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SURVEYING LAB MANUAL

LABORATORIUM SURVEY DAN PEMETAAN


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
2015
Contents
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR FIELD EXERCISE........................................................................ 3
CHAINING A LINE BY DIRECT RANGING .............................................................................. 4
OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................... 4
INSTRUMENTS................................................................................................................. 4
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................... 4
RESULT ............................................................................................................................ 5
CHAINING A LINE BY INDIRECT RANGING ........................................................................... 6
OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................... 6
INSTRUMENTS................................................................................................................. 6
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................... 6
RESULT ............................................................................................................................ 7
MEASUREMENT OF AREA BY CHAIN TRIANGULATION ....................................................... 8
OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................... 8
INSTRUMENTS................................................................................................................. 8
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................... 8
RESULT ............................................................................................................................ 9
TAKING OUT LEVELS OF VARIOUS POINTS AND BOOKING IN A LEVEL FIELD BOOK ......... 10
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 10
INSTRUMENTS............................................................................................................... 10
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 10
RESULT .......................................................................................................................... 11
DIFFERENTIAL OR FLY LEVELLING – REDUCE LEVELS BY H.I. METHOD AND RISE AND FALL
METHOD............................................................................................................................ 12
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 12
INSTRUMENTS............................................................................................................... 12
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 12
RESULT .......................................................................................................................... 13
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING INVOLVING INVERT LEVELS REDUCTION ................................. 14
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 14
INSTRUMENTS............................................................................................................... 14
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 14
RESULT .......................................................................................................................... 14
MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY REPETITION METHOD ................................ 15
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 15
INSTRUMENTS............................................................................................................... 15
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 15
RESULT .......................................................................................................................... 16
MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY REITERATION METHOD.............................. 17
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 17
INSTRUMENTS............................................................................................................... 17
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 17
RESULT .......................................................................................................................... 18
DETERMINING DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO INACCESSIBLE PONTS BY MEASURING
HORIZONTAL ANGLE ......................................................................................................... 19
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 19
INSTRUMENTS............................................................................................................... 19
PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................. 19
RESULT .......................................................................................................................... 20

1
MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL ANGLES ............................................................................. 21
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 21
INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 21
PROCEDURE................................................................................................................... 21
RESULT........................................................................................................................... 22
DETERMINING AN HEIGHT OF OBJECT BY MEASURING VERTICAL ANGLE ....................... 23
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 23
INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 23
PROCEDURE................................................................................................................... 23
RESULT........................................................................................................................... 24
STAKING OUT .................................................................................................................... 25
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 25
INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 25
PROCEDURE................................................................................................................... 25
RESULT........................................................................................................................... 26
TRAVERSING ...................................................................................................................... 27
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 27
INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 27
PROCEDURE................................................................................................................... 28
RESULT........................................................................................................................... 28
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP .......................................................................................................... 29
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 29
INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 29
PROCEDURE................................................................................................................... 30
RESULT........................................................................................................................... 30
MAPPING ........................................................................................................................... 31
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 31
INSTRUMENTS ............................................................................................................... 31
PROCEDURE................................................................................................................... 31
RESULT........................................................................................................................... 32
TEST ................................................................................................................................... 33
SETOUT SIMPLE CURVE ................................................................................................. 33

2
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR FIELD EXERCISE

 Students must attend all field exercises.


 This project will be carried out at FTUI Campus Depok.
 Work in full parties consisting of 3-4 peoples.
 Each student must bring this book when attending field exercise.
 Do not:
a. Come late from the scheduled time and date.
b. Litter in the area of field practice.
c. Do anything unnecessary while in field exercise, for example loitering.
d. Leave the area of area of field exercise without permission from one of
the field assistants.
 Write all data collected on each field exercise in A4 paper (handwritten) and
submit the data on the appendix of the field report.
 Field report is to be submitted in five (5) work days after the field exercise.
 Contents of Field Report:
a. Cover
b. Title + Information Table (as shown in this book)
c. Objective
d. Instruments
e. Procedure
f. Data Processing
g. Analysis
h. Result
i. Applications
j. Appendix
 A minimum of two times assistance with the field assistants are required before
submitting the field report. Without assistance, the maximum score of a report
is 70, and will be scored 0 if mistakes are found in the report.
 Plagiarism is not tolerated, including but not limited to copying materials
without citing the source.

3
EXPERIMENT NO. 01

CHAINING A LINE BY DIRECT RANGING

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To measure the distance between two points on a level ground by ranging.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Measuring Tape 1
Ranging Rods 4
Pegs 4
PROCEDURE

RANGING RODS

A C D B
Figure 1. Illustration for Chaining a Line

4
1. Fix the ranging rods at the two given stations, where pegs are already driven
on the ground.
2. The follower stands behind station A and directs the leader, with ranging
rod to come in line with AB by signals of ranging. When the ranging rod
comes in the line of AB the follower directs the leader to fix the ranging rod
in position.
3. Let the intermediate point be C which should be less than 20-30m from point
A.
4. Now the leader takes another ranging rod and stands between A and B about
2/3 distance from A.
5. The follower directs the leader to come in line of AB by using signals of
ranging.
6. As and when the point is located in the line of AB, the follower instructs to
fix the ranging rod in position.
7. Let the other intermediate position be D which is less than 20-30m from B
8. Now A, B, C and D are in one line.
9. Measure the distance of AB by measuring along A, C, D, B.

RESULT
 Length of AC = ____ meter.
 Length of CD = ____ meter.
 Length of DB = ____ meter.

The distance of AB = __________ meter.

5
EXPERIMENT NO. 02

CHAINING A LINE BY INDIRECT RANGING

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
Chaining a line when a hill or high ground intervenes preventing visibility of ends
of line.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Measuring Tape 1
Ranging Rods 4
Pegs 4

PROCEDURE
1. Fix the two ranging rods at the given stations A and B which are indivisible
due to raising ground.
2. Select two intermediate points C1 and D1 such that from each point both A
and B are visible.
3. The person at C1 directs the person at D1 to move to a new position D2 in
line with C1B.
4. The person at D2 then directs the person at C1 to move to a new position C2
in line with D2A.
5. The person at C2 directs the person at D2 to a new position D3 in line with
C2B.
6. The process is repeated until the points C and D are located in a way that C
finds the person at D in line with AB and the person at D finds the person
at C in line with AB.

6
7. After fixing the points C and D, other points are also fixed by direct ranging
and the length of the line is measured.

D
C
B

A
A C D B

D3
C2
D2

C1 D1
Figure 2. Illustration on Indirect Ranging

RESULT
 Length of AC = ____ meter.
 Length of CD = ____ meter.
 Length of DB = ____ meter.
 Distance of AB = distance AC + distance CD + distance DB
 = ____ meter.

7
EXPERIMENT NO. 03

MEASUREMENT OF AREA BY CHAIN TRIANGULATION

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To measure the area of the given field by chain triangulation.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Measuring Tape 1
Pegs 5

PROCEDURE
1. Let ABCDE be the given field whose area is to be measured, fix the pegs at
A, B, C, D & E.
2. Divide ABCDE into three triangles consisting of ADE, ABD and BCD by
joining AD and BD.
3. Measure the lengths AB, BC, CD, DE, EA, AD and BD.
4. Calculate the area of the triangles.
5. The sum of the areas of the three triangles is the area of the given field.

8
D

C
E

A B
Figure 3. Illustration of Dividing the Area into Three Triangles

RESULT
The area of the given field = _______ square meter.

9
EXPERIMENT NO. 04

TAKING OUT LEVELS OF VARIOUS POINTS AND


BOOKING IN A LEVEL FIELD BOOK

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
Taking the levels of various points with single setup, booking in a level field
book.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Dumpy Level + Tripod 1
Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 4

PROCEDURE
1. Set the level at a convenient point.
2. Perform the temporary adjustments.
3. Hold the staff vertically over the Benchmark, Observe the staff reading and
write in the B.S. (Back Sight) column of the field book.
4. Hold the staff at other points and note the staff reading in the I.S.
(Intermediate Sight) column of the field book.
5. Hold the staff on the last point and enter the staff reading in the F.S. (Fore
Sight) column of the field book.
6. Find R.L. (Reduced Level) of all the points.
7. Apply arithmetical check.

10
RESULT
Table 1. Example of Field Booking

Point B.S. (m) I.S. (m) F.S. (m) R.L. (m) Remark
A
B
C

11
EXPERIMENT NO. 05

DIFFERENTIAL OR FLY LEVELLING – REDUCE LEVELS


BY H.I. METHOD AND RISE AND FALL METHOD

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To find the difference in elevation between two points.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Dumpy Level + Tripod 1
Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 4

PROCEDURE

BS FS
BS
FS
BS
FS C
O3
O2
B D

A O1

Figure 4. Levelling Method

12
1. Let A and B be the two given points whose difference is elevation is to be
found.
2. Set the level at a convenient point O1 carryout temporary adjustments and
take B.S. on A
3. Take F.S. on the Point C
4. Shift the instrument to point O2 and perform temporary adjustments.
5. Take B.S. on C and F.S. on D.
6. Shift the instrument to point O3 and perform temporary adjustments.
7. Take B.S. on D and F.S. on B.
8. Take Find the difference in elevation between all points for both methods.

RESULT
Table 2. Example for Rise and Fall Method Booking

Point B.S. (cm) F.S. (cm) Rise (cm) Fall (cm) R.L. (cm) Remark
A
B
C
D

Table 3. Example for Height of Instrument (H.I.) Method Booking

Point B.S. (cm) F.S. (cm) H.I. (cm) R.L. (cm) Remark
A
B
C
D

Draw the profile using AutoCAD.

13
EXPERIMENT NO. 06

DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING INVOLVING INVERT LEVELS


REDUCTION

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To find the levels of certain points which may lie above the line of collimation.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Dumpy Level + Tripod 1
Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 4
PROCEDURE
1. Setup the instrument at a convenient point and take the B.S on the
benchmark.
2. Place the staff in the inverted position at the required staff stations, which
are lying above the line of collimation.
3. Take the reading on the staff and note it in the field book with a negative
sign.
4. Calculate the R.L of the required staff station.
5. Repeat the process for all invert staff readings.
6. For all other points the procedure to find R.L is similar to that in the previous
exercises.

RESULT
Similar to Experiment No. 5.

14
EXPERIMENT NO. 07

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY


REPETITION METHOD

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To measure a horizontal angle by repetition method.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 4

PROCEDURE
1. Set up the instrument over O and level it accurately.
2. Direct the telescope towards the point P.
3. Set the horizontal angle to 0°
4. Turn the instrument clock-wise towards Q. Note the horizontal angle to get
the values of the angle POQ.
5. Turn the telescope clockwise to sight P again.
6. Turn the telescope clockwise and sight Q. Note the horizontal angle
readings.
7. Repeat the process until the angle is measured three times. The average
angle with face left will be equal to final reading divided by three.
8. Change face and make three more repetitions as described above. Find the
average angle with face right, by dividing the final reading by three.

15
9. The average horizontal angle is then obtained by taking the average of the
two angles with face left and face right.

O
Figure 5. Illustration of POQ positioning

RESULT
Table 4. Example of Repetition Method Booking

No. Face Angle Average


1 Left
2 Left
3 Left
4 Right
5 Right
6 Right

Average of POQ Angle = ……°

16
EXPERIMENT NO. 08

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY


REITERATION METHOD

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To measure horizontal angle by reiteration method.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 5

PROCEDURE

B
A

D
Figure 6. Illustration of OABCD Positioning

17
1. Set the instrument over O and level it accurately.
2. Bisect point A accurately, reset the horizontal readings to 0°.
3. Turn the telescope clockwise to point B. Bisect B and read the horizontal
angle, which is the angle of AOB.
4. Similarly, bisect successively C and D, thus closing the circle. Read both
horizontal angles at each bisection.
5. Finally set back the sight to A. The reading of the horizontal angle should
be the same as the original setting reading (0°).
Repeat the steps 2 to 5 with other face; i.e. face left.

RESULT

Table 5. Example of Reiteration Method Booking

Angle Reading
No. Face
A B C D A
1 Right
2 Right
3 Left
4 Left

Angle of AOB = ……°


Angle of BOC = ……°
Angle of COD = ……°
Angle of DOA = ……°

18
EXPERIMENT NO. 09

DETERMINING DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO


INACCESSIBLE PONTS BY MEASURING HORIZONTAL
ANGLE

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
Determining distance between two inaccessible points by measuring horizontal
angle.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 2

PROCEDURE
1. Select a base line CD and measure CD accurately.
2. Set the theodolite at C and level it accurately.
3. Measure the horizontal angles DCA and ACB.
4. Set the theodolite at D and level it accurately.
5. Measure the horizontal angles ADB and BDC.
6. Using the angles DCA, ACB, ADB and BDC and combining the data with
the distance CD, the distance AB can be calculated.

19
B
A

D C
Figure 7. Illustration of Points ABCD

RESULT
Make a drawing of ABCD using AutoCAD.
AB = …… meter

20
EXPERIMENT NO. 10

MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL ANGLES

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To measure the vertical angle of an object with respect to instrument station or
any other point.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
PROCEDURE
1. Set up the instrument over O.
2. Level it with reference to the altitude bubble.
3. Set the telescope vertical angle to 90°.
4. Loosen the vertical circle clamp.
5. Direct the telescope towards the object A, clamp the vertical circle and
bisect A exactly by turning the tangent screw.
6. Note the vertical angle readings.
7. Similarly, bisect B and note the readings on the vertical angle.
8. The sum or difference of these readings will give the value of the angle
between A & B as one of the points is above and the other below the
horizontal plane.
9. Move the instrument backward/forward and repeat steps 2-8.

21
A

O B
Figure 8. Illustration of Vertical Angle Measurement

RESULT
 Question: Why does the angle AOB changes when the instrument is moved
forwards or backwards?

22
EXPERIMENT NO. 11

DETERMINING AN HEIGHT OF OBJECT BY MEASURING


VERTICAL ANGLE

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

5.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
Determining a height of object by measuring vertical angle and horizontal
distance between the instrument and the object.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Transit Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 2

PROCEDURE
1. Set the instrument at station P.
2. Perform all temporary adjustments.
3. Turn the telescope and take staff reading over the given B.M.
4. Turn the telescope towards the object.
5. Release the vertical clamp screw, sight the corner top of the object.
6. Note the vertical angle readings.
7. Release the vertical clamp screw, sight the corner bottom of the object.
8. Note the vertical angle readings.

23
9. Measure the horizontal distance (d) between the instrument station and the
object.
10. Move the instrument to another station and repeat steps 2-9.
11. Calculate the height of the top point from horizontal line (h1) and height of
the bottom point from horizontal line (h2) by using formula h = d tan α

RESULT
 Make a drawing of the instrument and object positions using AutoCAD.
 Height of object = h1 + h2 or h1 + H.I. = …… meter.
 Explain why h2 = H.I.

24
EXPERIMENT NO. 12

STAKING OUT

Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To stake points given on a map/building plan to the field.
INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Levelling Staff 1
Measuring Tape 1
Pegs 5

PROCEDURE
1. Search for the location of point O in the field. Use benchmarks to help.
2. Set the theodolite on O and apply temporary adjustments.
3. Set vertical angle to 90°.

Figure 9. Illustration of Theodolite Diaphragm

25
4. Turn the telescope approximately towards point A and reset horizontal angle
to 0°
5. The observer directs the holder of the levelling staff to stand along the
telescope line of sight so that the staff is observable through the telescope.
6. The observer directs the holder of the levelling staff to go forward or
backward until the readings shows that the measured distance of OA is
exactly as long as the distance in the map/building plan.
Measured Distance Formula:
𝑑 = (𝑈𝐿 − 𝐵𝐿) × 100
d = Distance
UL = Upper Diaphragm Line Reading
BL = Bottom Diaphragm Line Reading
ML = Middle Diaphragm Line Reading

Make sure that UL – ML = ML – BL.

7. Stake the point in front of the staff as point A and check the distance with a
measuring tape.
8. Turn the telescope until the horizontal angle reading is exactly the same as
the AOB angle pictured in the map/building plan.
9. Repeat steps 5-7 to stake point B.
10. Repeat Steps 8-9 to stake point C, D, and E.

RESULT
 Draw OABCDE in AutoCAD.
 Calculate the area of ABCDE.
 Compare the results with Experiment 13.

26
EXPERIMENT NO. 13

TRAVERSING
Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To plot a closed traverse using theodolite.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 5

27
PROCEDURE
Use the same ABCDE points as in experiment “Staking Out”.
C

E
A
Figure 10. ABCDE Traverse

1. In running a traverse ABCDE as shown in the figure above, set the


theodolite at the station A and level it accurately.
2. Measure angle EAB and the distance EA and AB.
3. Move the theodolite to each of the successive stations B, C, D, E. and repeat
the process to measure each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDE, DEA, and the
length of lines AB, BC, CD and DE.

RESULT
 Draw ABCDE in AutoCAD.
 Apply angle and distance corrections if ABCDE is not closed.
 Draw the corrected version of ABCDE.
 Calculate the area of ABCDE.
 Compare the results with Experiment 12.

28
EXPERIMENT NO. 14

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To draw a topographic map containing contour lines.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Measuring Tape 1
Pegs 25

29
PROCEDURE

D C

A B
Figure 11. Topographic Map Layout

1. Set the theodolite on A and do the adjustments.


2. Create a perfect square in the designated place with the help of theodolite
and measuring tape and stake the points ABCD.
3. Divide the square into uniformly sized squares as shown in Figure 11.
4. Stake each intersections.
5. Measure the level of each intersection.

RESULT
 Draw the topographic map in AutoCAD.
o Write the level of each intersection relative to the level of point A
on the map.
o Interpolate the level on each line and put a mark on every
2/3/4/5cm (will be assigned by assistants) difference in level
starting from 0cm.
o Connect same-levelled marks to create contour lines.

30
EXPERIMENT NO. 15

MAPPING
Surveyor : 1. Assistant
Signature
2.

3.

4.

Assistant : Date :

Weather : Time :

OBJECTIVE
To draw the situation on field and plotting it into a map.

INSTRUMENTS

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 5

PROCEDURE
Use the square from Experiment 14 as ABCD
1. Set the theodolite on station O1.
2. Take notes of the angle DO1A, AO1B, and BO1O2.
3. Measure the distance of O1D, O1A, O1B, and O1O2.
4. Measure the levels of D, A, B, and O2.
5. Set the theodolite on O2.
6. Take notes of the angle CO2B, BO2A, and AO2O1.
7. Measure the distance of O2C, O2B, O2A, and O2O1.
8. Measure the levels of O1, A, B, and C.

Also take notes of distance and horizontal angles of any landmarks (ex.
trees) or benchmarks from both stations.

31
D C

A B

O1 O2
Figure 11. Mapping of ABCD

RESULT
 Draw ABCD and the landmarks in AutoCAD.
 Calculate the area of ABCD.
 Compare the measurements of ABCD by using a measuring tape.

32
TEST

Rules:

1. Students are to do the test in their groups, but several individual tests are
to be given while the test goes on.
2. While on individual tests, the other students are only allowed to do things
as commanded by the tested individual. Any other help is forbidden.
3. Scoring will be done individually.

SETOUT SIMPLE CURVE

10m

60°

Figure 12. 60° Curve with 10m Radius

Name Quantity
Theodolite + Tripod 1
Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff 1
Pegs 7

33