
30 127 133 137 143 146 153
45 127 133 137 143 146 154
60 127 133 140 146 149 155
75 127 133 140 146 149 156
90 127 133 140 146 149 156
60 to 90 0 127 127 127 427 127 127
15 127 127 127 127 127 129
30 127 127 130 130 133 134
45 127 130 133 133 137 142
60 127 133 137 143 146 152
75 127 133 140 146 152 161
~ 90 127 133 143 149 159 165

34
MS 544: PART5:2001

Table 26. End distances modification factor, kc, for split-ring and shear-plate
connectors

Value of_k
Unloaded 0
Loaded
.
Connector size Connector size
64 mm split- 102 mm
64 mm split-ring or 67 mm 102 mm split-ring or 102 mm ring or 67 split-ring or
shear-plate shear-plate mm shear- 102 mm
plate shear-plate
Angle 1> of load to grain a
0 45 90 0 45 90 0 to 90 0 to 90
- .

0.63 - - - - - - -
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0.68 0.64 0.62 - - - 0.62 -

0.73 0.68 0.65 - - - 0.65 -

0.78 0.71 0.67 - - - 0.67 -

0.83 0.75 0.70 0.63 - - 0.70 -

0.88 0.78 0.73 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.73 0.62


0.93 0.82 0.76 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.76 0.65
0.98 0.85 0.78 0.73 0.69 0.67 0.78 0.67
1.00 0.89 0.81 0.77 0.72 0.69 0.81 0.69
1.00 0.92 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.71 0.84 0.71
1.00 0.96 0.86 0.83 0.77 0.73 0.86 0.73
1.00 0.99 0.89 0.87 0.80 0.75 0.89 0.75
1.00 1.00 0.92 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.92 0.77
1.00 1.00 0.95 0.93 0.85 0.80 0.95 0.80
1.00 1.00 0.97 0.97 0.88 0.82 0.97 0.82
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.84 1.00 0.84
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.86 1.00 0.86
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.88 1.00 0.88
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.90 1.00 0.90
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.92 1.00 0.92
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.94 1.00 0.94
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.97 1.00 0.97
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

intermediate angles and end distances, values should be obtained by linear interpolation.

35
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

Table 27. Loaded, edge distances modification factor, k~,for split-ring and shear-plate
connectors

Edge Value of ,~D


Distance
(mm)
Connector size
64 mm split-ring or 67 mm shear-plate 102 mm split-ring or 102mm shear-plate
Angle ~ of load to grain a
0 15 30 45 0 15 30 45 to 90
45 - 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.83 - - - -
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50 1.00 0.98 0.93 0.87 - - - -

55 1.00 1.00 0.96 0.90 - - -

60 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.93 . - -

65 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.97 - - - -

70 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.83


75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.92 0.86
80 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.90
85 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.93
90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.97
95 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

“ For intermediate angles and end distances, values should be obtained by linear interpolation.

a4

a1 a3 F-

Legend:

a, = Spacing parallel to grain;


a = Spacing perpendicular to grain;
2
a = end distance; and
a3 = edge distance.
4
Figure 7. Spacing, Edge and End distances for split-ring and shear-plate connectors

36
MS544: PART5 :2001

14. Shear plate connectors


14.1 General
14.li Connector sizes
The recommendations contained in this clause are applicable to the sizes of shear-plate
connectors given in Table 28 and conforming to BS 1579.

The following requirements relate to shear plate connectors of nominal 67 mm and 102 mm
sizes.

Table 28. Sizes of shear-plate connectors and minimum sizes of washers


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Nominal size of Nominal size and thread


connector diameter of bolt Minimum size of round or square washers

Diameter or length of Thickness


(mm) side
(mm) (mm)
67 M20 75 5

102 M20 75 5

NOTE. The sizes given in this table are metric conversions of the imperial sizes given in BS 1579.

14.1.2 Bolts and washers

The diameter of the bolts to be used with the connectors are given in Table 20.

Round or square washers should be fitted between the timber and the head and nut of the
bolt. The minimum size of washer to be used with each connector is given in Table 20.

14.1.3 Joint preparation


To prepare a connectored joint, the positions of the bolt holes should be set out accurately
with reference to the point of intersection of the centre-lines of the members. One of the
following two procedures should be used when drilling the bolt holes:

a) fit the members together in their correct positions and clamp while drilling the bolt
holes through all the members; and

b) drill the bolt holes in the individual members using jigs or templates to locate the bolt
holes accurately.

Bolt holes should be within 2 mm of their specified position.

The contact surfaces be within 2 mm of the timber members should be recessed to the
dimensions shown in Figure 8.

The recesses for shear-plates may be cut simultaneously with the drilling of the bolt holes if
procedure b) is used.

37
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

067

L 057 J

11.5
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Figure 8. a) Recess for 67 mm connector unit

0102.5

089

039.5

16.5 6.0 13

022~
.4~

Figure 8. b) Recess for 102 mm connector unit


All dimensions are in millimetres.

Figure 8. Dimension of circular recesses for shear-plate connector units conforming to


BS 1579

38
MS 544: PART 5 : 2001

14.2 Effective cross section


The effective cross-section of each member at a joint should be determined by deducting the
projected area from the gross area of the cross-section of the connector recess (i.e. 770 mm2
for each 67 mm shear-plate, or 1690 mm2 for each 102 mm shear-plate) and the projected
area of the bolt hole not within the projected area of the recess. The depths of the connector
recess are 11.5 mm and 16.5 mm for the 67 mm and 102 mm shear-plates, respectively.

When assessing the effective cross-section of multiple connector joints, all connectors and
their bolts that lie within a distance of 0.75 connector diameters, measured parallel to the
grain from a given cross-section should be considered as occurring at that cross-section.
Then the effective cross section should be determined by deducting the given net projected
areas of the connector recesses and bolt holes from the gross area of the cross-section being
considered.
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14.3 Basic loads

The basic working loads for parallel and perpendicular to the grain in dry timber are given in
Table 29. These basic loads apply to a connector unit either:

a) one shear plate with its bolt in single shear in a steel plate-to timber joint; or

b) two shear plate back to back with the bolt in single shear, in a timber-to timber joint.

When loaded at an angle a to the grain, the basic load is given by use of Hankinson’s formula

or evaluated by means of the graph as given in Figure 3.

39
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CI)
(‘1

Table 29. Dry basic loads for one shear plate connector unit -o

Actual thickness of members ‘~ Basic load~(kN) for timber in group


—I
01

Shear- Bolt Connectors Connectors JI J2 J3 ~J4 J5 0


plate diameter on one side on both 0
diameter only sides and
on same
bolt
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) Par Perp ~ar Perp Par Perp Par Perp Par Perp

67 M20 - 41 11.92 7.76 8.99 5.93 6.83 4.57 5.21 3.52 3.86 2.63
- 50 14.55~ 9.48 10.97 7.24 8.36 5.57 6.36 4.30 4.71 3.21
0
41 67 15.48*~ 10.08 11.67 7.70 8.89 5.93 6.77 4.57 5.01 3.42

102 M20 - 50 20.48 12.48 16.32 9.74 13.00 7.68 10.36 6.07 8.05 4.67
- 67 24.07~ 14.62 19.18 11.45 15.29 9.03 12.18 7.13 9.47 5.49
41 75 25.73”~ 15.63 20.51 12.24 16.34 9.65 13.02 7.63 10.12 5.87
44 92 27.67~ 16.81 22.05 13.16 17.57 10.38 14.00 8.20 10.88 6.31

“Loads for intermediate thickness may be obtained by linear interpolation.


a) see clause 14.4
MS 544: PART5:2001

14.4 Permissible loads

The permissible loadFadm for a shear plate connector shall be the lesser of by:

a) Fadm = The limiting values given in Table 30

or

b) Fadm = k1 k2k17k18F

where k1 k2 k17 and k18 are as defined in 13.4 and F is the basic load given in Table 29.
NOTE. Loads mark with a cross (x) in Table 29 exceed the limiting values given in Table 30 but are included for
interpolation purposes.
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Table 30. Limiting values for permissible loads on one shear-plate connector unit

Shear-plate diameter Nominal bolt size All loading except short- All loading including
and very short-term short- and very short-
loading term loading

(mm) (mm) (kN) (kN)

67 M20 12.9 17.2


102 M20 22.1 29.5

14.5 Spacing, edge and end distances

As defined in 13.5 where the given data for split-ring connectors are applicable to shear plate
connectors.

41
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