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Crystallography Dieter Schwarzenbach Institute of Crystallography, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Translated from the French by A. Alan Pinkerton University of Toledo, USA JOHN WILEY & SONS Chichester - New York - Brisbane - Toronto - Singapore Copyright © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England National 01243 779777 International (+44) 1243779777 © 1993 Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted, or translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher. Other Wiley Editorial Offices John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA Jacaranda Wiley Ltd, 33 Park Road, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia John Wiley & Sons (Canada) Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 1L1, Canada John Wiley & Sons (SEA) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop # 02-01 Jin Xing Distripark, Singapore 129809 Originally published in French under the title: Cristallographie Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Schwarzenbach, Dieter. [Crystallographie, English] Crystallography / Dieter Schwarzenbach ; translated from the French by A. Alan Pinkerton. Pp. om. Includes bibliographical references (p. - ) and index. ISBN 0-471-95598-1 (alk. paper) 1. Crystallography. 1. Title, QD905.2.83813 1996 96-1160 548".8 ~ de20 ci British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 471955981 Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Thomson Press (1) Ltd, New Delhi Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddles, Guildford, Surrey This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestation for which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production. Contents Foreword 2... eect eee eee teens vii Chapter 1 Geometrical Crystallography 1 1.1 Introduction... ...- aaSeeearanaiaee 1 1.2 Analytical Geometry with Oblique Bases... . 2 1.3 Polyhedral Crystal Shapes . 7? 1.4 Periodic Space Tiling and Crystal Structures . . . u 1.5 What is a Crystal? 6... ee ee ee 18 Chapter2 Symmetry... ... 23 2.1 Introduction . . aa 23 2.2 Symmetry Operations | eae seeesealaedie 24 2.3 Symmetry Elements. ....... urea 29 2.4 Symmetry and the Lattice Metric . . _ - dao 36 2.5 Crystal Classes and Systems eases 42 2.6 Classification of Lattices . . 62 2.7 Symmetry of Periodic Structures . 68 28 Crystal Structures... 2.2... es 2.9 Miller—Bravais Indices for Hexagonal Coordinate Sysiema ss cage rer eran es eacaaaeeeneana earn 86 Chapter 3 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals. ............... 89 3.1 Introduction .........0...06- 89 3.2 Scattering of X-Rays by an Electron 99 3.3 Scattering of X-Rays by Matter... . . 102 3.4 Diffraction by a Periodic Structure . . iit 3.5 Experimental Diffraction Methods Hane 120 3.6 Physics of X-Rays. ......-...... 129 3.7 Intensities of Diffracted Beams 137 3.8 Space Group Determination 142 3.9 Comments on the Solution of the Phase Problem... 149