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CO LLE CTI O N

LE GA L MAXI M S

L AW AND E QU I T Y,

W ITH

ENGLI S H TRAN SLATI ONS .

BY

S . S . PELO U BET .

M ax i m e i ta di c ta qu ia m ax i m a es t e usj d ign i tas et

cert i ss i m a au ct ori tas ,


at qu e quod m a i m e x om n i bus probe tn r .
"

—Coke
'
, Li tt 1 1 a
. . .

NEW Y ORK -

G E O R G E S . D I O S S Y .

1880 .
En tere d acc ordi n g to Ac t of Congress, i n the year O n e
Th ousan d E i g h t H undre d and Ei gh ty , by

S PELOUBE P,

S . .

In th e Offi ce of t h e Li b rari an of C ong re ss, at Washi ng to n .

fi e
.
R
P EFA CE .

Tm : pu rp ose of thi s wor k i s t o c ollec t in a

sm all c om pass , all t h e pri n c i pal Legal M axi m s i n

Law an d Equ i ty whi c h are f ou n d sc attered th rou gh

th e vari ou s l aw -
book s , an d g i vi n g u n der eac h an

approved En gl i sh t ran slati on .

It i s i n te n ded f or t h e stu den t p repar i n g f o r th e

bar , an d f or th e p r ac ti c i n g l awyer, wh o m ay de

si re to find a m axi m wh i c h wi l l apply to, an d

i ll u strat e th e
,
c ase bef ore hi m .

W h ere a m ax i m h as be e n f ou n d t o h av e bee n
u sed in var i ou s f orm s, by tran sp osi n g t h e words ,

c are h as bee n tak en t o u se o n l y on e f or m , t h u s

avoi di n g th e du pli c ati on of si m i lar



m axi m s

[ m]
iv P RE FA CE .

Use h as bee n m ade of th e several c oll ec t i on s of

Legal M axi m s h e ret of or e p u bl i sh ed , b u t, so f ar as

p ossi bl e ,
r ef e ren c e h as been m ade t o th e au th or

i ty W h er e th e m axi m m ay b e f ou n d , an d th e

c onn ec ti on i n w h i c h i t w as u se d .

Th e work c o n tai n s a f u ll i n de x, wh i c h wi ll

en a bl e th e s tu den t to fi n d any m axi m u p on th e

su bj ec t desi r ed .

NEW You , April 10, 1880 . S S


. . P .
A UTHORI TIE S

CON SULTED I N THI S W O RK .

Abb . P . R Abbott '


s N Y
. . Pract i ce Reports .

Bac Max
. Bac on s Max i m s

.

Bac Bac on s Works 15 vols



. .

Barb N Y . . Barbou r s N Y Re ports



. . .

Bar . Ai d Barnewall Al derso n s Repor ts



.

Bell , Di c Be l l s Di c ti on ary , Law of S c otlan d



.

Beat , Ev Best on Evi den ce .

Bi n g .

Bl ack C om . Blacksto n e ’
s C omm en tari es .

Bl (W
. W . Blac kst on e ’
s Re ports .

Bon Tr Pr
. . Bonn i e r, Trai ts des Preu ves .

Bou In st
. Bou vi er s In sti tu tes

.

Bou . Bou vi er s Law Di c ti onary



.

Bract Brac ton de Le gi bu s c t Consu etu di ni .

bus An gli a .

Bradf Burr . Bradf o rd s N Y S urrogate Reports



. . .

Branc h ; Pr Bran c h s Pri n c i pi a Legi s et E qu i tatis



.

Br Broom s Legal Maxi ms



.
71 A UT H O RIT I E S .

Brown , Law Di c Brown s Law Di c t Am Ed



. . .

Buls Buls trode s Re ports ‘


.

Cal Le x
. Calvi ni Lexi con Juri di cum .

Cary

s Re ports .

Chan C . Chan cery Cases .

Codex Ju sti n i an i .

Coke on Li ttleton .

C roke Re ports (Charles I )



s . .

Orc h e s Re ports (Eli zab eth )



.

Croke s Re ports (James I )



. .

C urti s C C Re ports

. . .

Den i s , N Y . Den i o s N Y Re ports



. . .

Di g Di gest , or Pan dec ts of Justini an .

Doc t . S tud Doc tor S tu den t .

Duer on I ns Duer on Insuran ce .

Ell esm ere Postnati .

Erski n e s In sti tute s, Law of Scotland



. .

E xch equer Reports .

Fer Rom Hi st
. . . Ferri er s Roman History

.

Fi n ch , Law Fi n ch s Law
'
.

. Fleta, sen Commen tari us Juris


Angli a .
A U T H O RIT IES .

Ang li a .

Fos ter Cr , . Law Fos ter s C rown Law



.

Fran c i s Fran c i s M axi ms


'
.

t . . . Godolph i n

s Or han p ’
s Legac y .

Grat tan Va Re port s



s . .

Green l eaf on E vi den ce .

Groti us de Jure Bel li ac Pac i s an


de E qu i tate .

Guy In s t Food Gu yot s In sti tu tes Fe odales



. . . . .

Hal e , Hi st C L . . Hale s Hi story of Comm on Law



.

Hale , Pl Cr . Hal e s P leas of t h e Crown



.

Halk Halkerston s M axi m s



.

Hardre s Reports

.

Hei n . E
l Jur Ci v . . Hei n ec c i i E lem en tte Juri s Ci vi li s .

Hi l l Real Prop
. H il li ard s Re al Property

.

Hill , N . N Y Re ports
. . .

Hob Hobart s Reports



.

Hol t Hol t s Re ports



.

Hom e , L T . Hom e s (Ld Kam es) Law Tracts



. .

How S t Tr
. . Howell s S tate Tri al s

.

In sti tu tes of Ju sti ni an .

Insti tu tes of Lo rd Coke .

Jen k Cen t
. Jen ki n s C en tu ri es or Reports

.

Johns . Ch JJoh n son s N Y Ch an cery Reports



. . .

John s : N Y . John son s N Y Reports



. . .

Corpu s Jur i s C i vi li s .

Kames Pri n ci ples of Equi ty



.
V1 1 1 A U T H O RI T I E S .

Reports .

K e i l way s Reports ’
.

Ken t Comm en tari es



s .

Lan e

s Reports .

Lan si n g N Y S up C ourt Reports



s . . . .

Leon ard

s Repor ts .

Li ttl e ton

s Ten u re s .

Loflt Reports , Appen di x



s .

Lord Raym on d s Reports



.

M ac k C i v Law
. . Mackeldey s Ci vil Law ’
.

M ass Mas sach u se tts Reports .

M au le 85 S M au le S e lwyn s Re ports

.

M erli n , Qu de Dr . M erl i n , Qu e sti on s de Droi t .

M e tc M etc al f s M ass Re ports



. .

M od M odern Reports .

M on tes E s des Loi s


. . M on tesqu i eu s Espri t de s Loi s

.

Moore F Moore s Re ports


.

.

N Y C ourt
. . of Appeals Re port s .

Wen tworth omoe



Of f Ex
. s of Exec u tor .

Pai ge Ch , . N Y . Pai ge s N Y Ch an cery Re ports



. . .

P Wi ll
. Peers Wi lli am s Re port s ’
.

Pe t Adm
. Peters Adm i ralty De c i si ons

.

P S yrus
. Publi u s S yru s Th e Mi m i ’
, .

Phi l] Dom. Phi lli m ore on Dom i c il .

P h il l Ev
. Phi lli pps on Evi den c e .

P lowd Plowden s Re ports



.

Poth i er , Ev Poth i er on Evi den ce .

Poth i er , Ob Poth i er on Ob li gati on s .

Queen

s Bench Reports .
A UT H O RI T I E S .

Rawle s Penn Re port s



. .

Re e ves H i story of En gli sh Law



.

Re gi s trum Bre vi u m .

Ri ley s Lati n Di c ti on ary



.

S a lk S alkeld Re ports

s .

S an di Ch N Y S an df ord N Y Ch an ce ry Re ports

. . . e . . .

S h e lf ord, M . D S h elt ond on Marri age an d Di vorc e


-
.

S he p . Touc h S he ppard s Tou c hston e



.

S id
S tar k E v . S tarki e on Evi den ce .

S tory , Bail m S tory on Bai lm en ts .

S to ry , Con t S tory on C on trac ts .

S tory , Eq . Jur S tory s Equ i ty u ri s ru den c e



J p .

S um C C . . . S um n er s C i rc ui t Court Re ort s

p .

Taun ton

Re ports
s .

Tayle r Law Glossary , 9th Edi ti on



s .

Vaugh Vaugh an s Reports ’


.

Vent Ven tri s Report s ’


.

Yer .

Vi n Ab r
. Vi n e r Abri dgm en t

s .

Vi n C om
. Vi n ni us C om m en tary

on Jus ti ni an .

Wen d N Y . . Wen dell s N Y Re ports ’


. . .

Whart Wharton s Law Lexi con ’


.

Wils Wi lson s Reports ’


.

Wing Wi ngate s Maxi m s ’


.

Wri gh t Ten ,
Wri ght on Tenures .

Year B .
LE G A L M AX I M S .

A .

1 . c omm u ni ob s e r v anti a n on e s t r e c e
A
de n d u m ( CO
. K E LI TT 1 8 6 a
, ) C om m on observ
. . .
-

an c e i s n ot t o be departe d f rom .

2 . A di gn i or i fieri de b et d e n o mi n ati o et

r e sol u t i o . (W I N G .
—Th e ti tle an d ex posi ti on
ou gh t to be m ade f rom th at wh i c h is m ost
W orth y .

3 A f ac t o
. ad j us n on da t u r co n s e qu e n ti a .

A f ac t does n ot n ec essar i l y c on sti tu te a r i gh t .

4 . A l at e r e as c e n di t j us . (BBA CT .
—A
ri gh t asc e n ds c ol l ateral l y .

6 . A l i m po s s i b l e

n ui

n est t e rm .
(2 BO U
—No on e i s bou n d to do wh at i s i m possi ble
.

1 1
( )
2 LEGAL m s.

6 . A n on p o ss e a d n o n e as e s e qu i t ur ar gu m e n

tu m n ec e s sar i o n e g at i v e , li ci t n on afi r m ati v e .

(H O B . 336 — Ii . t hi n g b e n ot p oss i ble ,


a an arg u

m en t i n th e n egat i ve m ay b e de du c ed, n am el y ,

th at i t h as n o e xi ste n c e bu t an argu m en t i n th e
affi r m at i ve c an n ot b e dedu ced, n am el y ,
t h at If a
'

thi n g i s p ossi ble i t is in ex i sten ce .

7 A pi r ati s au t l at r on i b us c apt i li b e r i pe r
m an e n t (D I G . . 49 . 15 . 19 .
—Th i n gs do n ot
c h an ge th e i r o wn er sh i p wh e n c ap tur ed by p i rates

an d r o bbers .

'

8 A
pr i n c i pali on b us s e u di gn i on b us e st

i n c h o an d u m (C O KE ,
e r 1 8 —W e s h ou l
. d be gi n . .

wi th th e pri n c i pal an d m ost w orth y p arts .

9 . A r e s c r i pt i s v al e t ar g um e n t u m . CO
( KE ,
Lu v . 11 . a ) —An . arg u m en t drawn f rom r esc ri pts
is soun d .

10 A s u m m o r e m e di o ad ct i o n e m ,
i n f e r i or e m a
-
.

n on h ab e t ur i n gr e ssas , n e qu e au x i li u m (F LE T A .

LI B . 6 . C .
—From th e h i gh est rem edy to a
lower ac ti on th ere i s n e i th er i n gre ss n or assi st

an c e .

11 . A v erb i s l e gi s n on e st r ec e d e n dum . (5 .

CO KE ,
1
1 8 — Fr om th e wor ds
. of th e l aw t h ere
is n o rece di n g .

12 . p e c t e s, al t er i qu od f ec e r i s
Ab al i o ex .

( P B
.r a s s 1 — E x p e c t f r om o t
,
h ers t h e sam. e

treatm en t th at t h ey r ec ei ve f rom you .

1 3 A b as su e ti s n on fit i njur i a
.
(JENK . .
m om m a . 3

C E NT .
—No i n j ury i s don e by th in gs l on g
ac q ui esc ed i n .

14 . A b b r e v i at i on u m i ll s n un om e et s e n s us

a c c i p i e n du s e st , ut c on c es s i o no n si t i n an i s .

(9 CO KE , —I n abbrevi ati on s ,
th at n um be r an d

se n se i s to b e taken by wh i ch th e m ean i n g i s n ot

re n dere d voi d .

15 . A b s e n t em ac c i pe r e d e b e m us s um q u i n on

e at sol o c i i n qu o p e t i tu r (D I G 50 1 6 . . . .

We m u st c all h i m ab sen t wh o i s n ot i n th at plac e


i n wh i c h h e i s sou gh t .

16 . A b s e n t i a eju s qu i r ei pu b li c m cau sa ab e st,

ne qu e ei ne qu e alii dam n o sa e as e deb e t . D


( G
I .

50 . 17 .
—Th e b
a sen c e of h i m who i s em

p l oyed i n th e servi c e of th e S tate ou gh t n ot to be ,

p r ej u di c i al to h i m n or t o oth ers .

1 7 A b s o l u te s e n t e n ti a e x po si t i on s n on i n di ge t
. .

(2 I N s r —
'
A n
. a b s o lu te se n ten c e n ee ds n o ex

p o si t i on .

18 . A b s ol u tu m dom i ni um i n omn i b us li c i ti s
Ab solu te p ower i n all th i n gs l awf ul .

19 . A b su r du m e s t afi r m ar e ( re j u di cat a) c re

d an du m e ss e , n o n j u di e i . (1 2 C O KE ,
—It is
a sur d
b to affi r m th at th e r ec ord of j u dgm en t is
to b e reli ed u pon , an d n ot th e j u dge .

20 . A b u n dan s c au t e la n on n o c e t. (1 1 COKE ,
-
Abu n dan t c au ti on does no i n j ury .

21 . A cc e s s o r i u m n on du c i t , s e d se qu i t ur su u m

pr i n c i p al s .
(C O KE , LI TT . 1 52 a .
)—An acc essory

does n ot lead, bu t f ollows h i s pri n c i pal .


4 LEGAL m s .

22 . A c c e ss or i um se qui tu r n at u r am r ei on i

ac c e di t . (CO KE ,
LI r r
' '
.
—Th e i n c i den t f ollows
th e n at u re of th e th i n g to wh i c h i t i s ac c essor y .

23 . A cc e ss ori u s se qu i t u r n at u r am sui pr i n c i
p ali s . (3 IN s r '
. 1 39 — An. ac cessor y f ollows th e
n atu r e of i ts
pri n c i pal .

2 4 A c c i pe r e qu i d u t j u st i t i am f aci as , n on e s t
.

t am ac c i p e r e qu am e x t o r qu e r e (L OFFT .
,

TO acc ept an yth i n g as a reward f or doi n g j usti c e ,

i s n ot ac c ep ti n g b u t e xtort i n g .

26 A c c us ar e n am e as de b e t , n i si c or s rn D ec
. .

( H A R D . N o o n e i s b
-
o u n d to a c c u se h i m self ,

e xc ep t be f ore God .

26 A cc us at or p ost r at i on ab i l e t e m pus n on e st
.

au di e n dus , ni si as b on e de omi s si o n s e x c u s av e r i t .

(M OO RE ,
-
An ac c u se r sh ou ld n ot b e h eard
af ter a r eason a b le ti m e h as exp i red, un less he can

ac c ou n t sati sf ac toril y f or th e delay .

27 A ct a e xt e r i or a i n di e an t i n t e r i or a se cr ete

. .

COKE Ext crn al ac ti on s sh ow th e secret


(8 ,

i n ten ti on s .

28 . A c ti o c asus s pu d n ost r at e s e a e s t , qu a u t
i n t e r b on os h en s ag e r e Oppor t e at , e t si n e fr au du
ti o n e . (L OFFT ,

In pleadi n g a c au se am on g

ou r c ou n t rym en we sh ou l d ac t f ai rly as bec om es


g ood m en , an d n ot def rau d yon e
an .

29 . A cti o c on t r a d e f un c t um c o apt s c on t i n u a
t us i n h aer e de s .
( H OB 1 08 . .
-
An ac ti on ag ai nst

a dec ease d person c on t i n u es i n t h e h e i rs .

30 . A c ti o est j us pr os e q u e n di in j u di ci o qu od
LEGAL MAXIMS .

al i c u i de b e tu r .
(C O KE LI r r 285
,
' '
. . a .
—An ac ti on

is th e r i gh t o f prosec u t i n g to j u dgm e n t t h at wh i c h
'
is on e s due .

CE N r '
.
-
An ac ti on is n ot g i ven t o hi m wh o i s

no t i n j u r ed .

32 . A ot i o n on tac i t r e u m , n i ai m en s si t r ea.

(Lo n er
, 37 -
An ac t i on doe s not m ake on e g u ilt y ,

u n less th e i n te n ti on be b ad .

33 . A c ti o p a ne li a i n h a r e dem n on de tur , ni s i
f or te ex dam n o l oc u pl e ti or h a r es f ac t u s si t .

( VIN . CO M .
—A pen al ac ti on doe s n ot li e
agai nst th e h ei r , u n less i n deed th e h e i r i s ben efite d
f rom th e wron g .

34 . A cti o p e r s o n ali s m or i t u r c u m p er s o n a (4 .

h er .
— A per son al ac ti on di es wi th th e perso n .

36 . A c t i o qua li b e t i n su a vi t a (JE N K C E N T . . .

-
Every ac ti o n p roc ee ds i n i ts own way .

36 . A c t i on e s c o m posi te au n t , qu i b us i n ter
so h omi n es di s c e pt ar e n t , qu as ac t i on e s , no

po pu l u s pr ou t v ell e t i n s t i t u er et , c e rt as s ol em
es qu e e as e v ol u eru n t ( W H A R T 20 —A
. c t i on s . .

are di sposed by wh i c h m en di spu te am on g th em


selves, wh i c h ac ti on s are m ade defin i te an d solem n ,

lest th e people proc eed as th ey th i n k proper .

3 7 A c t i on e s i n pe rs on am , qu a adv e rsus s um
.

i nt en dun tu r , qui e x c on tr ac t u v el de li c t o o b li
gatus e st ali qui d dar e v e l c on c e d e r e . ( WH ART
—P
.

ersonal ac ti on s are th ose whi ch are brou gh t


6 LEGAL MAXI MS .

agai n st hi m wh o, f rom a c on trac t or a tort , i s


o bli ged to gi ve or allow som e th i n g .

38A c ti on u m g e n e r a m ax i m e aun t s e r v an da
. .

(LOFFT — T h e,
c orr ec t f orm of ac ti on sh ou l d

b e f ollowed .

39 . A c ti on um qu m dam aun t i n r em , qu a d am
in p e r s on am , s t qu mdam mi x t m .
(C O K E , LI TT .

— Som e ac t i on s ar e agai n st th e th i n g , oth ers


agai n st th e person ,
an d oth er s are m i xed .

40 . A c t or qui c on tr a r e gu l am qui d adux i t ,


n on e st au di e n du s (2 BO U V . .
—A pleads r
sh oul d n ot b e h ear d wh o advan c es a pr op osi ti on ,

c on trar y to ru l es o f l aw .

41 . A ct or se qui t u r f or u m r ei . H
( ME L
O . . T .
,

— Th e plai n ti ff f ollows th e f orum of th e th i n g


i n qu esti on .

42 A ct or s
. n on pr ob an t e r e us ab s o l v i tu r .

(HO B .
—Th e def e n dan t i s a solvedb if th e
l ai n t ifi does n ot p r ove h i s c ase
p .

43 .A cts i n di c at e t h e i n te n t i on .
(8 C OKE ,

44 . A c tor i i n c u m bi t on us prob an di .
(HOB .

—Th e burden of proof li es wi th th e pl ai n ti ff .

46 . A ct us c ur i m n e m i n e m gr av ab i t .
(J E N E
—An
.

CE N T . ac t o f th e c ou rt i n j u res n o on e .

A ct us D ei n e m i ni f ac i t i njur i am
46 . .
(2
B L A CK . CO M .
—An ac t of God i n j u res no

on e .

47 . A ct u s i n c ept u s, cu j us pe r f e c t i o pe n det
v ol un t at e par ti um , r ev oc at i p ot e s t ; si au t e m
8 LEGAL Mu ms .

(LOFFT ,
—Th e ac t of a servan t i n whi c h h e i s
u su ally em ployed ,
is c on si der ed th e ac t of his
m aste r .

56 A ddi t i o pr ob at m i n or i t at e m
. .
(4
. IN S T .

—An addi ti on proves i n f eri ori ty .

67 . Ad ea q u a f r e qu e n ti us ac c i dun t jun
adapt an t ur . (2 . IN S T . 1 37 .
—Laws are ada pt ed
t o c ases wh i c h m ost f requ en tly oc c u r .

68 . A dj o ur n am e n t u m e st ad di e m di c e re s en

di am d ar e .
(4 I.N S T . 27 —An
. ad ou rn m en t
j i s to
a pp oi n t a to gi ve a day
day or .

69 . A dm i r ali tas j u ri s di c ti on e m n on h ab e t
su pe r u s qu a c omm u ni l e g s di ri m u n t ur (LOFFT .
,

—An adm i ral ty c ou rt h as n o j u r i sdi c t i on over


th ose qu est i on s whi c h are determ i n ed by th e com
m on l aw .

60 . Ad c fi c i um j us ti c i ar i oru m spec t at, u ni


c u i qu e c or am ei s pl ac i tan t i j usti ti um e x h i b er e .

(2 I N
. S T .
—It i s th e du ty of j u sti c es to admi n

i ster j u st i c e to e ver y on e see ki n g i t f rom h i m .

61 . A d pr o x i m um an t e c e d e n s fi at r e lat i o, ni si

i m pe di at u r s e n t e n ti a. (JE N K . CE N T .
—The
an tec e den t ref ers t o th e n ext r elati ve , u n l ess i t oh
str u c ts th e sen ten ce .

62 . Ad qu a sti on e m facti n on res p on dent


j u di c e s
; a d qu a st i o n e rn j ur i s n on r e sp o n dent

j urat or e s , LI TT 295 . To questi on s of


(CO KE . .
-

f ac t j u dges do n ot an swer t o qu est i on s of l aw the


j u ry do n ot an swer .

63 A d qua st i on e s l e gi s j u di c es, e t non


.
LEGAL q ms . 9

j u r at o r e s p on d e n t
r es (7 M A SS . . 279 .
—J udges ,

an d n o t j u ri es respon d to qu esti on s
, of law .

64 . Ad r ec t o d oc e n du m c por t e t , pr i m u m in
q u i r e r e qu i a r e r u m c ogn i ti o a n om i n i b us
n o m i n a,

r e r um d epe n de t ( C O KE LI TT .
— I n o r der , .

r i g h t l y to c om preh e n d a t h i n g en qu i r e fi r st i n to ,

th e n am es f or a r i gh t kn owledge of thi n gs de pen ds


,

u p o n t h e i r n am es .

66 A d tr i at e m par t e m st re n u a e st aus pi ci o

. .

(T AY LE R S us p i
, c i on rests str on l
gy on th e n u

f or tu n ate Si de .

66 . A dv er su s p er i cul u m n at ur ali s r ati o per


m i tt i t se d e f e n d er s (LO FFT . 36 9 — N atur al , .

r eason all ows on e to def en d h i m self agai n st

dan ger .

67 . E ldi fi c ar e i n t uo pr opr i o so l o n on li c e t
qu ad al t s r i n o c e at (3 I N S T . .
-
It i s n ot

lawf ul to b u i l d u p on you r own lan d so as to


i n j ur e th at of oth ers .

68 . E di fi c at um sol o , s ol o c e di t .
(C O KE , LI T T .

4 a ) T h at whi c h i s
. .
-
b u i lt u pon th e lan d goes
w i th th e l an d .

69 E di fic i a s ol o c odan t . (FL E T A 8 2
—B i ldi
. . .
,

u n gs pass wi th a gran t of lan d .

70 . E qui t es
p e rs on am (4 B
agi t
O UV in . . .

INST N 3733
. E qu i ty ac ts u pon th e person
. .
-
.

71 E q ui t as c as i b us m e d e t u r (LOFFT
—Equ i ty reli eves agai n st ac c i den ts
. .
,

72 E qu i t es d e f e c t us s u ppl e t (LOFFT
—Equi ty su ppli es def ects
. .
,

.
10 LEGAL MAxm s .

73 E qu i tas er r c r i b us m e de t ur (LOFFT

. .
,

E qu i ty r em edi es err or s .

74 . E qui t as e st c or r ec ti o l e gi s g e n e r al i t e r
l at a , qu a p ar t s d e fi ci t .
(FL O W D —. E qu i t y
i s th e c orrec ti on of law, wh en too gen eral , i n t h e
p art i n wh i c h i t i s def ec ti ve .

76 E qu i t e s c orr e c t i o dam l e gi ad

e st q u a
-
.

bi b i t a, qu i a ab qu i d pr o pt e r g e n e r
ea ab e st ali

al e m s i n e e x c e pt i o n s c o m pr e h e n si o n e m (FL O WD . .

—Equ i ty i s a c ertai n c orrec ti on appl i ed A ,

law b ec au se on ac c ou n t of i ts gen er al c om pr eh en
,

si ven ess wi th ou t an ex c ep ti on som eth i n g i s ab sen t


,

f r om i t .

76 . E qui t es e st p e r f e ct a qu a dam r at i o qu a
j us s ri c pt u m i n t e r pr e t atu r st e m e n dat n u ll a

c ptu r e c om pr e h e n s a, s e d s o l a r ati on s c o u si s
s ri

t e ns (
.CO KE L I TT — E qu, i t y i s a ki.n d o f
p erf ec t reason wh i ch i n terpr ets an d am en ds th e
wri tten law c om preh en ded i n n o code bu t c on ,

si s te n t wi th r eason al on e .

77 .qui t es e st qu asi equ ali tas


E . C O
( KE , LITT .

24 .
—Equ i ty i s as i t were equ ali ty .

78 E qu i t as e x l e g s g e n e r ali t e r l at a ali qui d


.

i
ex c p i t (P L O W D. 36 2 — E q u i ty a d.m i ts an excep
.

ti on f r om a g e n er all y e n ac te d law .

79 . E qui t as i gn or an t i a o pi t u l at u r , o s c i tan ti a
n on i t em (F LO W D . 8 4 ) — E qu i ty a ss
. i sts i gn o r an ce,

bu t n ot c ar elessn ess .

80 . E qui t e s in s um q u i v ul t s u mm o j ur e
age r e , su m m u m j us i n t e n di t .
(FLO WD .
LEGAL MAXIM S . 11

E q u i ty strai ns th e u tm ost p oi n t of l aw tow ard th e


p e rso n w h o w i sh es t o ac t ac c or di n g to t h e st r i c t
n e ss of th e l aw .

81 . E qu i t a s in pari b us c auai a par i a j ur a


d e s i d e r at .
(FL O W D .
—E qu i ty i n li ke c ases
re qu i res li ke l aw s .

82 . E qu i t as j ur i s di c ti o n s n on c c n f un di t .

(F L O W D .
—Ju ri sdi c ti on is n ot c on f ou n de d by
e qu i t y .

83 . E qu i t as li b e r ati oni e t s e i z i n a f av e t .

(L OFFT , 536 — .E qu i ty f avors deli v er an c e an d

84 E qui t as n at ur am r e i n on m u t at
.
(L OF FT ,
.

—Equ i ty c h an ges n ot th e m an n er of th i n gs .

86 E qui t as n e m i n e m j u v at c u m i nj ur i a al
.

t e ri u s . (LOFFT ,
—Equ i ty assi sts n o per sOn to
t h e i n j u ry of an oth er .

86 . qui t es n i l st at u i t , n i s i i n part e s (LOFFT


E .

—Equi ty determ i n es n oth i n g exc ept toward


,

th e p art i es .

8 7 E qu i t as n omi n e p a n a c c n sti t u ti s r e m e
.

di nn e x a q u c s t b o n e pr a st at (LOFFT .
,

Equ i ty c on sti tu t es a rem e dy t o th i n gs wh i c h h ave


been appoi n te d u n der th e n am e of pu n i sh m en t
, ,

agreeab le to w h at i s j u st an d goo d .

88 .E qui t as n on f aci t j us , s s d j u r i au x i li at ur .

(LOFFT ,
— Equ i ty doe s n ot m ake l aw bu t ,

assi sts law .

89 . E qui t as n on m e de t ur d e f e c t u s c r um qu a
jurs po si t i v e r e qu i si t a al i u m (LOFFT ,
.
12 LEGAL MAXI M S .

E qu i ty does
pply th e def ec ts of th ose thi n gs
n ot su

wh i c h are re qu i re d by p osi ti ve l aw .

90 E qui t e s n on s i n i t u t e an d s m r e m du p li c i
.

v i a si m u l qu i a p e rs e qu at u r (F R A N C I S .
,

Equ i ty wi ll n ot allow a dou ble sati sf ac ti on to be


gi ven

91 . E qui t as n on su ppl e t ea qu a i n m an u or

an t i s e ss e p o s s un t .
(LOFFT ,
—Equ i ty doe s
n ot su pply th ose th i n g s W t h ar e w i th i n th e
appli c an t s grasp ’
.

92 E qu i t es
. n on t e n e t ur a dj u v ar e , u bi n on

e st n o d us di gn us v i n di ce .
(LO FFT , —Equ ty i

w i ll n ot ass i st u n l ess th e oc c asi on r en der s it n ec es

sar y .

93 E qu i t as n on v aga at qu e i n c e rt a
. e st , s e d

t e r m i n e s h ab e t at qu e li m i t e s pr a fin i t as .
(LOFFT ,

—Equ i ty is n o t v agu e an d u n c er tai n , b u t h as


dete rm i n e d bou n dar i es an d li m i t s .

94 . E qui t e s n on v u l t r e s n ov as qu e i n u si
at

t at as i n du c e r s .
— Equ i ty does not
i n c li n e to i n trodu c e n ew an d u n u su al t hi n gs .

96 . E qu i t as n u n qu am c on tr av e n i t l e gi s .

—E qu i ty n ever c on tr adi c ts th e law .

96 .E q ui t as n un qu am li ti an e i ll at ur ubi

r e m e di u m p ot e st dar e (LOFFT , .
—E qu i ty is
n ot t h e h an dm ai d of stri f e wh e n S h e c an g i v e a

rem e d y .

97 . E qui t es opi t u l at ur u b i pe n sat i oni damn i


l o cu s e st (
. L OFFT —
,
E q ty assi sts wh en
u i
t h ere i s r oo m f or a c or
fi n sat i on of a loss .
LEGAL m xm s . 13

98 . E qu i t as p ar s l e gi s A n gli a .
(Le m ,

E q u i ty i s a p art of th e En gl i sh law .

99 . E q ui t e s r ei oppi gn e r ata r e de m pt i e n i b us

f av e t .
(LOFFT ,
—Equ i ty f avors th e redem p

ti o n of a th i n g i n pawn .

1 00 . E i q u i t as r em i psam i n t u e t ur d e f or m a st

c i r c u m st an t ii s mi n us an x i a. (FR AN CI S ,

E qu i ty does n ot regard th e f orm an d c i rc u m st an ce,


but rath er bstan c e of th e ac t
th e su .

101 E qu i t as s e qui t ur l e g e m
.
(1 S TO RY .
, EQ.

JU R .
— Equ i ty f oll ow s th e law .

102 E lqu i t as s u p e r v ac u a e di t
.
(LOFFT .
,

Equ i ty abh ors su perflu ou s th i n gs .

10 3 . E q u i t as u x e ri b u s , li b e r i a, c r e di t e r i b u s

m ax i m e f av e t .
—Equ i ty f avors
wi ves , c h i ldren , an d c re di tors .

104 E qu i t as v e r i t at i s fi li a, b e n i t at i s e t j u st i
.

fia s or o r (L OFFT .
,
— Equ i ty i s th e dau gh ter
of tr u t h , an d t h e S i ster of g oodne ss an d j u sti c e .

10 6 E qui t as
. v u l t o m n i b u s m e di a a d v e r i t a

t e m p e r v en i r e (LOFFT ,
.
—Equ i ty desi res by
all m ean s t o arr i ve at t h e tru th .

10 6 . E lqu i t as v ul t s p oli at e s, v el d e e e pt o s ,
v el l ap s e s an t e c m n i a r e s t i t ui .
(LOFFT ,

Equ i ty desi re s th e S poi led th e dec e i ved an d th e , ,

rui n e d above al l th i n gs t o h ave res ti t u t i on


, , .

10 7 . E qu u m s t b e n um , e st l ex l e gu m .

(HO B .
—Wh at i s j u s t an d r i gh t i s t h e l aw of

laws .

10 8 . H t , l u x, q
a ua pr e fi u e n s, f er a n ulli p e
r
14 LEGAL MAxm s .

pr i a, o m n i b us c om m uni a .
(L OFF T , 1 79 .
—Ai r ,

li gh t , ru n n i n g water ,
an d wi l d beasts , are th e
proper ty of n on e , bu t ar e c om m on to all .

109 . E s d e b i t e r em gr av i e r e n i n i m i
l ev e ;
e um f aci t .
(T AYL E R ,
—A sm all debt m akes a
deb tor a large on e an e n em y .

1 10 . E pr a t e r i ti d e li ct i e x p e str s m e
s t i m ati e

f ac t e n un qu am c r e s c i t (B A C M A X 8 — Th e est i . . . .

m ati on of a c om m i tted c r i m e n ever i n c reases by a

su bsequ en t f ac t .

'

111 . A fi e c ti e t u a n om e n i m pe ni t o peri tue .

(CO K E , LI TT .
—You r m oti ve g i ves a n am e

to you r ac t .

'
1 12 . A fi ee t u s pu n i t u r li e e t nen s eq u at ur ef

f e c tu s .
(9 COK E ,
—Th e i n ten t i on sh ou l d be
p u n i sh ed , al th ou gh th e c on se qu en ce do n ot f ollow .

113 . Afi nes m ei affi n i s n on e st mi hi a mn i a .

(S HE L FORD M ,
. D .
,
—A c on n ec ti on of my
c on n ec t i on is n ot a c on n e c ti on o f m ine .

114 . Afi n i t as di c i t ur , c um du a c e gn at i e n e s
,

i n t er se di v i s a , p
er n u p ti as e e pul an t ur e t al t e r a
,

ad al t e r i ns
-

fin e s ac e edi t . (COK E , LI TT .

It i s c alled affi n i t y wh e n t w o f am i li es, di vi ded f r om


on e an oth er , are u n i ted by m ar r i age ,
an d o n e of

th em appr oac h es th e c on fi n es of an o th e r .

116 . Afi r m an ti , n on n e g an t i , i n cum b i t pr e
b ati e .
(W HA RT .
— H e wh o affi rm s, n ot h e

w h o den i es m u st , bear th e b u rde n of proof .

116 Afi r m an ti s e st pr o b ati o (9 CU S H
—He wh o afii
. . .

rm s m u st prove .
16 LEGAL m xm s .

1 27 . A li u d e st v e n dor s , ali u d v e n d on ti e on

se n t i r o .
(DI G . 50 1 7 . .
—To sell 1 9 o n e thi n g,
to g i v e c on sen t to h i m w h o sells is an o th e r .

1 28 . A ll e gan s c e n tr ar i a n on e st au d i e n d us .

(JE N K . CE N T .
-
H e wh o all eges c on tradi c t or y
th i n gs i s n ot to be b oar d .

1 29 . A ll e g an s s u am t ur pi t u di n e m n en e st

au di e n dus . (4 I N S T .
—0 n e all egi n g h is own

i n f am y i s n ot t o be h ear d .

1 30 . A l l e gar i n on de b u i t qu e d pr ob at u m n on

r e l e v at . (1 C HAN C . .
,
—Th at ou gh t n ot to be
allege d wh i c h , if pr ov ed wou ld n ot , be r e le van t .

1 31 . A l t er i us c i r c u m v e n ti o alii n on p a
r b ot
a ct i on e m . (DI G . 50 . 17 .
—A dec ep ti on prac
ti ced u pon on e person does n ot gi ve a c ause of

ac t i on t o an oth er .

1 32 Al t e rn at i v e p ot i t i o n on e st au di en da.

—An
.

(5 C O KE ,
al tern ati ve peti ti on is n ot to be
h ear d .

1 33 . A m an c ann ot qual if y hi s ow n ac t . (NOY .

1 34 . A m b i gu a r e sp e n si e c on tr a p r e f e r e n t em

est ac c i pi en da. (10 C OK E , —An am b i gu ou s

an sw er sh all be c on st rued agai n st h i m wh o of f ers

it .

1 36 . A mb i gu i s c asi b us sem p e r pr a s um i t ur
LOFFT 248 — Th e presu m pt i on i n
pr o r ege . ( ,
.
,

dou btf u l c ases, alwa s y f av ors th e ki n g .


LEGAL MA IM S. X 17

ti on e qu e d e x f act o ori t ur um
s u ppl e t ur , n am

b i g n u m v e r i fi c at i o n s f act i t olli t u r (B AG M AX . . .

— Laten t am bi gu i ty m a b e su ppl i ed by evi


y
den c e f or am b i gu i ty ar i si n g u pon th e deed i s
r em oved by pr oof of th e deed .

1 3 7 A m b i gu i t as v e r b oru m p at on s n u ll a v e ri
.

fi c ati on s e x e l u di t u r (L OF F T 24 9 .
— T h e ev iden t ,
.

am b i gu i ty of wor ds i s e xc l u ded by v er ifi c at i on .

1 38 A m b i g uu m p act u m C on t r a v e n di t e r e m
.

i n t e r pr e t an du m e st (H A L K — . A m b i gu ous .

agreem en ts are to b e i n terp reted agai n st th e sell er .

1 39 .A m b i g u u m p l aci t u m i n t e r pr e t ar i d e b e t
c o n t r a p r of e r e n t e m ( C O KE L I TT . 30 3 b — A n , . . .

am b i gu ou s pl eadi n g sh ou l d be i n ter pr eted agai n st

th e par ty off er i n g i t .

1 40 .A m b u l at e ri a e st v ol u n t as d e f un c t i u squ e
a d v i ta s u pr e m u m e x i t u m (D I G 34 4 —T h e. . . .

will of a dec eden t i s am bu l atory u p t o h i s l ast


m om en ts of li f e .

1 41 . A mi ci con si li a cr e de n da .
(T AYLER ,

Th e adv1 c e of a f ri e n d sh ou l d b e r egarded .

1 42 . A n g li a j u ra in e mni c asu li b e r t ati dan t


f av e r e m . F
( O RTE SC . C . 42 .
—Th e l aws of En glan d
ar e fav orabl e i n ever y c ase to li ber ty .

1 43 . A n i m i m ot u m v u ltu s d e t og ot .
(LOF FT ,

—Th e c ou n ten an c e i s th e i n dex of t h e m ind .

1 44 . A ni mu s ad s o
(2 BOU om n o ju s du c i t . .

1 8
1 —.It i s to th e i n ten ti on th at al l l aw appl i es .

A ni m us h omi ni s e st an i m a son pti


'
1 46 .
(3 .

()
2
18 LEGAL m xm s .

BUL S .
—Th e i n te n ti on of th e m an i s th e soul
of th e i n strum en t .

1 46 . Ani m u s n on d e pe n on dus ob i ni q u u m
j u di ci u m .
(T AY LE R, —Th e m in d sh ou ld n ot

be c ast down be c au se of an u n u st j j u dgm en t .

1 47 . A n i n t e n dm e n t of t h e par ti e s sh all be
or d e r e d ac c or di n g t o l aw .
(NO Y ,

1 48 . A nn ua n ee d e bi t um j u de x n on se p ar at
i ps u m .
(8 CO KE , 52 .
—Even th e j u dge di vi des n ot
an n u i ti es or debt .

1 49 . An n us i n e opt us pr o c om p l e t e h ab e t ur .

(T RAY . 45 —A year begu n i s h eld as c om plete d


. .

1 60 . A pi c es j ur i s n on su n t j u r a (C O KE , LI TT . .

—Legal
btleti es are n ot r igh ts su .

161 A pp li c ati o e s t v i t a r e gu l a
.
(2 BULB . .

—Appli c ati on i s th e li f e of a ru le .

1 62 A qu a c e di t s o l e
.
(CO KE LI TT 4 a ) .
, . . .

W ater goe s w i th th e lan d . A gran t of l an d c arr i es

t h e wate r u pon i t .

163 . A qu a c urr i t , ot dob e t cur r er s , u t curr ers


s e l e b at .
(3 R A W
. LE , 84 .
—Water run s, an d

sh ou ld ru n , as i t h as u se d t o run .

1 64 . A r b i tr i m on t u m a q um
u tr i b u i t c u i qu e

su u m . (No r ,
—A j ust ar bi trati on ren ders to
e ver y on e his own .

1 66 . A r b i t r i o d e mi n i r es a s ti m ar i d ob ot .
(4
.

IN S T .
—Th e own er of a th i n g sh ou ld fix hi s
pri c e u pon it .

166 . A r b i tr i u m e st j u di ci um .
(JENK . CENT .

—An awar d i s a j u dgm en t .


L EGAL M AXIM S . 19

167 A r b i tr i u m e st j u di e i u m b oni v i r i , s e e n u
.

dum a q u u m e t b e n u m (3 B U L S — A n a
. w a r d .

i s th e j u dgm en t of a good m an , ac c or di n g t o good


n ess an d j u sti c e .

1 58 . A r b o r du m c r e se i t
; li gn u m d u m c r e s c e r e

B — A t r ee i s so c all ed wh i lst
n e se i t . (2 UL S .

g r o wi n g, b ut wood wh en i t ce ases t o grow .

1 59 . Ar gu m e n t um a di v i si on s e s t f e rt i s si m u m
in j ur e . (6 COKE ,
—An arg u m en t f r om di
vi si on is of th e great est f or ce i n l aw .

1 60 . A r gum e n t u m a m ajori ad m i n u s n e g at i v e

n o n v al e t ; v al e t e c on v e r s e (J. E N K C E N T . .

—An argu m en t f rom th e g r e at er t o t h e l e ss i s of n o

f orc e n egati vel y afii rm ati v ely it is .

16 1 . A r g um e n t u m a s i mi li v al e t in l e gs .

(CO KE , LI TT .
—An argum en t f r om a l i ke c ase

avai ls i n l aw .

A r g um e n t u m
'

162 . ab au t h e n t at e e st f o r t i s si
m um i n l e ge (C O K E , LI TT 25 4
. a ) — An . . . argu m en t

f rom au th ori ty i s very str on g i n law .

163 . A r gu m e n t um ab i m p o s si b i l i pl ur i m u m
v al e t i n l e ge .
(CO K E ,
LI TT .
—An arg u m en t

de du c ed f r om an i m p ossi bi li ty i s of gr eat wei gh t i n


law .

164 . A r gu m e n t u m ab i n e on v e n i e n ti pl ur i m um
i n l og e
v al e t (CO K E ,
. LI TT 6 6 a ) An arg u m e n t
. . .

f rom i n con ven i en c e avai l s m u c h i n l aw .

0
166 . Arm a i n am at e s s u m er e j ur a si n u n t .

(2 I N S T 574 — Th e laws permi t th e taki n arm s


. .
g
agai n st th e arm ed .
20 LEGAL MA I MS X .

166 . A s si gn atu s u ti t u r j ur e au c t e r i s .
(HALE
—An
.

14 . assi gn ee ac qu i res t h e ri gh ts of th e as
si gn e r .

167 . A u di al t e r am p ar t e m .
(46 N Y . .

Hear th e oth er si de .

168 . A u e t or i t at e s phil o s oph e r um , m e di c e r u m,


et p e e t ar u m , au n t in c aus i s all e g an da et t e n e n da .

(C O KE , LI TT .
—Th e opi n i on s of ph i IO SO ph ers ,

ph ysi c ian s ,
an d pos t s ,
are to be recei ved an d

alleged i n c auses .

169 . A u c u pi s v e r b e r um aun t j u di ce i n di gn a .

(H OB .
—A t wi st i n g of lan g uage i s u n worth y
of a j u dge .

1 70 . A u g u st a l e gi b u s s o l u t a n o n e st . ( WH ART .

—Th e wi f e of t h e ki n g i s n ot e xem pte d f r o m


th e l aws .

1 71 . A u th ori ty t o ex e cu t e a de e d m us t b e
gi v en b y d e e d .
(1 H OL T ,

n i am j us ti t i am b ar ac t at .
(BE LL ,

DI C ) He . is
g u i l t y of barratry wh o f or m on ey b arters j u sti c e .

1 73 . Bast ar dus n on p e t e s t h ab or o b a r s de n
n i si c or p or e su e l e gi ti m e pr e e r e at u m
do .
(T R AY .

—A bastard c an h ave n o h ei r u nless i t be on e

lawf ull y begotten of hi s own body .


LEGAL MAXIMS . 21

1 74 . B e atus qui l og os j ur aqu o s er v at . (TAY

LE R , -
Blessed i s th e m an wh o b y
o e s th e laws
an d or di n an c es .

1 76 . Be ll e part a c e du n t r oi pu b li e a .
(1 KE NT ,

C OM .
—Thi n gs acqu i red i n war go to th e
state .

1 76 . B en e di c t a est e x p e si t i e , quan de r es r o

di mi t u r a d e str u c ti e n e .
(4 C O K E , 26 .
—Blessed i s
the ex posi ti on by wh i ch an yth i n g is saved f rom
destr ucti on .

1 77 B e n e fi c i um
. n on dat ar n i si ofi ci i c au s a .

(LO FFT ,
—A ben efic e is n ot i v
g en exc e pt f or a

ser vi ce perf orm ed .

1 78 . Be n ofi c i u m n on dat um n i si pr o pt er ofi

e l u ru . (Hos . 1 48 .
—A r em u n er at i on is n ot i v
g en
u n l ess on ac c ou n t of a du ty perf orm ed .

1 79 Be n e fi c i u m pri n ci pi a d e b ot os s o m an
—Th e ben efit
.

s ur u m . (J E N K . CE N T . of a

pr i n c e sh ou ld be lasti n g .

1 80 . B e n i gn o f ae i e n da su n t i n t or pr otati e n os
c h ar tar um , u t r e s m agi s v al e at qu am p e r e at ; ot

qu a li b ot c on c e s si o f or ti s si m e c on t r a don at o r e n
i n t e r pr e t an da e at . (4 M A SS .
—Li beral i n ter
pre tati on s are to be m ade of dee ds to th e
, an d th at
m ore m ay stan d th an peri sh an d all gran ts ar e to
b e taken m ost s tron gly agai n st th e gran t or .

18 1 . B oni gn o f ac i e n da au n t i n t e r pr e t ati e n os,


pr opt er si m w i c i t at e m l ai c or um , u t r e s m agi s
v al e at qu am p er e at ; ot v er b a i n te n ti on i n on o
,

c o n t r a, d e b ou t i n s orv i r e (COKE LIT T 36 a ) .


, . . .
22 LEGAL m xm s .

Li beral c on st ru cti on i s t o be m ade of wri tten i n


stru m en ts, on ac c oun t of th e Sim pli c i ty of th e
lai ty, an d wi th a vi e w to c arry ou t th e i n ten ti o n
of th e p art i es ; an d th e wor ds Sh ou ld b e m ade
su bj ec t ,
n ot c on tr ar y , to th e i n ten ti on .

182 . Be n i gni e r s e n t e n t i a i n v or b i s g on er ali b us

s ou du b ii s e st pr a f or on d a .
(4 C O KE , —Th e
m ore f avorable con stru c ti on i s to be placed on

gen eral or dou b tf u l ex pr essi on s .

183 B on i gni us l og os i n t or pr e t an da
. au n t qu o
v ol un t as e ar um c o n s e r v e tur ( D I G 1 . . . 3.

Laws Sh ou l d be sof avor ably i n terpr ete d th at th ei r


i n ten ti on s m ay be preserved .

1 84 Bi s dat qui C i t e dat


. .
( WHART .

He gi ves twi c e wh o gi ves qu i c kly .

186 . Bi s i de m e x i gi b e n a fi de s n on p ati t u r ,
st in s ati s f ac ti e n i b us , n on p e r m i t ti t ur am pli u s
fi er i qu am s om e l f act u m e at ( 9 . C O KE ,

Good f ai th does n ot per mi t th e sam e th i n g to be


exac te d t wi c e ; an d i n gi vi n g sati sf ac t i on i t i s

n ot pe rm i tte d to gi ve m or e th an i s gi ven at on c e .

186 . Be n a fi d e p os s e s s or faci t f ru ct us p or
c e pt e s et c e ns u m pt us su e s. (T RAY .
—By
good f ai th a m akes th e goods whi ch h e
possessor
h as gath er e d an d c on su m e d h i s own .

187 . B e n a fi de s ox i gi t ut qu e d c on v oni t fi at .

( D I G 1
. 9 20 .
— G eo d
. f ai th d e m an ds th at wh at
i s agreed u pon sh all be don e .

188 B e n a fi d o s n on p ati t ur ui b i s i de m

.

e x i gatu r D 1 7 G ood f ai th does n ot


( I G 50. . . .
24 LEGAL MAXI MS .

m al u m ox qu oli b e t d of oc t u .
(1 1 CO KE ,

Th e good of a def en dan t ar i ses f r om a p erf ec t

c ase, h i s h arm f r om som e def e c t .

197 . Be n u m n oc e s s ar i u m ex t r a t or m i n e s no

c es si t at i s n on e s t be num .
(H O B .

N ec essary
go o d is beyon d th e bou n ds of n ec essi ty
n ot good .

1 98 B on us j u d e x s oc u n du m a qu am ot b on u m
.

j u di c at ,
ot a q u i t at om s tr i c t e j u r i pr a i or t (C O K E .
,

LI TT .

24 b ) A good j u dge dec i des ac c or di n g t o
. .
'

j ust i ce an d ri gh t an d pref ers equ i ty to st ri c t


l aw .

1 99 . Br ov o j u di c i al o dob e t s e qu i suu m or i g
i n al s , ot ac c e s s e r i u m su u m pr i n ci p al s (JE N K
—A
. .

CE N T . j u di c i al wr i t ou gh t to f ollow i ts
ori gi n al , an d an a c cesso ry i ts p r i n c i pal .

20 0 . Br ov o j u di ci al e n o n cadi t pr o dof e c t u
f e rm a .
(J E N E . C E N T .
— A j u di c i al wr i t f ai ls
n ot t h rou gh de f ec t of f or m .

20 1 . Br ov i a, t am c r i gi n ali a qu am j u di c i ali s ,
pat i u n t u r A n gli e a n om i n a .
(1 0 COK E —
,
Both
j u di ci al wr i ts bear En gli sh n am es
ori gi n al an d .

20 2 By an ac qui t t an c e f or th e l as t pay m e n t ,
.

all oth er arr oar agos ar e di s c h ar g e d N


( CY . .

C .

20 3 . C are er ad h om i n e s c us t o di en de s n on ad
,

pun i e n d e s dar i d ob e t .
(COKE , LITT 260 . . a.
—A
LEGAL m xm s . 25

pr i son sh ou ld be assi gn ed to th e c u stod y ,


n ot th e
pun i shm en t of persons .

20 4 C ar e t per i c ul o , qui ot i am t u t us , cav i t


. .

(T A YLE R, 56 —H e i s th e. m ost sec u r e , wh o wh en

saf e, is on h i s g uard .

20 5 . C asus f or tu i t u s n on e st s p e ran dus , ot

n em o t e n e tu r di v i n ar o .
(4 C O K E ,
—A f or
tu i tus even t is not to be f oreseen an d n o person is
u n de rstood to di vi n e .

20 6 . C as us omi ssus ot ob li v i oni dat us , di s

pe si ti e n i j ur i s c omm u n i s r oli n qu i t ur . (5 C O K E

37 —A c ase om i tted an d gi ven to ob l i v i on i s lef t


,

to t h e di sposal of th e c om m on law .

20 7 O as us om i s sus h ab et ur pr o am i s se .

( W H A R T 1 36 — An . o m i t ted c.ase i s deem ed as

lost .

20 8 . O atall a j u st o p os sess a am i t ti n on pe s !

au n t .
(J E NK . CE N T .
—Ch attels j u stly pos
sessed can n ot be l ost .

20 9 . C at ail a r e pu tan tu r i n t e r m i n i m a i n l og o .

(J E NK C E N T . .
— Ch att els ar e c on si der ed i n l aw

am on g th e m i n or th i n gs .

2 10 . C aus a c au s a e st c aus a c aus ati .


(FRE E .

329 .
—Th e c au se of a c au se i s th e c au se of the
eff ec t .

21 1 . O au s a d e ti s , vi ta ,
li b e r t ati s , fi s c i , s un t

i n t er fav or ab i li a i n l og o (J E N K C E N T . . .

Cau se s of dower , l i f e, l i berty , reven u e , are am on g

th e f avorabl e thi n gs i n l aw .

212 . O aus a ec c l e si a pu b li c i s c au s i s a qu i p a
26 LEGAL MA IMS X .

r un t ur ; ot s um m a ra ti o e st qu a p o
r r el i gi on s

f aci t .
(C O K E , LI TT 341
. . a )
.
—Th e c au se of th e
Ch u rc h i s equal to pu b li c c au ses an d f or th e b est
of r eason s, i t i s th e c au se of r eli gi on .

21 3 . C au s a ot e r i ge e st m ate r i a n e g ot i i .

(1 C O K E ,
—Th e c au se an d ori gi n i s th e m ate ri al
of th e th i n g .

214 C aus a pr e x i m a, n on r e m ote, sp e c t at ur


. .

(3 K E N T , C O M — T h e n ear , an
. d n ot t h e re

m ote c au se , i s to b e c on sI der ed .

21 6 . C au s a pu b li c a v i c ar i u m n on r oc i pi t .

(LOFFT , 326 .
—A pu bli c c au se adm i t s n o su h ati

i n to .

216 . C aus a v aga ot i n c ert a n on e st c aus a


r at i on ab i li s . (5 CO KE ,
—A v agu e an d n u c et

tai n c au se is n ot a r ati o n al o n e .

21 7 . C au ti o n i s i n re pl u s e st qu am i n p e r s on a .

(LOEFT , 328 —Th ere i s m ore sec u ri ty i n a th i n


g
th an i n a per son .

218 . C av e at em pt or ; qu i i gn e r ar e n e n d e b ui t
qu e d j u s ali on u m om i t .
(H O B — .L e t t h e pu r

c h aser bewar e n o on e i n i gn oran c e sh ou ld b u y


th at whi c h i s t h e r i gh t of a th i r d par ty

.

21 9 C av e at v e n di t or
.
(L OFFT , L e t t h e .

seller b eware .

2 20 . C av e at v i at o r . (BR . 38 7 . n .
) —Le t th e
traveler b eware .

22 1 . C e r t a dob e t o s so i n t e n t i e , et n ar r ati o
,

ot c e r t urn f un dam e n t u m , ot c or t a r es qu a d e du
c i tar in j u di c i um .
(CO KE , LI TT . 803 . a )
.
—Th e
LEGAL m ms . 27

i n te n ti on ou gh t to be c ertai n , an d th e c ou n t an d
f ou n dati on , an d th e th i n g wh i c h i s brou gh t to

j u dgm en t .

2 22 . C er t a res opor t ot in j u di ci u m d e du c en
t ur .
(LOFFT ,
— It i s of ten n ec essar y to bri n g
i n to c ou rt f or tri al a th i n g wh i c h i s c ert ai n .

22 3 . C or tu m e st qu e d c or t u m r e d di p e t e s t .

(9 C O K E ,

Th at is c ertai n whi c h c an b e m ade
certai n .

2 24 . C os sa r e gn ar e
, 81 n on vi s j u di car e .

(H OB .
— Cease to r e i gn , i f you do n ot wi sh t o
ad u di c ate
j .

22 5 . C os s an t o cau s a, c ess at o fi oe t u s . (4 C OKE ,

38 .

Wh en th e c au se c ease s, th e eff ec t al so c ease s .

22 6 . C os s an t e pr i m i ti v e , c e s s at d e ri v ati v u s .

( WK AR T . 1 45 .
—Th e pri mi ti ve c easi n g th e deri va ,

ti ve al so c eases .

22 7 . C e ss an t e r ati o n s l ogi s , c e s s at i p so l o x .

(C O K E , LI TT . 70 .

b ) Th e. r eason of th e law
ceasi n g , th e l aw i tsel f c ease s .

22 8 . C e ss an t o st at u pr i m i ti v e , c e s sat deri v a
ti v as .
(8 C OKE , 34 .
—Th e or i gi n al estate c easi n g ,

th e der i vati v e c ease s .

2 29 . C ’
e st lo c r i m e qu i f ai t l a h e n t o, ot n on

p a t l ’
ec h ai au d .
'

(2 BO U .
—It i s th e cri m e

wh i c h makes th e sh am e , an d n ot th e sc aff ol d .

2 30 C e st u y , q u e d oi t i n h e r i t o r
. al p e,
o r de i t
i n h e r i t or al fi ls (2 B L A C K C O M
. . .
—He wh o
wou ld h ave been h e i r t o th e f ath er of th e de c eased
sh all also b e th e h e i r of th e son .
28 LEGAL MAXI MS .

2 31 . C h ac oa e st a d c e mm un om l og om .
(RE G
BRE v 8 0 b ) —A c h aos i s by
.

. . . c om m on law .

2 32 . C h ar ta do n on on t o n on v al e t . CO
( KE ,
LI TT . 36 . a .
—A Ch ar ter c on c ern i n g a th i n g n ot in
e xi sten c e avails n ot .

23 3 . C h ar t a e st l e g at u s m e n t i s .
(C O K E ,
L I TT .

36 . a.
) —A c hart er i s
. t h e l egat o o f th e m i n d .

2 34 . C h ar t s n on e st n i si v ost i m e n t u m de n a
ti e ni s. (C O K E , L
IT T 36 . . a .
)—A c h art er i s n ot h i n
g
el se th an th e vestm en t of a g i f t .

23 5 . C h ar ter s s e n t app ell e m un i m e n ts a


m un i e n do,

qui a m u n i u n t e t d of e n dun t h a r odi
t atom .
(4 COK E 1 53 — Ch ar ters are c alled
, .

m u n i m e n ts f rom m un i e n do b ec au se th ey ,

f orti f y an d de f en d th e i n h eri tan c e .

2 36 . p u d deb i t or e n r e p or
C hi r o gr aph u m
'
a

t u m pr a su m i t u r s ol u t u m (H A L K — A de ed . .

o r bo n d f ou n d wi th th e de b tor i s p resu m e d t o be

pai d .

23 7 C i r c ui t u s e st ov i tan du s ; ot b e n i j u di ci s
.

e st li t e s di r i m e r e , n o li s e x li t e o r i t u r (5 C O KE .
,

Ci rc u i ty i s to be av o i ded an d i t i s th e du ty
-

of a g oo d j u dge to de t rm i n e l i ti gat i on s l e st on e e
,

l awsu i t ari se ou t of an oth e r .

2 38 . C i v i t as e a au t e m i n li b e r t at e e st p o si t a
i s t at v i r i b us , ex al i e n e ar b i t r i o
q a su s n on

p e n d ot .
(T AYL E R ,
—Th at stat e al on e i s f re e
wh i c h dep en ds u pon i ts own str en gth , an d n ot

u pon th e arb i trar y w i ll o f an oth e r .

'

2 39 . C i v i t as ot urb s i n h oe di fi or un t, qu e d
LEGAL MAXIMS .

i n e ola di cu n tu r C i v i tas , u r b s v or e c e m pl oc t i t ur

a di fi c i a .
(C O K E , LI TT 1 09 b . . .
)—A c i t y an d t own

di ff er i n th i s, th at th e i nh ab i tan ts are c alled th e


Ci t y , b u t town i n c l u des th e
bu i ldi n gs .

2 40 C lam d e li n qu on s m agi s pun i t ur quam


.

pal am (8 C.O KE — Th ose wh o S i n se cretly


,

are p un i sh ed m ore severely than th ose wh o si n

Open ly .

24 1 C lau s u l a g en er al i s d o
. r e s i du e n on ea

c e m pl oc ti t ur q u a n o n eju s de m si n t g e n e ri s c um

i i a qua s pec i ati m di ct a f u er an t .


(LOFFT ,

A gen eral c lau se of r em ai n der does n ot em brac e


th ose th i n gs W h i c h are n ot of th e sam e ki n d wi th
th ose wh i c h h ad be en spec i ally m en ti on ed .

2 42 . C l aus ul a g e n or al i s n on r e f ert u r ad ex

pr o s s a.
(8 C O KE , 1 54 — A ge
.n eral c l au se doe s n ot

r ef er to th i n gs ex pressed .

2 43 C l au s u l a q u a ab r e gat i e n e m e x c l u di t ( )
ab

i ni t i e n o n v al e t . (B A C M A X — A . c la u se w h i.c h
exc lu des abr ogati on avai l s n ot f r om th e b eg i nn i n g .

2 44 C l au sul a i n c o n su e t a s e m pe r i n du c u n t

.

s us pi c i e n om (3 C
. OK E 8 1 U n u su a
,
l c l au
. se s a l
ways e xc rte suspi c i on .

2 45 C lau s u l a v ol di s posi t i o i n u t i li s per pr a


.

s um t i e n om r e m o t am v ol e aus am e x p o st f acto

n on f ul c i t u r (B A
. C M AX .
— A c l a u s
.e o r us e

less di sposi ti on i s n ot su pported by a r em ote pre


sum p ti on or a c au se f rom an af ter ac t .

2 46 C l er i c i n on pon an t u r i n ome n s
.
(C O K E .
,
30 LEGAL MAXIM S .

LIT T 96 . b — .Th e c lergy


. can n ot be c om pell ed to
ser v e tem p oral ofii c es .

2 47 . C l e ri c i , v ol m on ach i , n o s a c u la r i b u s n o

g oti i s so i mm i s c oan t .
(FE R RO M H I ST
. . .

C lergym en or m on ks sh ou ld n ot m i x th em selves i n
sec u l ar m atters .

2 48 . C l or i c u s , ot agr i c ol a, et m or e s t e r ; t om
p e r o b olli , ut e rs t qu e , c e l at, e t c omm u t e t
, pac e

f r uun t ur . 2 I
( N ST .
—A c lergym an , a h u sban d
m an , an d a m erc h an t , in order th at th ey m ay
preach , c u lti vate , an d trade, en j oy peac e i n ti m e of
war .

2 49 . C l e ri c u s n on c e nn u m or e t ur in da s h n a
oc c l osu s . (1 RO L 454 . .
— A c lergym an sh oul d n ot
be a ppoi n ted to two c h u rc h e s .

2 50 . C ogi t ati oni s p oe n am n om e p ati t ur .

(BR .
—N o m an i s p u n i sh ed f or h i s th ou gh ts .

251 . C o gn om e n m aje r u m e st ex san g ui n e

t r ac t u m , h oe i n t ri n s oe u m e st ; agn o m e n e x tr i n

se c um , ab e v e n tu . (6 C O KE ,
—Th e c ogn om en
of an cestor s i s deri ved f rom th e b lood , an d is
i n tr i n si c ; an agn om en ar i se s f rom an eve n t , an d

i s e xtri n si c .

26 2 . C oh a r od os un a p e rs o n a c on s e n t ur ,
pr e p
t er un i t at om j u ri s qu e d h ab e n t .
(C O K E , LI TT .

1 63 b .
) — C o h .e i rs are d e e m e d
-
a s o n e p erson o n a c

c ou n t of th e u n i ty of l aw wh i c h th ey possess .

2 53 C o ll e gi um e st s o ci e t as pl ur i u m c e rpor um
.

si m ul h i
ab t an t i um (J E N K C E N T .
— A c oll eg e . .

i s a soc i ety of several p erson s dwelh n g togeth er .


32 LEGAL MAxm s .

(2 BU LS .
-
Wh at an e n deavor m ay be, i s n ot

defi n ed i n law .

26 4 . C on c os si e pe r r e g em fi er i d ob e t d o c or
t i t u di n e .
(9 C O K E ,
— A g ran t by t h e ki n g ou gh t
t o be m ade f r om c ertai n ty .

26 5 . C onc e ssi o v e r s us c on c e d on t e m l at am
i n t or pr e t ati on e m h ab er o d ob e t .
( NK C ENT
JE . .

279 .
—A c on c essi on ou gh t t o h ave a li beral i n ter

protati on ag ai n st th e par ty c on c edi n g .

26 6 C e n oor dar o l og os l e gi b u s e st o pti m u s i n


.

t orpr et an di m e dus (H A L K T o m a.ke l aw s .


-

agree wi th laws i s th e best m ode of i n terp reti ng


th em .

26 7 . C on c or di a
p ar v a re s c r os c u n t , e t opu
l en ti a li t e s (4 I N S T —S
.m al l m ea n s i n c rease
.

by con c ord an d l i ti gati on s by Opu len c e .

26 8 C o n di t i o b e n e fi c i ali s qua s t atum c e n


.

s tr ui t , b on i gn e s ec u n du m v or b or u m i n t on t i on om

e st i n t or pr e t an da ; o di o sa au t e m , q a
u st atu m

de st ru i t st r i ct o se cun dum v or b e ru m pr opr i et a


tem ac c i pi on da. (8 C O K E ,
-
A be n efic i al c on

di ti on wh i c h c reate s an estate ou gh t to be c ons tr ued


f avorably , ac cordi n g t o th e i n te n t i on of th e
~
words ;
bu t wh i c h destr oys an estate i s odi ou s,
a c on di t i o n

an d ou gh t to be c on stru ed stri c tly ac cordi n g to th e

letter of th e w ords .

26 9 C o n di t i o di c i t ur , c u m qui d i n c as um
.

i n c er tu m , q u i pe t es t t en der s ad os s o au t n on ess o,

c c n f ort ur
(C OKE , L I.TT 201 a ) . . .
—It i s called a con
LEGAL m xm s . 33

di ti on , wh en th at wh i c h c an ten d to be presen t or
no t , r ef er s to an un c er tai n e ven t .

2 70 C on di ti o i lli c i t a h ab e t ur pr o n o n a llse t s
. .

( WK AR T — A secre
. t co n di ti on i s dee m e d as n ot
an n e xed .

2 71 . C o n di ti o ad li b e r um t o n o n tu m auf er b

en du m n o n n i s i o x f ac t e pl ac i t ar i d ob e t (LOFFT ,
.

-
An ar gu m en t f or taki n g away a f ree ten ure

sh oul d n o t be p leaded , e xce pt f rom t h e deed .

2 72 . C on di ti o li b e r um t e n e m en tu m c ass ans

n on pe r n u d a v e r b a s i n e ch ar t a v el e b i t .
(Le m
—A
,

630 . c on di ti on m aki n g voi d a f ree ten em en t


will be of no valu e by bar e words wi th out
wr i ti n g .

2 73 . C on di ti o n om i n e n j u v ab i t n i s i q u i p ars
f u e r i t au t pr i v as .
(LO E ET , 6 29 —An agree m en t
.

avai ls n o on e un l ess he i s a party or pri vy t o i t .

2 74 . C on di t i o ox p ar ts e xt i n c ts e x t ot e e x
t i n gu i t u r .
(LO FFT , 5 0
1 — A condi ti on exti n gui s h ed
.

i n par t i s totally ext i n g ui sh ed.

2 75 . C o n di ti o (pr a c e n d om
) adi m pl er i d ob e t
'

pr i us qu am se q u at ur ofi e c t us .
(C O KE LI TT 201 a )
—A
. . .
,

c on di ti on prec eden t m u st be f ulfilled bef ore


th e eff ec t c an f oll ow .

2 76 . C e n di ti o n e m t e st i u m t un e i n spi c or o do
b om us c u m si gn e r on t , n o n m or ti s t e m p e r s .
(T AY
LE R, —Th e c on di ti on of wi tn e sses m us t be
con si dered when th ey S i gn , an d n ot wh en th ey

di e.
34 LEGAL mm

2 77 . C e n di t i e n e s qu a li b e t o di o sa ; m a x i m o

au t om c on tr a m atr i m on i u m ot c o m m e r ci u m .

LO E E T ,
( — Som e agre em en t s are odi ous , bu t
m ostly th e se agai ns t m atri m on y an d c om m er c e .

2 78 . C o n f o s si e , f a c t a i n j u di ci e , om ni pr o b a
t i e n o m aj or e st . (J E N K C E N T .
— A c on f os
.

si on m ade i n j u di c i al proc eedi n gs i s of greater f orce


than al l proof .

2 79 . C o n f e ssu s i n j u di ci e pr o j u di c at e h ab
e t ur , qu o damm o d o su e s e n t e n t i a d am n at ur
st .

(1 1 C O KE — A p erson c on f essi n g a j u dgm en t i s


,

deem ed as adj u dged an d i n a m an n er i s c on , , ,

dem n ed by h i s own sen te n c e .

28 0 C o n fi r m ar o e s t i d qu e d fi r m u m f ac or o
.

pr i u s i n fir m u m f ui t (CO K E LI TT 295 b )—To .


, . . .

c on fi rm i s to m ake fir m th at wh i c h was be f ore

28 1 . C on fir m ar o n om e p e t e s t pr i us q u am j us
oi ac e i de r i t .
(1 0 C OK E ,
— No person c an c on

firm 9. ri gh t bef ore th e ri gh t sh all c om e t o h i m .

28 2 . C on fir m at u s um q u i t e lli t ab u s u m .

(MOO RE ,

He c on fi rm s a use wh o rem oves an
abu se .

28 3 . C o n fir m ati o e st n ul la ub i d o n u m pr a
ce d e n s e st i n v ali du m .
(C O K E ,
LI TT 295 b )
. . .

T h er e i s no c on fi rm ati on wh ere t h e p recedi n g


gi f t i s i n v al i d .

28 4 . C e n fi r m ati e om n e s su ppl e t dof e c t us , li c ot


id qu e d ac t um e st ab i ni t i o nen v al ui t .
(CO KE

LI TT 295 b )—Confi rm ati on


,

. . . su ppli es al l def ects,


LEGAL M Axm s . 35

throu gh th at wh i c h h as been don e at th e begi n n i n g


was n ot v al i d .

28 5 . C onj u n c ti e m ar i t i et f omi n a es t do jur o


n at u r a .
(2 BOU .

Th e u n i on of m an an d

wom an i s of th e l aw of n atu re .

28 6 . C e n s an gui n e u s e st , qu as i e adom san g ui n e

n at u s . (C O KE LI TT 1
, 57 . . a )
.
—Con san g ui n i ty i s, as

i t were , pru n g f rom


s t h e sam e b lood .

28 7 . C o n sc i e n t i a l e g ali s ex l og e f un dat ur .

(Le m ,
-
Legal c on sc i en ce i s f ou n ded u pon
th e l aw .

E8 8 . C on sc i e n t i a l e gi nun qu am c e n t r av on i t .

(LO FET ,
' —Ce n sc i en ce n ever con tr aven es th e

l aw .

28 9 . C o ns e n sus e st v o l un t as m ul t or u m , ad

q u e s res p e r t i n e t, si m u l j un cta .
(D AV .

C on sen t i s th e u n i te d wi ll of m an y person s i n ter


osted i n th e sam e th i n g .

29 0 C on s e n s u s f aci t l og om
. .
(BRAN C H . PB .
)
Con sen t con sti tu tes law .

29 1 . C on s e n s u s , n on c e n c u b i t u s, f aci t m atr i
m on i am . (6 CO K E ,
— Ce n sen t , an d n ot c on c u

b i n age , c on sti tu tes m arri age .

29 2 . C on s e n sus t e lli t err e r o m .


(2 I N S T .

C on sen t t akes away err or .

29 3 . C on se n t i en t os et ag e n t e s p ar i pa n e

l t t u r (5 CO KE , — Th ose c on sen t i n g an d
p e c o n .

th e se perpetrati ng are em braced i n th e sam e pun

i sh m e n t .
36 L EGAL M AXI MS .

29 4 . C c ns o n t i r o e st f ac e r o .
( WHA RT ) —To .

c on sen t to a th i n g i s t o perf orm it .

29 5 . C c n s on t i r o m atr i m oni e n on p e ss un t ia
f ra an n o s n ub i l e s. (6 COKE, 22 .
—To c on se n t

t o m arri age i s n ot poss i ble bef ore m arr i ageable


y ears .

296 . C o n s o qu on t i a no n e st c o n s eq u e n t i a .

(BAC AP H. .
—A c on sequ en c e sh ou ld n o t be de
du c ed f rom a c on se qu e n c e .

29 7 . C o n si li a m u l t e ru m r oq u i r un tu r i n m ag
n i s. (4 IN S T .
—Th e c ou nse ls of m an y ar e re

qu i re di n great t h i n gs .

29 8 C o n s t i t u ti e n o s t e m p e r s
. p os t e r i or e s su n t

hi s qua i ps as pr a c e s s or u n t (BR . .
-
Th e l ater
provi si on s i n a stat u te sh ou ld prevai l even t h ou gh
t h ey f ai l to agree wi th th e f orm .

29 9 . C o n s ti t u t u m e ss o e am do m u m u n i e u i qu e

n o s t ru m d ob e r e e xi s t i m ar i , u b i qui s qu e s o de s e t

t ab u las h ab e r e t , s u ar um qu e r e ru m c o n s ti t u ti o n e m

(D
f ec i s s ot . I G 50 1 6 — I t
. i s se tt
. led t h at t
. h at
i s t o be c on si der ed th e h om e of eac h o n e of u s
wh ere h e m ay h ave h i s h ab i tati on an d ac c ou n t
b ooks, an d wh er e h e m ay h ave m ade an establi sh
m en t of hi s bus i n ess .

30 0 . C e n s tr u c t i e ad pr i n ci pi a r of e r tur rei .

(LOFFT ,
— Cons tru c t i on is ref erred to th e pr i n
c i ples of a t hi ng .

30 1 . C o n s tr u ct i o e st s oc u n du m a qu i tat om .

(LOFFT , 51 9 .
—C onstru c ti on is ac c ordi n g to
LEGAL mu m s . 37

30 2 . C e ns tr uc ti o l e gi s n on f aci t i njur i am .

(C O KE , LI TT . 1 83 . a .
-
Th e c o n stru c t i on of l aw
doe s n ot wor k an y i n j u ry .

30 3 . C on s u ot u do ali c u us i l oc i l e x e st l e gi s
l oc i .
(LOFFT , 338 .
—Th e c u stom of an y place is
th e l aw of th at plac e .

'

30 4 . C e n su otu de c on t r a r at i on e m i n t r o du c t a
po t i us u s u r p ati e qu am c e n s u ot u do app e ll ari

d ob e t .
(CO KE ,
LIT T 1 1 3 . . a .
)7
-
A-
c u stom i n tro
du c ed agai n st r easo n sh ou ld r ath er be c alled an

usur pati on th an a c u stom .

30 6 . C on su e t u d o d ob e t e ss e ce r ta ; n am in
c e rt a pr o n u l la h ab on t ur .
(DAV .
—A c u stom
sh ou ld be c ert ai n , f or un c ertai n thi n gs are h eld as
n oth i n g .

30 6 . C e ns u ot u d e e st al t er a lex .
(4 CO K E ,

Cu stom i s a sec o n d law .

30 7 C e n su otu de e st o pti m us i n t or pr os l e gum .

(2 IN S T .
—Cu ste m 18 th e best expou n der of th e
law .

30 8 . C e ns u ot u de ot c e mm uni s ass u e t u de

vi nci t l o ge m n o n s c r i pt am , si s i t s p e ci ali s ; st in
t a pr ot at ur l og em s c r i pt am , si l ex si t g on e r ali s .

(J E NK C E N T
. .
—Cu stom an d c om m on usage

overc om e th e u n wri tten law , i f i t be spec i al an d

i n terpret th e wr i tten law, i f i t be gen eral .

30 9 C e nsu otu de e x c er ta cau s a r ati on abi li


.

u si t at a pr i v at e e mm u n om l ogo m .
(LI TT .

A c ust om groun ded on a c ertai n reasona ble c ause,

supersodes th e com m on law .


38 LEGAL MA IM S X .

310 . C ons u e t u d o l oc i e st e
ob s r v an da . (6
C O KE , 67 — Th e
. c u stom of a plac e i s to be ob

ser ved . 1
31 1 . C on su e t u d o, li c ot si t m agn a au t h or i t ati s

n un qu am t am e n pr a n di c at
j m an if e s t a v o r i t at i .

(4 C O K E ,
—A c u s t om , th ou gh i t b e of g reat
au th or i ty ,
sh oul d n ever , h owever b e pr ej u di c i al to
m an i f est tr u th .

312 . C o n s u e t u do m an or i e rum d e m i ni v ol un

t at e m r ogi t .
(LO EET ,
—Th e wi ll of th e m as
te r i s ru l ed by th e c us tom of th e m an or .

31 3 . C o ns u e t u do ne qu e i nj u r i a e ri ri , ne qu e
t e lli p e t e st .
(LOFFT , 340 .
—A c u stom c an n ei th er

ari se n or be b
a oli sh ed by i n j u ry .

31 4 . C o ns u e t u d o n on h ab i t u r i n c on s e q u e n

ti am .
(3 KE R . 499 .
—Cu stom is n ot to be drawn
i n to a prec eden t .

315 C on s u e t u do n en pr a u di c at j v or i t at i .

(LOFFT , 337 —Cus tom i s n ot prej u di c i al to tru th


. .

316 C o ns u e t u do p o pu li A n gli can i e t c o mm u


.

ni s l e x li b e r t as (LOFFT — T h e c u s
. t om o f th e ,

En gl i sh pe ople an d th e c om m on law are f ree .

31 7 C ons u e t u do pr a s c r i pta ot l e gi ti m a v i n
.

c i t l og om (C O K E , LI TT 1. 1 3 a ) —A p res c r i p t i ve . . .

an d leg i t i m ate c u sto m overc om es th e law .

31 8 . C o n s u e t u do pr o l og o se r v at ur .
(CO KE .

LI TT . 1 1 3 a —Cu ste m i s ob ser ved f or law


. . .

31 9 . C on su e t u do r e gni A n gli a e st l e x A n gli a .

(JE N K . CE N T .
—Th e custom of E ngland i s the
law of En glan d .
40 LEGAL MAxm s .

p t an d u m .
u
(CO K E L I TT 34 3
, a — A gai n.st . . on e

den yi n g p ri n c i ples th ere i s n o di spu ti n g .

3 30 . C on tr a n o n v al e n t e m ag e r o n u ll a c ur ri t

pr a s c r i pti e . (W HART .
—Agai n st on e u n able

to ac t ru n s n o p r e sc r i p t i on .

33 1 . C on t r a v or i t at e m l ex n un qu am ali qui d
pe r m i t ti t .
(2 I N S T .
—Th e law n ev er p erm i ts
an yth i n g c on tr ar y t o t ru t h .

3 32 . C o n t r a ct u s a d m e n t e m p ti u m
ar v e rb i s

n ot at am i n t olli g e n du s (LOFFT .
,
522 .
—A c on

t rac t sh ou l d b e u n de rstood ac c or di n g t o th e i n te n
t i o n of th e p arti es e xpressed 1 11 words
, .

333 . C on t r ac t u s e st qu asi act u s C o n tr a

act n m .
(2 C O K E — A , c o n t rac t i s as , i t were ,
s et agai n s t s et .

3 34 . C o n tr ac t u s ox t u r pi c aus a, v ol c on t r a

b on e s m or e s n u ll u s e st . H
( BO .
—A c on

t rac t w i th a b ase c on s i derat i on or agai n st g ood


m oral s i s n u ll .

33 5 . C o n tr act u s i n f an t i s i n v ali du s, si i n dam


num s ui sp e c t e t . (LOFFT ,
—A c on trac t o f a

m i n or i s i n val i d i f i t lead to h i s i n j u ry .

3 36 C o n t r ac t u s l og e m e x c on v e n t i on s
. ac c i p

i un t (D
. I G 16 3 1 . . . .
— Th e agreem en t of the
parti es m akes th e law of th e c on tr ac t .

3 37 . C e n t r ar i e ru m c e n t r ar i a e st r at i o .

(H OB .

Th e reason of c o n trar y th i n g s is
c on trar y .

338 . C on tr ax i s s o u n u s q u i s qu om in so l oc o
i n t olli gi t ur in qu e ut s el v er e t so e b li gavi t .
LEGAL MA IMS X . 41

(T AYLE R ,
—Every person is u n derstood t o h ave
c on trac te d i n th at p lace i n whi c h h e h as b ou n d
hi m self to pay .

3 39 C e n t r ec t ati o
. r ei ali e n a , an i m e f ur an di ,
e st fu r t um .
(J E N E . CEN T .
—Th e to u c h i n g of
property n ot one s own , wi th i n ten ti on to steal , is

th ef t .

3 40 C e n v on ti e pr i v at e r um
. n on p e t e s t pu b
li c o j ur i de r ogar e (W I N G . .
-
A c on ven ti on

of p ri vate pe rso n s c an n o t nfi ec t p u bl i c ri
gh t .

3 41 . C on v e n ti e vi n ci t l og om .
(6 T A UN T .

-
An ag reem e n t c on qu ers law .

3 42 si i r as e an s , di v ul gas ;

. C on v i e i a tu a
spr e ta, ox e l os c un t . (3 IN ST .
—If you be
an ge red by i n su lts , you p u bl i sh th em i f despi sed
th ey are f orgotten .

3 43 . C e n v i ti um c e nvi ti e t e g e r o, e st l u t um
l u te pe rri g e r e (1 B U LS — T o c
. o ver . re proac h
wi th reproac h , i s to h eap m u d u pon m u d .

3 44 . C e pu lati e v e r b e r um i n di c at acce pt a
t i on om in e e de m s on su . B
( C
A . MAX .

Th e
c ou pl i n g of words sh ows th at th ey are to be taken
i n th e sam e se n se .

3 45 . C or p or ali s i njur i a n on r oc i pi t a st i m a

ti e n e n do fu t u r e .
(BAC . MAX .
—A bodi ly
i n j u ry re c e i ves n o sati sf ac ti on f rom a f u t u re c ourse

of proc eedi n g .

3 46 C or pus c orpo r at u m
. ox un e p e t e s t c e n

si st e r e (L OFFT
. 302 — A n , . i n c or porate d body
may con si st of one p son
e r .
42 LEGAL MA I MS X .

3 47 . C or pus c or po r at u m n on h ab et h a r e dos

ne qu e e x ec u t e r e s ; n e qu e m o r i pe t e s t .
(Le m ,

—An i n corporate d body h as n o h ei rs n or

exec u tor s, n or c an i t di e .

3 48 . C or pus h um an um n on r oc i pi t a st i m a

ti e n e m . (HOB .
—A h u m an body is n ot su s

c ept i b l e of a pprai sem en t .

3 49 . C e rr u pti e e pt i m i e st po ss i m a.
( WHART .

—Corru pti on of th e b est i s worst .

36 0 C r e di t or q ui p or m i t t i t r em v eni r e pi gn us
.
'

di m i t ti t (H A.L K — A c r e
. d i tor wh o p er m i t s

property to be sol d g i v es up th e pledge .

351 . C r ose e n t o m ali ti a cr es c e r e dob e t et

pa n a IN S T — V i c e i n creasi n g p un i sh
.
(2 .
,

m en t ou gh t also to i n c rease .

36 2 . C r i m on ex p o st f ac t o n on dil ui t ur .

(H A L K . 32 —A c ri m e c an n ot be ex pi ate d by af ter

deeds .

cui n on f u e ri t ad ha c dat a au c t or i t as
,
d o si gi l l o
r ogi s ra pt o v el i n v on t e b r e v i a, c ar tas v e c en

s i gn av or i t . (FL E TA ,
1 22 3
. . .
—Th e c ri m e of

f orgery i s wh en an y on e u n lawf u ll y t o wh o m
,

power h as n ot b een g i ve n f or suc h p u rposes h as ,

si gn ed wri ts or c h arte rs w i th th e k in g s wh i c h

se al ,

h e h as e i th er s tolen o r f ou n d .

364 . C ri m w la sa m ajest ati s e m ni a ali a

c r i m i n a e x c e di t qu o ad p e on am . (3 I N S T .

Th e c ri m e of treason e xceeds all oth er c ri m es as to


i ts pu n ish m en t .
LEGAL M Axm s . 43

36 6 . C ri m e n om n i a ex so n at a v i t i at .
(5
H N Y
IL L , . .
—Cr im e vi ti ates all th i n g s wh i c h
spr i n g f rom it .

3 56 . C r i m i n a m or t o e x t i n gu u n t ur . (2 BOU .


Cri m e s are exti n gu i sh ed by death .

3 57 . C ru ci at u s l e gi b us i n v i si E
( SK
R . . IN ST .

4 3
. .
-
T ort u res are odi ou s to th e law .

358 . C ui j u ri s di c t i e dat a e st , ea qu e qu e
c on c o ssa os so v i de a t u r si n e qu i b u s j ur is di c ti e
e x pli c ar i n on pe t e s t .
(D I G . 2 1 . .
—T o wh om
j ur i sdi ct i on i s gi ven t o h i m th ose th i n gs al so are
,

mold to us gr an te d,
wi th ou t wh i c h t h e j ur i sdi c t i on

c an n ot be e xer c i sed .

359 . C ui li c e t qu e d m aj us , n on dob e t qu e d
mi n u s 4 C O — H e wh o
e st n on l i c or o .
( K E ,

h as au th or i t y t o do th e m ore i m port an t ac t Sh all

n ot b e debarred f rom doi n g t h at of less i m por


tan ce .

360 . C ui p at e r p opul us n on h ab ot
e st ill s
pat r om (C OK E , . LI TT 1 23 a ) —
. He to wh om
. . th e
people i s f ath er h as , no f ath er .

36 1 . Cui pl us li c e t qu am par e st , pl u s v ul t
qu am li c e t .
(2 IN S T — H e to wh om m ore
.

is g ran te d th an i s j u st wan ts m ore th an i s


,

gr an te d .

36 2 . C u i c u n qu e ali qui s qui d c e n c odi t . c en

c od e r s v i d e t ur et id si n e q u e r e s i ps a oss o n on

pe t u i t .
(1 1 C O KE ,
—Th e gran ter of an yt h i n g

to an oth er , gran t s th at al so wi th ou t whi c h the


th i n g gran ted would be u seless .
44 LEGAL M AXI M S .

36 3 . C udu a e st C omm e du m , ej u a dob e t eas e

i n c e m m e du m .
(1 KAM E S , EQ .
— W h osc i s
th e advan tage , h is also sh ou ld be th e di sadvan tage .

36 4 . C uju s e st d ar e , j
o us e st di spe n e r o .
(2
COKE ,

Wh ose i s t o gi ve , hi s i s to di spose .

36 5 . C uj u a e s t di v i si o , al t e r i us e st e l e c t i c .

(CO K E , LI TT 1 66 b . . .
) —W h i c h eve r h as th e di vi si on ,
th e oth er h as th e c h oi c e .

36 6 . C ui us e st d on an di ei dem ot v on d on di

et c o n c e d on di j us e st . (H AL K .
—Wh ose it
i s to gi ve , h i s i s al so th e ri gh t t o sell an d g r an t .

36 7 . C ui u s i n s t i t u e r o ei us e at ab r og ar e ;
e at

(2 Be e .
-
Wh ose i t i s to i n sti tu te, h i s i t i s to
b
a r og ate .

36 8 . C uju s e st s ol um , j
o us e st us qu e ad

c es i u m ; et ad i nf er e s .
(C O K E , LI TT . 4. a .
)
W h ose i s th e lan d, h i s i s also t h at wh i c h i s b
a ove

an d below i t .

36 9 . C ujus j ur i s e s t pr i n c i pal s , ej u s de m j uri s

ori t ac e os ae r i u m .
(2 I N S T .
— Hc wh o h as
j uri sdi c t i on of th e p ri n c i pal ,
h as also j u ri sdi c t i on

of th e ac ce ssor y .

3 70 . C uju s p e r orr or e m d ati r ope t i t i e e st ,

J
e us c on s u l t e D
( G 50 1 7
dati , don ati o
I e st .

. . .

Th at wh i c h , wh en gi ven th rou gh m i stak e c an ,

b e recovered bac k , wh e n gi ven wi th k n owledge


of th e f ac ts, bec om es a gif t .

3 71 C uiusq u o r e i p o ti s si m a p ar s pr i n ci pi um
.

e at .
(1 0 C O K E —
Of e v ery th
, i n g th e c hi ef

p ar t i s t h e be g i nn i n g .
LEGAL m us s . 45

3 72 . C u i li b e t i n s u a ar t s p eri t e e st c r e den
du m .
(CO K E , 1 25 . a .
—W h osoever i s ski lled
In his prof essi on i s to be beli e ved .

3 73 C u l p a c ar e t , qu i s ci t s o d pr o hi b e r o n on
.

p e t e s t (
. DI G 50 1 7 .
— H e.i s f r ee f
. r om b la m e ,

wh o k n ow s b u t c an n ot preven t .

3 74 C u l p a e s t i m m i s c e r o s o r e i ad so n on
.

p e r t i n e n t i (2 IN S T. It i s a f au lt to m eddle
.
-

w i th wh at doe s n ot belon g t o you .

3 75 C ul p a l at a d ol e a qu i p ar at u r
.
( W H AR T . .

—Gross n egli gen c e i s e qu i valen t to f rau d .

3 76 C ul p a p a n a par e st e
.
(B R A N C H P R ) .
,
.

—Let th e pu n i sh m en t b e m easu red by th e exten t


of th e c r i m e .

3 77 . C ul pa t e n et s u e s au c t or es . (ERSK IN S T . .

4 1 l 4 )—A f au lt bi n ds i ts
. . own au th ors .

3 78 C u l p a v ol pe on a
. ox a q u i t at o n on ln
t e n di t ur .
(H AL K .
—Blam e or pu n i sh m en t
does n ot pr ocee d f r om equ i ty .

3 79 . C um ac t i e f u e ri t m or e c r i m i n ali s i n s ti t u i

pe t ori t ab i n i ti o c r i m i n ali t e r v ol ci vi li t er .

(B RA C T .
—Wh en an ac ti on is on l y c ri m i n al , it
m ay be establ i sh ed f rom th e begi n n i n g ei th er

c ri m i n ally or c i villy .

38 0 . C um a daun t t e s ti m on i a r or u m , qui d opu s


e st v e rb i s . (2 BUL B .
—W h ere th e p roof s of
f ac ts ar e presen t wh at ,
n e ed i s t h er e of words !
38 1 . C um c o n fi t on t o s po n t o m i ti u a e st ag on

du m .
(4 IN S T .
—O n e c on f ess i n g wi lli n gly
sh ou ld be gen tly dealt wi th .
46 LEGAL mu ms .

38 2 C u m d e l u cr o du or um q u e
. r i t ur , m eli or
e s t c au s a po s si de n ti s (D I G 50 1 7 . . . .
—W h en
th ere i s a qu est i on of gai n be tween tw o, th e c au se
o f t h e po ssessor I S th e bet ter .

38 3 . C u m du o i n t e r se p g
u n an t i a r e p e r i un t ur

i n t e s t am e n t o , u l ti m u m r at u m e st . (C O KE , LI TT .

.

1 1 2 b ) W h e r e t wo
. c l au se s in a wi ll ar e r epu g

n an t , on e t o th e oth er , th e last i n or der sh all pre


v ai l .

384 . C u m i n t e st am e n to am b i gu e au t e t i am

p e r p e r am cr i pt u m , e st b e ni gn e i n t e r pr e t at i , e t
s

s oc u n du m i d qu o d cr e di b i l e e st c o gi t at u m c r e

d e n du m e st ( D I G 34 5 .
— W h e r e a.m b i g u i . .

t i es or ab su r di ti es oc c u r i n a w i l l th ey sh ou l d be
l i ber ally i n terpreted an d i n aec ordan c e wi th th e ,

pr obable i n ten ti on o f th e testator .

38 5 C u m l e gi ti m a n u pti a f ac ts sun t, p att e n


.

li b e r i s e qu u n t ur (2 Be n — T h .e c h i l d r en .

b orn o f a legi t i m ate m arr i age f ollow th e c on di ti on


of th e f ath er .

38 6 . C um par de li ct u m e st du or u m , sem pe r
on e r at u r p e t i t or , et m e li or h ab e t ur p os s e s s ori s
c au s a. (D IG . 50 . 17 .
-
Wh ere t wo c lai m an ts

are at f au lt , th e c on di ti on of th e on e i n possessi on
i s th e best .

38 7 p ri n ci pali s cau s a n on c o n si sti t


. C um
no ea qu i de m q ua s e qu u n t ur l oc um h ab e n t .

(D I G 50 1 7
. l 29 ) — W. h e r e t.h e p r i n c i p
. al c au se i s

n ot c on si sten t, th e th i n gs wh i c h f oll ow h ave no

p l ace .
48 LEGAL MAXIMS .

is s sto ad q u s m he r e di t as n e qu e at p e r v en i r e .

H — Let h i m b e th e g u ar di an of th e
( A L K .

body Of an i n f an t to wh om th e i n h eri tan c e c an n ot


c om e .

39 9 . C u s t os st at u m h a r s di s i n c u st o di a e x

i st e n ti s m s li or e m , n on d e t e r i or e m , f ac e r e p ot e st .

(7 CO K E ,
— A gu ar di an c an m ake th e estate

O f an e xi sti n g h ei r u n der hi s g uar di an sh i p better ,

bu t n ot worse .

D .

40 0 . D a tu a du m t ua sun t ; p o st m or t e m
tun c tu a n on su n t .
(3 BUL B .
— Gi ve you r
th i n gs wh i le th ey ar e your s af te r death th ey ar e

n ot you rs .

40 1 . D am n u m ab s qu e i niu r i a s ss e p ot e st .

(HA LK .
—T h ere m ay be dam age w i th ou t i n
j ury
40 2 . D an s st r e ti n e ns , ni hi l dat .
(W HA RT .

—He wh o gi ves an d re tai n s, gi ves n oth i n g .

40 3 . D e b on i s de f un ct i p ri m o d e du c s n da su n t
sa q u a s u n t n e c e ssi t ati s ; s t p ost e a, q u a su n t

u t il i t ati s ; s t ul ti m o, q u a s un t v ol u n tati s .
(T AY
LE R , — Fr om th e goods of a deceased person ,

th e fi rst t o b e dedu c ted ar e th ose wh i c h are of

n ec essi t y , an d af ter war d th ose wh i c h are Of

u ti li ty , an d lastly th ose wh i ch are Of bequ est .


LEGAL M AXI M S .

40 4 . D e fi ds st ofi c i o j u di ci s n on r s cip i t ur

qu aesti o ; ss d ds s ci e n t i a, si v s er r or si t j ur i s

au t f act i .
(BAC . MAX .
—Of th e good f ai th
an d i n t e n ti o n Of a j u dge , a qu est i on c an not be

en tertai n ed ; bu t i t i s oth erwi se as to h i s kn owl


e dge or err or , be i t i n l aw or i n f ac t .

40 5 . De gr ati a s pe ci ali , c e r t a s ci e n t i a, st

m er o cl au sul a n on v al e t i n hi s
m ot u , t al i s
i n qu i b u s pr a sum i t ur pr i n c i p e n e sse i gn or
an t e m (1 C.O KE — C on ce rn i n
, g s pe c i al g race ,

c ertai n kn owl edge , an d m ere m oti ve a c lause ,

does n ot prevai l i n th ose th i n gs i n wh i ch t he


p ri n c e was presum ed t o be i gn or an t .

40 6 D e gr ossi s ar b o r i b u s d e c i m a n on da
-
.

b an t ur , ss d de sy l v a c e da r a dec i m a dab un tu r .

(2 RO L .
—0 f
wh ole tr ees t i th es are , n ot

g i ven ; b u t Of w ood u sed to be c u t t i th es , are

gi ven .

40 7 . D e j ur s dec lm ar um , o r i gi n s m du c e ns
de j ur e p at r o n at us t un c c o g ni ti o sp e c t at ad

l s ge m c i vi l em, i . s ., c om m u n e m . (C O D E .

Con c em i n g th e r i gh t Of ti th es , dedu ci n g I ts

ori gi n f r om th e r i gh t Of th e p atr on , th en th e
cogn i an ce
z of th em l ooks t o th e c i vi l , th at i s
to say th e c om m on , law .

40 8 D e j u r o j u di c e s,
. ds f ac t o j ur at or s s ,
re s p
o n d en t . (CO KE , LI TT 295 . . b .
) —Th e j u dges

an swer t o th e law, th e j u ry t o th e f ac t .

40 9 . D e j ur e n at u r e c ogi t ar s
'

pe r n o s , at qu e

()
4
50 LEGAL MAXIM S .

di c s r ede b s m us ; de j ur o po pu li q ua r el i c ta

su n t s t t r adi t a .
(T AYL E R 1 1 8 ,
.
-
We m ay c on

stru e th e laws we m u st c on si der Of


Of n atu r e, ,

ourselves bu t th e c om m on l aw we m u st ac cep t
th e con stru c ti on s th at h ave desc en ded t o u s .

41 0 . D e m ajori st m i n or i n on v ari a n t j ur a .

(2 VE R . 55 2 —.In r egar d to m aj or an d m in or
laws do n ot var y .

41 1 . De mi ni m i s n on cur at l ex .
(CRO .

E LI z .
—O f tri fles th e l aw does n ot c on c ern

i ts el f .

41 2 . D e m i n i mi s n on c u r at pre to r .
(T R AY .

1 37 —Th e j u dge does n ot c on c ern h i m sel f b


a ou t

41 3 . D e m or t e h om i n i s n u ll a e st c u n c tati o

l on g a .
(CO K E , LI TT . 1 34 . b .
) —C on c er n i n g th e
death of a m an no delay i s l on g .

41 4 . De m ol e n di n o ds n ov a ere ct o n on

j ac e t pr o hi b i ti o .
(CR O J AG — A pr ohi bi
. .

t i on l i es n ot agai n st a n ewly erec ted m i ll .

41 5 . D e n omi n e pr o pr i o n on e st c ur an dum
c um in s u b s t an t i a n on e rr s t ur , qu i a n omi n e
m u t ab i li a s un t, r e s au t e m ,
i mm ob i l e s (6 C O KE .

—As to th e proper n am e i t i s n ot to be re
gar d e d w h er e
, i t e rr s n ot i n su b stan c e ; bec au se

n am es are c h an gea bl e , b u t th i n gs are i mm u table .

41 6 . De n on appar e n ti b u s , e t n on e x i s t e n ti

b us , e ad e m s st r at i o . (4 C O K E ,
—Of thi n gs
wh i ch do n ot appear an d th i n gs wh i c h do , n ot

exi st, th e rul e i n legal proceedi n gs 15 th e sam e .


LEGAL m ms . 51

41 7 . De n ull o, qu o d es t su a n at tn a
'
i n di
vi si b i l e , st di vi si on e n n on pat i t ur ,
n u l l an

p art e m h ab s hi t vi du a ; ss d s ati s f ac i at si ad

v al e n ti am .
(C O K E LIT T 32 a ) —A ,
w i dow . . .

sh all h ave n o part f rom th at whi ch i n i ts own

n at u re i s i n di vis i ble an d i s n ot su sc e pti ble Of

di vi si on ; bu t let h er sati sf y h erself wi th an


equi valen t .

41 8 . De si mi li b us ad si m i l i a e ads m r ati on s

pr oc e d en du m e st . (B RAN C H PR ) F
,
r om .
-
si m

il ars to si m i lars we are to proceed by th e sam e

ru le .

41 9 . De s i mili b u s i dem es t j u di c i um . (7
CO KE ,
—Con cem i n g si m il ars th e j u dgm ent
i s th e sam e .

42 0 . D e b et s s se fin i s li ti um .
(J E N K C EN T . .

—Th ere sh ou ld be an e n d Of law su i ts .

42 1 . D eb et
qui s j u ri su bj aoer e, u b i deli n
qu i t (3 INST 34 —Everyon e sh ou ld be su bj ec t
. . .

to th e law Of th e p lac e wh ere h e c ommi ts an


ofi en cs .

422 . D eb e t su a c ui q u e d omu s e ss s pe rf u

gl u m t u ti ssi m um (1 2 JO HN S N Y . . . .
—Every
m an s h ouse sh ou ld be a perf ec tly saf e

ref u ge .

42 3 . D e bi l e f un dam e n t um f al li t o pus .
(N O Y ,

—A weak f ou n dati on des troys th e su per

stru c tu re .

42 4 D e bi ta se qu u n t u r per sonam de b i t oris


—Debts f oll ow th e person of
. .

(2 KEN T . COM .
52 LEGAL n Axm s.

42 5 . D e b i t or n on pr a s u m i tur don at e .
(1
KAM E s,

EQ . 21 2 .
—A debtor is n ot pres u m ed


to g i ve .

42 6 . D e b i to r um p aoti oni b u s , c r e di t or u m
p ti t i o
e nsc t o ll i , nec mi n u i po t e s t .
(P OTHIE R ,

OB —Th e r i gh t to sue of cre di t ors c an n e i th er

be taken awa y n or di mi n i sh ed by th e c on t rac ts


O f th e i r debtors .

42 7 D e b i t um st c o n tr a ct us s un t n u lli u s

l oc i .
(7 COKE ,
—Debt an d c on t rac t are Of

no plac e .

42 8 . D e b i tu m in pr e s e n ti s ol v s n dum in
f u tu r e .
(2 BARB . N Y . .
—A debt du e at

p resen t to b e pai d at a f u tu r e t i m e .

42 9 . D e c e p ti s , n on d e c i pi e n ti b u s , j ura su b

v e ni un t .
(HAL K .
—Laws assi st t h e dec e i ved,
n ot th e dec e i vi n g .

4 30 . pr i n ci p en s e rv ar e l e g e s ,
D ec s t tam e n
qui b u s , i pss s al u t us e st (W HART —It be . .

h ooves i n deed th e p ri n ce to keep th e laws by


whi c h h e h i m self i s p reserved .

43 1 D e c i ma ds dec i m at i s
. s ol v i n on d e b ou t .

( WH AR T — T i th es sh ou ld
. n ot be p ai d f r om
wh at i s gi ven f or ti th es .

432 . D e ci m a n on d e b ou t so l v i ubi n on e st

ann u a r e n ov at i o at on an n u ati s r e n o v an t i b u s

si m ul s om e l . (0 3 0 JAc
. .
—T i th es sh ou ld

n ot be pai d, wh ere th e r e i s n ot an an n u al ren

ovati on , an d f rom ann u al ren ovati on s on ce

altogeth er .
LEGAL q ms . 3

433 . D e c i pi qu am fal l e r e e st t u ti us .
(LO FF T ,

—It i s m ore saf e t o be decei ve d th an to d e


cei ve .

434 . D ec r e ta c o n c i li or um n on li gan t r ag e s

n o st r o s . (W H AR T .
—The decrees Of c oun c ils

do n ot bi n d our ki n gs .

43 5 D e cr e t u m e st s e n t e n ti a l at a su pe r
l og e m .
( W H AR T 252 — A d
. ec re e i s a sen ten ce
.

lai d up n O th e law .

4 36 . D e fic i e n t e u n o san g ui n e n on po te st s s se

ha r e s. (3 C OK E ,
—On e wan ti n g blood, can
n ot be an h ei r .

43 7 . D e l e gat a po t e st as n on e t
p es t d e l e gar i
—A delegated power
.

(2 I N S T 597 . . c ann ot be dele

43 8 . D e l e gat us d e b i t or e st o di osus i n l e gs .

(2 BULS .
—A delegated debtor i s odi ous i n

43 9 . D e l e gat us n on pot e st d el e gar e .


(BR .

—A delegate c ann ot de legate .

440 . D e li b sr an du m es t di u qu o d st atu sn du m
e st s am e ]. (1 2 C O KE ,
—Th atwhi ch is t o
be resolved on ce f or all , S h oul d be l on g deli b

erated u pon .

441 . D e l i n qu ens pe r lr am p ov oc a
r ms pu
mr i
'

d ob e t m i t i u s .
(3 IN S T . 55 .
—A deli n qu en t
provoked by an ger Sh ou ld be pun i sh ed m ore

m i ldly .

442 . D e n om i n at i o fi e ri d ob e t a di gni ori b us .


54 LEGAL m in u s .

(WHART .
—Den omi n ati on Sh ou l d be m ade
f or th e m ore worth y .

443 . D e r i v at i v e p o t e stas n on pot e s t e s s e


m ajor pr i mi t i v e (N o v , 8 .
— Th e pow er d eri v ed .

c an n ot be greater th an th at f rom whi c h it is


deri ved .

444 D er ogatur l s gi ; c um p ars d e t r ahi t ur ;


.

ab r ogat ur l e gi , c um pr orsus t olli t u r D


( G 50
I . . .

16 .
—TO derogate f r om a l aw i s to take
awa y p art Of i t ; to b
a r ogate a l aw i s to b
a ol i sh

i t e n ti rely .

445 . D e si gn ati o j u s ti c i ar orum es t a r e gs ;


j ur i s di c ti o v er o or di n ar i a a l e gs (4 I N S T
—Th e
. .

ppoi n tm en t of j u sti ces i s by


a th e k i ng ;
but or di n ary j ur i sdi c ti on i s by th e l aw .

446 . D e si gn ati o u n i us e st e x c l u si o al te r i ns ,
-

s t e x pr e ss u m f ac i t c e ssar e t ac i t u m .
(C O KE LI TT , .

210 . a .
) —Th e ppoi n tm en t
a of on e i s th e e xc lu

si on Of an oth er ; an d th at p
ex resse d m akes th at
wh i ch i s un derstood to c ease .

44 7 . D s us s ol us h a r e dom f ac er e pot e st n on

h om o .
(COKE LI TT , . .

7 b ) God alon e, and
. n ot

man , c an m ake an h ei r .

448 D i e s D omi n i c u s n on est j ur i di c us (Nov


. .
,

2 —The Lord s day (Su n day) i s no t j ur i di cal or



. ,

a day f or legal proceedi n gs .

449 D i e s i n oe pt u s pr o c o m pl e te h ab e t u r
. .

( WHAE T 2 74 — A d a y. b eg u n i s
. h e ld as c om
l
p e
e t .

450 . D i e s lac e r tus pro c on di t i on s h ab et ur .


56 LEGAL m x ms .

si t j u st um . (1 0 CO K E , 1 40 .
—D i sc reti on i s to
kn ow th r ou gh law wh at i s j ust .

46 0 . D i sp ar ate n on de b e n t j un gi . (J E NE
—D i ssi mi lar
.

CE N T . thi n gs sh ou l d n ot be
j oi n ed .

46 1 . D i s pe n s ati o e st m ali pr ohi b i ti pr ov i da


r e l ax ati o , u ti li tat e p e n s ata ; s t
ssu n ec e s si t at e

e st d e j ur e d omi n o r e gi c o n c e ss a pr o pt er i m
,

p o s s i b i li t at s m p r e v i d e n di d e o m n i b us p a r ti en

l ar i b us (1 0 C
. O K E — A d i sp e n
, sa t i o n i s th.e

provi den t relaxati on Of a proh i bi te d evi l wei gh ed ,

f rom u tili ty or n ec essi ty ; an d i t i s con c eded by


law t o th e ki ng on ac c oun t Of th e i m p ossi bili ty
,

of f or ekn owledge c on cer n i n g all p arti c u l ar s .

46 2 D i s pe ns ati o e st v uln u s , qu e d v ul n er at
.

ju s c o m m un e (D AV —.A d i sp e n s
. a t i on i s a

wou n d whi ch woun ds , c omm on ri gh t .

46 3 . D i s s ei si n am s ati sf ac l t , qui u ti n on per


mi tti t pos s e ss or e m , v e l mi n us c omm o d e , li c e t

om n i n o n on s X p e ll at C L TT 331 b )
( O KE I .
, . . .

He m akes di ssei si n en ou gh wh o does n ot permi t


th e p ossessor to en j oy or m akes h i s ,
e n j oym en t

less c omm odi ous, th ou gh h e does n ot expel al to

geth er .

46 4 . D i ssi mi li u m di ssi m i l e s e st r ati o . (C O K E ,

LI TT . 1 91 . a )
.
—Of di ssi m il ars th e ru le i s di s
si m il ar .

46 5 . D i s si mul ati on s t olli t ur i njur i a .


(E RS K .

IN ST 4 4 . . .
—Inj ury i s rem oved by recon c ili a

ti on .
LEGAL m xm s . 57

46 6 . D i s t i n gu e n da su n t t e m por a ; ali u d e st

f ac er e , ali u d pe r fi c e r s .
(1 C O KE ,
—T i m es
are to b e di sti n gu i sh ed ; i t i s on e th i n g to do ,

an oth er to c om plete .

46 7 . D i sti n g ue n da sun t t e m p or a ; di sti n gu e


t e m p or a, st c o n c o r dab i s l e gi s .
(1 CO KE ,

—T i m es are to be di sti n g u i sh ed ; di st i n gu i sh t i m es ,
an d yo u wi ll m ak e th e l aws agree .

46 8 . D i s tr i c ti o n on pot e st es s e , ni si pr o
c er ti s s s r v i ti i s . (H ALK .
—G oods c an n ot be

di strai n ed exc ept f or cer tai n se rvi c es .

46 9 D i v i de e t i m p e r a, c u m r adi x
. st v er

t e x i m p er ii i n ob e di e n ti u m c ons e n s u r at a s un t .

(4 IN S T 35 . .
—Di vi de an d g overn , si n c e th e f ou n
dati on an d c rown of em p i re are esta bli sh ed in
th e c on sen t of th e o edi en t b .

4 70 . D i v i n ati o n on i n t e rpr et ati o e st, qu é


omn i n o r e c e di t a li t e r a .
(BAC . MAX 3 . .
—It is

gu ess i n g, n ot i n terp retati on wh i ch al togeth er

di ff er s f rom th e letter .

471 . D i v i si b lli s in se mper di v i si b i li a .

(W H ART .
—A th i n g di vi si bl e ,
m ay al wa s y
be di vi ded .

472 . D ol o fac i t qui p e t i t qu od r e d di t u r us


e st . (BR . 346 .
—He see ks wi th gui le wh o see ks
wh at h e sh ou ld retur n .

4 73 . D ol o m al o pact um s e n on s e r v at ur um .

(BE .
—By f rau d or dole a c on trac t peri sh es .

474 . D o l o su s v er s atu r in g e n e r ali b u s (3 .

COKE ,
—A decei ver deals i n generali ti es .
58 LEGAL m xm s .

475 D olu n ex i n di c li s perspl c ui s pr ob e r t



.

c on v e n i t . (CO D E , 2 21. . Frau d sh ou ld be


pr ove d by th e c learest evi den c e .

476 . D ol us au c t or i s n on n o oet su cc e ssor i .

(WH T AR .
—Th e f rau d of a predecessor does
n ot p rej u di c e th e su c c essor .

477 . D o lu s oi r c u i t u n on p g
u r at ur . B
( C
A
—Frau d i s n ot purged by c i rcu i ty
.

MAX . .

4 78 . D ol us est m ac hi n ati o c um ali u d, di s


si m u l at ali u d agi t . (LAN E ,
47 .
—Decei t is an

arti fi ce, S i n ce it preten ds one th in g an d does


an oth er .

479 D ol us st f r aus n em i n i
pat r oc i n en tu r
—Decei t
. .

(8 CO KE ,
an d f rau d Sh al l e xcu se

or ben efit no m an .

48 0 . D o l us et f raus un a in par t s san ar l

de b an t .
(Nor ,
—D ecei t an d f rau d sh ou ld

alwa s y be r em edi ed .

48 1 D ol us pr a s u m i t ur c on tr a v er san t e m

in illi ci t o .
(T RAY .
—Wron gf ul i n ten ti on
is presum ed agai n st on e en gaged in an u n lawf ul

ac t .

48 2 . D omi n i um n on pot e s t ess e in pen


de n t l . (T RAY .
—Th e ri gh t of property
c an not be i n b y
a e an c e .

48 3 D o mi n us ali qu an do n on pot e st ali en at e .


—A
.

(W HART . 291 lord som eti m es cann ot ali en

ate .

48 4 . D omi n us c api tal i s l oc o h a r e de s h ab et ur


qu ot i es p er d ef ec t u m v e l d eli c tu m e x t i n gui t ur
LEGAL M Axm s . 59

san gui s su i t e n e n ti s .
(COKE , LI TT . 13 . a .
)
Th e su rem e p l ord takes th e place of th e h ei r ,
as Of ten as th e
blood of th e tenan t i s ext i n c t

th rou gh defi c i en c y or cri m &

s e m e l. C LI TT 79 A l ord
( O KE , . . b .
-
c annot

g i ve awar d i n m arri age bu t on ce .

48 6 D omi n us om ni um i n
. r e gn o t e rr ar um
r ex h ab e n dns ; s t ab s o om n e s t e n e n t i t a t am s u ,
u t s u u m s u l qu e si t .
(H AL K .
—Th e sover

ei gn i s first seized Of all lan ds ; Of hi m all oth ers

h old, so th at ever on e y h as h i s own .

48 7 . D omi n u s rsx n u l l um h ab e r e po t e s t

par s m , mi n us
m ul t o s ur p e r i or e m .
ki n g —Th e
can h ave n o equ al, m u c h l ess a su peri or .

48 8 .D omi n u s v e l c au sam s e r vi v el p er so n
am i n c ul pati o def en dat , e ti am u b i al ii n on
li c er e t (H.A L K 4 0 —A m aste
.r m ay d
. ef en d t h e

c ause Of h i s servan t, even wh en i t i s n ot l awf u l

f or an oth er .

48 9 . D on um su am u n i c u i qu e r efi c er s l i c e t,
du m n on ofi c i at i n vi t o al t s r i i n qu o j us n on
h ab e t (HALK
. is .
—It l awf ul f or every
m an to repai r hi s own h ou se provi ded h e does ,

i t n ot to th e i n j ury Of an oth er over wh om h e


h as n o ri gh ts .

4 90 . D om us su a c u i qu e e st t u t i s sl m um r efu

gi um (
.5 COKE ,
-
To ever yon e h i s h ou se i s
y m an s h ou se i s h is

hi s sur est ref uge ; or, ever

castle .
60 LEGAL MA I M S X .

49 1 . D on a c l an d e st i n a su n t se m pe r suspi

c i os a .
(3 C O KE ,
—Clan desti ne gi f t s are always
su s pi c i ou s .

49 2 . D on ar i v i de tu r qu od n ulli j ur s c o gen t e

c on c e di t ur .
(D I G . 50 . 17 .
—T h at i s c on

si dered to be gi ven wh i c h i s gran ted wh en no

law com pels .

49 3 . D on ati o n on pr a s u m i tur . (JE NK . CENT .

—A gi f t is n ot presu m ed .

49 4 . D on ati o p e rfi c i t ur p os s e ssi on s ac c i
pi en ti s (J E N K CE N T
. . .
—A gif t i s perf ected
by th e possessi on th ereof by th e de n se .

49 5 . D on ati o pri n c i p e s i n t e lli gi tu r si n e pr e

j u di c i o (D Avt e r ti i . . 75 — A gi f t
. of a pri n ce
is u n derstood to be wi th ou t th e prej u di ce Of a

49 6 D on ati o qu seli b e t e x v i l e gi s s or ti t ur
.

'

e fls c t u m (H A L K.
— A d on ati on Ob tai.ns i ts

eff ec t by f orce Of th e law .

49 7 . D o n ati on u m al i a p erf e ct a, ali a i n c e pts


s t n on
perf e ct a ; ut si d on at i o l s c t a fui t e t c on

c e ss a, ac t r a di ti o n o n du m fu e ri t s u b s ec u t o .

( C O K E , LI TT 56 b )— S om e.
gi f t s . . are p erf ec t , oth ers

i n c i p i en t Or n ot perf ec t ; as i f giaf t w ere r e ad


an d agreed t o, bu t deli very h ad n ot th en f ol
lowed .

49 8 . D on at or n un qu am d e si ni t p o ssi d er e

an t e qu am d on at ar i u s i n c i pi at p os si d s r e (D YE R,
.

—He wh o gi ves n ever c eases to possess bef ore


th at th e r ecei ver begi n s to possess .
LEGAL MAXIM S . 6l

49 9 . D orm i u n t ali q u an do l eg e s, n un qu am
m or i un t ur .
(2 IN ST .
—Th e laws som e ti m es

s lee p ,
n ever di e .

50 0 . D os d e dot s peti n on de b e t (
.4 C O K E ,

—D ower ou gh t n ot to be so ugh t f rom


( l ower .

50 1 . D o ti l e x f av e t ; p r e mi um pu dor i s e st ,
i de o p ar c at ur (C OK E .
, LI TT 3 1 a ) — Th e l aw . . .

f avors dower ; i t i s th e rewar d of c h asti t y ,


th ere
f ore i s to b e preserved .

50 2 . D r oi t ns d o n e pl u i s qu e soi t de m an d s .

(2 I N S T .

Th e law gi ves no m or e th an i s
dem an ded .

50 3 . D r oi t no p o s t pas m or i e r .
(JE NK C E N T . .

100 .
—Ri gh t c an n ot di e .

50 4 . D u as u x o r s s s ade m t e m por e h ab e r e n on

li c e t .
(T AY L E R ,
1 42 .
—I t is n ot lawf u l to h ave
t wo wi ves at th e sam e ti m e .

50 5 D uo u n t in s o li do u n am r em
. n on p o ss

C O LI TT 268 b ) — Tw p
p os s i d sre.
( KE ,
. . . o er son s

c an n ot possess on e th i n g i n en ti rety .

50 6 . Duo sun t i n s tr u m e n t a a d o m n e s r e s au t

c on fir m an das au t i m pu gn an das —r at i o st au c

t or i t as .
(8 C OKE ,
—Th ere are two i n str u
m en ts ei th er t o con fi rm or i m pu gn all th i n gs
reason an d au th or i t y .

50 7 . D u oru m i n s o li dum dom i ni um v el po s


s e ss i o e ss e n on p ot e s t .
(D I G . 13 . 6 . 5 .

Own er sh i p or possessi on in e n t i r et y c ann ot be i n


two of th e same th i n g .
62 LEGAL MA IM S X .

50 8 . D u pl e x pl aci t u m n on ad mi tti t ur .
(H AL K .

—A dou ble dec ree c an n ot be regar ded .

50 9 . D u pli c at i o n e m po s si b i li t ati s l ex n on

p ati t ur .
(1 RO L .
—Th e law does n ot pe r

m it a du pl i c at i on Of possi bi li ti es .

51 0 . D u r um e st per di v i n ati on e m a v e rb i s

re c (H
e de r e .A L K .
— I t i s h ar d by j
c on ec ture

to depart f r om th e m ean i n g Of words .

E .

51 1 . Ba e st ac c i pi e n d a i n t e rpr e tati o que

v i ti c c ar e t . B
( C
A . MAX .
— Th at i n terpreta
t i on i s to b e recei ved wh i ch i s f ree f rom f au l t .

512 E a qu e ,
. c omm en d an di c au s a, i n v en

di ti on i b us di c un t ur , si pal am appar e an t, v en di
t or e m n on o b li g an t . (DI G 1.8 1 — T h
. o s
.e

t h i n gs whi ch by w ay of , c om m en dati on , ar e stated

at sales, i f th ey ar e o e n l p y apparen t , do n ot bi n d
th e seller .

513 B a q u e dar i i m po ssi b i li a


. s u n t, v s l qu a
in r s rum n at ur a n on s u n t , pr o n on adje c t i s

h ab e n t ur .
( D I G 50 1
. 7 — T h.os e th i
. n g s w h i c h
c an n o t be g i ve n or w hi
,
c h h av e n o e x i s te n c e i n

th e n atu re o f th i n gs, are h eld as n ot e xp ressed .

51 4 . E a qu a i n c u ri a n o st r a r i t e a ct a aun t ,
d eb i t s e x e c u ti oni d e m an dar i d e b e n t .
(C O K E ,

LI TT . 289 . a .
—Th ose th i n gs wh i ch are properly
64 LEGAL MAx ms .

'
521 . E ccl e s i a e st d om u s m an s i o n ali s o mn i p
ot e n t i s D ei .
(2 IN ST .
—Th e c h u rc h is
th e m an s i on h ou se of th e om n i pote n t God .

5 22 . E c c l e si a e st i nf r a a t at e m , st in c us

t o di a d om i n i r e gi s , q ui t e n e t ur j ura st ha re

di t at s s e u s de m
j m an u t e n e r e st d e f e n de r s .
(1 1
CO KE , — Th e c h u rc h is u n der age , an d in
th e c u stody of th e k i n g wh o , i s bou n d t o u ph old
an d de f en d i ts ri gh ts an d i n h e ri tan c es .

52 3 E cc l e si a f un gi t ur v i c e m i n ori s : m e li or
.

em c o n di ti on e m s u am f ac e r e p o t e st , d e t e r i or e m
C O LI TT — Th c
n e qu aqu am .
( KE , . 341 . a . Ch u r c h

j ys
en o p ri vi lege o f a m i n or : i t c an m ake i ts
th e
own c on di ti on bet ter b u t n o t wor se , .

5 24 E cc l e si a m s li or i , n o n d e t e r i or i , p o t e st
. .

(2 E D E N — T
,
h e c h u rch m a
yg r ow b e t te r ,

bu t c an n ot gr o w worse .

52 5 . E ccl e si a n on m o ri tu r .
(2 I N S T .

Th e
c h u rc h does n ot di e .

526 . E ccl e si a sem per in r e gi s e st tu te la .

(LOFFT ,
— Th e c h ur c h is al wa s u n der y pro
tec ti on O f th e ki n g .

52 7 . E cc l e s i a m agi s f av e n d u m e st qu am
p e r s o n a . GOD B
( .
— Th e c h u rc h is to be
m ore f av or ed th an a p er son .

528 .B di c t a m agi s t r at u m c on s t i t u t i o pri n ci pi a .

( T AY L E R ,
— Th e m an i f esto O f t h e c on st i tu t i on
i s th e dec ree O f th e ru ler .

529 . £l 3 t se qui t ur c au s am .
(WI N G .

Th e eff ec t f ollows th e c ause .


5 32 Hj e st i n t er pr e ter ! c uju s
. us e s t c o n d er e .

(BR 1 48
.
— I t i s f or th e power th at
.
i m p osed th e
law t o i n terp ret th e l aw .

533 .
m us e st n on n o ll e qui p ot e s t v s ll e .

(DIG 50 1 7 . . .
—I t is n ot f or h i m to r ef u se wh o
is ab le to be wi lli n g .

5 34 . Bj u s e st p e ri cul u m , cuju s e st d omi ni um


au t c o mm o du m .
( W HA R T — H e h
. as th e

ri s k wh o h as th e dom i n i on or adv an tage .

535 . Bj us n u ll a cul p a e st c ui p ar s r e n e c ess e

si t . (DIG 50 17 — NO i l t attac h es to
. . .
gu

hi m wh o i s c om pelled to obey .

536 . E l e ct a u n a v i a, n o n dat ur r ec ur s us ad

al t e r am . (2 Bo n . 1 24 .
—Wh ere t h ere is c on

c urre n ce O f m ean s h e wh o h as elec te d


,
O n e c ann ot

h av e r ec ou rse to an oth er .

537 . E l e ct i c pon t an e a
e st i n t e r n a, li b e r a st s

s e par ati o u n i us r e i ab al i a, si n e c om p u l si o n e ,

c o n s i s t ons i n an i m o s t v ol un t at e (D YE R .
,

Elec ti on i s an i n tern al f ree an d spon tan eou s , ,

separat i on Of on e th i n g f rom an oth er w i th ou t ,

c o m p u lsi on c onsi sten t i n m i n d an d wi ll


,
.

5 38 E l e c ti c s e m e l facta, s t pl aci t u m t e s
.

(5)
66 LEGAL MAxm s .

t at u m n on p at i t u r r s g r s s s um .
(CO K E LI TT 1 46 ,
. .

a )
.
—E l e c ti o n on c e m ade , an d plea wi tn essed ,

s uff er s n o r e c all .

5 39 . E l e ct i o n e s fi an t ri t e s t li b s r s si n e inter
r u pt i o n s ali qu e (2 IN S T. .
— Elec ti on s S h ou ld
b e m ade ri gh tly an d f reely wi th ou t , an y i n ter
ru pt i on .

5 40 . E m pt i o et v e n di t i o c o n t r ahi t u r s i m u l at

u
q e de p e ti o
r c o n v e n e ri t . (H A L K .
—Th e
bu y i n g an d selli n g is c om plete at th e ti m e th e
p ri c e i s agreed u p on .

5 41 . E m pt o r p ot e s t ; v e n
emi t qu am m i ni m o
di t o r v e n di t qu am m ax i m c p ot e s t (2 K E NT . .

COM —A bu yer b u ys f or as l i ttle as possi


.

ble ; a seller sel l s f or as m u c h as p ossi ble .

5 42 . En e s c h an g s ii c ov i e n t q u e ls s e s t at e s

s oi e n t (C O KE L I T T
e g al e s . 5 0 b ) — I n a n e x , . . .

c h an ge i t i s n e cessar y th at th e estates b e e qu al .

5 43 E n i ti a p ar s s e m p e r pr e f er an da e s t ,
.

p r o p t er pri v i l e gi u m a t ati s (C O K E L IT T 1 66 .
,
. .


b ) Th e p art of th e e l der meter i s al ways t o
.

b e pre f err ed on accou n t of th e p ri vil ege Of


,

age .

5 44 . E n u m e r ati o i n fir m at r e g ul a m in c as i b u s

n on e n u m e r at i s .
(BA C . AP H .
—En u m erati on
c ases n ot e n u m er at ed
'
di safii rm s th e ru l e in .

'

5 45 . E n u m e r ati o un i u s es t e x cl us i o al t s n us ,

(4 JOHN S , CH . N Y . . 1 06 .
—Spec ifi cati on of

on e thi n g i s an e xc lu si on Of th e r est .

546 . B o de m m o do qu o ori t ur , s o de m m o do
LEGAL m inu s . 67

di ss ol v i tur .
(CRO . ELI z .
—A th i n g i s di s
ch arged i n th e sam e way i n wh i c h i t ari ses .

5 4 7 E o de m m o d o qu o qu i d c o ns ti t ui t ur ,
.

s ode n m o do d e st m i t ur (6 C O KE ,
— I n t h e .

sam e way i n whi c h an yth i n g is con sti tu ted, it


m ay be des tr oyed .

5 48 E p h e m e ri s ann u a par s l e gi s A n gli c an s


. .

(H A L K 43 — A n .a n n.u al di ar y i s a p ar t O f t h e

En gl ish law (Th e law takes n oti ce of th e cal


.

en dar) .

5 49 . E pi s c 0 pu s al t e r i u s m an dat o qu am r e gi s
n on t en e t ur o b t e m ps r ar s .
(CO KE , LI TT 1 34 b ) . . .

-
A bi sh op n eed n ot Obey an y m an date save th e
ki n g s ’
.

pl aci t um , cun a
'

5 50 . E pi s c opus t e n e at in
C h r i s ti ani t ati s , d e ii s qu e m e r e sun t spi r i tu ali a .

(1 2 CO K E ,
— A b i sh o p m ay h old p l ea i n a

Ch ri st i an cou rt, O f th i n gs m erely sp i ri tu al .

6 51 . E qu ali ty i s e qu i t y .
(1 STO RY , EQ . J OR .

5 52E qui ty d e li gh t s t o d o j u s ti c e , an d t h at
.

not b y h al v es (5 B A R B N Y .277 . . . .

55 3 E qu i ty l o o ks u p o n t h at as don e , w hi ch
.

o u gh t t o b e don e .
(4 BO U IN S T . .

554 . E qu i ty pr e v e n t s a m u l t i pli ci ty of su i t s .

(FR AN CIS ,
555 . E qu i t y pr e v en t s m i s chi e f . F
( RAN CI S ,

5 56 . E qui ty r e g ar ds l en g t h of ti m e .
(Fm .
68 LEGAL m xm s .

w i th ou t
'
557 . E qu i ty s u fle rs n ot a r i gh t a

r e m e dy . (4 BO U I N S T . .

'

5 58 . E qui t y s ufle r s n ot a dv an t ag e to be
t ak e n of a p e n al t y or a f or f e i t ur e w h e r e c om

pe n s at i o n c an b e m a de .
(FRAN CIS ,

5 59 . E r r or f uc at us n u da v e r i t at e i n m ul ti s
e st pr ob ab i li or ; et sa p e n um e r o r at i o n i b u s

vi n ci t v e r i t at e m e r r or . (2 C O K E ,
— Pai n ted
err or a ppears i n m an y th i n gs m ore prob able th an
na ked tru th ; an d very f r equ en t ly c on qu ers t ru th

by r eason i n g .

56 0 . E r r or j ur i s n oc e t . (1 STORY ,
E Q J UR . .

— An err or O f law i s i n j ur i ou s .

56 1 . E rr or qu am n oc e t ,
n om i n i s n un si de
i de n t i tat e r ei c o ns t at (1 D U E R O N I N S .
, .

A m i stake i n t h e n am e n ever i n j u res i f ,


t h ere
i s n o dou bt as to th e i den t i ty of th e th i n g .

56 2 . E r r or pl ac i t an di m qu i t at e m n o n t e lli t .

(LOFFT , A c leri c al error does n ot take away


-

e qu i ty .

56 3 . E rr or q u i n on r e si st i t ur , appr ob at ur .

(D O CT . STU D .
—An err or whi c h . is n ot

resi ste d, i s appr oved .

56 4 . E r r or e s ad su a p r i n ci p i a r ef e r r s , e st

r e f e ll e r e .
(3 IN S T .
— TO r ef er err ors to th e i r
pr i n c i ples , i s to r ef u te th em .

7 56 5 . E r r or e s s c r i b e n ti s no c er e n on dob e t .

(J E N K C E N.T . 8 24 .
—The m i stakes of on e wr i ti n g
ou gh t n ot t o h arm .

56 6 . E r ub s sc i t l e x fil i o s c as t i gar e p ar e n t es .
LEGAL MA IM S X . 69

(8 COKE , 1 1 6 .
—Th e law blu sh es wh en ch i ldren
c orrec t paren ts
th ei r .

56 7 . E st al i qui d qu od n on c port s t e ti am
si li c e t ; qu i cqui d v er o n on li c e t c e r t s n o n
o p or t e t (
.H O D 1 59 T h er
. e i s .th at w
-
h i c h i s

n ot prop er e ve n th ou h p erm i tte d ; b u t wh atever


, g
i s n ot perm i tte d i s c er tai nl y n ot p roper
, .

56 8 . E s t au t e m j u s pu b li c um e t pri v atu m
qu o d e x n at u r ali b us pr a c s pti s au t g e n ti um ,

au t c i v i li b us e st c o ll ec tu m ; s t qu od i n j ure

s c r i pt s j us appe ll at ur i d i n l e g s A n gli a r e c t u m
,

e s ss di c i t u r (C O K E
. L ITT 5 58 a
,
— P u b li c an d
. . .

pri vate law i s th at whi c h is c oll ec ted f rom n at


u ral prec e p ts on th e on e h an d O f n ati on s
, on ,

th e oth er O f c i ti ze n s ; an d t h at wh i c h i n th e C i v i l
law i s c alled J US , th at i n th e law of En glan d i s
sai d to be r i gh t .

56 9 . E st au t e m v i s l e ge m si m u l an s . 2 B
( OU .

l 25 .
) —V i ole n ce m ay al so pu t on th e m ask Of

th e law .

5 70 . E s t b o ni Ju di c i s am pfi ar s j u r i s di c ti on s m .

(G I LB .
—It i s th e part Of a g ood j u dge to
e xte n d th e j u ri sdi c ti on .

5 71 . E st i p s or um l e gi s lat or um t an qu am
v i v a v ox ; r eb u s et n on v er b i s l e ge m i m po n i
mus .
(1 0 C O KE ,
—Th s u tteran c e Of legi s
lators th em selves i s li ke th e li vi n g voi ce ; we
i m pose law u pon th i n gs n ot u pon words .

5 72 . E s t qui d dam pe r f e c t i us i n r e b us li c i ti s .
70 LEGAL MAxm s .

(HO E .
—Th ere is som eth i n g m ore than per
f e et i n thi n gs allow e d .

5 73 . E s t ov e r i a s un t ar d e n di , ar u n di , c on

st r u e n di , et c l au d e n di .
(1 3 C O K E ,
—Estovers
ar e f or burn i n g ,
plou ghi n g ,
b u i ldi n g an d in
c losi n g .

5 74 . E st un e m ax i m s en n o st r e ley p ar ols
on t p l e as
—Th ere i s a m axi m i n ou r law , w ords
m ake th e p l ea .

5 75 . Et e st p ac ti o du or u m pl ur u m qu e i n
i de m pl a c i t u m c o n s e n su s (H AL K .
— Th e .

m ee ti n g O f th e m i n ds of tw o or m ore i n an agree

m en t m akes a c on tr ac t .

5 76 . E um qu i n oc s n t e m i n f am at , n on e st

a qu um st b o n um ob e arn r em c on d e m n ar i ;
d e li ct a e ni m n oc e n t i u m n ot a e ss e op o r t e t et

exp e di t (D I G 47. 1 0 — I t . . . is n ot j u st an d

proper th at h e wh o speaks i ll of a b ad m an sh ou l d

be c o n dem n ed on t h at ac c ou n t ; f or i t i s fi t ti n g
an d e x pedi en t th at t he c r i m és Of bad m en sh ou l d

be kn own .

5 77 . E v e n t us e st qui ex c au s a sequ i t u r ,
st di c i t ur ev en tu s qui a ex c ans i s ev eni t .
(9
CO KE , —An even t i s th at wh i c h f ollows f rom
th e c au se ; an d is c al led an e vent bec au se it
ar i ses f rom c au ses .

5 78 . E v e n tu s v ar i os r e s n ov a s e m pe r h ab e t .

(CO KE , LI TT . 379 . a .
) -
A n ew m at ter alwa s y in
du c e s var i ou s r esu l ts .

5 79 . E v e ry m an i s pr e sum e d t o i n t e n d th e
72 LEG AL MA IM S. X

to a ver di c t Of c on vi c ti on an d c on fi sc ati on of

goods,
u pon tr i al af ter p l ea O f n ot g u i l t y .

58 8 . Ex m al e fi c i o n on o r i t ur c o n t r act u s .

(W HA RT .
—From a wr on g no c on t rac t c an

ar i se .

58 9 . Ex m al i s m or i b us bena l ege s n at a

s un t . (2 IN S T .
—Good l aws ar i se f r om e vi l

m an n ers .

590 . Ex m u l ti t u di n e s i gn o r u m c o lli gi t ur

i de n t i t as v e r a. (BA C M A.X .
—From a n um ber
O f s i gn s tr u e i den t i ty i s c oll ec te d .

59 1 . Ex n i hil o n i h il fit .
(1 3 WE N D N . . Y .

1 78 .
—Fr om n oth i n g n oth i n g c om e s .

59 2 . Ex n u da s u b mi s s i o n s n on or i t u r a ct i o .

(LOFFT ,
—From a na k ed su bm i ssi on no

ac t i o n ari ses .

59 3 . Ex n u do p act o n o n o r i t ur a ct i o .
(N O Y ,

—From a n u de c o n t rac t , i . s .
, a c o n tr ac t wi th
ou t c on s i de rat i on , eu ac ti on does n ot ar i se .

59 4 . Ex p a ct o i lli c i t o n o n or i t ur a cti o .
(BR .

—N O ac ti on c an ari se f rom an i llegal c on

t rac t .

59 5 . Ex p au ci s di c t i s i n t e n de r e pl u r i m a
p osei s . L
( TT
I .
—Fro m f ew e x press i on s you

m ay i m ply m an y th i n gs .

59 6 . Ex p au ci s p l ur i m a c on c i pi t i n g e ni u m .

(LI TT .
—From f e w t h i n gs th e m i n d c on

c ei ves m an y .

59 7 . Ex pr o c s d e n t i b us st c o n s e q u e n ti b u s

opti m a fi t i n t e r pr e t ati o .
(1 RO L .
—Th e best
LEGAL M Am . 73

i n terpretati on i s m ade f rom th at whi ch prec edes


an d f oll ows .

59 8 E x qua pe r s on a qu i s l u c rum c api t aj u a


.

f ac t um pr a star e de b s t (H AL K — H e w h o . .

deri ves advan tage f rom an yone sh ould bear th at


person s Obli gat i on s

.

59 9 . Ex t ot a m at s r i a e m s r gat r s s ol u ti o .

(W IN G .
—Th e ex plan ati on Sh ou l d ari se f rom
th e wh ole subject matter .

6 00 . E x t ur pi cau s a n on or i t ur ac t i o .

(W H ART .
—An ac ti on does n ot ari se f rom
a b ase c ause .

601 . Ex t u r pi c on t r a c t u n on or i t u r ac ti o .

(2 KEN T . CO M .
—NO ac ti on ari ses f rom an

i m m oral c on tr act .

602 . E 1: uno di s s e s om n e s .
(2 BO U .

From on e th i n g you c an di sc ern all .

60 3 E x c am bi um n at u r al i t er v ul t in se w ar
—An
.

r an ti u m (22 VIN . ARR . e xc h an ge

n atu r all y c re ates a warran ty .

604 . E x c am b i u m n on p ot e sti n t er t r e s p ar ts s
d at ur (
.H AL K 4 3 — A n . . e xch an ge c an n ot e xi st

am on g th ree parti es .

605 E x c e pti o sin s r ei c uj us p at i t ur di s


.

s ol u ti o n ull a e st (J E N K C E N T — T h.er e i s . .

n o e xc ep t i on of th at th i n g of wh i ch t h e di ssolu

ti on i s sou gh t .

6 06 . E x c e pti o f al s i o m n i u m ul ti m a. (WHART .

—A f alse plea i s th e basest of all th i n gs.


607 . E x c epti o fi rm at r e gulam in c on tr ad
74 LEGAL M A IM S X .

um .
(BAC APH . .
-
Th e ex ce pti on affi rm s th e
ru le to be t h e c on trar y .

6 0 8. E x c e pt i o n ul la e st v e r su s cti on e m
a

q u a e x c e pt i on s m pe r i m i t . J
( NK
E . CE N T .

—Th ere is p le a ano


ga i n st an ac t i on whi c h
e n ti rel y dest roys th e pl ea .

609 . E x c e pti o pr o b at r egu l am d s r e b us


ex c e pt i o .
(1 1 COKE ,
—An exc e pti on pr oves

t he ru le c onc ern i n g th i n g s n o t e xc e p t ed .

610 . E x c e pt i o q u a fi rm at l egem , e x po ni t
l e ge m . BULS (2 exc epti on .
—An wh i ch
c on fi rm s th e law, e xpou n ds th e l aw .

6 11 . E x c e pt i o qu oqu e r e gul am de c l ar at .

(BAC . AP B .
—Th e e xc e pti on al so dec lar es
th e ru le .

6 12 . E x c e pt i o sem p e r u l ti m a po n e n da e st .

(9 C O KE ,
—An excep ti on i s al ways t o be pu t
last .

6 13 . E x c e ssi t ph e b i s e st p e r s on a
ex s .
(RI LE Y ,

—He wh o c om es ou t of h i s m i n ori ty becom es


legally a p erson .

6 14 . E x c e s si v um i n j ur e r e pr ob at ur . Ex
c ossus i n re qu ali b e t j ur e r e pr ob at u r c o mm u n i .

(1 1 C O KE ,
—Excess i n law i s r epr eh en ded .

E xc ess i n an yth i n g is re preh en ded in c om m on

law .

615 . E x c e ssus n on p e ti t a e x c us at i o m an i
f e st a fi t . He wh o e xcu ses be -

f ore h e i s ac c u sed establi sh es h i s Own gu il t .

6 16 E x c omm uni c ati o mi n or est, pe r qu am


.
LEGAL MA I M S X . 75

qui s a s ac r am e n t o ru m p ar ti ci pati on s c o n s c i e n ti a

v el s e n t e n ti a ar c e at u r
; m aj or e st , qua n on

s ol u m a s ac r am e n t oru m v e ru m e t i am fi de li u m
comm uni on s e x c l u di t , e t ab o m n i act u l e gi t
i m o s e p ar at au t di v i di t (C O K. E L I TT 1 33 a ) , . . .

—Th e LE S SE R e xc om m u n i c ati o n i s th at by wh i c h
a m an e i th e r by c on sc i e n c e o r se n te n c e i s ex
,

p el le d f r o m p a r ti c i p a t i o n i n t h e sac r am e n t s ; t h e

GRE AT E R i s wh ere h e i s n o t on ly e xc lu de d f rom

p a r t i c i p at i on i n t h e s ac r a m e n t s b u t f r o m a ll ,

c om m u n i ty wi th t h e f ai th f u l an d f r om every ,

legi ti m ate ac t .

6 17 . E x c omm u ni c at o i n t e r di c i t ur om n e s

ac t u s qu o d ag er e n on p ot e st , n s c
l e gi ti m u s , i t a
ali qu s m s ou v e ni r s , li c e t i p s e ab alii s p as ai t
s ou v e n i r s (C O K E .L I TT 1 3 3, a ) — E v er.y l egi t i. .

m ate ac t i s f orbi dden an e xc om m u n i cate d per


son ; h e c an n ot ac t or su e by an y pe r son alth ou gh ,

h e h i m sel f m ay b e su e d by oth ers .

6 18 E x cu s at au t e x t e n u at d e li ct u m i n c api
.

t al i b u s , qu o d n on O p e r at u r i d e m i n c i v i li b us .

(B A C .M A X — A w .ro n g i n c ap i t al c ases, i s ,

exc used or p alli ated wh i c h wou ld n ot b e so


,

treated i n c i vi l c ases .

6 19 . qui s qu o d c lam e u m n on
E x c u s at u r
appo s u e r i t, u t S i t o t o t e m p o r e li ti gi i f ui t u l tr a

m ar e qu ac u n qu e oc c as i o n s ( C O K E LI TT .
, .

.

260 a ) He i s ex c u sed wh o does n ot br i n g h i s
.

clai m i f ,du ri n g th e wh ole peri od i n wh i ch i t


,
76 LEGAL M Ax ms .

Sh ou l d h ave been br ou gh t , h e h as been be yon d


sea o n an y c om mo n .

6 20 . E x e c u ti o e st e x e c u ti o
j u ri s se c u n d um
j u di ci u m .
(3 I N S T .
— E xec u t i o n i s th e e xe

c u ti o n O f th e law ac c or di n g to th e j u dgm e n t .

6 21 . E x e c u ti o e st fin i s st fr u ct u s l e gi s .

(CO K E , LI TT . 28 9 . b ) — Exec u ti on i s th e
. e n d an d

f ru i t Of th e laws .

6 22 . E x e c u ti o j ur i s n on f aci t i ndu r i am .
(2
ROL .
—Th e e xe c u t i on Of th e p roc ess Of

th e law doe s no i n j u ry .

6 23 . E x e m pl a ill u s tr an t , n on r e s tr i n gu n t
,

l e gem .
(CO KE , LI TT . 24 . a )
.
— Exam plc s i l lus
trate, n ot restrai n , th e law .

6 24 . E x e m pl a n on r e s t r i n gu n t r e gu l am , s s d

l oqu u n t u r d e c asi b us c r e b ri o ri b us .
(T R AY .

—Exam ples do n ot r estr i c t th e r u le , bu t s peak


of t h e c ases wh i c h m ost f requ en tly oc c u r .

6 25 . E x i li u m pr i v ati o , n at al i s
e st p atr i a
s oli m u ta t i o , l e gu m n ati v ar u m am i s s i o (7 C O KE , .

—Exi le i s a p ri vat i on O f c ou n try a C h an ge ,

O f n atal soi l , a l oss O f n at i ve laws .

6 26 . E x i t usc t a p r ob at ; a fi ni s , n on pu gn a
c o r o n at . ( WHAR T — T lie . c o n c lu si o n p rove s
th e f ac t ; t h e te rm i n ati on , n o t t h e fi g h t , c rown s

th e v i c tory .

6 27 . E x p e di t r e i pu b li c a n o sua r e qui s m al e
BOU — I t i s f or t h e i n te rest of
u t atu r . (2 .

th e sta te th at no on e sh o u ld m i suse h i s own

possessi on s .
LEGAL M Axm s . 77

(COKE , LITT . 303 . b .


) —
i s f or th e pu bli c good
I t
t hat the re be an en d o f li t i gat i on .

6 29 . E x pe ri en ti a p e r v ar i o s ac t u s l e gem
f ac i t . M agi s tr a r e ru m ex
p er i e n t i a.
(CO K E

,

L ITT . 60 . a .
) E xper ien ce by var i ou s acts m akes
law . Experi e n ce is th e m i stress O f th i n gs .

6 30 . E x p e r tor um d i ct u m n un qu am t r an si t
in r em j u di c at am . (BO N . TR . PR .
—Th e
tes t im on y of e x ertsp sh oul d n ot be d i sregarded
in j udi c i al proceedi n gs .

6 31 E x po si ti o, qu a
. ex c
v i s e r i b us cau sa
n as e i t ur , e s t apt i s s i m a st f or t i s si m e in l e gs .

( 10 COKE ,
—Th at ex posi t i on wh i c h s pr i n g s
f rom th e Vi tals of a c au se , i s th e fi ttest an d m ost
powerf ul i n law .

6 32 . E xpr es sa n oc e n t , n on ex pr e ss a n on

n oc e n t . (CAL LEX . .
) —Th i n gs e x p resse d do h ar m ;
t hi n gs n ot exp ressed do no h arm .

6 33 . E xpr e ss a n on pr o s un t qu a n on ex

pr ess a pr od e run t. (4 C O KE ,
-
Th i n gs ex

p ressed do no good, whi ch ,


n o t ex pressed , do no

h arm .

6 34 . E x pr e s s i o s c r um q a
u t ac i t e i n sun t ,
n i hi l O p e r at ur . (4 C O K E ,
—Th e p
e x re ss i n g

Of th ose th i n gs wh i c h ar e i m pli ed, op erate s

n othi n g .

6 35 . E x pr e s si o un i us pe r s on a v e l r ei e st

ex c l u s i o al t er i us . (COK E , LI TT 21 0 a ) . . .
-
Th e
78 LEGAL MAxm s.

p
ex r ess m en ti on of one per son or th i n g i s th e
e xc l us i on O f an oth er .

6 36 . E x pr e s s um f aci t c e s sar e t ac i t u m .

(CO KE , LI TT . 21 0 . a )
.
—Wh at i s ex presse d m akes
wh at i s si len t to cease .

6 37 E x pr e s sum
. s er v i t i u m r e g at v el de
cl ar e t t ac i t u m (1 5 BA C . .
—Let ser vi c e ex

presse d rule or declare wh at i s si len t .

6 38 . E x t ern u s n on h ab e t t e rr as , h ab e t res

s u as , st v i tam st li b e r t at e m .
(LOFFT ,
1 53.

A f orei gn er h as no lan ds, bu t on l y h is person al


eff ec ts, an d li f e, an d li berty .

6 39 . E x t i n gu i t ur o b li g at i o qu e o
ri t e cons ti
t er e t
. si in s um c as u m i n c i de r i t a q u o i n c i pe r s
n on p o t u i t . H
( AL K .
—An Obli gati on wh i c h
h as been sealed i n du e f orm , i s e xti n gu i sh ed if
it f all i n to th at state f rom wh i c h it c an n ot

ar i se .

6 40 . E x t or t i o e st cr i m e n qu an do qu i s c ol o r s

o fi c ii e x t or qu e t qu o d n on e st d e bi t um , v el

su pr a d e b i t um , v el an ts t e m pu s qu od e st deb i t
um . ( 0 COKE ,
1 —Extorti on i s a c r i m e wh e n , ,

by c ol or of Offi c e an y person e xtor ts th at wh i c h


,

is n ot du e , o r above du e or bef ore th e t i m e ,

wh en i t i s du e .

6 41 . E x tr a l e g e m po s i t us e st ci v i li t e r m or
tu u s .
(CO KE , LI TT 1 30 a . . .
) —An ou tlaw is

c i vi ll y dead .

6 42 . E x t r a t e r r i t or i um j us di c e n ti n on p ar

e t ur i m p un e .
( 0
1 C OKE ,
—The c omm an d O f
80 LEGAL M AXIM S .

6 51 . P act um c ui q u e su u m , n on adv e r s ar i o ,

n o er ec d eb e t .
(D IG . 50 . 17 .
—A . m an

s

ac ti on s sh ou l d i n j u re h i m sel f , n ot his adv er

sar y .

6 52 . P act u m i n f e c t u m fi e r i n e q ui t .
(1 KAME S ,

EQ 96 . .
—Th at whi c h is don e c an n ot be
u n don e .

6 53 . P ac t um n e g an t i s pr ob at i o
n u ll a .
(2
BOU 126 . .
—NO proof is i n c u m ben t u pon him
wh o den i es a f ac t .

6 54 . P ac t u m n on di c i t u r qu o d n on p se
e r

v e r at .
(5 C O KE , —T h at is n o t c alled a deed
wh i c h does n o t c o n ti n u e i n f or ce .

6 55 . P ac t u m un i u s al t e r i n oc er e n on d eb s t .

(C O KE , LI TT . 1 52 . b .
) —
T h e deed of on e sh ou l d

n ot h ur t an oth er .

6 56 . F acul t as p ob ati on u m
r n on e st an gu s

t an da .
(4 IN S T .
—Th e f ac u l ty Of proof s is
n ot t o be n arr owe d .

6 57 . P al s a d e m on s t r ati o n o n n oc e t . (6 HILL ,

N Y . .
—A f al se desc ri pti on does n ot vi ti ate

a doc u m en t .
0

6 58 . P al s a d e m on s tr ati o n s l s g atu m n on

p e ri m (I N S T. 2 20 — A. l egac y i
. s n ot de .

str oyed by a f alse desc r i p t i o n .

6 59 P al s a o r th o gr ap hi a, s i v e f al s a gr am
.

m ati c a n o n v i t i at c o n c e s s i o n e m (9 C O K E .

—Nei th er f alse spelli n g n or f alse gram m ar will


,

vi ti ate a g ran t .

6 60 . P al s us i n u n o, fi lm s i n om ni b us . (2
LEGAL mu m s . 81

BOU .
—Fal se in one th i n g , f al se in all

th i n gs .

661 . P am a, fi d e s , et o cul u s n on p at i un tur


l n du m .
(3 BUL S .
—Fam e , f ai th , an d eye

s igh t do n ot su ff er dec e i t .

6 6 23 P at e t ur f ac i n u s qui j u di ci u m f ugi t .

(5 CO K E ,
—He wh o flees j u dgm en t c on f esse s

h i s gu i lt .

663 F at u u s pr a su m i t ur qu i i n
. p r o pr i o n o m
i n e e r r at (5 JO H N S CH 1 48
. . . .
—A m an i s
p r e su m e d to be si m ple w h o m akes a m i stake i n
h is o wn n am e .

664 . F av o r ab i li a i n l e gs su n t fi s c u s , dos ,
v i t a, l i b e r t as .
(J E N K . CE N T .
—T h i n gs f av
orab ly c on s i der ed i n l aw ar e , th e t re asu ry dower , ,

li f e , an d l i berty .

665 . P av o r ab i l or e s r ei po t i u s qu am a ct o r e s
D 17 — Def en dan ts
h ab e n t u r .
( I G . 50 . . are

rath er plai n t i ff s
t o be f avore d t h an .

6 66 P av o r ab i li o r e s s u n t e x e c u t i o n e s ali i s
.

pr o c e s s i b u s q ui b u s c u n q u e
(C O K E LI TT 2 89 b ) .
, . . .

—Exec u ti on s are p ref erred to all oth er proc esses


w h ate ver .

667 . F av or ab il i o r e s t am au ct or e s r ei p ot u i s
au ct o r e s qu am i n t e r v e n i or e s h ab e n t ur .
(RI L E Y ,

— Ac c u sers are h eld m or e f av orab ly th an


i n te rve n o rs .

668 . P av o r e s am pli an di s un t ; o di a r e s tr i n

g e n da .
(JE N E . CE N T .
—Favors are t o be
en larged ; t h i n gs odi ou s are to be restrai n ed .

(6)
82 LEGAL M A I M S X .

669 . F e li x e st qui p ot ui t r e ru m c ogn o sc e r e


c au s as (CO K E .
, L TT
I 231 a —
) H appy i s h e wh o
. . .

h as b een able to u n derstan d th e c au se s O f th i n gs .

6 70 . F e l o ni a, ex vi t e r mi n i , s i gn i fi c a t qu o d
capi tal s cr i m e n f e li s o an i m o p e r p e tr at um
li b s t .

(CO K E L I TT ,39 1 a ) — F .e lo n y by f.o r c e


. O f t h e ,

term s i gn i fi es som e c ap i tal


, c r i m e p er pe t rated

w i th m al i c i ous i n ten t .

6 71 F e l oni a i m pli c at ur i n qu ali b e t pr o di


.

t i on e (3 I
. N S T —Fel on y i s i.m p l i e d i n e v ery
treason .

6 72 . F e o du m e st qu o d qu i s t e n et ex q a
u

c un qu e c au s a, si v e si t t e n e m e n t um si v e red

di t u s (C O K
. E , LI TT . 1 . a .
) A f ee i s th at wh i c h
-

on e h olds f rom an y c au se , wh e th e r te n e m e n t or
ren t .

6 73 . F e o du m
pl e x e x f e o do si m pli c i
Si m

p e n de r s n on p o s t e t H
( AL K — A si m ple . .

f ee c an n ot dep en d u p on a si m ple f ee .

6 74 P s r e i n o m n i b u s pa n ali b u s j u di ca s , s t
.

a t ati s t i m pr u d e n t i a s u c c ur i t ur (H A L K . .

—In all c r i m i n al tri als , let all owan c e be m ade f or


y ou th an d i m pru de n c e .

6 75 . P e sti n ati o j u s ti t i a e st n ov er ca i n f er
t un i i .
(HO B .
—Th e s pee di n g of j u st i c e i s
th e ste p m o t h er Of m i s f or tu n e .

6 76 . P e u da ad i n s t ar p at r i m oni u m su n t

r e d u c t a. (T R AY .
— Lan ds h eld i n f ee are

redu ce d to th e n atur e O f a patri m on y .

6 77Fi at j u s , r uat
.
j u s t i f i a
( WHART ) —
.Let .

law prevai l, th ou gh j u sti ce f ai l .


LEGAL M AxI MS . 83

6 78 Fi at j u s ti ti a, r u at c a l uni
.
(D Y E R .
,

—Let j u sti c e be don e thou gh th e h eaven s f all .

6 79 F i at pr o u t fi e r i c o n s u e ri t ; n i l t e m e re
.

n ov an d u m .
(J E NK . CE N T .
— Le t i t be don e
even as it is ac c u stom e d to b e don e ; let n oth i n g

be i n n ovat ed r asli ly .

6 80 . P i c ti o c e di t v s r i t at i ; fi c ti o j u ri s n on

e st ubi v e r i t as .
(W HART .
—Fi c ti on yi elds
t o t ru th ; wh e re th ere i s t ru th fi c t i on Of law does
n ot exi st .

681 . P i c ti o e st c on tr a v e r i t at e m ; pr o se d

v e ri t at e h ab e t ur .
(2 BO U .
—Fi c ti on i s
agai n st th e t ru th ; b u t i t i s to b e esteem ed t ru th .

P i c ti o l e gi s i n i qu e O p e r at ur al i oni d am
682 .

n um v e l i n j ur i am (3 C OK E ,
— A f.e i g n i n g O f
law i n i qu i tou sl y w orks loss or i n j u ry t o som e
on e .

683 . P i c ti o l e gi s n e mi n e m l a di t .
(3 BLA CK .

CO M .
— A fi c ti o n of law i n j u res n o on e .

6 84 . Fi d e li t as . De n u ll o t e n e m e n t o, qu o d
te n e tu r ad t s rm i n u m , h om agi i ; fi t t am s n
fit
i n d e fi de li t at i s s acr am e n t u m (C O K E , LI.TT 67 . .


b ) Fealty
. . For no ten em en t wh i c h i s h eld f or
a term , is th e oath of h om age m ade ; b u t th e
oath Of f e al ty i s m ade .

685 . P i de s e st ob li gat i o c on sc i e n t i a ali c u us j


ad i n t e n t i o n e m al t e r i u s . ( WH ART .
— Fai th
is an Obli gati on of c on sc i en c e of on e to th e wi ll
of an oth er .

686 P i de s s e r v an da. (3 BARR N Y 323


—G
. . . . .

ood f ai th must be o served.


b
84 LEGAL MAxm s .

687 . Fi de s s e rv an da est ; si m pli c i ta s j uri s

g e n t i u m pr a v al e at .
(2 BO U . 1 27 — Good f ai th
shou ld be preserved ; th e si m pli c i ty Of th e law of
n atio n s shou ld prevai l .

688 . F i e ri n on d e b e t, ss d f ac t um v al e t .
(5
CO KE , —It o u gh t n ot to be don e , b u t on c e
don e i t i s v ali d .

689 . Fi li at i o n on p o t e st pr o b ar i . (C O KE ,

LI TT . 126 . a. ) — Fi li at i on c an n ot be p roved .

6 90 . c o n st at e s s e i n f ami l i a p at r i a,
F i li us
et n o n m atri s (T AY
R .
— A son appear s to .

be i n t h e f am i ly Of th e f ath e r an d n ot O f t h e ,

m oth er .

691 . Fi li u s e st n om e n n at ur a , ss d ha r es

n om e n j ur i s .
(1 SID .
— Son is a n am e of

n atu re , bu t h e i r i s a n am e of law .

6 92 . F i li us in u t er o m atr i s e st p ar s vi s

c eru m m at r i s .
(7 C O K E ,
—A son in th e
m oth er w om b i s part of th e m oth er s v i tals
’ ’
s a .

693 . Fi n e s m an d at or um do mi n i r e gi s p e r

r e s c r i pt a su a ( soi l . b r e v i a) dili g e n t ur aun t o h


s e r v an di .
(5 C O K E ,
—Th e l i m i ts o f th e k i n g s

m an dates i n h i s resc r i pts w ri ts) are t o be


di l i gen tly Observed .

6 94 F i ni s fi n e m li ti b us i m pon i t
. .
(3 C O KE ,
—A fi n e pu ts an en d to li ti gat i on .

695 . Fi n i s r ei at t e n d s n du s e st . (3 I N S T .

-
Th e en d of a th i n g i s to be atten ded to .

6 96 . Fi n i s t ali s c o n c or di a fi n al i s di c i tu r
so qu o d fi n em i mponi t n e goti o, ad s o qu od
LEGAL MAXI M S . 85

n e utr a p ars li t i gan ti u m , ab c a t e r s p ot e s t


so de
r s c e ds r e . C
( OKE , .

LITT 1 21 a ) A fi n al c on . .

cord i s th at wh i c h pu ts an en d to th e b u si n ess ,

so that n e i the r si de of th e li ti gati on c an rec ede

f rom on e th i n g to anoth er .

6 97 . Fi ni s u n i us di e i e st pr i n c i pi u m al t e
ri u s .
(2 B U L S 3 05
.
— T h e .e n d O f on e d ay i s th e

begi n n i n g of anoth er .

6 98 . F i r mi or s t pot e n t i or e st o pe r at i c l e gi s
q u a m di s p o s i t i o h om i ni s (C O K E L I TT
. 102 a )
—l h e Operati on Of th e law i s firm er an d m ore
. . .
,
’ ‘

p o w er f u l th an t h e di sp osi ti on O f m an .

6 99 . Fl um i n a e t p or t us pu bli c a su n t , i d e o qu e
j u s p i s c a n di o mni b us c omm un e e st (D A v . .

Ri vers an d ports are p u bli c th eref ore th e ri gh t ,

of fi shi n g i s c om m on to all .

70 0 . Fa m i n a ab o mn i b us o fi c ii s c i v i b u s
v e l pu b li c i s r e m ot es su n t D
( IG 50 1 7 . . . .

W om en are exc lu ded f rom all Ci vil an d p u bli c


offic es .

70 1 . F a m i n a n o n au n t c apac e s d e pu b li c i s
ofi c i i s . (JE NK CE N T . .
—W om en ar e n ot

qu al ifi e d f o r p u bli c offi ces .

70 2 . F or m a d at esse .
(2 E D E N ,
—Form
gi ves b e i n g .

70 3 F o r m a l e g ali s f or m a e ss e n t i al i a
.
(1 0

.

C O K E , Legal f orm i s esse n ti al f orm .

70 4 F or m a n o n ob s e rv at a i n f e r t u adn u l
.

le t i o ac t us . (1 2 CO KE , —For m n ot b ei n g oh

ser ved, a n u lli t y of t h e ac t i s i n f erred .


70 5 . F or ste ll ar i u s e st p p
au e r u m d e pr e sso r ,
st t o ti u s c o mm u n i t at i s et p atri a pu b li cu s i ni
mi c us .
(3 IN S T .
— A f orestaller i s an op

p ressor p oor an d a pu bli c en em y of th e


of th e ,

wh ole c omm u n i ty an d c ou n try .

70 6 F or ti o r e s t c u s t o di a l e gi s qu am h om
.

i ni s .
(2 R O L — T h e c.u s to dy of t h e l aw
is stron ger th an th at of m an .

70 7 . F or t i or et a q u i o r e st di s po si ti o l e gi s
qu am h omi n i s (COK E .
, LI TT . .

234 a ) Th e di s
.

posi ti on O f th e law i s str on ge r an d m ore e qu al

th an th at Of m an .

70 8 . F or tu n am f ac i u n t j u di c e m . (C O K E ,

LI TT . 1 67 . a .
) —Fort u n e i s m ade j u dge .

70 9 . F r ac ti on s m di e i n o n r e c i pi t l ex .
(LOFFT ,

—Th e law does n ot r egar d a p art of a

day .

71 0 . F r an g e n t i fi d s m fi d e s f r an g atur si de m .

( WHA R T .
-
Let f ai th b e broken to h i m wh o
breaks f ai th .

71 1 . Fr at e r f r at ri u t e ri n o n on su c c e de t in
h a r e di t at e p at e r n a .
( W HA RT — A. b r o th er

sh al l n ot su c c ee d a u te ri n e br oth er i n th e pater

n al i n h eri tan c e .

71 2 . Fr au di s i n t e r pr e t ati o se m p er in j uro

c i v i li i , n o n e x e v en tu d u n t ax at , ss d ex c on cili o
qu o qu e d e si de r at ur .
(H A L K .
—Th e c i vi l

l aw alwa s y i n terp re ts th e i n ten ti on , rath er th an


th e eve n t , as m ate ri al i n i n f erri n g f rau d .

71 3 . Fr ans ads t ri n gi t, n on di s s ol v i t, pe r
88 LEGAL MAXI M S .

72 5 . Fr u c t u s au g e at ha r e di t at e m . (2 BO U .

— Fru i ts en h an c e an i n h e ri tan c e .

726 . Fr u c t u s p e n de n t e s p ar s f un di v i d e n t ur .

(DI G . 6 . 1 .
—H an gi n g f ru i ts m ake par t of

th e f arm .

72 7 . F r u c t us ps r c s pt o s v i ll a n on e sse c on

st at .
(D IG 1 9 1 1.7 . . .

Gath ered f ru i ts do
n ot c on sti tu te a p art of th e f arm .

72 8 Fr u m e n t a qu a
. s at a s un t s ol o c e de r s
i n t e lli gu n t ur (IN S T 2 . . . 1 .
-
Grai n wh i c h
is sown is p ar t of th e soi l
u n derstood to b e .

729 F r u s tr a agi t qu i j u di ci u m pr o s e qui n e


.

qui t c u m e fi e c t u (FLE TA 6 37 — H e sues


'

.
, . .

i n v ai n wh o c an n ot p rosec u te h i s j u dgm en t wi th
,

eff ec t .

73 0 . F r u str a e st pot e n t i a q u a n un qu am v e
ni t in a ct n m .
(2 C O KE — Th at p ower i s i n
,

vai n th at n ev er c om e s i n to ac t .

73 1 . F r u s tr a e x p e c t at ur ev en tus c u us e fi e c
j
tu s n u ll u s se qu i t u r .
(2 BO U .
—An e ve n t is
vai n l y ex e c te d p wh ose eff e c t does n ot f ollow .

73 2 F r us tr a f e r un t u r l e ge s n i s i s u b di t i s s t
.

ob e di e n t i b u s (7 C O K E ,
— L aw
. s ar e m a d e i n

vai n u n less t o th ose su bj ec t an d o edi en t b .

73 3 .F r us tr a fi t pe r pl u r a qu o d fi e r i p ot e st
p er p au c i o r a (J E N K C E N T . . .
—Th at i s don e
in v ai n by th e m an y th at m i gh t b e don e by
th e f e w .

73 4 . Fr us tr a l e gi s aux i li u m qu a r i t qui i n
l e ge m c omm i t ti t (F LE T A, 4 .2 3 — H e w h o . . .
LEGAL M AXI MS . 89

off en ds agai n st t he law see ks i n vai n th e h e l p


of th e law .

73 5 Fr u st r a p e ti s qu o d st ati m al t e ri r e d de re
c og e r i s . ( J E N K C E N
. T — V ai n ly y o
. u as k
th at wh i c h you m ay i mm edi ate ly be f orced to
restore t o an oth er .

73 6 . F r us tr a pr ob at u r qu e d pr ob atu m n on
r el e v at . ( WH RT 409
A — It i s vai n to prove th at
. .

wh i c h wh en pro ved i s n ot r elevan t .

73 7 . F u r i o si n u ll a v o l u n t as e st .
(DIG . 50 .

17 .
—A m adm an h as no w i ll .

73 8 . F ur i os us ab s e n ti a l oc o e st .
(DIG . 50 .

1 7 24
. .
-
A m adm an i s c on si dered a sen t b .

73 9 . Fur i osu s n u ll u m n e g oti u m c on t r ah er e

pot es t .
(D I G . 50 . 17 5 . .
—A m adm an c ann ot

con tr ac t an y busi n ess .

740 . F u r i os us s ol o f u r or e pun i t u r (C O
. KE ,

LI TT . 247 b
. .
) —A m adm an is pun i sh ed by h i s
i n sani ty alon e .

741 . Fu r i osus s ti pu l at i n on pot e s t ,


n ec ali

q u i d n e g ot i u m ag e r e , qui n on i n t e lli gi t qui d


agi t. (4 COKE , —An i n san e person wh o
kn ows not wh at h e does, c an n ot m ake a bargai n ,

n or tran sac t an y b us i n ess .

742 F ur or c o n t r ahi m at ri m oni um


. n on si ni t ,

qui a c on s e ns u o pus e st .
(1 BL A C K CO M . .

Insan i ty pre ven ts th e co n tr ac ti n g of marri age,


bec au se c on sen t is n ecessar y .

743 . F u r tu m e s t c o n t r e c tat i o r ei ali e n a f r au


du le n t a, c um an i m o fur an di , i n v i t o i ll o domi n o
90 LEGAL MAxI MS .

cuj u s r es ill a f u e r at .
(3 I N S T .
—A th ef t i s
th e f r au du len t h an dl i n g Of an oth er s

p roper ty ,

wi th th e i n ten ti on Of ste ali n g ; th e propr i e tor ,

wh ose pr ope rt y i t was , n ot b i ddi n g it .

744 . F u r t um n on es t ubi i ni ti u m h ab e t d e
t e n t i oni s p r
e do m i n u m r ei .
(3 IN S T .

It i s n ot t h e f t wh ere t h e c omm e n c e m e n t of t h e
deten ti on ari ses th rou gh th e ac t Of th e o wn e r .

G .

745 . G e n er al s di ct um g e n e r ali t e r e st i n t e r
pr e t an du m ; g e n er ali a v er b a s u n t g e n e r ali t e r

i n t e lli g e n d a .
(3 IN S T . 6 .
—A gene r al sa yi n g
i s to be i n terpr ete d gen erally . Gen er al words
are to be i n ter preted gen eral ly .

746 . G e n e r al s ni h i l c e r tu m i m pli c at .
(2
C OKE , —A gen eral p
ex ressi on i m pl i es n oth i n g

certai n .

747 G e n er al s t an t u m v al e t i n g s n e r ali b us
q u an t u m si n gul ar s in si n gu li a. ( 1 1 C O K E

.

Wh at i s gen eral i s wort h as m uc h am on g th i n gs


ge n eral , a s wh at i s p ar ti c u lar am on g t h i n gs par

ti cu l ar .

748 . G e n e r ali a pr a c e dun t , s pe c i ali a s e guu n

tur . BRE v —Th i n gs gen eral precede ;


(RE G . .

thi n gs spec i al f ollow .

749 G e n er ali a sp e ci ali b us n on de r ogan t


. .
92 LEGAL MAxm s .

words i s p
a s ec i es of m ore seri ou s i n j ur y t han
s peaki n g th em , f or we e as i l y f orget p k
s o en words ;
b u t wh at i s wri tten r em ai n s, an d passes th rou gh
th e h an ds of m an y , f ar an d n ear .

75 8 . G r av i us e st al t e r n am qu am t s m por al e m
l a de r e made st at e m .
(H A L K . 52 .
—It is m ore

g ri ev ou s to i n j u r e an alte rn ate th an a tem porary


au th ori t y .

759 G r av i n s e st di vi n am qu am t e m por al em

.

l a d er e m ajest at e m (1 1 .C O KE ,
I t i s m ore v

seri ou s to i n j ure di vi n e th an tem poral m aj esty .

H .

76 0 . Babs m us Opt i m u m t e st e m c on fi t s u t e m
r eu m (
.F O S TE R C R L A w ,
— W e h ave th e
.
,

best wi tn ess, a con f essi n g def en dan t .

76 1 H ab en du m i n c h ar t a v el au g e t r estr i n
.

i
g ; t s s d n o n n o v u m i n du c i t (H AL K — T h e . .

h aben du m i n a deed ei th er i n cr eases or r estr i c ts ;

bu t i n du c es n oth i n g n ew .

H a r s de m D eu s f aci t, n on h om o (COKE
76 2 . .

LI TT 7 b —God n ot m an m akes th e h ei r
,

. . .
.
, ,

76 3 Ha r s dem eju s d e m pot e st ati s j u r i s qu e


.

ess e c u us j f ui t d ef un c ti s c on s tat .
(H AL K .

Th e h ei r h as all th e powers an d pri vi leges of

hi m to wh om h e i s h e i r .

76 4 H a r s des s u c c or e s qu s
. sui c ui qu e li b er i ,
LEGAL mm 93

st n u ll u m t e st am s u t un .
(T A YL E R , 220 .
—Th e
c h i l dren of eac h m an ar e h i s h ei r s an d su c c es
.

sors , wh en th ere i s no will



.

76 5 H a r e di fa v e t ur
.
(HAL K An h e i r . .

i s to be f avored .

76 6 E a r e di magi s par c en du m e st
.
(D I G . .

31 1 47 .
— Mu ch i s to be overlooked i n an
.

h e ir .

76 7 . H a r e di pet a su o pr o pi n qu o v el e x t r a

n eo p er i c u l o s o s an e c us t o di n u ll u s c omm i tt at ur .

(CO K E ,
LI TT . 88 . b .
) — TO th e n ext h ei r, wh eth er
a rel ati on or a stran ger, c ertai n l y an u n saf e gu ar
di an , let n o on e be c om m i tted .

76 8 . B a r s di tas, ali a c or por ali s, ali a i n c or


por ali s : c or p or ali s e st, q u a t an gi pot e st s t
v i de r i ; i n c o r p or ali s qu a t an gi n o n p ot e st n e c

vi d sr i (C O K
. E , L IT T 9 a ) In h er i t an c e ,
.som e . .
-

c or oreal ,p oth ers i n c or poreal : c or poreal i s th at


wh i c h can be tou c h ed an d seen ; i nc orporeal , that
wh i c h c an be n ei th er tou ch ed n or seen .

76 9 . H a r e di t as e st su c c e s si o in u n i v e rs u m

j us qu e d d e f un c t us h ab u e r at .
(C O K E , LI TT 237 . .

b .
) —I n h eri tan ce i s th e su c c ess i on to every r i gh t

possessed by th e dec ease d person .

770 . H a r e di t as ex di mi di o s an gu i n e n on

de t u r .
(LO FFT , 353 .
—Inh eri tan ce f rom h alf blood
is n ot gran te d .

771 . B a r e di t as , n ’e s t
p s
a t an t s ol e m e n t

eu t e u dn e l o u h om e ad t e rr e s o u t e n e m en t s pe r
di s c en t d e n h er i tag e ,

m es au x i c h e s oun fee
94 LEGAL MAXIMS .

pu i t es tr s di t e n h er i t an ce, pur c eo q u e s es

h e i rs l uy pur r on t s n h e r i t er . (COKE 26 b)

.
, .

I nh eri tan ce n ot preh e n ds all th e lan ds


on l y com

an d te n em en ts wh i c h a m an h as by desc en t f rom

h i s an cestors bu t also every f ee si m ple or f ee


,
-

tai l whi ch h e h as by pu rc h ase b ec ause hi s h ei r ,

can i n h eri t i t f rom hi m .

772 . H a r s di tas n i hi l ali u d es t, quam


oe ssi o in un i v ersum j us qu o d d ef un c t us h ab u e r at .

(DI G 50 1 7
.
—An i nh eri tan ce i s n oth i n g
. .

else th an th e f ac u l ty of su cc eedi ng to all th e

ri gh ts of th e decease d .

773 H a r e di t as n un qu am as c e n di t (2 BLACK
. . .

C O M 2 1.2 — Th e ri gh t of i n h eri tan c e n ever l i n


.

eally asc en ds .

774 H a r e du m appel lati o n e v e ni u n t h a r e d es


.

ha re du m i n i n fi ni t u m (C O K E ,
L I TT 9 a ) . . . .

By th e ti tle of h ei rs, c om e th e h ei r s Of h ei rs,


i n i n fin i ty .

775 . Ha res e st al t e r i ps e st fi l i us e st p ar s

p atr i a. (3 COKE ,
—An h ei r i s an oth er self ,

an d a son i s p art Of th e f ath er .

776 . H a r es e st au t j ur e pr opri e t at i s , au t

j ur e r e pr e s e n ti oui s .
(3 C O KE ,
—On e is an

h ei r e i th er by ri gh t of property , or ri gh t of r e pt e
sc u tati on .

777 . H a r es e st n om e n c oll e c ti v um .
(1 VE N T .

-
Hei r is a collec ti ve n am e .

778 H a r es e st n om e n ur i s, fili us e s t n om en
.
j
96 LEGAL MA IM S X .

acc ordi n g to th e predom i n an c e Of th e prevaili n g


se x .

78 6 H e w h o i s t h e p r i o r i n t i m e i s s tr o n g e r
.

i n r i gh t (2 B.A RB C H Y 338 . . .

78 7 H e w h o cl ai m s a t hi n g b y a su p e ri or
.

ti tl e s h all n e i th e r gai n n or l o s e b y i t (N O Y ,
.

78 8 . H e w h o h as c o m m i tt e d i n i qui t y s h all

n ot h av e e qui t y .
(F R A N C I S ,

78 9 . H e wh o wi l l h av e qui t y don e t o hi m
e

m u s t do e qui ty to th e s am e p e r s on (4 B O U . .

IN S T 3723)
.

79 0 . H oc s e r v ab i t ur qu o d i ni t i o c o n v e ni t .

( D IG 5
. 0 1 7 . s
. h —Th i s
all b e pr eserve d wh i c h

i s u sef u l i n th e begi n n i n g .

79 1 .H o m agi u m n on p er pr oc ur at or e s u s e
p e r li t er as fi e r i p ot u i t , s s d i n pr O pri a p e r s on a .

O L TT 68 ) — H m b d
( C K E ,
I a o
. a g e c.an n ot . e o n e

by pr oxy ,
n or by l e tters, b u t i n per son .

79 2 . H o m agi um r e pe lli t p e r qu i si tu m .
(GI LB .

— H om age r e pe ls p q
e r u i s i t i o n .

79 3 H om e u s ser a pu n y p u r s u e r d s s b ri e f e s
en c o ur t is r oy , s o i t ii a dr o i t on a t or t .
(2
IN S T .
— A m an sh all n ot be pu n i sh ed f or
w r i ts i n t h e k i n g wh eth er h e

su i n g ou t s c ou r t,

be r i gh t or wr on g .

79 4 . H om i ci di u m v el h o m i ni s ca di u m , e st

h om i n i s o c c i s i o ab h om i n e f a c t a .
(3 IN S T .

—Hom i ci de i s th e ki l li n g of a m an , don e by a

m an .
LEG AL MAXI M S .

79 5 . H omi n u m c au s a j u s c o n sti t u t u m e st .

B — Law i s con sti tu ted f or th e be n efi t


(2 O U .

Of m an .

79 6 . H om o p ot e s t e ss e h abi li s et i n hab i li s
di v e r si s t e m por i b u s .
(5 CO KE , 98 —A m an
m ay be both ca a p bl e , an d i n c apabl e, at di ff eren t
t i m es .

79 7 . H om e v oc ab u l u m e st n at ur a ; p e r s on a
j u ri s C i v i li s . (C A L . LE X .
)— Man is a t erm Of

n atu re ; person , of th e c i vi l l aw .

79 8 H or a n on e s t m ul t um
. de s u b s t an t i a

n e g o ti i , li c e t i n ap e ll o d e e a ali q u an d o fi at
m e n ti o .
(1 BUL S .
—Th e h ou r is n ot Of

m u ch c on se qu en c e as to th e su b stan c e Of bu si
n e ss , al th ou gh in a ppeal i t m ay h e som eti m es

m en ti on ed .

79 9 H ost e s
. suu t qui n ob i s v el qu i b u s n os

b e ll um d e c e r n i m u s , ca t e r i p r o di t or e s v e l pr a
d on e s su u t . (7 C O K E ,
— En em i es ar e th ose
agai n st wh om we dec lar e war , or wh o dec lare i t
agai n st u s ; all oth ers are trai tor s or pi rate s .

I .

800 . I bi s em p er d e b e t fi e r i t ri at i c , u bi j ur a

to r e s m e li o r e m po ss u n t h ab e r e n ot i t i am . (7
(6)
98 LEGAL MAxI MS .

COKE , —A tri al Sh ou ld al wa s y be h ad wh ere


th e j u ry m ay ge t th e best i n f orm ati on .

801 . I d p e rf e c t u m e st qu o d ex o m n i b us s u i s

p ar t i b u s c o n s t at ; s t ni hi l pe r f e c t um e s t du m
al i qu i d t e s t at ag e n du m (9 C OK E — T h at i.s ,

perf ec t wh i c h i s c o m ple te in all i ts par ts an d ,

n oth i n g i s pe r f ec t whi le an yt h i n g rem ai n s to be

don e .

802 . Id p o s s u m u s qu o d de j ur e p o s s u m us .

(LAN E , —W e m ay do th at wh i c h we c an

do by law .

803 . Id qu o d e st m agi s r e m ot u m, n on t r ahi t


ad se qu o d e st m agi s j u n c t um , s s d e c on tr ar i o
in o m n i c as u .

(CO KE LI TT 1 64 a ) T h at wh i ch
, . . .

i s m ore rem ote does n ot draw to i tself th at


wh i ch i s n e ar er , bu t th e c on tr ar y in ev e r y c ase .

804 . Id qu o d n o str u m e st si n e fa c t o n o s tr o

a d al i um t r an sf e rr e n on p ot e s t .
( D I G 50 1 7 . . .

-
Th at wh i c h i s ou rs c an n ot , wi th ou t ou r deed ,

b e tran s f erred to an oth er .

805 . I de m ag e n s st p ati e n s e sse n on po t e st .

(J E NE . C EN T .
—I t is n ot possi ble to be at

on c e th e p erson ac t i n g , an d t h e person ac ted

u p on .

806 . I de m e st f ac e r e st n on pr ohi b e r e c um
p ossi s ; et q u i n on p r o hi bet c um pr o hi b e r a
p o s ai t in c ul p a e st .
(3 I N S T .
—It i s th e
sam e th i n g t o c om m i t an d n ot to p roh i b i t wh en
in p ower h e wh o does n o t p rohi b i t a

on e s , an d

thi ng wh en h e c an proh i bi t i t , i s i n f aul t .


LEGAL M AXI M S .

n on e x c us at . (2 C O K E ,
-
Ig n o ran c e Of f ac t
exc u ses ; i gn oran c e of la w do es n ot e x c u se .

8 16 . I gn or an t i a j u di ci s e st c al ami tas inno


c e u ti s . (2 IN S T .
—Th e i gn oran c e of th e j u dge
i s th e m i sf ortu n e Of th e i n n ocen t .

817 . I g n or an t i a j u r i s s ui n on p a
r j u di c at j ur i .

(LOFFT —Ign oran c e of one s



o wn l aw i s
n ot prej u di c i al t o th at law .

8 18 . I gn or an t i a l e gu m n e mi n e m ex cus at ;
om n es s ui m pr a s u m un t ur s as u osss qui b u s
om n e s c on s e n ti e n t .
(LOFFT ,
—Ign oran c e of
th e l aw e xc u ses no on e ; f or all are p r esu m ed t o

kn ow th ose th i n gs t o wh i c h all c on sen t .

819 . I gn o r an t i s t e rm i n i s i gu or at ur et ars .

(CO KE LI TT , . 2. a )
.
—Th e t erm s be i n g un k n own ,

th e ac t i s also un kn own .

8 20 . I gn o sc i t ur ei q ui s an gui n e m su u m qu al
i t er r e d e m pt u m v ol ui t . (1 BL A C K . CO M .

T h e law h ol ds h i m e xc u se d, wh o c h ose t h at
his blood sh ou ld be r edeem ed i n an y w ay .

8 21 II u e st p ar s p er mi s d e c o uf e r e r , o n d e
.

n e goc i er av e o l e s c n e m i s d e l e t at

(T AY LE R .
,

— I t i s n ot perm i t ted to di sc lose se c rets or ,

to n egot i ate w i th th e e n em i es O f th e state .

8 22 . Il l s h on or s di gn u s e s t, qui s e, su a

l s gi b u s pat r i a , et n on si n e m agn o l ab o r e et

i n du s tri a, r e d di di t v e r s at u m .
(T AY L E R ,

He deserves h on or wh o h as wi th m u c h labor
,

an d i n du stry r en der ed h i m se lf f am il i ar w i th t h e

laws of th e c ou n try .
LEGAL MAXI M S . 10 1

8 23 . I ll u d qu o d ali as li c i t u m n on e s t, u s e e s

si t as f aci t li c i t u m , et ce ssi t as i n du c i t
ne p r i v i l e

gi u m qu o d j ur s p r i v at u r
(1 0 C
. O K E ,
Th at -

wh i c h i s n ot oth er wi se lawf u l , n e c essi ty m ake s

lawf u l , an d n ec essi t y m akes a pri vi lege wh i ch


su persedes law .

8 24 . Il l u d qu o d al t e r i uni t ur e x ti n gui t ur
ne qu e am pli u s
pe r se c
v a ar e l i ce t .
(GO D O LP H
-
Th at wh i c h i s u n i te d t o an oth er i s ex

ti n gu i sh ed, n or c an it be an y m or e i n de pe n
den t .

8 25 . I m agi n ar i a v e n di ti o n o n e st pr e ti o a cc e
de n t s .
—It i s n ot an i m agi n ary sale
(H AL K .

at wh i c h th e p r i c e i s p ai d .

8 26 I mm o b i li a si t um s e qu u n t u r
.
(2 K E N T . .

CO M .
— I m m ov ables f ollow t h e law o f t h e
plac e wh ere t h ey ar e S i t u ated .

8 2 7 I m p e r i i m aj e s t as e s t t u t e la s al u s (CO KE
. .
,

L I TT 6 4 .b — Th e m aj esty O f th e em p i re i s i ts
. .

saf e ty an d p r ot ec ti on .

8 28 I m p s r i ti a c u l p a a u u m er an t ur
.
(D I G . .

50 7 1
.
— By i gn o ran c e f ai lu res are i n c re as ed
.
.

8 29 . I m p e r i ti a e st m ax i m a m e c h an i c or u m
p a u a. (1 1 CO KE , —Lac k of s ki ll is th e

g re ate s t p u n i s h m en t of m ec han i c s .

8 30 . I m p e r s o n ali t as n on c o n c l u di t n ec li gat .

(CO K E ,
LI TT . 352 b . .
) -
Im pe rso n ali ty n e i t h er con

c lu des i i or b i n ds .

8 31 . I m pi u s et c r u d e li s j u di c an du s e st q u i
li b e r tat i n on f av e t .
(CO KE , LI TT . 1 24 b . .
) —He
1 02 LEGAL M Axm s .

i s t o be j u dged i m p i ou s an d c ru el wh o does n ot

f avor l i be rty .

8 32 . I m pos si b i li u m n u ll a ob li g ati o e s t .
(D I G .

50 1 8
. . 1 85 .
— Th e re i s no bli gat i on
o to p e r f or m
i m poss i b i li t i es .

8 33 . I m p o t e n ti a ex c us at l e g e m .
(C O K E LIT T, .

.

29 a ) Im p ossi bi li ty i s
. an e xc u se i n l aw .

8 34 . I m pr o b i r u m or e s di s si pati su u t r eb el

li o ni spr o dr omi (2 IN ST —W i c ked r u m ors


. .

spre ad abroad ar e th e f oreru n n er s of r eb el l i on .

8 35 .I m pu n i t as c o n ti n u u m afi s c t u m t r i b u i t
del i n qu e n t i (4 C O.KE — I m p u n i t y O ff ers a ,

c on ti n u al b ai t t o th e del i n qu en t .

8 36 . Im pun i t as p e r ad d e t e r i o r a i n v i t at
sem .

(5 C O K E ,
— Im pu n i ty i n vi tes to greater cr i m es .

8 37 . I m p u ri s m ani b u s n e m o ac c e dat c u r i am .

(T A Y LE R , 239 .
—N O on e m ay c om e i n to c ou r t w i th
u n c lean h an ds .

8 38 . cti s pu b li c i s c oll e gi i si v e c or p o r i s
In a

ali c uju s c or po r ati c o n s e n sus e s t v o l u n t as m u l

t or u m a d qu os r e s pe r ti n e t si m u l j un c t a (L O E F T .
,

—In p u b li c ac ts Of a c ollege or an y i n c or ,

p o ra te d b od y t h e u n i ted w i l l of th e m a j o r i t y t o

wh om th e m atter belongs i s th e conse n t , .

8 39 I n a di fi c i i s l api s mal e po si t u s n o n e st
.

r e m o v e u du s (1 1 C O K.E — I n b u i ld i n gs ,
a

st on e badly p lac e d i s n ot to b e re m oved .

8 40 I n a qu ali j ur s m e li or e s t c o n di t i o po s si
.

de u t i s (P .LO W D — I a e qu a l r i.
gh t s t h e c on

di ti on of th e possessor i s th e better .
104 LEGAL MAXI MS .

8 48 . In c api t ali b us su fi c i t g e n e r ali s m ali ti a,


c um f ac t o par i s LOFFT 400 — I pi
gr adus .
( n ,
. ca

tal c ase s g e n e ral m al i c e su ffi c es , wi th th e f ac t


o f an e qu al degr ee Of gu i l t .

8 49 . In c as u e x tr e m a ne c e s si t at i s o m ni a
su u t c omm un i a .
( H A LE PL , . CR 54 .
— In c ases
of e xt rem e n ec essi ty e ve ry th i n g
,
is c om m on .

8 50 . In c i v i li b u s mi n i s t e r i u m ex cus at, i n
c r i m i n ali b us n on i tem .
(LOFFT ,
—Agen c y
ex c u se s in c i vi l , bu t n ot i n c r i m i n al m atters .

8 51 . In c i v il i bus pr o x i m a et di r e ct a pr a st ar e
qu i s t e n e t ur ; i n c r i m i n ali b u s e t i am c o n se qu e n t i a .

(LO F FT ,
— I n c i v i l c ase s o n e i s bo u n d to
perf orm th e n e arest an d di rec t th i n gs ; bu t in
c r i m i n al c ases , eve n c on se qu en t th i n gs .

8 52 . In c i v i li b us v o l u n t as p o
r f a ct o r s pu t ab i

tu r .
(LOFFT ,
—In c i vi l c ase s th e w i l l is
som eti m es tak en f or th e deed .

8 53 . In c l ari s n on e st l o cus j
c o n ec t u r i s .

(WH ART .
—In th i n gs Obvi ou s t h e re is no

r oom f or j
c on ec tu re .

8 54 . In c omm o dat o ha c p act i o , ne dolu s


D 13 7 — If
p r a s t e tu r ,
r at a n on e st . ( I G . . .
,

in a c on t rac t f or a loan , a c l au se vi s i n serted t h at


f rau d sh ou ld n ot be ac cou n ted O f , su c h c lau se is
voi d .

8 55 . In c o u uu c ti v i s o por t o t u tr am q u e
j par t e m
e ss e y e r am . ( WI N G .
—In th i n gs c on j u n c ti ve
eac h part m ust be tru e .

8 56 . In c ons i mi li c asu , c onsi mi l e de b e t es s e


LEGAL M AxIM S . 1 05

r e m e di um . (HARD . 65 — In
. si mi lar c ases th e
re m ed y sh o u l d b e th e sam e .

8 57 . In c o u s u e t u di n i b u s n on di u t ur u i tas t e m
p o r i s ss d s o li di tas r at i o n i s e st c ons i d e r an d a.

( C O KE ,
LIT T 1 41 . . a )
.
— In c ustom s, n ot th e len gth
of ti m e bu t t he s tre n gth of t h e r eason s sh ou l d
be c on s i dere d .

8 58 . In c o n t r ac ti b u s, b e n i gn a ; i n t e s t am en
ti s , b e n i gn i o r ; i n r e st i t u t i o u i b us
, b e ni g s si m a
u i
i n t e r pr e tati o f ac i e u d a e s t. (C O KE , L I TT . 1 12 . b).

—In c on trac ts t h e i n te r pre tat i o n sh ou l d b e l i beral


i n wi lls m ore l i be ral ; an d in r es ti tu t i o n s m ost
l i beral .

8 59 . In c o n tr ac ti s t aci t e i n s un t qua s un t

m or i s st c o n s u e t u di u i s . (W HART .
— In
c on trac ts t h ose t h i n gs w h i c h are of c u sto m an d

us age ar e tac i tly i m pli e d .

8 60 . In c on tr ah en d a v e n di ti on s , a m b i gu u m

p ac t u m c o n tr a v en di t o r e m i n t e r pr e t an dum e st .

(D I G 50
. 1 7 . .
—In c on trac t i n g a sale . an am

b i gu ou s ag ree m en t i s t o be i n te rpre te d agai nst

th e se lle r .

861 . In c o u v e n t i o ni b us c o u t r ah e n t i u m v ol

u n t at e m p o t i us qu am v er b a s pe c t ar i p l ac u i t .

(DIG . 50 . 16 .
—In agreem e n t s th e ru le i s to

regard th e i n te n ti on Of th e c on trac ti n g parti es


rath er than th ei r words .

862 . In c r i m i n al i b us n o n e st ar gu m e n t an du m

a par i u l tr a c as u m a l e gs de fiu i t u m (T RA Y
—Penal
. .

stat utes cann ot be exte n ded, by


1 06 LEGAL MAxm s .

argu m e n t f rom an al og y , to c ases n ot provi ded


f or by l aw .

863 . In c r i m i n ali b u s p r o b at i o n e s de b e n t e ss e

lu c e c l ar i or e s .
(3 IN S T .
—In c r i m i n al c ases

th e p roof s ou gh t t o be c le arer th an th e li gh t .

864 . In c ri m i n al i b u s s i l e u t u m p r a s e n t i s c on

s e n su m pr a s u m i t; in c i v i li bu s n o u n u n q u am

v e l ab s e n ti s s t u b i e u s j i n t er e st e t i am i gn or an ti a .

—In c r i m i n al c as es th e si l e n c e O f a pe rson presen t


presu m es c on se n t ; i n Ci vi l c ase s som et i m e s t h at
of th e p er son ab se n t , an d even i g n or an t wh ere
hi s i n te re st l i es , does th e sam e .

865 . In c r i m i n ali b us snfi c i t g e n e r ali s m al i ti a


i n t e n ti o u i s c um f a ct o p ar i s gr a du s .
(BA C M A.X .

— In c r i m i n al c ases a g e ner al m ali c i ou s i n ts u


ti on i s su ffi c i e n t , wi th an ac t O f e qu al degree .

866 . In c r i m i n ali b u s v o l un t as r e pu t ab at ur p r o

f act o .
(3 IN S T .
— In c r i m i n al ac t s t h e w i ll
i s to be taken f or th e deed .

867 . I n di sju n c ti v i s su fi c i t al t e r am p ar t e m
e ss e v er em . (WI N G .
—In th i n gs di sj u n c ti ve ,

it is su ffi c i en t sh ou l d ei th er p ar t be tr u e .

868 . In du b i i s b e n i gn i or a pr a f e r s u d a aun t .

(DI G . 50 17 .
—In dou bt f u l c ases, th e m ore
f avorable are to be pref erred .

869 I n du b i i s m agi s di g u u m e s t ac c i pi e u d u m

. .

(B RAN C H , P R I n dou b t.f u l c ases t h e m o re w o r t hy


i s t o be t aken .

8 70 . In du b i i s n on pr a s um i t u r pr o t e st a
1 08 LEGAL M AxIM S .

s e r v ar e j us l o ci i n qu o fit e x es u ti o ; n on ubi

res j u d i c at a.
(T AY L E R ,
—In e xec u t i n g a

se n te n c e oth e rw i se exte n si ve , th e law of th e place


m ust p re vail , wh ere th e e xec u ti on takes efi ec t ,

n ot where th e matte r was ad u dged


j .

8 79 . In ex posi ti on s i nstr um e n t or um , m al a
gr am m ati c a, qu o d fi e ri pot e st , v i tan d a e st (6 .

COKE ,
— In c on stru c ti n g i n stru m e n ts bad ,

g r am m ar i s t o be avoi de d as m u c h as p oss i ble .

8 80 I n f ac ts qu e d s e h ab e t a d b o n u m s t
.

m al u m , m agi s d e b ou o qu am d e m al o l e x i n
t e n di t (C O
. K E L IT T 78
, b ) —I n a
. d e ed w
. h i c h.

addresses i tsel f to good an d b ad, th e law looks


m ore to th e g ood t h an t o th e b ad .

881 . In f av or abi li b u s an n u s i n oa pt u s pro


c om pl e te h ab e t u r . B
( R OW N , LAW D C ) In
I — .

th i n gs f avored t h e year begu n i s h eld as c om

ple ted .

8 82 I n f av or abi li b us m agi s at t e n di tur


. qu od
pr o d e s t qu am qu o d u s s c t (B A C M A X . . .

I n th i n gs f avorable wh at does good i s m ore to


be regarded th an wh at does h arm .

883 . I n f av o r e m v i ta , li b e r t at i s, st i n n o c en
ti a o mn i a pr a s um un t u r . (LOFFT ,
—I n f avor
of li f e, l i be rty , an d i n n oc en ce , all thi n gs are to

8 84 . I n fi cti on s j u ri s s em pe r a qui t as e x i s ti t .

(11 COKE , —In a l egal fi c ti on equ i ty al wa s y


e xis ts .

8 85 . I n f r au dem v er s ui
q , sal v i s v e r b i s l e gi s,
LEGAL MAXIMS . 1 09

s e n t e n ti am ej us c i r c u m v e ni t .
—He t ru ly ac ts

f rau dule n tly wh o b


o ser vi n g th e l ette r of th e
law , el u des i ts s p i ri t .

886 In g s n e r al i b us v er s at ur e rr or (3 S UM

. . .

C C
. . Error dwells i n gen er al e xpress i on s .

887 . qu i d di ci t , si v e
In g e n er a qu i c u n q u s ali

ac t or s i v e r s u s , n e c e ss e e s t u t pr o b at (B E S T .
,

E v .
— Ia gen eral wh oeve r say s an yth i n g ,

whe the r pl ai n ti ff or def en dan t m u st p rove i t ,


.

888 I n h a r e d e s n on s o i e n t t r an s i r s ac t i o n e s
.

q u a p oe u al e s e x m a l s fi c i o su u t ( 2 IN S T .

—Pen al ac ti on s ari si n g f rom an yth in g Of a c ri m


.

i nal n at ure do n ot p ass t o h ei rs .

889 . In h ii s s ui m q u a s uu t f av or abi li a an i m a ,
q u am v i s su u t dam n os a r e b us , fi at ali qu an do
s x ts u t i s s t at u t i . (1 0 COKE ,
—In thi n gs f av
orable t o t h e S pi r i t , th ou gh i n j u ri ous to prope rty ,
an exten si on Of th e statu te sh ou ld h e som eti m es

m ade .

8 90 . In hii s qua de j ur o c om m u n i o m ni b us
c on c e d un t ur , c ons u e t u do ali c u u s d p atr i a v e l l o c i
n on es t all e gan da (1 1 C OK E .
,
—In th ose th i n gs
wh i c h by c om m on ri gh t are c on c eded to all , th e
c us tom Of a part i c u lar c ou n tr y or plac e is n ot

to b e alleg ed .

891 In i i s qua su u t m e r a fac u l t at i s n u n qu am


.

pr a s c r i hi t u r (T RA Y 25.3 — P re sc r i p ti on .d oes .

n ot r un i n f avo r Of a m ere f ac u l ty of ac t i n g .

8 92 . In j u di c i o n on or e di t ur n i si j ur ati s .
1 10 LEGAL MAXI M S .

(C R O C A
. R .
—I n l aw n o on e is c r edi te d u n l ess

h e i s swor n .

8 93 . In j u di c u s m i n ori a t ati s u c c u r r i t ur .

( J E N K C E N T. .
—I n j u di c i al aff ai rs th e m i n or
i s p rote c ted .

8 94 . I n l e gs om n i a s e m pe r i n pr a s e n ti st ar e
c e n s eutu r . L
( OFFT , —I n law al l th i n gs are
al wa sy j u dge d f r om th ei r pr esen t c on di t i on .

8 9 5 I n l o c o f ac ti i m pr e s t ab i li s s u b e s t d am n u m
.

e t i n t er e ss e (T RAY —D
. a m ag e s c om e in.

plac e of an ac t n ot perf orm ed .

8 96 I n m aj o r s s u mm a c ou ti n e t u r mi n or
.
(5 .

C O K E 1 5 ,
— I n th e greater su m i s c on tai n e d th e
.

less .

8 97 . In m al e fi c n s v o l u n t as s pe c t at u r n on

e xi t us .
(D I G . 48 . 8 .
—In c r i m i n al m atters,
th e i n ten ti on i s regar ded, n ot th e e ve n t .

8 98 . In m ax i m a p o t e n ti a m i n i m a li c e n t i a .

(LOFFT ,
— Ih th e g re at est p ower th ere is
the least li c e n se .

8 99 . I n m e r c i b us i lli c i ti s n on si t com m e r
s i um .
(3 KE NT , C OM 263 . .
-
Th ere sh ou l d be
n o c om m erc e in i lli c i t goods .

900 . In c omm a av e r ti t t ot um
n o s tr a l e gs una

pl aci t u m (T A Y LE R
. 247 — I n o ur l aw on e , .
,

c om m a u p se ts th e e n t i re plea .

90 1 I n n ov o c as u , n ov um r e m e di u m appo
.

n e u du m e s t
(2 I N S T — I n a
. n e w c a se a n ew .

rem edy i s to b e appl i ed .

902 . In ob sc u r a v ol un t at e m an u mi t t s u ti s
1 12 LEGAL M Am

90 9 . In o m n i b us c o n tr ac t i b u s si v e n omi n at i s ,

si v e i n n o m i n at i s , p e r m u t at i o c o u ti n e t u r . (2
BL A C K . CO M .
—I n al l c on tr ac t s wh e th er
n am ed or n ot, an e xc h an ge is u n der s to od .

910 . In om n i b u s f s r e mi n or i a t a t i s u c c ur r i t u r .

(H AL K .
—In al l c ases ai d sh ou l d b e g i ven
to m i n ors .

9 11 . In om n i b u s i m p e r at or i a e x c i pi t ur f or tu n e ,
i ps as l e g e s D e u s
c ui su hje c i t .
(T AY L E R ,

—God su bj ec ts i n all t h i n gs, th e f ortu n es of

em per ors to th e l aw s Of th e l an d .

912 . In o m ni bus ob li g at i on i b us in qu i b u s di es

n on po n i t u r , pr a s e n ti di e d e b e t u r .
( D I G . 50 .

17 .
— In all Obl i gat i on s i n wh i c h a day i s
n ot fi xed f or paym en t ,
i t i s du e on th e p rese n t
day .

913 . In omn i b u s pa u ali b us j u di c i i s et a ta ti


st i m pr u d e n t i a s u c c ur ri tur .
(DI G 50 17
—I n
. . .

all tr i als f or pe n al off en c e s, al lowan c e .


is
m ade f or you th an d w an t Of di sc re t i on .

914 . In o mn i bus qu i d e m , m ax i m e t am s n i n
jur e , q a
u i t as s p e c t an d a s i t .
(DI G . 50 . 17 .

—Equ i ty i s to be regarded in all th i n gs , bu t


par ti c u larly i n law .

915 . In on e t hi n g all t hi n gs f oll o w i n g s h all

be c o n cl u d e d as gr an ti n g, d e m an di n g, or pr o
h i b i ti n g (N O
. Y ,

916 . I n p ar i c au s a p o s s e s s or po t i o r h ab e r i
deb e t D 50 17 — In equal
.
( IG . . . an c ause,

th e p ossessor h as t h e advan tage .


LEGAL MAXI M S . 113

917 . In p ar i de li cto , po t i or e st c on di ti o
pos s i d e u t i s .
(2 B U RR — I n .equ al f aul t t h e

c on di ti on Of th e p ossessor i s th e bet ter .

918 . I n pa n ali b u s c au s i s b e ni gn i u s i n t e r pr e
t an dun e st . ( DI G . 50 . 1 7 1 55
. .
— I n pen al
c ase s th e m ore f avorable i n terpre tat i on sh oul d

b e m ade .

9 19 . In pr a p ar at o r ii s ad j u di ci u m f av e t ur
a c t or i .
(2 IN S T .
—In t h i n gs prec edi n g j u dg
m en t t h e plai n ti ff i s f avor ed .

9 20 . In pr a se n ti a m ajor i s c e ss e t po t e n t i a
m i n or i s .
(JE N K CE N T. .
-
In presen c e of th e
m aj or th e m i n or power c eases .

921 . I n pr e ti o s m pt i o u i s e t v e n di ti o u i s n at ur

ali t e r li c e t c o n t r ah e n t i b u s se c i r c u m v eni r e .
(1
STO Y C O T
R ,
— In th e pri c e of b u yi n g an d
N .

selli n g i t i s n atu r all y al low e d t o th e c on tr ac t i n g


,

p arti es t o overreac li e ac h oth er .

9 22 I n pr o pr i a c au s a n e m o j u d e x
.
( 2
1 .

C O KE ,
—N O on e can be j u dge i n h i s own
c au se

923 qu o
. In qu i s d e li n qu i t , i n e s de j u r e
e s t p uni s n du s .
(C O K E L I TT 2
, 33 b ) — I n wh at . . .

e ver One o ff e n ds, i n th at, ac c ordi n g to l aw h e


S h ou l d pu n i sh ed
be .

9 24 I n r e c om m u n i m e li o r e st c on di ti o pr o
.

hi b e u ti s (T R A Y —
. I n c om m on pr o perty th e
.

c on di ti on O f th e on e p r oh i bi t i n g i s th e bet t er .

925 . In re c omm u n i n e mi n em domi n or u m


(8)
1 14 LEG AL MAXI M S .

j ur e fac e r e qui c qu am , i n v i t o al t er s , p os s e (D I G . .

10 . 3 .
— O n e c o pro pri etor c an exerc i se n o -

au th or i t y o v er th e c om m on property agai n st the


w i ll of th e oth er .

9 26 . In re du b i a b e n i g ni or s m i n t e r pr e t ati o n
em ae qu i , n on m i n u s j u s ti u s e s t , qu am t u ti n a .

(D I G 5 0 1
. 7 . .
—In a dou b tf u l c ase , to f ollow
t h e m i lder i n ter p re tat i on is n ot less th e m ore
j u st , th an i t i s th e saf er way .

9 27 . In re du b i a m agi s i n fi c i at i s qu am afi r

m ati o i u t e lli ge n da (G O D B .
— I n . a dou b t f u l
c ase th e n egat i ve , r ath er th an th e a mrm at i ve , is
to b e u n derstood .

9 28 . In l u p an ar i, t e s t e s l u pan ar e s
re a dm i t
t e u tu r .
(6 BA RR N Y 3 2 0.
— I n . . . a c ase

c on c ern i n g a broth el prost i tu tes , are adm i t ted

as wi tn esse s .

9 29 . In re ob s cu r a m e li us e st f av e r e re p e ti
t i on i qu am adv e n ti ti o l u cr o .
(HAL K .
—I n
an o bsc ure c ase i t is bet te r to f avor re peti ti on
th an adven ti ti ou s gai n .

9 30 p ar i , p o ti o r e m c au s am e s s e p r o bi
. In re

b e n ti s c on stat (D I G 1 0 3 —
. W h er e a t h i n g . . .

i s own ed i n c om m on th e c au se Of h i m proh i bi t i n g ,

i ts u se i s th e stron ge r .

931 . In r ebu s m an i f e s t u s e r r at qu i au th o r i

t at e s l e gu m all e g at ; qu i a p e r s p i cu e v e r a n o n
s un t pr ob an da (5 C O KE , .
—In th i n gs m an i
f e st h e e rr s wh o al l ege s t h e au th or i ti es of law ;
bec au se b
o vi ous tru th s n eed n ot be proved .
1 16 LEG AL M AXI M S .

—In dam ages , m o re m u st no t be rec e i ved ,

than h as bee n o n c e re c e i v ed .

9 39 . In s t i p u l ati o ni bu s c um q u a r i t ur qu i d
ac t u m si . v e rba c o n tr a s ti p u l at s r e m i n t e r pr e
ta u da su u t .
(D :G 45 . 1 . 38 .
—In . c on trac ts ,

wh en t h e qu est io n i s w h at w as agreed u pon th e


,

words of th e agree m e n t are to be i n terpreted


agai nst t h e qu es t ion er .

9 40 . I n st i pu l ati o ni b u s i d t e m pus spe c t at ur

q o
u c s u tr ahi m us .
(D I G 50 1 7 1 44 —
. I h con . . .

t rac ts ref eren ce sh ou ld be h ad to th e t i m e at

wh i c h th ey were m ade .

9 41 . In su o h a t e u n s f ac e r e li ce t qu ate n us,
nih
'

l in ali e n um i m mi t t i t .
(T RAY .
—On e
m ay do wi th h i s ow n as he pleases ,
i f h e does
not i n vade th e r i gh ts o f ot h er s .

9 42 . In su o qu i s qu e n e go t i o h e b s ti or es t

q u am in ali e n e .
(CO K E , LI TT 377 . a —Every
on e i s m ore du ll i n h i s ow n bu si n ess th an in
th at O f an oth er .

9 43 .In t s s t am e n ti s pl e ni u s t e st at o r i s i n t e n
t i o u e m s c r u t am u r (3 BULS 1 03 —
. I n t e stam e n t s .

th e i n ten ti on of th e t estato r sh o u ld be m o st f u lly


i n qu i red i n to .

9 44 .I n t e s t am s u ti s pl e ni u s v o l un t at e s t e s t an
t i u m i n t e r pr e t an t u r (D I G 50 1 7 1
. 2 — I n t e s ta . . .

m e n ts th e W i ll of t h e te s tator sh o u ld be l i berally
c on stru ed .

9 45 . In t s s t am e n ti s r at i o t aci ta n on deb e t
c o us i d e r ar i ss d v er b a s ol u m s p e c t ar i de b ou t

.
LEGAL mi n us . 17

(WHART .
—In wi lls an u nex pressed m ean i n g
ou gh t n ot to b e c on si dere d, bu t th e w ords alo n e

sh ou l d be looked to .

9 46 . In c o m m un e si t, r e ct i
t h e at r u m , c um

tam e n di c i p ot e st ej us e s s e c u m l o cu m qui s qu e
oc c u p av i t In a th e atre f or t h e t i m e be i n g
.
-
, ,

i t m ay be c orrec tly sai d t h at eac h on e o wn s


th e seat th at h e oc c u p i es .

9 4 7 I n t s t o e t p ar s c o u ti n e t ur
.
(DIG 50 . . .

17 .
— A p art i s i n c l u ded i n th e wh o le .

9 48 . I n t r adi ti o ni b u s sc ri p o ru m
t c h ar t ar u m

n on qu o d di ct u m e st
,
s s d qu o d g e s t u m f a ct u m
e s t, i n s pi c i t ur .
(9 C O K E ,
— I n th e del i very
of wr i t i n g s or deeds ,
n ot wh at i s sai d, b u t wh at
i s don e i s to be regar ded .

9 49 . In v e r am qu an ti t at e m fi dej u s so r t e n e at ur
n i si p r o c s rta qu an t i t at e acc e ssi t (1 7 MAS S . .

— Let th e su re t y be h olden f or th e t ru e

qu an t i t y u n le ss he agree d f or a c ert ai n qu an t i ty .

9 50 . In v e rbi s n on v erb a ss d r es st r at i o

q u a r e n d a e st . (J E N K . CE N T .

I n words ,

n ot t h e words o n ly, b u t th e th i n g an d t h e m e an
ing sh ou ld be i n qu ired i n to .

9 51 . I n v o c i b u s v i d e n du m n on a qu o se d

ad q ui d s um at u r .
(E LLE S . PO ST .
— In di s
c ou r ses i t i s to b e seen n ot f rom wh at , b u t to
wh at i t i s , advan c e d .

9 52 . I n c au t e f ac t u m pr o n o n f a c t s h ab e t ur:

(D IG . 28 4 .
— A n u n f oresee n f ac t i s h eld f or
.

no f ac t .
18 LEGAL M AXI MS .

9 53 . In c e n di u m a r e al i e n s n on e x u i t d e b i t or
um .
(COD E , 4 2
. .

A fi r e does n ot release

a debtor f rom h i s deb t .

964 I n c e r ta pr o n u lli s h ab en t ur
. .
(LOF FT ,

— Th i n gs u n certai n are rec kon ed as n oth i n


g .

9 55 I n s e r t a q u an ti t as v i t i at ac t u m
. .
(1 RO L .

— An u n c ertai n qu an t i ty vi ti ates th e ac t .

9 56 . In c ert um ex i n s erts p e n d e ns l e gs re

p r ob at u r .
(LOF
) —
FTA, 52
nlu n c er t ai n t.y d e p e n d
in g u p on an u n cer tai n ty i s r ep robate d by l aw .

9 5 7 I n ci d en ti a u ol nn t s e par ar i
.
( H A L K . .

In c i den ts c an n ot b e separ ated .

9 58 I n ci d e n ti a r e i t aci t e s e qu un t ur
.
(L OFFT .
,

— Th e i n c i den ts of a th i n f ollow tac i tly


g .

9 59 I n ci v i l e e s t , ni si t ot a l e gs pr o s p e c t s ,
.

nn a al i q u a p ar t i col a ej u s pr o po si t a, j u di c ar e ,
v e l r e s po n d e r s (D I G 1 3 .
— I t i s i
. m p r op
. er .
,

u n le ss t h e w h ol e l aw b e e xam i n e d t o gi v e j u dg ,

m en t o r advi c e u pon a vi e w Of a si n gle c laus e


Of it .

960 . In c i v i le e st ni si t ot a s e n t e n ti a i n s pe c t s
de ali q u a p ar t s j u di c ar e .
(HO B .
—It is
u n law f u l to j u dge of an y p ar t u n less th e wh ole
sen ten c e be e xam i n ed .

96 1 . I n c l u ai s u n i u s e st e x c l u si o al t e r i u s .
(1 1
C O KE , —Th e i n c lus i on of on e i s th e e xc l u si on

of an ot h er .

962 . I n s oles d om i c ili u m f aci t .


(1 JOHN S . CAB .

N Y 363
. . .
—Resi den c e c reates dom i c i le .

96 3 . I nc omm o du m n on sol v i t ar gum en t u m .


1 20 LEGAL MAXI M S .

pc e n a n on i te m
(LOFFT .
,
—In f an ts are som e
t i m es obli ged to p er f o rm an ces i n volv i n g loss ,

bu t n ot pu n i sh m en t .

9 73 . I n fi n i tu m i n j u r e r e pr o b at ur . (1 2 CO K E ,

24 — I n fi n i ty i n law i s re preh en si ble .

9 74 . I n i qui s s i m a p ax e s t an t e p o n e n d a ju s ti s

si m c b e ll s ( 1 8. l VE N D . N Y . . 257 .
—Th e
m ost u n u st j p eac e sh ou l d b e pref err ed t o th e
m ost j u st war .

9 75 . I n i qu um e st p er m i t t e r s ,
ali o s ali o s in
h i b e r e m e r c at ur am .
(3 I N S T — I
. t is u n u st j
to p erm i t som e , an d t o pr oh i b i t oth e rs , t o t rade .

9 76 I ui q u u m e st ali m rei su i e ss e j u di
.
qu e

c em . ( 2 CO KE ,
1 —I t is u n u st j f or an y on e
to be a j u dge i n h is own c au se .

9 77 . In i qu u m e st i n ge n u i s h o mi n i b us n on

e sse li b e r am r e ru m s u ar u m al i e n ati on e m . (CO K E ,

LI TT . 223 .
) —I
a
. t i s u n j u st f or f r ee m en n ot to
h ave th e f ree di sposal of th e i r own p roperty .

9 78 In i ti a m agi st r at n u m m e l i or a fir m a ; fi ni s
.

i n c l i n at (T AY
. LE R ,
— P u b 1i c offi c e s ar e m ore

v i go rou s i n th e begi n n i n g ; bu t weake n t ow ard


t h e c lose .

9 79 . I nj ur i a fi t si s ui c ou v i c i u m di c t um e st

v el de es f act u m s ar m e n f am c su m .
(9 C O KE ,

60 -
An i n j u ry i s don e to h im of wh om a re

proac h f u l th i n g i s sai d, or an Obsc en e son g is


m ade .

980 . Injuri a ill ata j u di c i , se u l o cu m t e n e n t i


r e gi s , v i de tu r i p si r e gi i l l at a, m ax i m s si fi at
LEGAL M AxI MS . 1 21

in e x er c en t e m ofi c n .
(3 IN S T .
—An i n j u ry
off ered to a j u dge or person represen ti n g th e ki n g ,

is con si dered as off er ed to th e ki n g h i mself s e ,

pec ially i f it be don e in t h e exerc i se of h is


omes .

98 1 . I nju r i a n on e x c us at i nj u r i am .
Q 1
( 5 . B .

—An i n j u ry does n o t e xc u se an i n j ur y .

982 . Inju r i a n on pr a s u mi tur .


(CO K E LI TT

.
,

232 . b ) A. wron g i s n ot to b e p resu m ed .

98 3 .I rfiu r i a pr O pr i a n on c ade t i n b e n s fi s i n m
f ac i e u t i s .
(B RA N C H ,
P R — A m an sh o u ld . n ot
be ben efi ted by his o wnwron g doi n g .

984 . I n j ur i a s e r vi d o mi n um p e r ti n gi t .
(LOFFT ,

—Th e m aster i s l i able f or i n j u ry don e by


h is se rvan t .

98 5 . I ns an u s e st qui , abj e c t a r at i o n s , o m n i a

c um i m pe tu st f ur or e f as i t .
(4 C O K E ,

He is i n san e wh o ,
r eason bei n g th r own awa y ,

doe s e ver yth i n g w i th vi ole n ce an d r age .

98 6 . I n s t an s e st fiui s un i u s t e m por i s et pr i n
c i pi u m al t e r i us .
(C O K E ,
L I TT . 1 85 b . .
) —A n ln
stan t i s th e e n d of on e per i od Of ti m e, an d th e
begi n n i n g of an oth er .

98 7 . In s tr u m e n ta d om e s ti c s , se n ad n o t at i c ,

si n on alii s qu oqu e ad m i ni ci a a d u v e n t ur , ad
j
pr ob at i o u e m sc l a n on s u fi s i u n t . (T AY LE R ,

—Fami ly doc u m en ts , or m em oran da ,


wh en n ot

su s ta i n ed by o th er e vi den ce , are n ot of th em selves


su mc i en t proof .
1 22 LEGAL MAXIMS .

988 . I n t e n ti o sa sa m al e .
(2 BUL S .

A h i dden i n te n ti on i s had .

989 . I n t e n ti o i n s sr v i r s , d e b e t l s gi b u s , n o n
l ege s i n t e n ti c u i (C O
. KE , L I TT 3 1 4 b ) I n te.n t i on . .
-

ou gh t to be su bser vi en t t o th e laws, n ot th e l aws


to th e In ten ti on .

9 90 . I n t e n ti o l s gi t i m e c o gui ta et l s gi b us
c on s e n tan e a max i m s h ab e u da .
(H AL K .

An i n te n ti on legi ti m ately kn own , an d i n acc ord


an ce wi th th e l aws sh ou ld be espec i ally r e ,

gar de d .

991 . I n t e n t i o m e a i m p c ui t n om e n c p s r i m es .

(HO B .
—My i n te n t g i ves a n am e to my
ac t .

992 . c aus as ac qu i si ti s n e s m agn a,


Int e r al i as

c e l e b r i s, e t f am os a e s t c au s a d on at i oui s (BR A C T . .

—Am on g oth er m odes of ac qu i ri n g propert y ,

a g reat celebr ated an d f am ous m eth od i s th at


,

of i
g ft .

993 . I n t er ali o s res g s s t as eli l s n on p o s s e

pra j u di c i um f ac e r e sa pe c o n s ti t u t um e st . (C O D E ,

7 60 1
. . .
—It h as o f ten been settled th at afi ai rs

between oth er parti e s sh ou l d n ot prej u di c e .

9 94 I n t er on u s t a l e ge s st c t ab s r s
.
p e r s un

doc t o s .
(CO K E , LI TT . 232 .

b ) Am on g
. m an y
thi n gs, you wi ll even qu esti on l aws an d learn ed
m en .

99 5 . In t er p ar e s n on e st po t e s t as .
(T A YLE R ,

—Am ong equ al s n o on e i s th e m ore power


f ul .
1 24 LEGAL M Am

i nt
100 3 . In t e r e st r e i pu b li c a nt s ar oe r s s s

i n tuts .
(2 I N S T .
—I t i s t o th e i n ter es t of

th e state th at p r i s on s be se c u r e .

100 4 . I n t e r e st r e i p u b li c a ut pax in r e gn o

s ou s e r v e tu r , et q u a c u n qu e p aci a dv e r s e n t u r

pr o v i d e d e c li n e n t u r .
(2 I N S T .
—It i s to t h e
i nterest of th e s tate t h at p eac e be p reserved in
th e k i n gdom an d th at ,
w h ate ver i s adverse to
it b e p ru de n tly de c l i n e d .

1 00 5 . I n t er e s t r e p u b li c aa nt si t fin i s li t i u m .

(CO KE , LI TT .

303 b ) I t i s
. . t o th e i n teres t of
th e s tate th at th ere b e a l i m i t to l i ti g at i on .

100 6 . I n t e r pr e t er s e t c c n c or d ar e l e gi s l s gi b us
e s t opti m u s i n t e r pr e t an di m o du s .
(8 C O K E ,

—To i n terp ret an d t o r ec o n c i le th e laws to laws ,


i s th e best m ode of I n t er pr e tati on .

1007 . In t e r pr e t ati o fi e n da e st nt res m agi s


v al e at qu am p e r e at .
(JE N K . CE N T .
—Th at
i n terpretati on i s t o b e m ade t h at t h e th i n g m ay
st an d rath e r th an f all .

100 8 . I n t e r pr e t at i o t ali s i n am bi g ui s s e m p er
fi e n da e st , u t e v i t e t ur i n c o n v e ni e n s e t ab s ur du m .

(4 IN S T .
-
In am b i gu ou s c ase s t h at i n ter

pre tat i o n i s to b e m ade , th at wh at i s i n c on ve


n i e n t an d a s u r d b i s t o be avo i ded .

1 00 9 . I n t e r r u pt i o m u l t i pl e x n on t ol li t pr a
s s r i pti o n e m s em e l s b t e n tu m .
(2 I N S T .

Frequ en t i n terr u pti o n does n ot t ak e awa y a

p resc r i p ti on on c e sec u re d .

10 10 . I n t e st e t u s d e c e di t , qui an t om ni n o
LEGAL MA I MS X . 1 25

t e st am en t u m n on f e ci t an t n on j ur i f e ci t , eut

id qu o d f ec e r e t r u pt n m i r r i t u m v e f actu m e s t,

an t nemo ex so ha r e s e x s ti ti t . (D I G 38 1 6. . .

H e di es i ntestate wh o
-
e i th er h as m ade no

wi ll at al l ; or h as n ot m ade i t l egally ; or i f
th e wi ll h e h as m ade be an n u lled or r en dered
u sel ess ; or f rom wh om th e re i s no li vi n g h e i r .

10 1 1 . I n u ti l e s l ab o r , et si n s fr u s t u , n on e st

e fi e s t ns l e gi s .
(C O K E , LI TT . 1 27 b . .
) —Usel ess

l abor , an d wi th ou t f m i t ,
is n ot th e e ff ec t of

law .

10 12 . I n v e ui e n s li b e ll um f am c su m et n on

c o rr u m p e n s p un i t u r .
(MOO RE ,
—He wh o
fi n ds a n otor i ou s l i bel , an d does n ot destroy i t ,

is p u n i sh ed .

10 1 3 . In v i t e t cu l p am q u i p ec s at u m p r a t eri t .

(HALK .
—He e n c ou r ages a f au l t wh o o ver

l ooks a tran sgressi on .

10 14 . I n vi t o b e n e fi c i n m n on de t u r .
(D I G .

50 1 7 . .
— A ben efi t i s n ot bestowed u pon on e

u n wi ll i n g to r ece i ve it .

10 1 5 . I n v i tn s n em o rem s o gi t n r de f en d e r s .

—No on e is c om pe lled agai n st h i s will to def en d


hi s own
pr oper ty .

10 1 6 I p sa l e g e s s u pi u n t u t j ur e r e gan t u r
. .

(C O K E L I ,

TT 1 74 b ) Th e laws th em se lves re
. . .

q u i r e th at t h ey Sh oul d be
g o v ern e d by r i gh t .

1 0 1 7 Ir a f ur or b r e vi s e s t
.
(4 W E ND N Y . . . .

336 .
— An ger i s a bri ef i nsan i ty .

10 1 8 . I r a h omi ni s n on i mpl s t Ju st i t i am D ei .
1 26 LEGAL MAXIM S .

(Lo m ,
—Th e an ger of a m an doe s n ot

f u lfi l th e j u st i c e o f God .

1 0 1 9! IS dam n um d at q ui j u b e t d ar e ; eju s
v er o c u l pa
n ul l a e st s u i p ar e r e n e c e s s e e st .

(HALK — .He oc c asi on s a l oss wh o gi ves orders


to c aus e i t ; b u t n o bl am e i s attac h ed t o h i m
wh o 18 obl i ge d to o bey .

1 0 20 I s qu i dol o m al e de s n t po ssi d e r s pr o
.

p o sse s s o r e h ab e t u r (T R AY — H e w. h o h as .

f rau du len tly c ease d t o possess ,


is sti ll h el d to be
a possessor .

1021 . Is qui d a cti on e m h ab e t ed r em re cu


pe r e n dam i p sam rem h ab e r e v i de t u r .
(HAL K .

—He is c on si der e d as h avi n g possessi on Of

a th i n g wh o h as an ac ti on to r e c ov er it .

1 0 22 . It is e qu i t y t h at he s h ou l d h av e
s ati sf a ct i o n w h o s u s t ai n e d th e l o ss .
(FR AN C IS ,

10 23 . It is e qu i ty th a t he sh ou l d m ake
s at i s fa ct i o n w h o r ec ei v e d th e b e n e fit .
(F R AN
CI S ,

1 0 24 . It e l ex s s r i pt a e s t . (DI G . 40 9
. .

Th e law i s SO wri tten .

1 0 25 . Ite s em pe r fi at r e le ti c u t v al e at di s po
si ti o . (6 CO K E ,
—Let th e r elati on be so m ade
th at th e di sposi ti on m ay s tan d .

1 0 26 I te t u o u t e r e
. nt al i e n u m us l a das .

L
( n
o So y ou r own as n ot to i n j ure
-
r, -
use

you r n ei gh bor s proper ty



.

1 0 27 . It e r e st j us s n n di , am b u l an di h om i n i s
1 28 LEGAL MAXIMS .

(T AY LE R 264 ) —Th e
, j u dg e is a ppoi n ted f or t h e
peac e of th e Ci ti zen s .

1 0 34 . J u de x de b e t j u di c ar e se c u n du m e l l s ge t a

st pr o b at e .
(2 BOU .
—Th e j u dge sh ou ld

dec i de ac c or di n g to the allegati on s an d the


proof s .

J u de x e st l e x l oqu e n a .
(7C OKE ,

Th e j u dge i s th e law s eap ki n g .

10 36 . Ju d e x h ab e r e d e b e t d u o s s al e s ; s al e m

sa p i e n ti a , us si t i n si pi du s , st s al e m c on s c i e n

ti a , us si t di ab ol u s .
(3 I N-
S T .
—A j udge
sh ou ld h ave two sal ts ; th e sal t of w i sdom ,
lest
h e b e i n si pi d ; an d th e salt of c on sc i enc e , lest h e
b e devi li sh .

1 0 37 . Ju de x n on po t e st e ss e t e sti s i n prO pr i a
c au s e . (4 IN S T .
—A j u dge c an n ot be a w i t
n ess i n his ow n c au se .

1 0 38 . Ju d e x n on po t e s t i uju r i em si b i dat am
pn ui r e .
(1 2 CO KE ,
—A j u dge c an n ot pu n i sh
a wron g don e t o h i m sel f .

1 0 39 . J u d ex n on p l u s qu am qu o d ps
r s ddi t

t e n s i ps e r s q n i ri t .
(2 I N S T .A j u dge does -

n ot g i ve m or e t h an th e p lai n t i ff dem an ds .

1 0 40 . J u di s an du m e st l s gi b u s , n o n e x e m pli s .

(4 CO KE , —W e are to j u dge by th e l aws ,


n ot by e xam ples .

1 0 41 . Ju di c e s n on t e n e u tu r e x pri m e r e c au

s am s e n t e n ti a su a .
( JE N K . CENT .
—J u dges
are n ot boun d to e xp lai n th e r eason of the i r
sen ten c e .
LEGAL M AXI M S .

1 0 42 Ju di c e s r e c e n t e r s t sn b t i li t e r e x s o gi
.

t at i s m i n i m e f e v e n t c o n t r a c o m m u n e m l e g e m .

( LOFFT ,
— J u dg es b y n o m e an s f a v or t h i n
gs

r ai se d rec e n t l y an d su b ti l e ly agai n st c om m on

l aw .

1 0 43 . J u di s i o fii c i n m su um e x c e d e n ti n on

p ar e t ur .
(J EN K . CE N T .
—To a j u dge wh o
e xc e eds his offic e n o obedi en ce i s du e .

1 0 44 . J u di c i s ati s pa n e e st qu o d D e um
h ab e t u ltc r em . (1 L E O N .
—It is su ffi c i en t

p u n i sh m en t f or a j u dge th at h e h as God f or
h is av en ger .

1 0 45 . Ju di ci a i n s u ri a r e gi s n o n adui hil e u t ur ,
sed st e n t in r ob o r e qu o u s qu e
su o p er e rr c r e m

an t att i n s te m e dn u ll e n t u r ( 2 I N S T. .
—Ju dg
m e n ts i n t h e ki n g s ’
c ou r ts are n ot t o be an n i
b i ls ted, bu t to r em ai n i n f orc e u n ti l an n u l le d

by error or attai n t .

1 0 46 . Ju di s i e i n d e li b e r at i s u i b u s s r eb r o ma
t u r e sc u n t in as s e l e r at o pr o c e s su n un qu am .

(3 IN S T .
— J u dgm en ts b ec o m e f r e qu en t ly
m atu red by deli berati on , n ev er by h u r r i ed pr o
c ess .

1 0 47 . J u di ci a po st e r i o r a i n l e g s f o r ti o r a
au n t .

(8 C OKE , -
Th e later dec i si on s are th e st r on ger
i n law .

1 0 48 . Ju di ci a su u t t n n q n am j u ri s di c t a, et

pr o v e r i t at e e c c i pi n n t nr .
(2 IN S T .
—Ju dg
m en t s ar e , as i t were, th e sa y i n gs of th e l aw,
an d ar e r ec ei ved as tru th .

(9)
1 30 LEGAL MAXI MS .

1 0 49 . Ju di s ii s po st e r i c ri b us fi d e s e s t adh i
b e n da .
(1 3 C O K E ,
— C r e di t i s t o b e g i ve n

t o th e l ater dec i si on s .

1 0 50 . Ju di ci s e st i n pro u u n t i an do ae qu i re gn

lam , ex c e pt i on s n o n pr ob at e (2 B O U . .

Th e j u dge i n h i s dec i s i on sh ou ld f ol low th e r u le,

wh en t h e except i on i s n ot p roved .

10 51 . Ju di ci s e st j u di c ar e , s e c u n du m all e gat a

st pr ob at e .
(D YE R ,
—I t i s th e du ty of a

j u dge to dec i de ac c or di n g t o th e f ac t s allege d

an d prove d .

1 0 52 . J u di s i s e st j us di oer e n on dar e .
(LOFFT,
—It i s th e du ty of a j u dge to de c l are , n ot

to m ake th e l aw .

1 0 53 . Ju di s i s ofi c i um e st o pus di e i in di e
su c pe r fi c e r e . (2 I N S T .
—It i s th e du ty of

a j u dge to fi n i sh t h e wor k of e ac h day wi th i n


th at day .

10 64 . Ju di c i s ofi c i u m e st ut res i t a t em
p or e r er nm qu a t e r s ; qu a si t c t e m p or e t utu s
e ris . (C O KE , LIT T 1 71 a ) —I t
. . . i s th e du ty of

a j u dge t o i n qu i re as wel l i n t o th e t i m e of th i n gs
as i n to th i ngs th em sel ves ; by i n qu i ri n g i n t o th e
ti m e you wi ll b e saf e .

1 0 55 J u di c i u m a
. n on su c j u di s e d at u m
n u lli us e st m om e n t i (1 0 C O
. K E ,
— A j u dg

m en t gi ven by an i m prop er j u dge i s o f n o m o


m en t .

1 0 56 Ju di ci u m d u o de s e m pr ob orn m s t l e g al
.

i u m h om i n um v e ri t at e s di c t u m e ss e p e r c o m
1 32 LEGAL MA I MS X .

106 4 . Jun s t a j u v en t .
(1 1 EAST , 220 .
-
Thi n gs
j oi n ed h ave eff ec t .

10 6 5 . c c l e si as t i c a li mi t ata su u t i nf r a
J ur e e

li mi t e s s e par at e s (3 B O L S 53
.
— E cc le si asti cal . .

laws are li m i ted wi thi n separate boun ds .

10 6 6 . Jur a e o de m
m o do d e str u un t ur qu o c o n
st i t u u n t ur . (W HA R T 52 4 — L aw s
. a re repealed.

by th e sam e m ean s by wh i ch were m ade


th ey .

10 6 7 . J ur a n e t ur a s uu t i m m u tab i li a (Le m . ,

563 .
—Th e laws of natu r e are u n ch an gea ble .

106 8 Jur a pu b li c a en t e f s r s n de r i v ati s .


.
p
(C O KE L I
, TT . .

a r e t o be
1 30 a ) P u bli c ri gh ts
.

pref erred t o pri vate ri gh ts .

10 69 J ur a p u b li c a e x pr i v at e pr om i s ou e
.

de ci di n on d e b ou t (C O K E L I TT 1 8 1
. b ) , . . .

Pu bli c r i gh ts S h ou l d n ot be pr om i sc u ou sly dec ided


ou t of a p ri vate tr an sac t i on .

1 0 70 . J ur a r e gi s s p e c i al i a n on c on c e du n t ur

p e r g en er al i a v e r b a. (J E NK . CE N T .

Th e
s pec i al r i gh ts of th e ki n g are n ot g ran ted by
gen eral words .

1 0 71 . J ur a s an gui n i s n u ll s j ur e c i vi l i di r i mi
p o s s u n t .
(BA C . M AX .
—Th e r i gh t of blood
c an n ot be taken awa y by an y c i vil law .

1 0 72 . J ur e m en t u m e st i n di vi s i b i l e , et n on

e st adm i tt e u dn m i n par t s v e ru m st in p ar t s

f al s u m .
(4 I NS T .
—An oath i s i n di vi si ble ,

an d is n ot to be adm i tted as partly tru e, an d


par tly f alse .

1 0 73 . J ur er e e st D en m in t e ste m v ow s ,
LEGAL M AXIM S . 1 33

st es t a ct u s di v i ni c u l tu s .
(3 IN S T .
—To
swe ar , i s to c al l God to w i t n e ss , an d is an ac t

of reli gi on .

1 0 74 . J ur at s c r e di t ur in j u di ci o .
(3 I N S T .

— I n j u dgm en t c redi t i s t o be gi ven t o th e


sweare r .

1 0 75 . Jur e t or e s d e b an t e sse v i s i ui , su m
s i e n te s, st m i n us s u s p e c ti .
(JE N K . CE N T .

—J u rors ou gh t to be n ei gh bors , of suffi c i e n t

estate, an d f ree f rom su s p i c i on .

1 0 76 J ur at or s s s u u t j u di c e s f acti J
.
( E N K . .

C EN T .
—Jurors ar e th e j u dge s of th e f ac ts .

1 0 77 . J ur e n at ur a a qu u m e s t n e mi n e m c u m

al t e r i u s d e tr i m e n t o st i nj ur i a fieri l os u pl e
t i or u m .
(D I G . 50 . 17 .
—By th e l aw of

n atu re it is j u st th at no on e bec om e m ore ri c h

by t h e detri m en t an d i n j u ry i of an oth er .

1 0 78 . Juri n on e st c on s o n u m qu e d ali qui e


e c c e s sor i u s in c u r i a r e gi s c o n v i n c at u r an t e q u am

ali q u i s d e f ac t s f ue r i t at t i n c t us .
(2 I N S T .

It i s n ot c on son an t to j u sti c e t h at an y ac c essory


sh ou ld be c on vi c ted i n th e ki n g s ’
c ou r t bef ore
an y on e h as been attai n ted of th e f ac t .

1 0 79 . Ju ri s an g u i n i s n un qu am pr a sc ri b i t ur .

(T R AY .
—Agai n st a r i gh t by b lood n o pr e

sc r i p ti on run s .

10 80 . J ur i s efi ec tus in e x ec u ti o n s c o n s i s ti t .

CO
( KE ,
LI TT . 289 b . .
) —
T h e eff ec t of law c on si sts

in e xe c u t i on .

10 8 1 . J ur i s di c ti o e st p ot e st as de pu bli cc
1 34 LEGAL MAXIM S .

i n tr o du c t a , c e s si t at e j ur i s di c e n di
c um ne (1 0 .

C OKE , —Ju r i sdi c t i on i s a p ower i n trodu c ed


f or th e pu bl i c good o n ac c ou n t of th e n ec e ssi ty
,

of ex p ou n di n g t h e l aw .

1082 . Ju r i s pr u d e n t i a e st di v i n ar u m at qu e
h u m an ar um r erum n o t i ti a ; j u s ti at qu e i nj u s ti
s ci e n t i a . D
( GI . 1 1. . 10 .
— Ju r i spru den c e i s th e
kn owl edge of t h i n gs di v i n e an d h u m an ; th e
sc i en c e of j u st an d th e u n j us t
th e .

10 8 3 .Ju r i s p r u d e n t i a l e gi s c c m m n n i s An gli a
e st s c i e n ti a s o s i ali s e t c o pi o s e (7 C O K E .
,

—Th e j u ri spru den c e of th e c om m on law of Eu


l a d i s a i i ab l a n d c e pi ous
g n sc e n ce soc e . .

10 84 .J u s accr e s c e n di i n t e r m e r c at o r e s , pr o
b e n e fi s i o c o m m e r ci i , l o cu m n o n h ab e t (C O K E .
,

.

LI TT 1 82 a ) Th e r i gh t of su rv i vor sh i p does
. .

n ot e xi st am on g m erc h an t s f or th e ben efi t of

c om m e rc e .

10 85 . ccr e sc e n di
J us a pr a f e r tu r on e r i b us .

(C O K E ,
LI TT 1 8 5 a ) —Th e
. . . r i gh t of s ur v i vorsh i p
is pr ef erred t o i n c u m bran c es .

10 86 . ccr e s c e n di pr a f e r t ur u l n a
Ju s a

v o l u n e ti
t (C
. O K E L I TT 1 8 5 b ) — T h
,
e r i g h t o f . . .

su rvi vor sh i p i s p r ef er r ed t o a l ast wi ll .

1 0 8 7 J u s c i v i l e e s t qu o d qui s qu e si b i p opu
.

l us c on s t i t u i t (I N S T 1. 2 — C i v il l aw i.s th at . .

wh i c h e ac h n ati o n h as estab l i sh ed f or i tself .

10 88 .

J ns co n sti t ui o p or t s t in hi s q u a ut

pl ur i m u m ac c i du n t , n on qu a ex i n o pi n at o .

Th e law ou gh t to be e sta bl i sh ed to m ee t t h ose


1 36 LEG AL M AXI M S .

an d wh at i s h on e s t ; wh at S h ou l d b e do n e an d

wh at avo i ded .

10 98 . J us i n fi e s ti gr e ti e , n e c f r an g i p o
us e

t e n t i a, n ec a d u l t e r ari p e c u n i e p o t e s t (CI C E RO ) . .

— Favor o u gh t n ot to b e ble t o b en d j u s t i c e
a ,

p o w er to war p i t ,
n or m o n e y t o c orr u p t i t .

1099 . Ju s n on h ab e n t i , tute n on p ar e t u r .

H
( BO .
— It i s n ot saf e to Obey h i m wh o
h as n o r i gh t .

1 100 . Ju s n on p ati tu r ut i de m b i s s o l v e t ur .

(.WH ART .
— Th e law does n o t su ff er th e sam e

t h i n g t o be p ai d t wi c e .

1 10 1 . Ju s n on s cri pt u m t aci t e st i lli t e r at e


h om i n u m c on s e n su, st m or i b u s e x pr e s s u m .

(T AY L E R ,
— Th e u n w r i t te n law i s S x pr ess ed

by th e tac i t an d i g n oran t c o n sen t an d c u stom s

of th e pe ople .

1 102 . Jns

p u b li cum et pr i v at u m qu o d ex

n at ur ali b u s pr a c e p t i s a n t g e n ti u m, an t c i v i li b u s

e st c oll e c t u m
,
e t qu e d in jur e s c r i pt s . (C O K E ,

LI TT . 1 58 . b .

) P u b li c an d v
ir i vat e l aw i s t h at
wh i c h i s c ol l e c te d f r om n atu r a p r i n c i p l e s ,
e i t h e r

of n ati on s or in s tates , an d w h a t i s i n w r i t te n
l aw .

1 10 3 Ju s p u b li cu m m p ac t i s m u t ari

.
p r i v at o r u

n on p ot e s t .
(D I G 2 . . 14 .

A p u bl i c l aw
c an n ot b e c h an ged b y th e agre e m e n t of p ri v ate
p art i es .

1 10 4 J us o u n i v e r si t at e s n tun t u r , e st
.
q u

i d em qu o d b eb en t p r i v a t i .
(1 6 MA S S .
LEGAL MAXI M S .

Th e law wh i c h gover n s c orpor ati on s i s th e sam e

wh i c h govern s i n di v i du als .

1 10 5 . J us r e spi c i t a q u i t e t e m .
(C O K E , LI TT .

24 b. .
) — Law r egar ds equ i t y .

1106 . Ju s s an g ui n i s , qu e d i n l e gi ti m u s su cc e s
s o r i b us , s p e c t at u r i pso n ati v i t ati s t e m p o r e qu es

ti um e st .
(H AL K .
—Th e r i gh t of blood wh i c h
i n legi ti m ate su ccessi on i s c on si der ed, is so ugh t

f or at th e ti m e o f b i r th .

1107 . Ju s s u m m um sa pe s u mm a e s t m al i t i a .

(T AY L E R, —Law too severe doe s th e m ost


h arm .

1 10 8 . Ju s s u p e r v e n i e n s au s t o r i e s c r e s s i t s u c

c e s s or i .
(H A L K .
—A r i gh t gr ow i n g to a per

son acc ru es t o th e su c c e ssor .

1 10 9 . J u s t e s t am e n t or n m p e r t i n e t o r di n ar i o .

( WHA RT .
—Th e r i gh t of testam en ts belon gs
to th e or di n ary .

1 1 10 . J u s t r i pl ex
; p r o p r i e t at i s ,
p
e sto sse s

si o n i s , e t p o s s i b i li t ati s (W H A R T .
— R i gh t .

i s th ree f old ; of p roper ty of p ossessi on an d of


-

, ,

possi b ili ty .

1111 Ju s v e n di t qu e d n s u s app r ob av i t .

( E L L E S P O S.T — T h e
. l a w d i sp en s e s w h at u se

h as approv e d .

'

1112 . J u sj u r an di f or m a v erbi s di fi e r t , re

c on v e ni t ; hun c s ui m se n su m h ab e r e d e b e t , ut

D eu s i n v o s e tu r .
(G R OT I U S , 2. 13 .

Th e
f orm of t ak i n g an di ff ers i n w or ds yet agr ees
o at h ,

i n m e an i n g ; f or i t ou gh t to h ave th i s se n se, th at
th e De i ty be i n vok ed .
1 38 LEGAL MA I M S X .

1113 . Jusj ur an du m i n t er al i o s f a ct u m n es

no ce r e n ec p r o d e s s e de b e t .
(4 IN S T .
—Au
oath m ade am on g oth er s Sh ou l d n ei th er h arm n or

profi t .

11 14 . J u ati ti a d e b e t e ss e li b e r a, qui a n i hi l

i ni qu i u s v e n ali j us ti t i a ; p l e n a,
qu i a j u s t i t i a n on

d e b et cl au di c ar e ; et s c l e r i a, qu i a di l ati o e st

qu a d am n e g at i o .
(2 IN S T . J u sti c e ou gh t
-

to b e un bou gh t becau se ,
n oth i n g i s m or e h atef u l
th an ven al j u st i c e ; f ree , f or j u sti c e sh ou ld n ot

sh u t ou t ; an d qui c k ,
f or del ay i s a sor t o f den i al .

1115 . J u s t i ti a e st c o n s t an s
per p e t u a v o l u n
st

t as j us su u m c u i q u e t r i b u e n di
(I N S T 1 . . .

Ju sti c e i s th e c on st an t an d pe r pe t u al desi re to

g i ve t o ever y on e h i s du e .

1116 . J u sti t i a d u p l e x ; v i m , s e v e r e pu n i e n s
e st

st v er e pr a v eu i e n s ( 3 I.N S T E P IL ) — Jus t i
. c e .

i s dou b le ; pu n i sh i n g wi th sever i t y , an d preven t in g


wi th len i ty .

1117 . J uat i t i a e st li b e r t at e p r i o r s . H
( A LK .

—Ju sti ce is pri or t o l i bert y .

1118 . Ju s ti ti a e st v ir tus s x s e ll e n s et A l ti s
si m o c o m pl ac e u s .
(4 IN S T .
—J u sti ce is an

e xcell en t v i rt u e, an d pleasi n g t o th e M o s t H i gh .

1119 . J u s ti t i a fi r m e t u r s oli u m .
(3 I N S T .

-
By j ust i c e t h e th r o n e i s s tr e n g th en ed .

'

1 1 20 . Ju s t i ti a a s mi n i n e g an da e st . (J E N E
—Jus ti c e
.

CEN T . sh ou ld be den i ed t o no

on e .

1 1 21 . Jus ti ti a n o n e s t n e g an da n on
,
di fi er e n da .
1 40 LEGAL MAXI MS .

1 1 28 . L a l e y f av o ur l a v i e d u n h o m e (Y E A R ’
.

B HE N
. . VI .
—Th e law f avors th e l i f e of a
m an .

L e l e y f av o u r l i n h e r i t an c e d un h o m e
’ ’
1 1 29 . .

(Y E A R B H E N v i — .T h e l a w f
. av o r.s a m a

n s

i n h e r i tan c e .

pl u s te s t s u fi e r n u m i s chi e f s
'

1 1 30 . L e l ey v oi t

q u e nu i n c o n v e ni e n c e (L I TT g
.23 1 ) — T h e l.aw .

wo u ld rath er s u ff er a m i sc h i ef th an an i n c on ve
n i en c e .

1 1 31 . Le p r o pr i e t e des c h os e s m ob li ar e s es t

a cqu i s i a l en e mi

m om e n t q u ’e ll e s sont e n p ui s
s an s e ; et si il lso v en d s h sz n ati o n n e u tr e s
,
ls pr e m i e r e p p
r o r i e t at e r

n e st p oi n t e n dr o i t ds
les re e pr e n dr e . (T AY L E R ,
—Pr operty in
th i n gsperson al i s q u i r ed by an e n em y at th e
ac

m om e n t t h ey are i n h i s po wer ; an d i f h e se ll
th em am o n g n e u tral n at i on s th e fi r st p r opr i etor
,

h as no r i gh t to r e ta ke th em .

1 1 32 . L ate c ul pa d ol o a qu i p ar e t u r .
(2 BO U .

—Wi lf u l n eg l i ge n c e is e qu al to dec e i t .

1 13 3 . L au de t ur q u e d o m u s c o n gr o s c ui pr os
pi s i t agr e e .
(9 C O K E ,
—Th e h ou se i s adm i red
wh i c h c om m an ds an e x te n si ve v i e w o f th e fi e lds .

1 1 34 . L aw c o n st r u e t h e v e r y a c t t o b e l aw f u l ,
wh en i t s t an d e t h i n di ff e r e n t w h e th e r i t b e l aw
f ul or n ot . ( WI N G .

1 1 35 . L aw c o n st r u e t h th i n gs ac c or di n g to
c omm o n p o s si b i li t y or i n t e n dm e n t .
(W I N G .

1 1 36 . L aw c ons t r u e t h thi n g s to th e b e st .

(WING .
LEGAL MA I MS X . 1 41

1 1 37 . L aw c o n s tr u e t h thi n g s w i th e qui ty an d

m o d e r ati o n .
(W I N G .

1 1 38 . L aw di s f av o r e t h i m p o s si bi li ti e s .
( WIN G .

1 1 39 . L aw di sf av or e th i m pr ob ab ili ti ss .

( WI N G .

1 1 40 . L aw f av o r e t h c h ar i t y . ( WI N G .

1 1 41 . L aw f av o r e th c o m m on r i gh t . ( WIN G .

1 1 42 . L aw f av o r e t h di li g e n c e , an d t h e r e f ore
h at e th f oll y an d n e gli g e n ce .
(FIN C H , LAW . 1 .

3.

1 1 43 . L aw f av or e t h h o n or an d or de r . ( WI NG .

1 1 44 . L aw f av o r e th j us t i c e an d r i gh t . ( WIN G .

1 1 45 . L aw f av or e th li f e , li b e r t y , an d d ow er .

(14 BAC .

1 1 46 . L aw f av o r e th m u tu al re c om p en s e .

(F I N C H LA,W 1 3 . . .

1 1 47 L aw f av or e t h po s s es si o n w h e r e t h e
.

r i gh t i s e qu al
(FIN C H LA. W 1 3 , . . .

1 1 48 L aw f av or e th p u bli c c omm e r c e ( WI NG
. . .

1 1 49 . L aw f av or e t h p u b li c qui et .
( WI NG .

1 1 50 . L aw f av or e th s pe e di n g of m en ’
s c au s e s.

( WIN G .

1161 . L aw f av or e th th i n gs f or th e c omm on

w eal th .
( WING .
LE GAL MAXI N E .

1 1 52 . L aw f av or e t h tr u t h , f ai t h , an d c er

t ai n t y .
(W I N G .

1163 . L aw h at e t h d e l ay s .
(FI N C H , LAW . 1 .

3.

1 l 54 . L aw h at e t h n ew i n v e n ti o n s an d in
n o v ati o n s .
(W I N G . 204)
1 1 55 . L aw h at e t h wr o n g .
(FI N C H , LAW . 1 .

3 .

1 1 56 . L aw i ts e lf pr ej u di c e th no m an .
(FI N C H ,

LAW 1 3 . . .

'
1 1 57 . L aw p e c t e th m at t e r of s u b s t an ce
r es

m o r e t h an m at t e r of ci r c u m s t an c e (FIN C H L A W .
, .

1 3 . .

1 1 58 . L aw r es p e c t e th p o s si bi li t y of t hi n gs .

(FIN C H L A W 1 3 , . . .

1 1 59 L a w r e s p e ct e th
. th e b o n ds of n at ur e .

(FI N C H LA W 1 3 , . . .

1 160 Le c o n t r at f e i t l a l oi (2 BO U
—Th
. . .

e c on tr ac t m ake s t h e l aw .

116 1 L e l e y d e D i e u e t l e l e y d e t er r s
.

s e n t t o u t n u , s t l u n s t l au t r s pr e f e rr s e t f av o ur
’ ’

is c o mm on s t p u b li qu e b i e n de l t e rr e (KE I L . .

—Th e law of God an d th e law of th e l an d


ar e all on e ; an d both p ref er an d f avor t h e c om

mon an d pu bli c g ood of th e l an d .

1162 L e l e y e s t i s p l u s h an t e n h s ri t en c s
.

le p ar l e l e y , ii m e s m s e t t o u t s
a d, c ar
qu e y ro

s es s uje t s s e n t r ul e s , s t S i i s l e y n o f ui t , n u l

r oy no n ul e n h e r i t an ce s e rr e .
(2 BO U .

Th e l aw i s th e h i g h est i n h eri tan c e th at th e ki n g


LEGAL MAXIM S .

1 1 70 . L e ge s et c o n s t i t u ti o n e s f u t ur i s s er tu m
e st d ar e f or m e m n e g o ti i s n on e d f ac t a pr a t e r i t a
r ev o car e , n i si n o m i n ati m .
(T AYL E R ,
—L a w s

an d c on sti tu ti o n s are m ade to g i v e f or m to f u tu re


,

tr an sac t i on s, an d m ay n o t be ref err e d t o m atters

alread y past an d t e rm i n ate d .

1 1 71 L e g e s fi ge n di e t r e fi g e n di
. c o n s u e t u do
e s t p e r i c ul o s i s s i m a
(4 C O K E ,
P R E E . .
) — T h e c us

t om of m aki n g an d u n m a ki n g l aws i s m os t dan


g er on s .

1 1 72 . L e g e s h u m an a n as c u n t u r , v i v u n t, s t

m or i u n t ur .
(7 C O K E ,
—Hu m an laws ar e b orn ,
l i ve, an d di e .

1 1 73 . L e gs s n at u r a p e r f e c t i s s i m a s u u t, st

i mm u t e b i l e s ; h u m an i v e r o j u ri s c o n di ti o sem pe r
i n i n fi n i t u m d e c u r r i f, e t n i h il e st in so q n o d
p er pe tu o s t ar e p o s ai t .
(7 CO K E ,
—Th e laws
of n at ur e ar e perf ec t an d i m m u table ; b u t t h e c on

di ti on of h u m an law ten ds al wa s y t o i n fi n i ty ,
an d th ere i s n o th i n g i n i t th at c an c on ti n u e per
pe tu al l y .

1 1 74 . L e gs s n on v erbi s ss d r e b us su u t im
p o si t a .
(1 0 C O KE , —Laws ar e i m pose d on

th i n gs, n ot on words .

1 1 75 . L e gs s p o s t e r i o r e s pr i or e s c o n tr ari as
ab r o g en t . (2 RO L .
— Later laws abr ogate
pr i o r c on trary laws .

1 1 76L e g e s qu a
. r e t r o s pi c i u n t r ar e , s t m agn a
c u m cau ti on s s uu t a dh i b e n da .
(T A Y LE R ,
LEGAL MAXIMS . 1 45

—Retrospecti ve laws are rare, an d sh ou ld be


re c e i ved wi th great c au ti on .

1 1 77 . L eg s s s u um li g e n t l at or em . (FLE TA ,

1 . 17 .
—Laws sh ou ld bi n d th ose wh o m ake
th em .

1 1 78 . L e gs s v i gi l an ti b u s, n on dor mi e n ti b us
su b v e n i un t . (5 JO H N S . CH . 1 22 .
—Laws ai d
th e vi gi lan t , n ot th e n egl i gen t
. .

1 1 79 L s gi b u s s u m pti s d e si n e n ti b u s,
. l e gs
n at ur a u t en du m e st . (2 RO L .
—Laws im
posed by th e S tate f ail i n g, we m u st ac t by th e
law of n atu re .

1 180 . L e gi s c on st r u ct i o n on f e ci t i ndur i am .

(C O KE , LI TT . 1 83 a )—Th e
. . c on stru c ti on of th e
law does no h arm .

1181 . L e gi s mi n i s t e r n on t e n e t ur , i n e x ec u

t i on s o fi c i i s ui , f u g e r e e u t r e t r o e d e r e . c (BRANC H

,

PR .
) Th e m i n i ster of t h e l aw i s boun d i n th e
exec u ti on of his Offi ce , n ei th er to flee n or re

Heat
1182 . L e gi s v i r tu s ha s e st ; i m p er ar e , v o te r s ,

pe r m i tt er s , pu n i r s .
(C A L . LE X )—Th e vi rt u e of
.

th e law i s th i s ; t o c omm an d, f orbi d, permi t , an d

p u n i sh .

1 183 . L e gi sl at o r um e st vi v a v e x , r e b us et

n on v er b i s, l e g e m i m p on e r e (1 0 CO KE
—Th
.
,

e voi ce of legi slator s i s a li vi n g voi ce, to


i m pose laws on th i n gs, n ot on wor ds .

1 184 . L egi ti m e i m p e r an t i p ar e r e n ec e sse est .


1 46 LEGAL M AXIM S .

(JE N K . CE N T .
—It is n ec essar y t o obe y on e
wh o l egi ti m ately c o m m an ds .

1186 . L e gu m om n e s s e rv i s nm u s, ut li b e r i
e s se p o s s um u s .
(T AY LE R ,
—W e are al l

S laves t o t h e l aw, i n orde r th at we m ay becom e


f ree .

1186 . L e s fi c ti o n s n ai s s e n t d a l a l oi , et n on

l a l oi d e s fi ct i on s .
(2 BO U .
—Fi c ti on s ari se

f rom th e l aw, an d n ot th e law f rom fi c ti on s .

1 187 . L e s l oi s e x tr e m e s de n s l s b i en f on t
n e i tr s is m e] e x tr e m e . (T AY LE R ,
—Laws
e xtrem e i n g ood, p rodu c e e xt rem e i n ev i l .

1188 L e s l e i s n o s e c h ar g e n t d e p u n i r qu e
.

l e s act i o n s e x t e r i e u r s s (MO N T E S E s D E S L OIS,


. . .

12 .
—Laws do n ot u n de rta ke to pu n i s h oth er

th an ou tward ac t i on s .

1 189 . L e s t e stm do i v e n t ri e n t e s m f or s c eo

q u e i ls s oi e n t do c e r t ai n, s. c eo qu e i ls v ar e n t

ou oy r o n t . (BE S T ,
Ev .
—Wi tn esses sh ou ld

testif y t o n oth i n g u n l ess t h ey are c er tai n of i t,


th at i s, u n less th ey h av e se en or h ear d i t .

1 1 90 . Levi s ex c e pti o e x cu s at e s po li e ( T RAY . .

—A sli gh t def en se exc us es f rom th e s e n se

qu e n ee s o f a plu n der .

1191 . L ax a q n i t a t e ; p
g a
puedt i
et t p e r f e c t a

um ; e st n or m a r e ct i (J E N
. K C E N T — . Th e .

law del i gh ts i n equi ty ; i t c ove ts perf ec ti on ; i t

is a ru le of r i gh t .

1 192 . L ex ali q u an d o s e q u i t ur a qu i t e t e m .
(3
WILS .
—Law som eti m es f ollows e qu i ty .
l 48 LEGAL M Ax ms .

1 20 1 . L e x d e f u t u r o , j u d e x d e pr a t e r i t o .

BOU .
—Th e l aw provi des f or th e f u tu re ; th e
j u dge f or t h e p as t .

1 20 2 . L e: d e fic er e
p o t e s t i n j u s ti t i a e x n on

hi b e n da (C O K E L I TT .1 9 —
7 b ) Th e law ou gh t
, . . .

n ot to f ail i n di spe n s m g j u s ti c e .

1 20 3 L e x dil at i o n e s s e m p e r e x h o r r e t
. .

IN ST .
—Th e law al ways abh or s delays .

1 20 4 L e x e s t ab a t e r n o (J E N K C E N T
—Th e
. . . .

law i s f rom t h e e ve rlasti n g .

1 20 5 . L ex e st a ni ma r e gi s , e t r e x e s t an i m a

l e gi s . (B RA N C H PR ) — Th e ,
. l aw i s t h e sou l of

th e ki n g , an d th e ki ng i s th e sou l O f th e law .

1 20 6 . L ex e st di c t am e n r at i o n i s . J
( NK
E .

CE N T .
— Law i s th e di c tate of r easo n .

1 20 7 . L ex e st e x er c i tu s j u di c u m t u ti s si m u s
du c t o r .
(2 IN S T .
—Th e l aw i s th e s af est

l eader Of t h e arm y O f j u dge s .

1 20 8 . L ex e st n or m a r e c ti .
(2 BO U .

Law i s a r u le o f r i gh t .

1 20 9 . L ex e st r at i o s u m m a, qu a j u b et q u a

su n t u t i li a et ne c e s s ar i a, e t c o n t r ar i a pr o hi b e t .

(CO K E LI TT 3 1 9
, . . b ) — La w i s t h e h i g h est r e aso n
.
,

wh i c h c omm an ds t h ose t h i n gs th at are u se f u l

an d n ec essar y , an d f or bi ds wh at is c on trar y
th ere t o .

1210 . L ex e st s an c t i o s an ct a, j u b e n s h o n e s t a ,
et
pr o hi b ens c e n t r ar i a .
(2 I N S T —. T h e l a w
is a sac r e d s an c t i o n , c o m m an di n g wh at i s h on or
a ble , an d f or b i ddi n g wh a t i s c o n trar y .
LEGAL M AXI M S .

1 21 1 . L e: e st t u t i s si m a c as si s ; s u b c ly pe o
l e gi s n em o d e c i pi t u r .
(2 IN S T — .L aw i s t h e

saf es t h el m e t ; u n der th e shi eld of th e l aw no

on e i s dec ei ved .

1212 . L ex f aci t r e ge m .
(LOFFT ,
—Law
m akes t h e k i n g .

121 3 . L ex f av e t d ot i .
(J E N E . CE N T .

T h e l aw f av ors dower .

'

1 214 . Lex fi n gi t ubi s u b s i s ti t a qu i t a s .

(BRA N C H , PB .
) —T h e law f ei gn s wh er e e qu i ty

su bsi sts .

121 5 . L ex fi n gi t u bi s u b s ti t i t aqu i t as .

(H A L K .
—Th e l aw f e i g n s wh er e e qu i ty w i th

stan ds .

121 6 . L ex ha r e di t at e s li b e r as e sse v ul t n on

in p e r p e t u um as t r i c t as . —T h e law
wi sh es i n h er i tan c e to b e f ree to th ose n ot str i c tl y
b ou n d f or all ti m e .

1 21 7 . L e x i nj u s t a n on e st l ex .
(LOFFT
—Ah
,

u n u st j l aw i s n ot a l aw .

121 8 . L e x i n t e n di t v i c i n um v i c i ni f ac t a s ci r e .

(CO KE , LI TT 78 b . . .
) — T h e l aw pr esu m es on e n e i gh

b or t o kn ow th e ac t i on s Of an oth er .

121 9 . L ex j u di c at de r eb u s n e c e s sar i o f ac i e n
di s qu as i re i p s a f ac ti s .
(W HA R T — T. h e

law j u dg es of th ose th i n gs wh i c h m ust n ec essar ily


be don e , as if ac tu all y do n e .

1 2 20 . L e x m e r c at o r i a e st l ex t e r r a .
(T A Y

LE R, — Th c m erc an t i le l aw i s th e l aw of

th e l an d .
1 50 LEGAL MAXIMS .

1 22 1 . c e s si t at i s e s t l e x t e m por i s, i e ,
L ex ne . .

i n s t an t i s (H O B .
— T h e l aw O f n ec
. e sm ty i s

th e law of t i m e th at i s Of th e presen t , , .

1 2 22 L e x n e m i n e m c o gi t ad v an a s e u i n u
.

t i li a p e r ag e n d a (5 C O K E T h e
. l aw f o r c es ,
-

n o on e t o do vai n or u se less t h i n gs .

1 223 . L ex n e mi n em c o gi t os t e n de r e qu o d
n e sc e r e pr a s um i tu r .
(LOFFT ,
—T h e l aw
o bli ges n o on e to S h ow wh at h e i s presu m ed n ot
to kn ow .

1 22 4 . L ex n e mi n i o p e r at u r i n i qu u m , n e mi ni

f aci t i njur i am .
(J E N K . CE N T .
— Th e law works
h arm t o n o O n e , an d doe s n o O n e an i n j u ry .

1 22 5 . L ex l f a ci t f r u s t r a ; n i l j u b e t f r u s t r a
ni .

(3 BUL S .
—Th e law does n oth i n g vai n ly ;
c om m an ds n oth i n g v ai n l y .

1 2 26 . L ex n on a r ege e st v i o l an da. (JE N K .

CE N T .
— Th e l aw sh ou l d n ot be v i ol ate d by
th e ki n g .

1 22 7 . Lex n on c o gi t ad i m p o s si b i li a .
(C O KE ,

LI TT . 92 . a .
) — T h e l aw f or c e s n ot to i m p osai
b i li t i es .

1 22 8 . c o n si li a n u d a, s e d ac t u s aper
L ex n on

t o s r e s pi c i t (L OFFT .
— Th e l aw regar ds n ot ,

m ere i n te n t i on s b u t open ac ts , .

1 229 L e x n o n d e fi c i t i n j u s ti t i a e x hi b e n da
. .

J C T T l aw doe s n ot f ai l i n sh ow
( E N E E.N h e .
-

i n g j u sti c e .

1 2 30 L e x n o n e x act e d e fini t , s e d ar bi tr i o
.

b on i v i r i p er m i t t i t (T AY LE R — T h e l aw
.
,
LEGAL M AXI M S .

1 2 40 pun i t m e n dac i um (JE NK CENT


. L ex . . .

—Th e law pu n i sh es a l i e .

1 2 41 L e : p u r e p a n e li a O bli gat t an t um ad
.

p a n am , n o n i t e m ad c u l p am ; l e x pa n ali s mi x t a
e t a d c u l p am O b li gat , e t a d pa n am T AY
( LE R .
,

294 —. Th e m erely p en al l aw bi n ds On l y as to
p en al ty n ot as t o f au lt ; th e m i xed pe n al l aw
,

bi n ds bo th t o f au l t an d t o p en alty .

1 2 42 . L ex re j t
i c i s u p e r flu a, p u g n an t i a
,
i n c on
gr u a .
( JE N E . CEN T .
— Th e law j
re e c ts su per
flu ous , c o n t r adi c tor y , an d i n c on gru ou s t hi n gs .

1 2 43 . Lex r e s pi c i t a q ui t at e m (1 4 Q. B . .

504 51 1
. .

Law
qu i ty r e gar ds e .

1 2 44 L e x s c r i pt a S i c e s s e t i d c u s t o di t i o por
.

t e t qu o d m o r i b u s e t c o n s u e t u di n e i n du c t um
es t e t S i q u a i n r e h o e d e f ec e r i t t u n e i d qu o d

p r o x i m u m et c o n s e qu e n s ai e s t, et Si id n on

app ar e at tun e j us q u o urb s R o m an a u t i t ur

s e rv ar i ( 7 op o r t e t .
,
t h e wr i tten CO K E —If
l aw be S i le n t, th at w h i c h i s drawn f rom m an
n ers an d c u stom s sh ou ld be ob se rve d ; an d i f

i n t h at an y th i n g i s de f e c ti ve th en th at wh i c h ,

is n e xt an d an alog ou s to i t ; an d if th at does
n ot p pe ar
a , th en th at law wh i c h Rom e used

Sh o u ld be f ollowed .

1 2 45 . Lex se m per d ah i t r e m e di um .
(3 BO U .

IN S T .
—Law wi l l al ways g i ve a r em edy .

1 2 46 . L e x s e m p e r i n t e n di t qu o d c o n v e n i t
r ati on i .
(C O K E L I TT ,7 8 b ) — T h e l.aw al w a y
. s .

i n ten ds wh at i s agreeable to reason .


LEGAL m xm s . 1 53

1 2 47 . Lex s p e c t at n at u r es or di n e m . (C O K E ,

LITT . 1 97 b . .
) — l
’ ‘
h e l aw r egar ds th e or der of

n atu re .

1 2 48 . L e: s u c c ur r i t i gn o r an t i .
(J E N K . CE N T .

— Th e law assi st s t h e i gn oran t .

1 2 49 . L ex un o or e om n e s al l o q ui tur .
(2
IN ST .
—Th e law s pe aks to all w i th on e

m ou th .

1 2 50 . L ex v i gi l an t i b u s n on d o r mi e n t i b u s
su b v e n i t . (1 STO RY , CO N T R .
—Law assi sts

t h e w ake f u l , n ot th e slee pi n g .

1 25 1 . Lex v ult p o ti n s m al u m qu am i n coa


v e ni e n s .
(LOFFT , 57 —T b e law desi g n s r ath e r

p u n i sh m e n t t h an i nc on ve n i e n c e .

'

1 2 52 . L i b e r at a p e c u ni a n on li b e r at Ofier e n

t e rn .
(C O K E , LI T T . 207 a )
.
—Mon ey be i n g
. re

store d does n o t se t f re e th e p arty Ofi er i n g .

1 253 . L i b e r i p ar e n ti b u s qu i n e qu e an t v i c t u m
t ol e r ar e o pi t u l an t o r (L OFFT
.
,
— C h i l d re n

sh ou ld aS S l S t t h e i r pare n ts , if t h ey ar e u na b le
to su pp ort t h e m se lves .

1 2 54 . L i b e r t asqui s qu e qu o d v e li t
e st cum

f ac i at m o d o s e c u n d u m l e g e s , b o n as , c o m m un i
c o n s e n s u l at as, c e r t as pr a fi n i t a s, ap e rt as (LOFFT .
,

—Li b er ty i s t h e p r i v i le ge of dom g wh at on e
p leases su bjec t t o c ertai n goo d predete rm i n ed
, ,

l aws e n ac ted by c om m o n c o n sen t


, .

1 25 5 Li b e r t a s e s t n at u r ali s f ac ul t as ej us
.

qu i d e ni g u a f ac e r e l i b e t , n i s i qu o d d e j u r e au t
vi pr o hi b e t ur ( C O K E L I TT
. 1 1 6 b ) —Li be r ty, . . .
1 54 LEGAL mu m s .

i s th at n at ural f ac u lty wh i c h all ows ever on ey


to do yth i n g h e pleases e xcep t that wh i ch
an ,

i s proh i bi ted by law or f or ce .

1 2 56 Li b e r t as e st p ot e st as f aci e n di i d qu ad
.

j ur e li c e at (T YLE R 296
A .
— Li berty i s th e power
, .

of doi n g wh at i s allowe d by law .

1 2 5 7 Li b e r t as e s t r e s i n e s ti m ab i li s
. J
( Nx
E . .

C EN T .
—Li berty i s an i n esti m able th in g .

1 2 58 . L i b e r t as e st s ui q u e m qu e j u r i s di m i t
t e n di ac r e t i n e n di e s se d omi n u m .
( H A L K
—Li berty i s
.

r i gh t al i en ate or restrai n on e s

th e to
own r i gh t .

1 2 59 . L i b er tas n on r e c i pi t a s ti m ati o n e m .

(B RA C T l 4 ) —Li b.er ty . does n ot adm i t of val ua

ti on .

1 26 0 . L i b e r t as n u ll o pr ati o pe n s ab i li s (Lom .
,


Li ber ty h as no pri ce .

1 26 1 L i b e r t as O m ni bus r ebus f av or ab i li or
e st . ( DI G . 50 1 7. .
—Li berty i s m ore f avored
t h an all t hi n gs .

1 26 2 . Li b e r t at e s r e g al e s ad c or on am s pe c
t an t e s c on c e s si o n e r e g um a c or o n a e xi e run t
ex .

(2 IN S T — R
. o y a l f r an c h i se s r el at i n g t o t h e

c rown depart f rom th e c rown by c on se n t of


, ,

th e sover ei gn .

1 26 3 L i b e r ti n u m i n gr at u m l e ge s ci v i l e s i n
.

p r i s t i n am s e r v i t u t e m r e di g u n t ; s e d l e g e s A n

g l i a s e m e l m a n u m i ssu m s e m p er li b e r u m j u di
c an t . (CO K E , LI TT . 1 37 b . .
) -
Th e c i vi l laws
redu c e an u n gr atef u l f reem an to h i s ori gi n al
1 56 LEGAL m xm s .

vi n ul u m
c fi de i .
(CO KE LI TT 1 29 , . . a .

) Allegi anc e
i s, as i t w ere , t h e e ssen c e of l aw ; i t i s th e c h ai n

of f ai th .

1 2 71 . Li g e an ti a n at ur ali s , n ul li s c l au st r i s

c o e r c e t u r , n u lli s m e ti s r e f ra n at ur , n ul l i s fi ni b u s
p r e m i t ur .
(7 CO K E , —N atu ral allegi an c e i s
restr ai n edby n o b arri e rs , c u rb e d by n o bou n ds ,

c om presse d by n o l i m i ts .

1 2 72 . L i gn a et l api de S s u b ar m or um a pp e ll a
ti on e n on c on t i n e n t u r .
(BRA C T .
—S ti c k s
an d sto n es are n ot c on tai n ed u n der th e n am e

of ar m s .

1 2 73 . Li n e a r e c ta e st i n de x s ui et O b li qui ;
lex e st li n e a re cti .
(C O K E , LI TT . 1 58 b . .

) A
r i gh t li n e i s an i n dex of i tse lf an d o f an Obli que ;
law i s a li n e of r i gh t .

1 2 74 . Li n ea rect a se m p e r pr a f e r t ur t r an s
v e r s all C O LIT T —
b ) Th e ri gh t li n e i s
.
( K E, . 10 . .

al w a y s pre f err ed t o th e c ol later al .

1 2 75 . Li t era p at e n t e s r e gi s n o n Gr un t v a cu a .

(1 BU LS .
—Letters pate n t of th e ki n g shall n ot
-

be v oi d .

1 2 76 . L i t i b us i m po n i t fi ni s fi n e m .
(3 I N S T .

— A fi ne pu ts an en d t o l i ti gati on .

1 2 77 . L i ti s n om e n , om n e m a ct i on e m S i gu i

fi c at, s i v e i n r e m , si v e in pe r s on am Si t. (C O KE ,

LI T T . 292 . a ).
—Th e n am e of l awsu i t si gn ifi es e very
ac ti on , wh eth er i t be f or th e th i n g, or agai n st
th e pe rson

1 2 78 L i tu s . e st qu ou squ e m ax i m u s fi u c t us a
LEGAL MAXI M S . 1 57

m ari p e r v e n i t . D
( IG . 50 . 16 .
—Th e sh ore

i s wh ere th e h i gh est wave f r om th e sea h as


reac h e d .

1 2 79 . L o c us c on t r act u s r e si t ‘

a ct u n .
(2
KE NT , CO M .
—Th e place of th e c on trac t

govern s t h e ac t .

1 28 0 L o cu s pr o s ol u t i on e r e di t u s
. au t pe cu n i a
s e cun du m c o n di ti o n e m di m i s si o n i s an t o b li ga

t i on i s , ct e o b s e r v an du s (4 CO KE
e st s tr i .
,

A pl ac e f or th e paym en t of ren t or m on ey ac ,

c or di n g t o t h e c on di ti on of a lease or bon d sh oul d ,

be str i c tly Observ e d .

1 28 1 L o n ga p ati e n t i a t r ahi tu r a d c on s e n su m
. .

(F L E T A 4 ,
— L o n.
g s u ff eran c e i s c on s tr u ed as

c on se n t .

1282 . L o n ga p oss e s si o e st paci s j u s .


(C O KE ,

LI TT . 6 . b .
) -
Lon g possessi on i s th e law of

pe ac e .

1 28 3 . p oss e ssi o p ar i t j u s po ssi d e n di ,


L o n ga

e t t o lli t act i on e m v e r o d o m i n o (C O K E L I TT .
, .

.

1 1 0 b ) Lon g posse ssi on pro du c es th e ri gh t of
.

possessi on an d takes away an ac ti on f rom th e


,

tru e o wn er .

1 28 4 . L on gu m e st i t e r p e r p r e c e pt a ; b r e v e
et e fi c ax p e r s t at u t e . —Th e way i s l on g th at i s
m arke d ou t by pr ec epts ; sh or t an d c er tai n wh e n
i n di c ated by statu te s .

1 28 5 . L o n g um t e m p us et l on g na-
usus, q u i
e x c e di t m e m o r i am h o m i n um , su fi c i t pr o j ur e .

CO
( KE ,
LI TT . 1 15 . a .
) —Lo n g tim e an d l on g u se ,
1 58 LEGAL m x ms .

wh i c h exc ee ds th e m e m ory of m an , su fii c es in
law .

1 28 6 . L o q u e n du m ut v u l g us ; s e n t i en du m ut

d o c ti .
(7CO KE , —Spe ak as th e ordi n ar y pe o

l
p ;e th i n k as th e lear n e d .

1 28 7 . L u at i n c o r p or e , S i n on h ab e t i n l ocu l o .

(T AY LE R , — H e m u st su ff er in body ,
i f he
h as n ot h i n g in his pur se .

1 28 8 . L u b r i c am li n gu a n o n f ac i l e t r ah e n du m
e st in pa n am .
(C RO C AR .
— A S l i p.o f
th e ton gu e S h oul d n ot l i gh tly b e gi ven to pu n i sh
m en t .

1 28 9 . L u c e t i p sa p e r s e a qu i t as (R I L E Y ,
.

Equ i ty sh i n es by h e r own li gh t .

1 290 . L u c r u m f ac e r e e x p u pi lli t u t e l a t u tor


n on deb e t .
(1 JOHN S . CH . N Y . . 527 .

A gu ar di an ou gh t n o t to m ake m on ey ou t Of

th e gu ar di an sh i p O f h i s ward .

1 29 1 . L u n at i on s q ui g au de t i n l u c i di s i n t e r
v al li s .
(4 C O K E ,
— He i s a lun ati c wh o en j oys
l uc i d i n ter vals .

M .

1 29 2 M agi s di gn am t r ahi t ad s e mi nu s
.

di gn am (Y E A R B. 20 H E N V I 2,
A R
. G ) — T h e . . .

m or e worth y draws to i tse l f th e less worth y .

1 29 3 M agi s t e r r e ru m u s u s ; m agi s tr a r at um
.
LEGAL MA IM S X .

on e of us f rom r i gh t an d t h e l aws th an f rom


par en ts .

1 30 2 . M aj o r nu m er u s i n s e c on t i n e t m i n or e m .

BRA CT .
—Th e g r e ate r n u m b er c o n t ai n s in
i t self t h e less .

1 30 3 . M ajor e pa na afi e c t u s qu am l e gi b u s
i n f am i a I T — O ne
s t at u t a e s t , n on e st .
(4 N S .

aff ec tedwi th a greater p u n i sh m en t t h an i s pr o


v i ded b l aw i s n ot i n f am ous
y .

1 30 4 . M ai n s e st d e li c t u m s e i psu m o cc i de r e
q u am ali u m . (3 IN S T .
— I t i s a greater c ri m e

to k i ll o n e s se l f

th an t o ki ll an oth er .

1 30 5 . M al a gr am m ati c a n on v i t i at c h ar t am .

Be d i n i n s t r u m e n t or u m m al a gr am
e x po s i t i o n e

m at i ca qu o a d fi e r i po s s i t e v i t an da e s t (6 CO KE , .

—Bad g r am m ar doe s n ot vi ti ate a dee d . Bu t


i n th e ex posi ti on of i n stru m en ts, b ad gram m ar ,
as f ar as possi ble ,
is to be avo ided .

1 30 6 . M al e r es se h ab e t c um q u o v i rtut e

e fii c i

d e b e at a t e n t at u r p e cu n i a .

T h at i s a b ad c ase wh erei n on e tr i e s t o ac com pli sh


wi th m oney th at wh i c h sh ou l d be p rom pted by
vi r t u e .

1 30 7 . M al e di c t a e x p o s i ti o e s t qu a c o r r u m pi t

t e x t um (4 CO
. KE , —I t is a b ad ex p osi ti on
th at c orr u p ts th e t e xt .

1 30 8 . M al e fi c i a n on de b e n t r e m an e r e im
pu n i t a ; et i m p u n i t as c o n ti n u u m afle c t um t ri b u i t
d e li n qu e n di .
(4 C O K E — ,Ev i l de eds S h ou l d

n ot r em ai n u n pu n i sh ed ; a n d i m p u n i ty aflor ds

c on ti n u al i n c i tem en t to th e deli n qu en t .
LEGAL q ms . 1

1 30 9 . M al e fi c i a pr oposi ti s di s ti n gu u n tu r .

(J E N K C E N T 290 E vi l . .
-
dee ds are di sti n gu i sh ed
f rom eVIl purp oses .

1 31 0 . M al i ti a e st ac i da, e st m all an i m i a i
f e c t us .
(2 B u s 49 . .
—Mali ce is sour ; i t i s th e
qu al i t y of a bad mi n d .
f
1 31 1 M ali t i a su ppl e t a t at e m .
(DYE R 1 04 )
—Mali ce
.
,

m akes up f or age.

1 31 2 . M al i ti i s h om i n u m (4 e st ob v i an dum .

CO KE ,
—Th e m ali ce of m en sh ould be avoi ded .

1 31 3 . M al i tii s h omi n u m n o n e st i n du l g e n dam .

(T RAY .
—Th e m ali ce of m en Sh ou ld n ot be
i n dulged .

1314 . M al u m n on h ab e t e fi c i en t e m , s e d de
fi c i en t e m c au sam .
(3 I N S T . PROEM .

Evil h as
n ot an efii c i en t, bu t a defi c i en t, c ause .

1 31 5 . M al u m n on p a su
r mi tu r .
(4 C OKE
—Evi l
,

is n ot presu m ed .

1 31 6 . M al um q u o c omm u n i u s eo p edg
u .

(W K AR T .
—Th e m ore c om m on an evi l i s,
th e worse .

1 31 7 . M ai ns u su s e st ab ol e n du s C
( OKE .
,

LI TT . 1 41 a ) —An e v il c ustom i s t o be ab ol
. .

i sh ad .

1 31 8 . M an dat a li ci t a r e c i pi u n t s t r i c t am i n t er
pr e t at i o n em ; se d i l li c i t a, l a t am et ex t e m m
(BAC . MAx .
—Lawf u l c om m an ds rec ei ve a

stri c t i n ter pre tati on ; bu t u n lawf u l, a wi de an d

broad i n terpretat i on .

1 319 . M an datar i us t e r m i n os si b i p osi t os tr an s


( )
1 1
16 2 LEGAL M Axm s .

gr e di n on p ot e st .
(JE N K . CE N T .
—A m an
datary c an n ot exc ee d th e bou n ds l aced u p on
p

1 320 M an dat u m n i si gr at ui tu m n u ll u m e st
. .

(DI G . 17 1 1 .
— Un l ess a m an date i s gratu i tous
. .
,

it is n ot a m an date .

M an e n u m m an e n d o,
'

1 32 1 . di c i tur a se c un

d um xc e ll e n t i am , s e de s m agn a, fi x a e t st ab i li s
e .

(CO K E L I TT ,
5 8 a ) — A m a n or i s c
. alle d f r o.m .

M AN E N D O a seat ac c or di n g t o i ts exc ellen c e


, , ,

gre at ,
fi xe d , an d fi rm .

1 322 . M an i f e s t a pr ob at i on e n on i n di ge n t .

(7 C O KE ,
-
Th i n gs m an i f est n ee d n o proof .

1 323 . M an u m i tt e r e , i de m e st qu o d e x tr a

m an u m v el p ot e s t at e m po n e r e .
(C O K E , LI TT .

1 37 . a .
) — T O m an um i t i s to plac e beyon d h an d
an d power .

1 324 . M en us m or t u a, qu i a po s s e s s i o e st im
m or tali s , m en u s pr o p o s s e s si on e e t m or t u a pr o
i m m or tal i (C O K E ,
LI TT . 2 b ) —M or tm ai n be . . .
,

c au se i t i s an i m m ort al p osse ssi on ; M AN U S stan ds


f or possessi on , an d M OR TUA f or i mm or tal .

1 32 5 . M ar i s et f a mi n a c o n u n c ti o
j e st de
j ur o n at u r a .
(7 COKE ,
—Th e c on n e c t i on of

m al e an d f em ale i s by th e law of n atu re .

1 32 6 . M ar i tagi u m e st au t li b e r u m au t ser

v i ti c o b li gat u m . (C O K E , LI TT . 21 b. .
) —A m ar
ri age port i on is e i th er f ree or bou n d to ser vi c e .

1 32 7 . M at r i m o n i a de b e n t e s se li b e r a .
(2
KE N T , COM .
—Marri age ough t to b e f r e e .
164 LEGAL MA I MS X .

1 337 M e li or dah i t n om e n r e i . (B RA N C H PR )

. .
,

Th e better g i ve s a n am e to a t h i n g .

1 338 . M e li o r e st c aus a po ssi d e n ti s (D I G .

—Th e
.

50 . 17 . c au se of t h e p ossessor i s t o

be pref erred .

1 33 9 . M e li or e st c on di ti o d e f e n d e n ti s .
(H O B .

— Th e c au se of th e def en dan t i s th e be tte r .

1 3 40 . M e li or c on di t i o pos si d e n ti s e t r e i
e st

qu am ac t o r i s . (4 I N S T — Be.t te r i s t h e c o n

di ti on p osse ssor an d th at of th e def e n dan t


Of th e ,

th an th at of th e pl ai n t i ff .

1 3 41 M e li or e st c on di ti o po s si de n t i s , u b i
.

n e u t e r j us h ab e t (J E N K C E N T .
— B e t te r i s . .

th e c on di ti on of th e p ossessor wh ere n ei th er of ,

th e t wo h as a ri gh t .

1 3 42 . M e li or e st j u s ti t i a v er e pr a v e ni e n s ,

qu am s e v e r e pun i e n s (3 IN S T EP IL ) —Be tter i s . . .

j u sti c e tru ly preven ti n g t h an severely pu n i sh ,

i ng .

1 3 43 . M e li or e m c on di t i on e m e ccl e si a su a

f ac e r e p ot e s t pr a lat u s , d e t e ri or e m n e qu aq u a m .

( CO K E , LI TT . 1 01 . b .
) —A b i sh op c an m ake th e
c on di ti on of hi s ow n c h u rc h b etter , bu t by no

m ean s w or se .

1 3 44 . M e li or e m c on di ti on e m s u am f ac e r e
pot e st m i n o r , d e t e r i or e m n e qu aqu am (C O KE .
,

LI TT 337 b ) —A m i n or c an m ake h i s own c on


, . .

di ti on b etter b u t by n o m ean s worse


,
.

1 346 M e li u s e st i n t e m po r e o c c u r r e r e , qu am
.

p o s t c au s am v u l n e r at am r e m e di u m q u a r e r e
(2 .
LEGAL M AxI MS . 16 5

IN ST .
—It is bet te r to r estr ai n i n ti m e th an
t o seek a rem edy af te r th e i n j u ry i n fli c ted .

1 346 . M e li n a e st j d
use fi c i en s qu am j us in

c ort u m .
(LO FFT ,
—Better i s law defic i en t ,

t h an l aw u n certai n .

1 3 47 . M e li na e st o mn i a
m al a pati qu am m al o
c o ns e n ti r e (3 I.N S T — I t i s b e t t e
.r to sn fi e r

every wron g th an to con se n t to wron g .

1 348 M e li n a e st r e c urr e r e qu am m al e c u r
.

r er e . (4 IN S T .
—It is better to rec ede th an
to proc eed wr on gly .

1 3 49 M e li n a e st
. ut de c e m n oxi i e v a dan t

qu am nt u nns i n n oc en s
p er e at (LOFFT .
,

It i s better th at ten guil ty person s esc ape , th an


th at on e i n n oc en t p erson peri sh .

1 3 50 . M e li n a et tu ti n a s i n on f e sti n e s . T
( YA

L ER , —It is better an d saf er n ot to be i n


h aste .

1 351 . M en s t e s t at o ri s i n t e st am e n t i s s pe c
tan da e st . (J E N K . CE N T .
—Th e
. testator s

i n ten ti on Sh ou ld be regar ded i n wi lls .

1 3 52 . M e n ti r i e st c o n tr a m en te m i r e .
(3
BULS .
—TO li e , i s to g o agai n st th e mi nd .

1 353 . M er c i a app e ll ati o ad res m ob i l e s t an


t um appe r ti n e t . (D I G . 50 . 16 .
—Th e term
m erch an di se belon gs to m ov able th i n gs on ly .

1 36 4 . M e r c i a appe ll at i on e h omi n e s n o n c on

t i n ar i(D I G 5
. 0 1 6 .
— M e
. n a r e . n ot i n clu ded
u n der th e n am e O f m erch an di se .

1 36 6 M e r i t o b en e fic i u m l e gi s
. am i t ti t , qu i
166 LEGAL m xm s .

l e g e m i ps am su b v er t e r e i n t e n di t (2 IN S T . .

—He j u stly lose s th e ben efit of th e law wh o pur


p oses to overt urn th e law i tself .

1 3 56 . M ar x e st qu i cqui d v e n di p o t e st .
(3
M E TC . 36 5 .
—Merc h an dise i s wh ate ver c an

be sold .

1 357 . M e as i s s em e n te m se qu i t ur .
(ERS K .

INST 1 74 . .
—Harvest f ollows se ed -
ti m e .

M e nm e st p r o mi t t e r e e t n on di mi tt e r e .

(2 RO L .
—It i s m i n e to promi se n ot t o di s
c h arge .

1 36 9 . M i n at ur i nn 0 c e n ti b n s, qui par c i t no

c e n ti b u s . (4 CO KE , 45 .
—He t h reate n s th e i n
n ocen t wh o s pares th e gu i lty .

1 36 0 . M i n i m a pa na c o r p or ali s e st m ajor
q u a b e t p ec u n i ar a
li (2 IN S T . .
—Th e sm all est

b odilg pu n i sh m en t i s greater th an
y
an y pec u n i ary
on e .

1 36 1 . M i ni m e m n t an da aun t qu a c e r t am
h ab e n t i n t e r pr e t at i on e m .
(COKE LI TT 36 5 a , . . .

Th i n gs wh i ch h ave a c ertai n i n terpretati on are

to be c h an ged as li ttle as p ossi ble .

1 36 2 . M i n i m um e st ni h il o pr o x i mum .
(1 5
BAC 73 . .
—The least i s next to n oth i n g .

1 36 3 . M i ni s t e r i a r e c i pi un t v i c ar i u m , s e d n on

i te m pl e r aq n e j u di ci ar a .
(LOFFT , 457 —Th e
Office of j u dge, as a rule, adm i ts of n o s u bsti tu te ,

as do p urely m i n i steri al Offi c es .

1 36 4 . M i ni n a e s t ac ti on e m h ab e r e qu am r em .

(HA L K .
—To h ave an ac ti on i s less th an to
h ave th e proper ty i tself .
168 LEGAL MAXI M S .

teen years of age is n ot adm i tted t o be an


exec u t or .

1 3 72 . M i n or t e n e t ur i n qu an t u m l o c n p l e ti or
f a ct u s .
(T RAY .
—A m i n or i s b ou n d t o th e
exten t t o wh i c h h e h as b ee n en r i c h ed .

1 3 73 . M inu s s ol v i t , qu i t ar di u s s ol v i t
; n am

et t e m p or e mi n u s s ol v i tu r .
(DI G . 50 1 6 1 2
. . .

-
He p ays li ttle wh o pay s l ate f or f r om t h e delay ,

he i s j u dged n ot t o pay .

1 3 74 . M i s er a e st s e r v i tn s ubi j u s e s t v ag u m

ant i n c er t n m .
(4 I N S T .
— O be di en c e i s m i s
cra b l e wh e r e t h e l aw i s v ag u e an d u n c ert ai n .

1 3 75 . M i ti or e s p a n a n o b i s s e m p e r pl ac n e r e .

T AY — A li h t p u n i sh m en t alw a s y p leas
( R .
g is
i n g to t h e l aw .

1 3 76 . M i ti u s i m p e r an ti m e li u s par e t u r (3 .

IN S T .
—He i s better obey e d wh o c om m an ds
l en i e n tly .

1 3 77 M ob il i a n on h ab e t s i t u m
.
(4 J O H N S . .

CH . N Y .
— Movabl e s h ave n o place
. .

1 3 78 M o b i li a p e r s o n am s e qu u n t ur ; i m m o
.

b i l i a s i t u m (B R .
— M ov abl e t h i n s f oll ow
.
g
th e p erson ; i m m ovabl e , t h e p lac e .

1 3 79 . M o di c a c i r c u m s t an t i a f ac ti j us m u t at .

(2 BO U .
—A sm all c i rc u m stan c e at t en di n g

an ac t m ay c h an ge th e law .

1 38 0 . M odus de n on d e ci m an d o n on v al e t .

(CE O E L I z
. .

An agreem e n t n ot t o take t i th es
avai ls n ot .

1 38 1 . M o du s deb e t e ss e c e r tn s, r ati o n ab i l i s ,
LEGAL MAxIMS . 169

et
p e r an ti qu us . (LO FFT ,
—A c u s tom sh ou l d

be c er tai n , r e aso n abl e , an d ver y an c i e n t .

1 38 2 . M o du s et c o n v e n ti o vi n c nn t l eg em .

(2 CO KE ,
—Cu stom an d agreem e n t overru l e

law .

1 38 3 M o du s l e g e m d at d o n ati oni
.
(CO K E .
,

LI TT 1 9 a ) — Th e m an n er gi ve s l aw t o a gi f t
. . . .

1 38 4 M o n e t a e st j u st n m m e di u m e t m e n s ur a
.

r er u m c o mm u t ab i li n m
; n a m p e r m e di u m m on e

ta fit c o n v e n i e n s e t j n s t a a sti
om n i u m r e rn m

m at i o (D Av .
— M on e y i s t h.e j u st m e di u m
an d m easu r e of al l c om m u table th i n gs f or by ,

th e m e di u m of m on ey a c on ven i en t an d j u st es
ti m ati on of al l th i n gs i s m ade .

1 38 5 . M on e t an di j us c o m pr e h e n di t nr i n re

g ali b n s qu a n u n qu am a r e gi o s c e pt r o ab di c an t u r .

(DAv .
—Th e r i gh t of c oi n i n g m on ey i s c om

p reh en ded am on g th ose royal ri gh ts th at ar e n ever

se p ar ate d f rom th e r oy al sc eptr e .

1 38 6 . M o n o p o li a di c i t u r , c um nnns s ol ns

ali qu o d g e n u s m e r c at u r a u n i v e r su m e mi t , pr e
ti um ad su u m li b i t u m st at u e n s . (1 1 C O KE ,

—It i s c alled m on op oly wh en on e p erson alon e ,

bu ys u p t h e wh ole of on e ki n d of c omm odi ty ,

an d fi xes a p ri c e at h i s own p le asure .

1 3 8 7 M o n u m e n t a qu a n os r e c o r d a v oc am n s
.

aun t v e r i t ati s et v e t u s t at i s v e s t i gi a (C O KE .
,

.

LI TT 1 1 8 a ) M on u m e n ts wh i c h we c all records
. .
, ,

are th e ves ti ges of tru th an d an ti qu i ty .


1 70 LEGAL H u n t s .

1 38 8 . M or a r e pr ob at u r i n le ge . J
( ENK CE NT
—Delay
. .

is reproved by l aw .

1 38 9 . M or a di c i tur u l ti m u m su ppli c i u m . (3
IN ST .
—Death is c on si dered th e e xtrem e pen
al t y .

1 39 0 . M or e o mn i a s ol v i t. (JE N K C E N T . .

Death di ssol ves all th i n gs .

1 39 1 . M or t e d on an ti s don ati o c on fir m at u r .

(H AL K .
—A don ati on 1 8 c on fi rm ed by th e death
of th e don or .

1 39 2 . M or t e l e gat ar ii , p e ri t l e gat n m .
(T R AY .

—By th e death of th e legatee, t h e l egac y


peri sh es .

1 39 3 . M or t e m an d at or i s , p eri t m an d at u m .

(T RAY .
—At th e death of th e m an dan t th e
m an date f ai ls .

1 394 M o r t gagi um. sc ut o m agi s qu am gl a di a

o pus e st . (T AYL E R ,
—A m ortgage i s used

as a sh i el d r ath er th an a swor d .

1 39 5 . M or t i s m om e n t u m e st u l ti m u m vi ta

m om e n t u m .
(4 BBAD F . S URR N Y . . . 245 .

—The last m om en t of l if e i s th e m om en t of

death .

1 39 6 . M or t u u s e x i t us n on e s t e x i t us .
(COKE ,

LITT 29 b . . .

) TO be dead -
bor n i s n ot t o b e born .

1 39 7 M . os pr o l eg e .
(T A Y L E R ,
—Cus
to m stan ds f o r law .

1 39 8 . M as r e t i n e n du s e s t fi de li s s i m a v e t ua

t ati s .
(4 C O K E ,
—A c u stom of th e t ru est eu

ti qui ty i s to be r etai n ed .
1 72 LEGAL M Axm s .

p erc ei ve m an y thi n gs m or e e asi l y by prac ti c e th an


by ru les .

1 40 7 . M ul t a n on l e gi b u s h u m an i s , s e d. f or o
di vi n o p e r ti n e n t .
(LOFFT ,
— M an y t h i n gs
pe rtai n n ot t o h u m an l aws, b u t to di vm e j u ri s

di c ti on .

1 40 8 . M ul t a n o n v e t at l e x qu a t am e n t a ci t a
dam n av i t .
(WHART .
— Th e law does n ot
f orb i d m an y th i n gs wh i c h ye t it h as S i le n t l y
c on dem n ed .

1 40 9 . M ul ta t r an s e un t c u m n n i v e r s i t at e q u a

n on p r
e se t r an s e un t .
(CO K E , LI TT . 12 . b .
)
M an y t h i n gs p ass i n th e wh ole w h i c h w ou ld n ot

p ass by th em selves .

1 41 0 . M u l t i m u i t a, n e m o o m n i a n ov i t . (4
I N ST .
— M an y m en kn ow m an y t h i n gs ; no

o ne k n ows everyth i n g .

1 41 1 . M u l ti pl e x i n di s ti n c t n m p ar i t c on f u

s i on e m ; et q u a s t i o n e s a S i m pli c i o n e s , eo

l n c i d or e s .
(H O B .
—Mu lt i pl i c i ty an d i n di s
t i n c tn ess produ c e c on f u si on ; an d qu e s t i on s, th e
m ore s i m p le th ey ar e, th e m ore l u c i d .

1 41 2 . M u l t p h c a ta
i
t r a n s gr e s si o n e c r e s c at

p a n a i nfi i c t i o (2 IN S T .
— Let i n fli c t i on o f .

p u n i sh m en t i n c rease wi th m u l ti pl i ed c ri m e .

1 41 3 . M u l ti t n di n e m d e c e m f ac i u n t C O
( KE .
,

LI TT 257 a ) — Ten m ake a m u l ti tu de


. . . .

1 41 4 . M ul ti t u d o e r r an t i u m n on p ar i t e r r o r i
p at r o ci n i u m (1 1 CO K E .
— Th e m u l ti t u de o f
,

th ose wh o err g i ves n o e xc u se f or e rror .


LEGAL MAxm s . 1 73

1 41 5 . M ul t i t u do i m p e r i to r u m p e r di t cur i am .

(2 IN S T .
—A m u lti tu de of i gn or an t person s
destroys a c ou r t .

1 41 6 . M ul t o u ti li n s e st p au c a i d on e a e fi un

d ere qu am m u l ti s i n n ti li b us h om i n e s gr av ar i .

(4 C O KE ,
—It i s m ore u sef u l t o i m par t a f ew
tr u stwor th y i deas, th an to i m press m en wi th m an y
u seless th i n gs .

1 41 7 . M u tat a f or m a i n t e r e m e t nr pr op e sn b

s t an ti a rei (H
. A L K — Wh en th e f orm
. of a

th i n g is c h anged, i ts su bstan c e is alm ost de

1 41 8N am d eb e s m e li ori s c on di t i oni s e ss e
.

qu am ac t or m e n s a a j u s i n m e tr ans i t (DI G . .

50 14 1 75
. .
— On e S h oul d n ot be p laced i n
.

b ette r c on di ti on , th an th e person to wh ose ri gh ts

he su c c ee ds .

1 41 9 . N at ur a a pp e t i t p erf e c t um ; i t a et l ex .

(HOB .
— Natu re desi re s perf ec ti on ; so does
th e l aw .

1 42 0 . N at ur a n on f aci t s al t u m ; i t a nec l ex .

(CO K E , LI TT . 238 b . .
) -
Nature takes no l eaps n or

does th e law .

1 42 1 . N at ur a n on f ac i t v ac u um , n ec l ex
1 74 LEGAL MAxm s .

s u pe r v ac n n m . (CO KE ,
LI TT . 79 . a).
—N at n r e
m akes n o vac u u m ; l aw n o sn per vaen um .
1 42 2 . N atu r a vi s m ax i m a .
(2 IN S T .

Th e f orce . of n atu r e IS gr eat e st .

1 42 3 . Ne ad c on si li u m an t e qu am v e c eri s .

(R ILE Y ,
—Go n ot to th e c ou n c Il bef ore y ou ar e

c alled .

1 42 4 . Ne c ur i a de fi c e r e t i n j u s ti t i a e x hi b e n da .

(4 I N S T .
—Nor Sh oul d th e c ourt be defi c i en t
in sh owi n g j u sti ce .

1 42 5 . Ne fi c ti e pl us v al e at c as u
in fi c ti e
qu am v er i tas in c asu v er e . (T RAY .
-
A .

fi c ti on i s of no m ore v al u e in a fi c ti ti ous c ase,

th an t r u th i n a r eal c ase .

1 42 6 . Ne li c i t at or e m v e n di t or app o n at .

L
( OFFT, —Th e seller S h ou ld n ot ppoi n t
a a

bidder .

1 42 7 . Ne qua r a li t e m c u m li c e t f u g ar e .

(RIL E Y, —Seek n ot a lawsui t when yo u c an

esca e p it .

1 42 8 . Ne se i p s um pr a c i pi t e s i n di sc r i m i n am .

-
Be n ot h asty i n j u dgin g .

1 42 9 N e e b e n e fi c i n m pe r t i n e t ad e u m q ui
.

n on de b e t g en er a e fi c i n m — NO ben efi t b el on gs .

to h i m wh o was n ot obli ge d to perf orm a c er


tai n ac t .

1 43 0 . Nec r egi b n s i n fi n i ta, an t li b e r a p ot e s t as .

(T AYLE R , 335 .
-
Th e power of ki n gs i s n ei th er

un li m i ted nor f ree .

1 43 1 . N e e t e m pu s n ae l oc us oc c u rri t r e gi .
1 76 LEGAL M AXIM S .

1 44 1 . N e c e s si t as, qu e d c ogi t, de f e n di t (l .

H ALE , PL . CR . 54 —Nec essi ty def en ds wh at i t


c om pels .

1 442 . N e c e s si taa su b l e ge n on c o u ti n e t ur ,

qu i a qn o d ali as n on e st li c i t u m ne c e s si t as f a ci t
l i c i tu m .
(2 IN S T .
—Nec essi ty i s n ot restrai n ed
by l aw ; si n c e wh at oth erwi se i s n ot l awf u l, na

c essi ty m akes l awf u l .

1 443 . N e c e ssi t as vi n l e g e m ; l e gu m v i n
ci t
c ul a i r r i de t (H O B . .
— Nec essi ty overc om es
th e law ; i t breaks th e c h ai n s of j u st i c e .

1 444 . N e c e s si t y c r e at e s e qu i t y .
(2 BO U .

1 44 5 . N e f ar i um e st p e r f o r m u l as l e gi s l a qu e e s
i nn e c t e r e i n n e c e n ti b n s L OFFT — I i i
.
( ,
t s n

f am ou s t o lay sn ares f or th e i n n oc en t t h rou gh


f orm s of law .

1 446 . N e gat i e c e n c l ns i e n i s e st i n l e ge
e rr o r .

(W I NG .
—Th e den i al of a c on c lusi on i s er ror

i n law .

1 44 7 . N e gati e d astr u i t n e g ati e n e m , at am b a

f ac i n n t afi r m at i v n m . (C O K E , LIT T . 1 46 b . .
) —A
n egati ve destroys a n egati ve , an d b oth m ake an

affirm ati ve .

1 44 8 . N e gat i e d u pl e x e st afi r m ati e . (WHART .

-
A dou ble n egat i ve is an affi r m ati ve .

1 449 . N e g at i e n on p e t e s t pr e h ar i .
(LOFFT ,

—Den i al pr oved c an n ot be .

1 4 50 N e gli g e n ti a s e m p e r h ab e t i n f o r tu ni u m
.

c e mi t e m (C O K E L. I TT 24 6 b ) — N e h
g g, e n c e al . . .

ways h as mi sf or tu n e f or a c om pan i on .
LEGAL MAXIM S . 1 77

1 46 1 . N e mi n e m c um al t e r i us d etr i m e n t o et

i nju r i a fi e ri l e c u pl e ti e rn m .
(T AYLE R ,

N0 on e c an be m ade r i c h er to th e detri m en t an d
i n j u ry o f an oth er .

1 46 2 . N e mi n em ope r t et e ss e s api e n t i e r e m

l e gi b u s .
(CO K E , LI TT . 97 b . .
) —N o on e n eed be
wi ser th an t h e l aw s .

1 45 3 . N e mi n i i n al i um pl us li c e t qu am c e n
c as sum e st l e gi b u s .
( OFFT
L ,

More i s al
lowed to n o on e agai n st an oth er, th an i s c on c eded
by t h e l aws .

1 45 4 . N am e ad li t t u s m ar i a cc e d e r e
a p e
r

h i b e t ur .
(H A L K .
-
No on e IS proh i bi ted f rom
a pp roac h i n g th e s ea sh or e
-
.

1 45 5 . N em e a dmi tt e u dn s e st i n h ab i li t ar e s ei p
su m . (J ENK . CE N T .
—NO on e is allowed to
i n c apac i tate h i m self .

1 4 56 . N am e agi t in se i ps u m . (J E N K . CE N T .

—No on e ac ts agai n st h i m se lf .

1 45 7 . N am e ali e n a r e i , si n e s ati s dat i e n e , de


f e n s e r i de n e n s i n t e lli gi t u r .
(1 C URT C C . . .

Wi th ou t sec ur i ty n o on e i s deem ed a
-

, c om pe
ten t def en der of th e pr operty of an oth er .

1 45 8 . N em e ali e n e n o m i n e l e ge ag er a pe t e s t .

(D I G . 50 . 17 .
—No on e m ay su e at law i n
th e n am e of an oth er .

1 45 9 . N em e ali qn am par t am r ec t e i n t e lli ger e


p ot e st an t e qu am t e t um , i t e r u m at qu e i t e r um

p e r l e gi t .
(3 C O K E ,
-
No on e c an ri gh tl y un
1 78 LEGAL mu ms .

derstan d part of a th i n g till h e h as read th rou gh


th e wh ole agai n an d agai n .

1 46 0 N e m o all e g an s s uam t urpi tu di n am e at


.

an di e n d s
n (4 IN S T .
— N o o n e al l e
. i
g gn h is

own b asen ess i s to be h eard .

1 46 1 N e m e b i s i n p e r i c u l u m v en i at pr o
.

e o d e m d e li ct o (L OFFT —. N o o n e S h ou ld ,

c om e twi c e i n to dan ger f or th e sam e c r i m e .

1 46 2 N am e c o gi pe t e st pr a c i s e ad fact u m ,
.

s ad qu e d i n t e r e s s e (WHART
i n i d tan tu m
—NO person c an be com pelled prec i sely to
. .

the
ac t b u t t o so m u c h on ly as i n ter ests h i m
, .

1 46 3 . N am e c e gi t ur r em s u am v an de r e,

e t i am j u st o pr e t i o . (4 IN S T .
—NO on e is
o bli ged to sell hi s own property , even f or th e
f ul l val u e .

1 46 4 . N em e c e n dam n ar i de b e t i n an di t n s n ae

sum m e n i t u s . (H AL K .
—NO on e sh ou l d be c on

dam n ed u n h ear d, or u n su mm on ed .

1 46 5 . N em e c on t r a fac t u m su u m v e ni r e

p e t e s t .
(2 I N S T .
—No on e c an com e agai nst
h is own deed .

1 46 6 N am e damn u m fa c i t , ni s i qu i i d f e ci t
.

qu e d fac e r e j u s n on h ab e t (D I G 50 1 7 . . . .

—No on e does dam age, u n less h e i s doi n g wh at


h e h as n o r i gh t t o do .

1 46 7 . N emo dat qui n on h ab e t (JE N K



. .

CE N T . No on e gi ves wh o does n ot pos


sess .

1 46 8 . N e m e d e de m o su a e x tr ah i pe t e st .
1 80 LEGAL Hu n ts .

1 476 . N e m e du e b us n t at ur e mai ls .
(4 I N S T .


NO o n e sh ou l d fi ll t wo Offic es .

1 4 77 . N am e j
e u s de m t e n e m e n ti si m u l p e t e s t
ha r es do mi n u s 1 REEVES — NO
e ss e at .
( ,

on e c an be at th e s am e t i m e h ei r an d l or d of
th e sam e flef .

1 478 . N eme e st c og e n d n s qui s ad s u b s t i t n e n

du m .
(H AL K .
-
No on e is c om pelled to su b

s ti t u te an oth er i n his o wn plac e .

1 4 79 . N am e e st ha res v i v e n ti s . (C O K E ,

LI TT . 22 .

b ) No
. on e i s th e h ei r of a l i vi n g
m an .

1 48 0 . N am e e st su pr a l e ge s .
(LO FFT ,

—N o on e is beyon d th e l aw .

1 48 1 . N eme e x al t e r i u s d e tr i m e n t o fi e ri d e b e t
l o c n pl e t ar i .
(J E NK . CE N T .
-
NO on e ou gh t

t o b e m ade ri c h i n j u ry

ou t of an o th er p erson s .

1 48 2 . N em e ex al t e ri u s f ac t e pra g r av ar i
de b e t .
(2 KE N T , CO M .
—No on e sh ou ld be
b urden ed by th e ac t of an o th er .

1 48 3 . N em e ex c on si li o ob li g at ur .
(D I G 1 7 . .

1 . 2 .
—No on e i s bo u n d by th e advi c e he
g i v e s .

1 48 4 N am e ex d ol e sn e p p
r e r i e r e l e v e tu r ,


.

an t au x ili um c api at .
(JUR . Crv .
) NO on e is
r el i eve d, or g ai ns an advan tage f rom h i s own

pr e per decei t .

1 48 5 . N em O ex p e pri e
r dol e c e n s e qu i t u r

ac t i on e m .
(T RAY .
—No on e c an ac qu i re a

ri gh t of ac ti on th r ou gh hi s own f rau d .
LEGAL MA I MS X . 181

1 48 6 . N am e ex su e d e li c t o m e li e r e n su am

c o n di t i o n e m f ac e r e pe t e s t .
(D I G 50 1 7 1 34
—No
. . . .

on e c an i m prove h i s c on di ti on by h i s own

wr on g .

1 48 7 . N am e f act u m a sa ali en n m t e n e tu r
sci r e (LOFFT.
,
-

7N O on e is bou n d to k n ow
th e p r i vat e ac t of an oth er , u n l ess don e wi th hi m
sel f .

1 48 8 . N e m e h ab e t ur ag e r e de l e s e qui j nr e
se u ti tu r .
(T R AY .
—No on e i s h el d t o ac t

f rau du len tly wh o ac ts in e xerc i se of h is r i gh ts .

1 48 9 . N am e i n au di t u a n ee s u mm e n i t n s c en

d am u nr i de b e t , si n on si t c on t u m ax .
(JEN K

.

CE N T . No on e Sh ou ld b e c on dem n ed u n h eard
an d u n su m m on ed u n l ess f or c on tu m ac y .

1 49 0 N e m e m v i tns
. c e m p e lli t ur ad c em

m u ni o n e m (T AYLE R, .
—No on e c an be
c om pe ll ed i n to c o part n er sh i p agai n st h i s wi ll
-
.

1 49 1 N e m e m i li t an s D e e i m pli c e t ur s e c u
.

l ar i b n s n e g oti i s . (COKE , LITT .



70 b ) No m an . .

warri n g f or God sh ou ld be trou bled by sec ul ar


b us i n ess .

1 49 2 . N am e m e r i pe t e st pr o par t s t e s t atu s
pr o p ar t a i n t e st at us .
(T RAY .
—NO On e c an

di e p ar tly testate an d p artly i n testate .

1 49 3 N e m e m or i t ur n s pr a su mi tu r m e n t i r i
. .

(2 H o w S T T R — .N o o n e. at th e
. p oi n t of
death i s p resu m ed to l i e .

1 49 4 N e m e n as c i t ur ar t i f e x
.
(C OK E , L I TT . .

97 b —
.NO . on e is born an artifi cer .
1 82 LEGAL q ms .

1 49 6 N am e patr i am i n qu a n at us e st
. ex ne r e

n ec li g e an t i a d e b i t u m ej u r ar e po ssi t .
(C O KE ,

LI TT . 1 29 . a .

) NO on e c an r e n ou n ce th e c ou n tr y
i n wh i c h h e was born ,
n or abj u re th e bon d of .

al legi an c e .

1 49 6 . N am e pi n s c e m m e di h a r e di su e re

li n q ui t qu am i p s e h ab u i t .
(D I G . 50 . 17 .

—No on e sh ou ld leave a g re ate r ben efi t t o hi s


h ei r th an h e h ad h i m self .

1 49 7 . N em e pl us j ur i s a d ali e n n m t r an s f e rr e

pe t e st , qu am i p s e h ab e t .
(C O KE ,
LI TT . 309 . b)
.

-
No on e c an t ran sf er to an oth er a greater ri gh t

th an h e h as h i m self .

1 49 8 N am e
p o t e s t c on t r a
. re c or dum v er i fi

c ar e p e r patr i am (2 IN S T . .
—No on e c an

ver if y by j ury agai n st a r ec or d .

1 49 9 . N e m e pe t e s t e pi s c e pe m an dar e pr a t er
r e ge m . (L OFFT ,
— N o o n e c an g i ve a m an
date to a b i sh o p exc e pt th e ki n g .

1 600 . N am e pe t e st e s s e d omi n u s at h a r e s .

(H A L E ,
H I ST C L —NO on e c an be both own er
. . .

an d h ei r .

1 50 1 . N eme p ot e s t e s s e si m u l ac t or at j u de x .

(1 3 Q . B .
-
No o n e c an be at t h e sam e ti m c
su i tor an d j u dge .

1 50 2 . N e m e pe te st e ss e t en e n s at d e m i n us .

G
( ILB . TEN .
—NO on e c an be both t en an t
an d lord (of th e sam e t en e m en t ) .

1 50 3 N am e pe t e st f ac e r e pe r ali um , qu e d

.

p er as n on p e t e s t (JEN C
K E NT 237
. N0 on e . .
184 LEGAL MAxm s .

s e ssi e ni s . H
( LK
A .
—No on e c an c h an ge f or
h i m sel f th e c au se of hi s p osse ssi on .

1 51 3 . N eme pr a de e s t q u i p r e ti u m n u m e r

av i t .
(H A L K .
-
No on e i s a p i rate wh o h as

c ou n ted ou t th e p ri c e .

1614 . N e m e pr a s e n s n i s i i n t e lli g at (2 BOU . .

-
O n e i s n ot prese n t u n le ss h e u n derstan ds .

1 515 . N e m e pr a s um i t u r al i e n am pe st e r i t at e m
su a pr a tn l i ss e (CO
. K E ,
L I TT 3 73 a ) — N o o n e. . .

is p resu m e d to h ave p ref erred th e p osteri ty of

an oth er t o h is ow n .

1 51 6 . N am e pr a su m i t u r d e n ar e .
(W H AR T .

-
NO on e i s pr esu m e d to g i ve .

1 51 7 . N am e pr a su m i tur e sse i mm eme r s ua

a t er n a s al u t i s , et m ax i m a i n ar t i cu l e m e rt i s .

(6 C O K E ,
— NO i s pre su m e d t o b e f orgetf u l
one

of his ow n e tern al we lf are , an d p ar ti c u lar ly at

th e po i n t of de ath .

1 51 8 . N e m e pr a su m i t ur l n d er e i n ex tr e m i s .

(WHART .
— NO one is p res u m ed t o t r i fle at
th e p oi n t o f death .

1 519 N am e pr a
. s um i tur m al n s .

(W HA R T .

— NO one is p r e su m e d t o be h ad .

1 520 N e m e pr o h i b at n r pl u r e s
. n e g o ti at i e n e a

si v e ar t e s e x e r c e r a (1 1 C O K E ,
.
— NO on e

is p roh i b i ted f r om e xerc i si n g se ver al k i n ds of

b u s m e ss o r ar t s .

1 52 1 . N e m e pr e hi b e t ur pl ur i b u s d e f e n s i on i
b us u ti .
(C O K E L I TT , 3 04 . .
— No on e i s pro .

h i bi te d f rom u s i n g several def e n ses .


LEGAL MAxm s . 1 85

1 522 . N am e pru de n s pu n i t nt pr a t e ri t a rev e

c en tn r , se d ut f u tu r a pr a v e n i an t u r (3 BU L S . .

—No w i se m an p u n i sh es, th at t h i n gs don e


m ay be r e vo ked bu t
,
th at f u tu re wr on gs m ay be
pre v e n ted .

1 52 3 . N am e pu n i tur pr o ali e n e d e li ct o .

(W IN G .
—No on e i s to be pu n i sh ed f or th e
cr i m e of an oth e r .

1 52 4 . N am e pu ni t u r si n e i nju r i a, f ac t e , s eu

d e f al t e .
(2 I N S T — N O
. on e i s p u n i sh e d nu

less f or som e i n j u ry de ed o r de f au lt
, ,
.

1 52 6 . N e m e qui c e n d e m n ar a pe t e s t , ab s ol

v er e n on p e t e s t (
.D I G 5 0 1 7 . . .
—No on e wh o
is a bl e to c on de m n , i s u n able t o ac qu i t .

1 52 6 . N am e r e d di t n m i n v i t e d om i n o p ar ci
p e r e, at p o s s i d e r e pe t e s t (C O K E ,
. LI TT 323 b ) . . .

—No on e c an take, an d en j oy th e r en t W I th ou t
con sen t of th e o w n er .

1 52 7 . N am e r em su am ami t t at , n i si ex f ac t e
an t d e li ct o s u e , an t n e gl e c t n . (L OFFT ,
—N o
on e c an l ose h i s ow n p roper ty , exc e pt by his
own dee d, tr an sgr ess i on , or n egl e c t .

1 52 8 . N em e re pen t e t ur pi ssi m u s .
—NO on e

bec om es b ad i n an i n stan t .

1 529 . N am e si b i e sse j u de x , v el sn i s j us
di o e r e deb e t .
(1 2 C O K E ,
—N O m an o u gh t to
be h i s o wn j u dge , or to adm i n i ste r j u sti c e in c ase s

In w h i c h h e i s i n tereste d .

1 5 30 . N am e si n e ac ti o n e e x p ar i t u r , at h oc
n on si n e b r ev e si v e 1i b e 1l e c e n v e n t i e n ali .
1 86 LEGAL M Ax ms .

(BRA CT .
—No on e goes to l aw w i th ou t an
ac ti on , an d n o on e c an b ri n g an ac ti on w i th ou t
a wri t or b i ll .

1 53 1 . N am e t e n e t ur ad i m po s si b i l e ( J.E N K .

CE N T .
—No on e is b ou n d t o an i m possi b il i ty .

1 532 . N em e t en etu r ar m ar e a dv e r s ar i u m

s uu m c o n tr a se. (C O K E , LI TT . 36 . a.
—No on e

is bou n d to arm his adver sar y agai n st h i m self .

1 533 . N am e t e n e t ur di v i n ar e .
(4 C O KE
—No
,

on e is b ou n d t o f oretell .

1 534 . N e m e t e n e t ur e de r e i n st r u m e n t a e on

tr a se. (B E LL D I C )
,
—N O . on e is bou n d t o pro
du c e wri ti n gs ag ai n st h i m self .

1 53 5 . N e m o t e n e t u r i n f e r m ar e qu i n as c i t,

sed q ni s qu i s s ci r e qu e d i n f o r m at .
(LAN E

,

No on e wh o i s i gn oran t i s b ou n d t o g i ve i n
f orm ati o n , bu t eve r yon e ou gh t to k n ow th at
of wh i c h h e g i ves i n f orm ati on .

1 53 6 N am e t e n e tu r j n r ar e i n
. s u am t ur pi
t n di n e m .
( BE L L , DI C .

) No on e is b ou n d to
t es t i f y t o h i s o wn
b asen ess .

1 537 . N am e t e n e t ur pr e de r a s e i psu m .
(1
G R Ev. .
—No on e i s bou n d t o expose h im
sel f .

1 538 N am e t e n e t ur s e i psu m a cc us ar e
.
(3 .

BULS .
— N o on e i s b ou n d to acc u se h i m se lf .

1 539 N e m e t e n e t ur s e i psu m i n f e r t uni i s at


.

p e r i c n l i s e x p e n e r e ( CO KE , L I TT 253 . b ) — N O . . .

on e i s boun d to e xpose h i mse lf to m i sf ortunes

an d dan gers .
1 88 LEG L A M AXI M S .

is n o th i n g wh en t h er e is c er tai n t y as t o th e
perso n .

1 5 49 . N i hi l fi t a t e m por e ; qu am qu am n i hi l
n on fi t i n t e m p or e .
(T R AY .
—Noth i n g i s
don e by ti m e , al th o u gh e veryth i n g i s don e i n
tim e .

1 6 50 . N i h i l h ab e t f o r u m ex s c an a .
(2 BOU .

l 4i .
) Th e
-
c o u rt h as n ot h i n g t o do w i th wh at i s
n ot b e f ore it .

1 56 1 N i hi l i n l e g e i n t e l e r ab i li u s
. e st , e an da m
r e m di v e r s e j nr e c e n s e r i (4 C O K E .
,
— Noth In g
i n l aw i s m ore i n tolerabl e th an to ru le a si m i lar

c ase by a di ver se l aw .

1 5 52 . N ihi l i n fr a r e gn um s u b di t e s m agi s
c e n s e r v at c o n c o r d i a qu am
i n t r an qu i lli t at e et

d e b i t a l e g u m a dm i n i s t r at i e (2 I N S T . .

N o th i n g m ore preserv es i n tran qu i ll i ty an d c on


c ord t h ose su bj ec te d t o th e gover n m en t t h an a

du e adm i n i s tr at i on of th e l aw s .

1 55 3 . N i h il i n i qu i u s qu am a qn i t at e m ni mi s
i n te n de r e .
(HA LK .
-
Noth i n g i s so u n j u st
as to e xt e n d e qu i t y to o f ar .

1 5 54 . N i hi l i n t e r e s t i p s e j nr e qui s a c ti on e m
n on h ab e at an pe r e x c e pt i e n e m i n fi r m e t ur .

(H A L K — T h.e l aw do es n o t c o n c e r n i tself
as t o wh o m a t h a v t h i h t t a a t i
y n o e e r g o n c on ,

or w h o m ay b e i n j u r e d b y an e xc e pt i o n .

1 555 . N i bi l m ag i s j u s t nm e st qu am qu e d
ne c e s s ar i u m e st . DA v
( .
—Noth i n g i s m ore
j u st th an wh at i s n ece ssar y .
LEGAL MAxm s . 18 9

1 55 6 . N i hi l n e q u am e st pr a s u m e n dn m .
(2
P W I LL .
-
Noth i n g wi c ked i s to be pre
s u m ed .

1 56 7 N i hi l p e rf e c t u m e st du m al i qu i d r e st at
.

ag e n d u m (9 CO K E .
— N o t h i n g i s p e rf e c t w
,
h il e

som e th i n g rem ai n s t o be don e .

1 55 8 . N i hi l p e ti pe t e st i d t e m pu s , q u e
an t e

p e r r eru m n at u r am p e r s e l v i p os s i t (D I G 5 0 . . .

17 .
—N oth i n g c an b e dem an ded b ef or e th at
t i m e wh en , i n th e n atur e of th i n gs, it c an be
p ai d .

1 559 . N i hi l p ossum u s c on t r a v e r i t at e m .

D STU We n o th i n g agai n st
'

( O C T . D . 2 6 . .
-
c an do
t ru th .

1 56 0 . N i hi l pr a s c r i b i t u r ni s i q n o d p e ss i d e t ur .

(5 BA R . AL D .
— I h ere i s ''
no p r es c r i pt i o n
f or th at wh i c h i s n ot p osse ssed .

1 56 1 . N ihi l qu e d e s t c o n tr a r at i o n e m e st ,

li c i t u m .
(C O K E L I TT 9,7 b ) — N ot h i n g w h i
. c h . .

is agai n st r easo n i s l awf u l .

1 56 2 . N i hi l si m i le e st i de m .
(T AY L E R ,

Noth i n g s i m i lar i s i de n t i c al .

1 56 3 . N i hi l si m u l i n v e n t um e s t at pe r f e c t u m .

(C O LI T T 230 a ) —No h i ng i s i n ve n ted an d


KE . . . .

t
p erf ec ted at th e sam e m om en t .

1 56 4 . N i hi l t am c o n v e n i e ns e st n at u r ali

a qu i t a t i , qu am u n u m qu e d qu e di s sol v i ao li g am i n e
q u e li g at n m e at .
(4 I N S T .
— No th i n g i s so

c on so n an t t o n at u r al equ i t y , as th at th e sam e th i n g
1 90 LEGAL MAm .

be di ssolved by th e sam e m eans by wh i ch i t was


bou n d .

1 56 5 . Ni hi l t am c o n v e ni e n s e st n at ur ali

a qu i tati , qu am v ol un t ate m do m i n i r e m s u am in
ali u m tr an sf e rr e , r at u m h ab e r e .
(1 COK E ,

-
Noth i n g is SO c on son an t to n atu ral e qu i ty as

to r egard th e wi sh of th e own er i n tran sf erri n g


h is own property to an oth er .

N i hi l t am
'

1 56 6 . pr o pr i u m e st i m pe r i e qu am
l e gi b us v i v e r e (2 I N S T .
— N o t h i n g i s 8 0 .

b ec om i ng to auth ori ty as t o l i ve accordi n g to ,

th e law .

1 56 7 . Ni l pl um li t e m qu e d l i t e
agi t e x em

r e s e lv i t (1 5 . W E N D 44 — A n. e xam p l e d
.oes

no g oo d w h i c h se t t l es on e qu esti on by as ki n
g
an o th er .

1 56 8 . N il Si n e pr u de n ti f e ci t r ati on e v e t u stas .

(CO K E , LI TT . 65 . a )
. An ti qu i ty di d n oth i n g W i th
-

ou t a g ood r easo n .

1 56 9N i l t e m e r a n e v an dum
. J
( ENK . . CENT .

—Noth i n g Sh oul d be rashl y c h anged .

1 5 70 . Nil n ti l e an t h e n e s t n m q n o d l e gi b us
c e n tr ar i n m . (LOFFT , 95 — Noth i n g i s u se f ul or
.

h on orable t h at i s c on trar y t o l aw .

1 5 71 . Ni m ia c e rti t u de e e r ti t u di n e m i psam
d e s tr ui t .
(LOFFT , 244 .
—Too gr e at c er tai n t y de
str o s c ert ai n t
y y i tself .

1 5 72 . N imi a s n b tili t as in j ur o r epr o b at ur .

(4 CO KE ,
-
Too g reat su btle ty i s di sapproved
i n law .
1 92 LEGAL MAxm s .

1 58 3 N om e n di c i t ur qui a n ot i

a n o s c e n do ,

t i am f ac i t .
(6 CO K E ,
—A n am e is c al led

f rom th e word to k n ow bec ause i t m akes


,
r e cog

n i ti e n .

1 58 4 . N om e n e st qu as i r ei n o t am e n .
(1 1
CO K E ,
—A n am e is as i t were, th e n ote of a

th i n g .

1 58 5 . N om en n on su fi c i t Si r e s n on Si t de
j nr e an t d e f ac t o .
(4 C O K E ,
—A n am e does
n ot su ffi ce , i f th e th i n g does n ot exi s t e i th er by
law or by f ac t .

1 58 6 . N om i n a Si n e sc i s pe ri t c ogn i ti o m
r eru .

(CO KE , LI —
TT 86 b ) If you kn ow n ot th e
. . . n am es

O f th i n gs th e k n ow ledge Of th i n gs t h em selves
,

p eri sh e s .

1 58 7 . N omi n a sn n t m u tab ili a, r es au t e m


i m m ob i li a .
(6 CO K E ,
—Nam es ar e m u table,
b u t th i n gs i m m u table .

1 58 8 . N omi n a su n t sy m b ol a r e r u m .
(GODB .
)
Nam es are th e sy m b ol s of th i n gs .

1 58 9 . N on ac c i pi d e b an t v er ba in d e m on
st r at i o f al s am q u a c om pe t un t i n li m i t a
n em

t i o n e m v e r am (BA C M AX — . W o r ds w h i c h . .

agree in a tr u e m ean i n g S h ou ld n ot be recei ved

in a f alse se n se .

1 59 0 N on ali e n at q ui dnn t ax at
. e m i tt i t po s

s e ss i o n e m (H AL K .
— He does . n ot al i en ate

who m erely gi ves up p ossessi on .

1 59 1 . N on ali e m o d o pun i at nr ali qn i s , qu am


se c un du m q u e d se h ab e t c on de m n ati o (3 IN ST . .
LEGAL MA IM S X . 1 93

—A person m ay n ot be pu n i sh ed di fi eren tly


t h an ac c o r di n g t o wh at th e sen ten ce e n j oi n s .

1 59 2 . N on ali t e r a si gn i fi c ati o n e v e r b or u m

re c e di ope r t e t qu am c um m an i f e st u m e st ali u d

s e n si s s e t e st at or e m .
(D I G . 32 . 69 . PR .
) —Th e

usu al m ean i n g of words sh ou l d n ot b e departed


f rom , u n le ss i t is m an i f est th at th e testator u sed
t h em i n an oth er sen se .

1 59 3 . N on au t e m d e p e r di t a di c u n t u r , si

p os t e a r e c u p e r an tu r . (T AY LE R ,
—N oth i n g
m ay be sai d t o b e l ost wh i c h i s af terwar ds re

c overe d .

1 59 4 . N on c e n c e dan t n r pr i n s qn am
c i t at i o n e s

e x pr i m at nr su per q u a n a fi e r i d e b e t c i tati o (1 2 .

CO K E ,
—Su m m on ses Sh ou l d n ot be gran ted
b ef ore it i s e xpressed u p on wh at grou n ds th e
su m m on s sh ou ld b e m ade .

1695 . N on c on s e n ti t q ui ar xat . (BR A CT .

—H e wh o e rr s doe s n ot c on sen t .

1 596 . N on c r e di t u r r e f e r e n ti , ni s i c o n s t at de
r e l at e . (T R AY .
—Th e r ef er e n c e is n ot to be
c redi t ed, u n l ess t h e th i n g ref erred t o be proved .

1 59 7 .cr i m e n p e r s e n e qu e pr i v at u m
N on
d am n u m , s e d pu b li c u m m al n m , l e g e s s p e c t an t .

(L OFFT —
,
T h e law regar ds a c r i m e n o t on ly

as a p r i vate i n j u ry i n i tself bu t as a pu bli c ,

evi l .

1 59 8 N on d at qu i c on t r a l e ge s d at
.
(LOFFT .
,

—He gi ves n oth i n g wh o gi ves c on trary to


law .
194 LEGAL M Am .

1 59 9 . N on de b e t a d du ci exc e p ti o e usj r ei

j
c u ns pati t ur di s aol n t i o .
(JE N K . CE N T .
—An
e xce pti on of t h e th i n g wh ose abol i ti on i s sou gh t ,
ou gh t n o t t o be addu c e d .

1600 . N o n de b e t al t e r i p e r al t e ru m i n i qu a
c o n di ti o l u f e rri .
(DI G . 50 . 17 .
—N O o n e
Sh ou ld be placed in a bad posi ti on by th e ac t of
an oth er .

1 60 1 . N o n d e b e t, c ui pl u s li c e t , qu e d m i n us
e st , n on li c e r e .
(D I G . 50 . 17 .
—H e wh o i s
allowe d to do th e g reater m ay w i th m ore r eason

do th e l ess .

1602 N on d ac e t h om i n e s d e d e r e
. c au s a n on
c ogn i t a (4 JOHN S CH N Y 1 06
. . . . . .
—I t i s
n o t p rop er to sur r en der th e person s o f m en wh en
n o c au se is sh ow n .

1603 . N o n d e c i pi tu r qui s ci t se d e c i pi (5 .

COK E ,
—He i s n ot dec ei ved wh o kn ows h i m se lf
to b e dece i ved .

1 60 4 . N on d e f e n de r e vi de t u r q i
u pra s e n s
n ag at se de f e n de r e .
(H A L K .
— He wh o does
n ot de f e n d h i m sel f wh en presen t is c on si der ed as

su b m i tt i n g .

1 60 5 N o n di fi e r n n t q u a
. c on c or dan t r e , t a
m e t si n o n i n v er b i s i i s d am .
(J E N K C E N T . .

—Th ose wh i c h agree


th i n gs i n su bstan c e th ou gh ,

n ot i n th e sam e wor ds do n ot di fi er , .

160 6 N on d e fi ni t u r i n j u r a qui d si t c on at us
. .

( 6 C O KE — W h,a t a n a ttem p t i s ,
i s n ot de
fi n ed
i n l aw .
1 96 LEGAL Hu n ts .

1 6 14 . N on e st r e gu l a qu i n fallat .
(OFF Ex . .

—Th ere is no r u le wh i c h m ay n ot f ail .

1615 . N on e st si n gu li a c o n c e de n du m , qn od
p e r m agi s t r at n m pu b li c a p o s s i t fi eri . D
( G 50
I . .

17 .
—T h at is n ot t o be c on c ede d t o i n di
vi du als wh i c h m ay be pu bli c ly don e by a m agi s
trate .

16 16 . N on ex O pi n i o ni bns s i n gu l e r u m , se d

ex c o mmu n i us u , n e m i n i e x au di r i d e b an t .
(D I G .

33 . 10 7 .
—N am es o f thi n gs S h ou ld be
. u n der

stood acc or di n g t o c omm on u s age , n ot ac c or di n g

to th e Op i n i on s of i n di vi du als .

16 17 . N on e x e m pli s , s e d l e gi b u s , j u di c an dn m .

(T RA Y —T h i n gs Sh ou ld be j u dged by laws
.
,

n ot by e xam p les .

16 18 N o n f aci as m al u m n t i n d e v e ni at
.

b on u m (1 1 C O K E
.
— Y ou ar e n o t t o do
,
e vi l
th at g ood m ay c om e of i t .

16 19 N on i m p e di t c lau s ul a d e r ogat or i a, qu e
.

mi nus ab e ad e m p o t e st at e r e s di s s o lv an t nr a q a
u

c e n s ti t u u n t u r .
(B A C M. A X .
—A derogatory
c lau se does n ot preven t ac ts f rom be i n g di ssolved
by t h e sam e p ower wh i c h c on sti tu te d th e m .

1 6 20 . N on in l e g e n do s ad in i u t e lli g e n do
l e ge s c o n s i s t nn t . (8 C O K E ,
—Th e laws c on

si st n ot in be i n g r ead bu t i n bei n g u n derstood .

1 6 21 . N on j us ex r e gu l a, sed r e gu l a ex

j
u r o. (TR AY .
—T h e l aw doe s n ot ari se f rom
th e r u le , b u t th e r u le f r om th e law .

1 6 22 . N on j us, se d s e i s i n a, f aci t s t i pi t e m .
LEG AL M Axm s . 1 97

(F LE TA, 6 .
-
Not ri gh t; bu t sei si n , m akes a

stoc k .

1 6 23 N on li e s t qu e d di s pe n di o li c e t (CO K E

. .
,

LITT . 1 27 . a .
) Th at wh i ch i s perm i tted at a

loss i s n ot per m i tted .

1 6 24 . N on m u l t u m di st an t a b ru ti a qu i r at i o n s

c ar e n t . (4 COKE ,
—Not f ar r em oved f rom
bru tes are th ose wh o are wan ti n g i n re aso n .

1 6 25 .N on o b li gat l e x n i s i pr o m u l gat a (2 .

BOU . 1 43 — A law i s n ot obli gatory u n less i t be


.

pro m u l gate d .

1 6 26 N on ob s er vat a f orm a i n f e r t ur a dn n ll ati o


—Wh
.

ac tu s . (1 2 COKE , en f orm i s n ot ob served

i t is i n f erre d th at th e ac t is ann u ll ed .

1 6 27 . N on ofi cit c on at u s n i s i s e qu at u r e fi e c t

us .
(1 1 C O K E — T h e atte m p t d o,es n o h arm

un le ss th e c on sequ en c e f ollow .

1 6 28 N o n omn e dam n u m i n du c i t i nju r i am



.

(3 B L A C K C O M N
. o t e very l o ss p rodu c es an
.

In ur j y .

1 6 29 N on om n o q n od li c e t h o n e st u m e st

. .

(D I G 5 0. 1 7 . N o t e
. v eryt h i n g w hi c h i s per

mi tted by law i s h on orable .

1 6 30 N o n omn i um qua a m ajor i b ns n ostr i s


.

c o n at i t n t a aun t r at i o r e d di pot e st (DI G 1 3 . . . .

-
A reaso n c an n ot be gi ven f or all th e th i n gs wh i c h
were i n sti tu te d by our an c estors .

1631 . N on pe r t i n e t ad j u di c e m s e c u l ar e m

c ogn osc er e de i l s qu a aun t m er e spi r i t u ali a

an n e x a. ( INST
2 .
—It pertai n s n ot t o the
1 98 LEGAL MAxm s .

secul ar j u dge to take c ogn i zan c e of thi n g s pu rely

1 6 32 . N on p oss e ss ori i n c um bi t ne c e s si t as pr o
b an di p o ss e s si o n e s ad s e p e r ti n e r e .
(B R .

Th e n ec essi ty of pr ovi n g p osse ssi on of h i s own


p roperty i s n ot i n c u m ben t u pon th e o wn e r .

1 6 33 N on pot e st ad du ci e x c e pti o ej u s de m
.

r e i , c ujus p at i t u r di s s o l u t i o ( AC M AX
B — A .
'
.

l
p ae Of th e sam e m atter w h ose di ssolu ti on is
sou gh t , c an n ot be m ade .

1 6 34 . pot e st pr e h ar i qu e d pr ob at u m n o n
N on
r e l e v at
(1. E XC H 9 1 9 2 10
. 2 — T
. h a t.c an n ot be .

proved wh i ch wh en p roved i s i rr elevan t


,
.

1 6 35 . N on p e t e s t qui s s i n e b r e v i ag ar s .

( F L E TA 1
, 2 .
— N
. O o n e c an su e w i th ou t a w r it .

1 6 36 . N o n p ot e st r e x gr at i am f ac e r e c u m
i njur i a e t d am n o ali oru m (3 IN S T .
— T h e .

k i n g c an n ot c on f er a f avor on on e su bj ec t wh i c h
occ asi on s i n j u ry an d l oss t o o th ers .

1 6 37 N o n po t e s t v i d e ri d e si s s e h ab e r e , qu i
.

n un qu am h ab ui t (D I G 5
. 0 1 7 —
. H e m ay . .

not b e r egar ded as h avi n g c e ased t o h av e a thi n g ,

wh o n ever h ad i t.

1 6 38 N o n pr a s tat i m p e di m e n t u m q n o d d e
.

'

jur e n o n s o r ti t u r afle c t n m (J E N K C E N T . . .

An i m pedi men t wh i c h does n ot by l aw p rodu ce a


con se qu en ce , avai ls n oth i n g .

1 6 39 . N on qu e d di c tu m e st, s e d qu e d f act u m
e st , i ns pi c i t ur .
(CO K E L I TT
,
. 36 . a.
) N o t wh at i
-
s

sai d, bu t wh at i s don e, i s to be regar ded .


20 0 LEGAL MAXI MS .

c on v e n i e n s c o n si de r an dnm ; qu i a ni hi l qn o d i n
c on v e n i e n s e st li c i t u m (C OK E L I TT 6 6 a ) .
, . . .

Not on ly wh at i s p erm i tted bu t wh at i s pr ope r i s , ,

to be c on si dered ; b ec au se n oth i n g wh i c h i s i m

prOper i s i llegal .

1 6 49 N o n s un t l on g a
. u bi n i hi l e st qu e d
de m er e po s si s (VAU G H — T
. h e re i s . no pr o

li xi ty wh ere th er e i s n oth i n g wh i c h c an b e spared .

1 6 50 . N on t em e r e cr e d e r e , e st n er v u s

sapi e n ti a .
(5 CO K E ,
—Not to beli eve rash l y
i s th e n erve of wi sdom .

1 6 51 . N on v al e t i m p e di m en t u m q n o d de

jur o n on s or ti t ur

e fle c t u m .
(4 CO KE , —An
i m pedi m en t i s of n o con sequ en c e, wh i c h by l aw
h as no e ff ec t .

16 5 2 . N on v erbi s sed i p si s r e b us , l e ge s
u p on i m u s (C O D E , 6 .43 . .
—W e i m p ose l aw
u p on t h i n gs th em selve s , n o t u pon wor ds .

1 6 53 . N on v i d e n tn r q ui e rr an t c on s e n t i r e .

(D I G 50 1 7
. . .
—T h ose wh o er r are n ot c on

s i dere d as c on sen ti n g .

1 6 54 . p er f e ct s c ujn s qn s i d e s s e ,
N on vi d e t ur
qu e d e x c asu au f s r r i p o t e st (D I G 50 1 7 1 59 . . . . .

—Th at i s n ot c on si dere d as t ru ly belon gi n g to


an y on e w h i c h u pon occ as i on c an be take n f r om
, ,

him .

1 6 55 . N on v i d e t ur qn i s q u am id c ape r s

qn o d e i ne c e ss e e s t alii r e st i t u e r a . D
( G 50 1 7
I . . .

—O n e i s n ot r egar ded as own i n g a thi n g wh i c h


h e i s obl i ged t o res tore .
LEGAL MAXI MS . 20 1

1 6 56 . N on v i de n tn r r em ami tt er e qu i b u s
pr o pr i a n on fui t .
(DIG . 50 . 17 .
—T h ey c an
n ot be sai d t o lose a thi n g wh ose own i t was
n ot .

1 6 57 . N on vi d e t ur c e n s e ns u m r e ti n ni s s e Si

qui s ex pr a sc r i pt o mi n an ti a
qui d i mm u t av i t ali .

(B A C M .A X — H e d oe
. s n ot a pp e a r t o h av e r e

t ai n e d c on sen t wh o h as c h an ged an y th i n g th rou gh


th e m en ac es of a part y th r eaten i n g .

1 6 58 N on v i d e t ur v i m f ac e r e , qui j ur o sn o
.

u ti t ur , e t o r di n ar i a ac t i o n s e x p e r i t nr (D I G 50 . . .

1 7 1 55
.
—He i s n ot regar ded as u si n g f orc e wh o
.
,

e xerc i ses h i s own r i gh t an d p roc ee ds by or di n ary ,

ac ti on .

1669 . N o s c i t ur a se c n s .
(BR .
—The
m ean i n g of a wor d m ay be asc ertai n ed by

ref er e n c e to th e m ean i n g O f w ords as soc i ated

W i th i t .

16 60 . N os ci t ur ex so ci o qu i n on c e gn o s c i t ur

ex ea. (MOO RE ,
—H e wh o c an n ot be kn own “

f rom h i m self , m ay be kn own f rom his asso

c i ates .

166 1 . N ot hi n g S h al l be v oi d, w hi ch b y po s si
b ili t y m ay b e g o o d ( N O Y ,
.

1662 N e t h n s n u lli u s e s t fi li n s
. .
(Le m ,

A bastar d is b
n o od ys ’
son .

1663 . N ov a c on s t i t u t i o f u t u ri s f e r m am i m
po n ar a d e b e t, n on pr a t e r i ti s .
(2 IN S T .

A n e w en ac tm en t ou gh t to i m p ose f orm u pon wh at


i s to com e , n ot u pon what i s past .
I on pr a su m i t ur .
(H A L K .

t t o be presu m ed .

i o n t am n t ili t at e pr e d s st qu am
-
(JE N K CE N T
. .
— Novelty
1 by i ts ut i l i t y , as i t di stu rbs by

u di c i n m n on dat j us n ov u m ,

nu m .
(1 0 C OK E ,
—A n ew

make a n ew l aw, bu t dec lares

u i
[ tu r c a put ~
(HE I N . EL . J UR .

vs th e person .

ic t i e obli ga t i e n e m n on p ari t .

i na ked prom i se does n ot m ake

pac t um e st u bi n u ll a s u b e st

v en t
L i on e m ; s e d u bi su h ast
at p ari t ac ti o n e m P W
( L O D . .

trac t i s wh ere t h ere i s n o c on

at th e agreem en t ; b u t wh ere
t i on , an
. o bli gati on e xi st s, an d

n ot u m i n efi c ax ad ag e n d m
u .

k d
s e agreem en t i s i ns u ffi c i en t

ser i a m al a du c un t .
(T A Y LE R ,

;o ser i ou s h arm .

dr a a dv an t ag e de s on to rt
—No on e c an take ad
wron g .
20 4 LEGAL M A I M S X .

1680 . N u ll e t e rr e s an s s e i gn e ur . (GUY IN ST . .

FE OD .
—No l an d wi th ou t a l ord .

168 1 . N u lli e ni m r e s s u a s e rv i t j nr e s e r vi t u ti s .

(D I G 8 2
.
— NO
. . on e c an h ave a se rvi tu de o ver

hi s own prop erty .

1682 . N ulli v e n de m us , n u lli n e g ab i m u s , an t

di fi e r i m u s j u s ti ti am v el re ct u m .

Nei th er j u sti c e n or ri gh t S h all be so ld den i e d or , ,

delayed t o an y on e , .

1683 N u ll i u s c h ar t a l e gi b u s p e t e st d e r o g ar e
. .

(LOFFT —
, N o w r i t te n d ee d c an d e r og at e f r om
th e laws .

1684 . N u lli n a h o m i n i s au ct or i t as a pu d n os

v al e r e de b e t , nt m e li o r a n on s e qn e r e m n r S i qu i s
(C
att u l er i t .O K E L I TT 3 8 3 a ) — T h e , . . . au th or i ty o f

n o m an ou gh t t o p revai l wi th u s so t h at we sh ou l d ,

n ot f ollow be tter op i n i on s Sh ou l d an oth er p r ese n t ,

th em .

1685 . N ull u m cri m e n m aj u s e s t i n o b e di e n ti a .

(J E N K . CE N T .
—N o c ri m e i s gre ater t h an di so
bedi en c e .

16 86 . N u ll u m cr i m e n pati t u r i s q ui n on pr e
hi b at p r o hi b e r a n o n po t e s t (H AL K
c um . .

He i s n ot gu i l ty of a c ri m e wh o f ai ls t o preven t
wh at h e c an n ot p reven t .

1687 N u ll u m d am n u m si n e r e m e di o (LOFFT
. .
,

—Th ere i s n o loss wi th ou t a rem e dy .

1688 N ull u m e x e m pl u m e st i d e m o m n i b us
. .

(CO K E L I TT, 2 1 2 a ) — N O .e xam p.le i s th.e sam e to

all .
LEG AL MAXIM S . 20 5

1 6 8 9; N u l l um i ni qu nm e st in j ur e pr a su m an

du m .
(4 C O KE ,
—NO i n i q ui ty i s t o be pre
su m ed i n law .

1 6 90 . N n ll u m m atr i m o n i u m, i b i n u ll a do s .

(4 BARB . N . Y . 1 92 .
—NO m arri age, no

dower .

1691 . N u ll u m m e di c am e n t nm e st i de m o m ni

b us .
(C O K E , LI TT . 41 7 b . .

) NO m e di c i n e i s th e
sam e to al l .

1 6 92 . N ul l u m t e m pu s an t l o c us o cc u r r i t r e i
pu b li c a .
(1 1 GRAT .
—N ei th er t i m e n or plac e
aff ec ts t he re u p bl i c .

1693 N u ll u m t e m pu s o cc ur r i t r e gi
.
(2 I N S T . .

— Lapse of t i m e does n ot bar th e r i gh t of th e


c r own .

1 6 94 . N ull u s ali u s qu am r ex p o ss i t e pi s c o po
de m an dar a i n qu i s i ti on e m f ac i e n d am . C
( KEO ,

LI TT 1 34 b ) —No oth er th an th e k i n g
. . . c an c e m
m an d th e b i sh op to m ak e an i n qu i si ti on .

1 6 96 . N u ll us c em m e dn m c ape r s p o t e st de
i nj u r i a su a p r o pr i a .
(CO K E , LITT 1 48 b ) —
. No . .

on e S h al l Obtai n an advan tage by h i s own wron g .

1 6 96 . N u ll u s d e b e t ag s r e de do l e , ub i ali a

a ct i o sn b e st . (4 CO K E ,
—Wh ere an oth er f orm
o f act i on i s g i ven , n o on e ou gh t to su e i n th e ac t i on

DE D L O O .

16 97 . N ull uS di c i t ur ac c e s s or i n s po st f e l oni am
se d i ll a qui pr i n c i p al e m f e l oni am f e c i s s e ,
n ov i t st

i ll n m r e c e pt av i t at c o m f or t av i t (3 I N S T . .

N o on e i s called an ac cessor y af ter th e f act, bu t h e


20 6 LEGAL MAxm s .

wh o kn ew th e p ri n c i p al t o h av e c omm i tte d a

f elon y an d r ec ei ve d an d
, c om f ort ed h im .

1698 . N u ll u s di c i t ur felo pr i n ci pali s ni s i

a ct o r , an t q ui pr a s e n s e st
,
ab e tt an s an t au x

ili an s ad f e l on i am f ac i e n dam .
(3 IN ST
—No
.

on e sh al l be c al led a pr i n c i p al f e lon e xc e pt
th e p arty ac tu ally c om m i tt i n g t h e f el on y o r t h e ,

p arty presen t ai di n g an d abet ti n g i n i ts c om


,

m i ssi on .

1 6 99 . N u ll u s j us ali e n n m f or i s f a c e r e p o t e s t .

(FLE TA , 1 28
. .
—No m an c an f or f e i t th e
ri g h t o f an oth er .

170 0 . N ul lu s r s c e da t e cu r i a c an c e ll ar i a S i n e

r e m e di o .
(Y E A R B 4 H VII . . . .
— Let no on e

dep art f rom th e c ou r t of c h an cer y w i th ou t a

r em ed y .

1 70 1 . N ul l us v i de t u r dol e f ac e r e qu i s u e
j nr e u ti t ur . (D I G 50 1 7
. . .
—N o on e sh ou ld b e
este em ed a wron g doer wh o u se s hi s own l egal
r i gh t .

1 70 2 . N um e r us c e rt n a p r o i n c e r t o p o ni t u r .

(T AYLE R, —A c e rtai n n u m ber i s to be su b

st i tu ted f or wh i c h i s u n c ert ai n
on e .

1 70 3 . N um m us e s t m e n sn r a r e r um c om

m u t an d ar n m .
(W H ART . 7 — M o n ey is th e
m easu re of thi n gs th at ar e t o be c h an ge d .

1 70 4 . N un qn am c o n c l u di t nr i n f als e .
(W H AR T
—Noth i n g i s f al sel y c onc lu ded
.

1 70 5 . N u n qn am c r e sc i t ex post f a ct o pr a
t e ri ti d e li cti a s ti m ati o . (DI G . 50 1 7 1 38
. . .
20 8 LEGAL MAXIM S .

ti e n ab i li t an qu a m l e gi .
(4 C OKE 38 —A reason
'
.
,

a b le c u stom i s to be o e b yed as law .

1 71 3 . O c c u l t at i o t h e s au r i i n v e n ti f r an du l e s a .

(3 I N S T .
—Th e c on c e alm en t of di sc over ed
treasu re i s f rau du len t .

1 71 4 . O c c u p an ti s fi un t d e r e li ct a .
(1 PE T .

AD M .
— Th i n gs b
a an don e d b ec om e th e p re p
er ty O f t he oc c u pan t .

1 71 5 . O di e at m or e j u de x c ar e at .

—Le t a j u dge be f ree f rom h at r e d an d l ove .

1 71 6 . O di os a et i nh o n e s ta n on aun t i n l ege
pr a s u m e n d a.
(CO K E ,
LI TT 78 b )—O di o us
. . . and

di sh on est t h i n gs ar e n ot to be p re s u m e d i n law .

1 71 7 O me ar a m ay n o t
. e x am i n e th e j u di ci a l
ac t s o f t h e c our t (2 BO U . .

1 71 8 . Ofi cia j u di c i ali a n o n c e n c e dan t n r an t e

qu am v a an t . c (1 1 C O K E ,
— Ju di c i al offi ce s are

n ot t o be g ran t ed b ef ore t h ey are v ac an t .

1 71 9 O fi c i a m agi s t r at u s n o n d e b an t
. e s se

v e n al i a .
(CO K E ,
LI TT . 234 . a .
) -
Th e offi ces of

m agi str ate s ou gh t n ot t o b e s ol d .

1 72 0 . Ofi cium n e m i ni d eb e t e ss e d am n o s um .

(BE L L , D I C )— An
. o mc e o u gh t t o b e i n j uri ou s to
n o on e .

c on at u s , S i e fi e c t n s s e qu atu r
'

1 72 1 . Ofi cit .

(J E N K . CE NT .
—Th e attem p t be co m es o f c onse
qu e n c e i f th e e ff ec t f ol low .

1 72 2 . O m i s si o s e r um q u a ta ci t e i n s u n t ni h i l

O p e r at ur . (2 BU L S .
—Th e o m i ss i on of th ose
th i n gs t h at are S i len tly express ed i s of n o c onse

qu en ce .
LEGAL mu m s . 209

1 72 3 . Om n e ac t n m ab i n t e n t i on e ag e n ti s e st

j u di c an du m ; a v o l un t at e pr o c e di t c aus a v i t ii

at q ue v i rt u t i s . (JUR . CW .
) —E v er y ac t i s to be
esti m at ed by t h e i n ten t i on of t h e doer ; th e c ause

of v i c e an d v i r tu e proc eeds f rom th e wi ll .

1 72 4 O m n e c r i m e n e b r i e t as e t i n c e n di t e t
.

d e t e gi t (C
. OK E M M 2 47 a
, ) — D r u n k en
. n e ss b ot
.h .

l i gh ts u p an d reveals e very c r i m e .

1 72 5 O m n e j u s au t c on s e n s u s f e c i t, au t n o
.

c e ssi tas c o n s ti t u i t
,
au t fi r m a v i t c o n s u e t u do .

( D I G .1 3 .
— E .v e ry l aw h as e i th e r b ee n c r e ated

by c on sen t or establi sh ed by n ecessi ty or c on


, ,

firm ed by c ustom .

1 726 O m n e m agn u m e x e m pl u m h ab e t ali qui d


.

e x i n i qu o , qu o d p u b l i c a u ti li t a t e c o m pe n s at u r .

(H O B .
— Every gre at e xam p le h as som eth i n g
of i n j us ti ce wh i c h i s c om pen sated by i ts pu bli c
,

1 72 7 . Om n e c
s a r am e n t u m deb e t e ss e de certa
c
s i e n t i a. (4 Ix s r
'
.
—Eve ry o ath ou gh t t o be
f ou n ded o n c er tai n k n owledge .

1 72 8 . O m n e t e s t am e n t u m m or t e c o n su m m a

tu m e st . (3 C O KE ,
-
Ever y wi l l is c om plete d
by death .

1 72 9 . Om n e v e r b um de or e fi d e li cadi t in
de b i t u m .
(T RAY .
-
Every wor d s i n c er ely
spo ken c o n s ti tu tes an o bli gati on .

1 73 0 . Om n e s h om i n e s au t li b e r i su n t au t

ser vi .
(FLE T A ,
1 . 1 2
. .
—Al l m en are ei th er f re e
m en or slaves.
2l 0 LEGAL M Axm s .

1 73 1 . O m n e s i n d e f e n s i on e m r e i pu b li c a vi ta

b o n i s qu e o mn i b u s ci v e s t e n e n t u r (LOFFT .
,

—All z
c i ti e n s are bou n d to def en d t h e re pu bli c
wi th al l th e i r li ves an d po sse ss i on s .

1 73 2 O m n e s li c en t i am h ab e r e hi s q u a
.
pr o
se i n du l t a aun t , r e n u n c i ar e ( CO D E , 2 3 . . .

All sh all h ave l i be rty t o r en ou n c e th ose thi n gs


wh i c h h ave bee n e stabli sh ed i n th e i r f avor .

1 73 3 . Om n e s s o r or e s su n t q u as i u n u s h a r e s
de una ha r e di t at e .
(C O K E , L TT 6 7
I .
— Al l .

si sters are as i t w ere , on e h ei r to on e i n h er i


tan ce .

1 73 4 . Omn e s s u b di t i s un t r e gi s s e r v i . (JEN K .

CE N T .
—All su b e c ts are
j th e ki n g s ’
se r van ts .

1 73 5 . O m n i a d e li c t a i n
p e r t o l e v i o r a au n t a .

(8 C ok e — A 11 c r i m e s don e op e n ly are l i gh t e r
, .

1 73 6 O mn i a h o n e s t e e t o r di n e fi an t
.
( L OF FT .
,


l 38 ) Le t all th i n gs be don e h on estl y an d i n
.

1 73 7 . O mn i a li b e r o e t l e g al i t e r f ac i e n da

.

(T AYL E R ,
All th i n gs sh ou ld b e don e f reel y
an d legally .

1 73 8 . O mn i a pr a s u m u n tu r c on t r a s po li a
t or e m .
(W H AR T .
—All t hi n gs are to be
presu m ed agai n st a wron g doer .

1 73 9 O m ni a p m s u m u n t ur l e gi ti m e f ac ta
do n e c pr o b at ur in c o n t r ar i u m .
(CO KE Lm , .

232 .
— All th i n gs presu m ed to he
are legi t i m ately

don e ,
u n ti l i t b e pr oved to t h e c on trary .

1 740 . O m n i a pr a s u m u n t ur s ol e m n i t e r as“
LEGAL MAXI MS .

1 749 . O m n i a d e fin i t i o i n j ur o p e r i c ul o s a e s t ,

p ar u m e st enim ut n on s u b v e r ti p o s s i t .
(D 1 6 .

50 1 7
. .

E very de fi n i t i o n i n l aw i s dan ger
ou s , f or th ere i s bu t li ttle th at c an n ot be o ver

th rown .

1 75 0 . Om n i a i n d e m n at u s pr o i n n ox i o l e gi b u s
h ab e t ur .
(LOFFT ,
— E ver y u n c on d e m n ed
person i s h e ld by th e l aw as i n n oc en t .

1 75 1 . O m n i a i n n ov ati o plu s n o v i tat e p e r t u r

b at qu am u ti li t at e pr o de s t .
(2 BU LS .
—Ev ery
i n n ovati o n di stu r bs m ore by i ts n ovelty , th an
ben efi ts by i ts u t ili t y .

1 75 2 . O m n i a i n t e r pr e t ati o, s i fi e r i p ot e st , i ta
fi e n da e st i n i n s tr um e n ti s , u t om n e s c o n t r ar i e t at e s

am o v e an t ur . (J E N K . C E N T. —
E very i n terpre ~

tati on , i f it c an be do n e , i s t o b e so m ade i n
i n stru m en ts, th at al l c on tradi c ti on s m ay be te

m oved .

1 75 3 O m ni a l as c i v i a l e gi b u s v e t i t a
.
(Lom .
,

—All lasc i vi ou sn ess i s c on trary t o law


. .

1 754 . O m n i a n ov a c o n s ti t u t i o f u tur i s t am por i


b u s f or m am i m pon e r e d e b e t , n on p a
r t e r i ti s .
(2
IN S T .
—Every n ew statu te sh ou l d g i v e a f orm
to f u t ure t i m es, n ot to p ast .

1 75 5 . O m n i s pr i v ati o pr e s u ppo n i t h ab i ta m .

(C O K E , LI TT 339 a . E very pr i vat i on presu pposes


. .
-

f orm e r en o j ym en t .

1 75 6 O m ni a pr o hi b i ti o m an dat o eq u i par at n r .


.

(T AY L E R, 308 E v e ry p r oh i b
.i t i on i s e qu i val en t t o

a c omm an d .
LEGAL mu m s . 21 3

1 757 . Om n i a qu e r e la e t o m n i a ac t i o i ndu r i ar um
li m i t a e st i n fr a ce r ta t e m p or a .
(C O K E , LI TT .

1 14 b . .
) —Ev e r y pl ai n t an d e ve r y ac ti on f or i n
j u ri es i s l i m i te d w i thi n c ert ai n t i m es .

1 758 . O mn i s r ati h ab i t i o r e tr o t r ah i t u r et

m an d at e pr i or i a q ui par at u r (COKE LI TT 207 .


, . .

a .
—Every r at i fi c ati on of an ac t already don e h as
a retros pe c t i ve eff ec t an d i s e qu al to a pr i or c om
,

m an d .

1 75 9 . O m ni s pati tu r e x ce pti o n e s
r e gul a s u as

e t o m n i s e x c e pt i o e s t r e gul a
( 2 BOU . .

Every ru le i s su bj ec t t o i ts own e xce pti on s an d ,

every e xc e p t i on i s a r u l e .

1 76 0 O m n i u m r e r um qu ar u m u su s e st , pot e st
.

e s s e ab n s u s
,
v i r t u t e s o l o e x c e p t a
(D A V . .

—Th ere m ay b e an abu se of e veryth i n g of wh i c h


th ere i s a us e v i rtu e al on e e xc ep te d
. .

1 76 1 O n c e a f r au d, al w ay s a f r au d
.
(1 3 V I N . .

An n .

1 76 2 . O n ce a m or tgage , al w ay s a m o r t gag e .

( 1 HI L L RE AL P ROP . .

1 76 3 O n c e a r e c o m p e ns e ,
. al w ay s a r ec o m
pe n s e .
(1 9 VI N ABE
. .

1 76 4 . O n c e qu i t an d c l e ar e d, ev er qu i t an d

cl e ar e d .
(2 BO U .

1 76 5 . O n e m ay n ot do an ac t t o hi m s e lf .
(2
BOU .

1 76 6 . On e s h ou l d be j u st b e f or e h e i s g e n e r
ou s . (2 BOU .

1 76 7 . On e th i n g sh al l i n ur e f or an o th e r .

(N or ,
21 4 LEGAL MAXIM S .

1 76 8 . O pi n i o qu a f av e t t e s ta m e n t o e s t t e n
e n da.
(1 W B L
. 1 3 A R G
.
) — T h a t Op
. i n i o n
. i s t o be

f ollowe d wh i c h f avors th e wi ll .

1 76 9 O por t e t qu o d c e r t a
. r es d e d u c at ur i n
j u di ci u m .
(JE NK . CE N T .
—A th l n g c er t ai n

m ust be b r ou gh t to j u dgm en t .

1 770 . O po r te t qu e d c e r t a si t r e s q u a v e n di t ur .

(B RA CT .
—A thi n g wh i ch i s t o be s ol d, m ust be
c er tai n .

1 771 . O por t e t qu e d c e rt a p e r s on a ,
c e r ta
t er r e ,
e t ce rti s t at u s , c o m p r e h e n dan t u r i n d e c l ar
ati o n s us uu m . (9 C O K E , 9 .
-
It i s ri gh t th at c er
tai n perso n s l an ds , ,
an d c ertai n es tate s sh ou l d be
c om preh en ded i n a dec lar ati on o f u se s .

1 772 . O po r t e t l e gu m br e v um e sse s
, q o
u

f aci li n a ab i m p e r i ti s t e n e ut ur .
(RIL E Y ,

Laws sh ou l dbe sh ort , t h at th ey m ay be m ore


e asi l y c om preh en de d by t h e i gn or an t .

1 773 . O pp o si ta j uxt a se p o si t a m agi s e l u oe s

c un t . (1 5 BA C .
—Th i n gs op p osi te wh en
plac e d t oge th er appear i n a c learer l i gh t .

1 774 O p ti m a e s t l e gu m i n t e r pr e s c e n su otu do
. .

(DI G 1 3 . . .
—C ustom i s th e best i n ter pre te r of

laws .

1 775 . O p ti m a e st l e x qu e m i n i m u m r e li n qu i t
ar b i t r i o j u di ci s .
(BA C A P E 46.
— T h at l.aw i s.t h e

best wh i c h l eaves l east t o th e di sc reti on of th e


j u dge .

1 776 . O pti m a e v i de n t i a r e i pm v al e b i t . (TAY

prevai l .
21 6 LEGAL mu m s .

1 78 4 . P aci su n t m ax i m a c e n tr ar i a, v i s at in
ju r i a. (CO K E L I TT 16
, 1 —
b ) Vi olen ce an d i n j ury
. . .

are e s pe c i ally c on tr ary to p eace .

1 78 5 P ac ta c o n v e n ta, qu a n e qu e c on tr a
.

l e g e s, n e qu e d ol o m al o i n i t a s un t, om n i m o do
o b s e r v an d a s u n t
(C O D E .2 3 — C on t rac ts , . .

wh i ch are n ot agai n st l aw , an d do n o t or i gi n ate in


f rau d, are in all r es pec ts t o be o bserved .

1 78 6 .P acta dan t l e g e m c o n tr ac t ui .
(H ALK .

-
Agree m en ts g i ve th e law t o th e c on trac t .

1 78 7 . P ac t a pri v at a j u r i pu b li c c d e r o gar e n on

p os s un t .
(7 C on , 23 .
—Pri vate c on trac ts c an n ot

derogate f rom pu bli c r i gh t .

1 78 8 . P ac ta q u a c o n t r a l e ge s c on sti t u t i on
es q ue v e l c o n t r a b o n o s m or e s fi un t , n all amv i m

h ab er e , i n du bi t at i j u ri s e st .
(CO D E, 2 . 3 .

T h at c on trac ts whi c h are m ade agai n st l aw or

agai n st m orals, h ave


good no f orc e , i s a pri n c i ple
of u n dou b ted l aw .

1 78 9 . P act a q ue t nr p e m c au s am c on ti n e n t

n on su n t ob s e r v an d a. (D I G . 2 1 4 27
. . .
—Con
t rac ts f oun ded u pon an i m m oral c on si derati on are

n ot t o b e observed .

1 79 0 . P acta pr o ca v e l u tr osqu e l i gan t v el


r ec i

n e u tr u m .
(LOFFT — M u,tu a l c on tr ac ts b i n d
e i th er both p art i es, or n ei th er on e .
LEGAL mu m s . 21 7

1 79 1 . P ab t a t r a di ti o n e fir m an tur .
(HA
—Agreem en ts by deli very ar e c onfi rm ed .

1 79 2 P act o ali qu i d li c i t um e s t , qu o d si n e
.

pact o n o n adm i t ti t ur (CO K E LI TT 1 6 6 a ) .


, . . .

By a c on trac t som eth i n g i s perm i tted whi ch wi th , ,

ou t i t, c ou ld n ot be adm i tte d.

1 79 3 . P ac t u m d e as s e d at i o n e fac i en da et i psa
as s e dati on e e q u i par an t ur . (T R AY .
—Ah
agr ee m e n t to gran t a l ease i s equi valen t to th e
lease i t self .

1 79 4 . P ar in par e m i m pe ri u m n on h ab e t .

(J E N K . CE N T .
—An equal . h as no power over

an e qu al .

1 79 5 . P ar en s e st n om e n g e n e r al e ad om n e

g e n us c o gn at i o n i s . (C O KE , LIT T . 80 b . .
) —Par e n t
is a ge n er al n am e f or ever y ki n d o f relat i on sh i p .

1 79 6 P ar e n t um e st li b e r o s al e r e e ti am


.

n oth o s . (LOFFT , 222 . Th e paren ts of a bastard


are l i able f or h i s su pport .

1 79 7 P ar i a c o pu i an t ur c um i 1
.
p ar b us .
( 5
BAC .
—Li ke t h i n gs u n i te wi th li ke .

1 79 8 . P ar i b u s s e n t e n ti i s r e u s ab s ol v i t ur .
(4
IN S T .
—Wh en '

opi n i on s are equ al th e def en dan t


is ac qu i tte d .

1 79 9 . P ar i e s on e r i f e r an do u ti n un c e st i ta
si t . (T R AY 423 —Th e p ar t y wal.l i s . to r emai n

i n tac t f or bo t h ten em en ts f orever .

1800 . P ar i u m e a de m e st r ati o , i de m ju s .

( WHART 7 .
—0 f thi n gs equal, th e reason an d

th e l aw i s th e sam e .
21 8 LEGAL m xm s .

180 1 . Fa t e qu ac un qu e i n t e gr an t e s u bl at a,

t e lli t ur t e t u m . (8 C O K E ,
—An i n tegral p art
bei n g taken awa
y th e wh ole i s taken away , .

1 802 P ar t i ci p e s pl u r e s s u n t qu asi u n u m
.

c or pu s, i n ac qu e d u n um j us h ab e nt (COKE .
,

LI TT 1 64 a —M an y p ar tn ers are as on e body


. . .
,

i n asm u c h as th ey h ave on e ri gh t .

1803 P ar ti e s ar e pr e s u m e d t o kn o w t h e l aw
.

u p on t h e u n di s p u t e d f ac ts o f th e i r c as e (37 .

BARB N Y 476 . . . .

1804 . P ar tu s ex l e gi t i m o t h e r e n on c or ti n s

n e sc i t m atr e m qu am g e n i te r e m suu m . (FO RT E S C .

—The off spri n g of a legi ti m ate be d kn ows not


h i s m oth er m ore c er tai n l y th an h i s f ath er .

1 80 5 . P ar t u s se qu i tur v e n tr e m . (2 BLACK .

COM .
—Th e e fi spri n g f ollows th e m oth er .

1 80 6 . P ar u m dif f e r un t q a
u re c o n c or dan t.

(2 BU L S .
—Th i n gs di ff er bu t li ttl e wh i c h agree

in su bstan c e .

1807 . P aru m e st l at am e ss e s en t e n ti am , ni si

m an dat ar e x e c u t i e ni .
(COKE , LI TT . 289 b ) —It
. .

is n ot e n ou gh th at sen ten ce be gi ven u n less i t be

c arr i ed to e xec u t i on .

1 80 8 . P ar u m pr e fi c i t sc i r e qui d fi e r i d e b e t,
si n on c e gn e s c as q u e m o d e si t f ac t ur u m (2 .

IN S T .
—I t prof i ts li ttle to kn ow wh at
ou gh t to be don e, if you know n ot h ow i t i s
to be don e .

1809 P at e r e st qu e m n u pti a d e m on str an t



. .

(1 B LACK . CO M 446 . . He i s th e f ath er wh en


m arri age i n di cates .
220 L E G A L M AXI M S .

c i at ur . ( DI G 7 .
— T h at i s c on s ide red to
41 1 . . .

b e added by all u vi on wh i c h i s so added l i t t le by ,

l i t tl e t h at w e c an n ot t ell h o w m u c h i s added at an y
o ne m o m en t of ti m e .

1819 . P er r at i on e s , p e r v e n i t u r ad l e gi t i m am
r ati o n e m . (LI TT .
—By r e aso n i n g we c om e

t o leg al reaso n .

1 8 20 . P er v ar i e s ac t us , l e g em e x pe r i e n t i a

f aci t .
( 4 IN S T .
—By var i o u s ac ts e x pe r i e n c e
f ram es t h e l aw .

1 8 21 . P e r e at u n us n e p e r e an t e m n e s .
( WHART .

76 4 —.Le t on e p er i sh ,
r ath e r t h an all .

1 8 22 . P e rf e c t u m e st c u i n i h i l d e e st se cun dum
su m p e r f e c t i o n i s ,
v el n at u r a m e du m .
(HO B .

—T h at is per f ec t t o wh i c h n oth i n g i s wan t i n g ,


ac c o rdi n g to th e m easu re of i ts perf ec ti on or

n at u re .

1 823 . P e r i c u l e su m e st r e s n e v as e t i n us i tat as
i n ducer e .
(CO KE , LI TT 379 . . a .
) — I t i s p e r i l o u s to
i n t rodu c e n e w an d u n tr i e d th i n gs .

1 8 24 . P e r i c ui e s u m e x i s ti m o qu e d b o n oru m
v i r e r um n on c e m pr e b at ur e x e m pl e (9 C O KE .
,

—I t h i n k th at dan ger ou s w hi c h is n ot war


r an t ed by t h e exam ple of good m e n .

1 8 25 P e r i c u l u m r e i v e n di t ae , n e u da m t r adi ta ,
.

e st e m pt e r i s . (2 KE N T , CO M 498 . .
—Th e k
ri s

of an art i c le sold, an d n ot ye t deli vered, i s th e


p u rc h ase r s ’
.

1 8 26 . P e rj u r i su nt q ui s er v at i s j ur a
v er b i s

m e n ti d ec i pi u n t au r e s e e r e m qui ae ei pi u n t (3 .
L E GA L M A X I M S . 22 1

IN S T .
—Th ey are perj u r ed , wh o , p re s e r v i n g
th e words of an oath , dec e i ve t h e ears of t h ose
wh o rec ei ve it .

1 8 27 . P erjuri i pa n a di v i n a e x i ti u m ; hu
m an a d e d ee us .
(LOFFT ,
—T h e d i vi n e p u n i sh
m en t of p erj u ry i s destr u c ti on ; th e h u m an p u n
i sh m en t i s di sgrac e .

1 8 28 P er p e t u a l e x
. e st , n a ll am l e ge m hu
m an am ac p osi t i v am p e r p e t u am e ss e . (BA C .

MAX .
—It i s a p erpetu al law th at no h u m an or

p osi ti ve l aw c an b e p erpetu al .

1 8 29 . P e r pe t ui t ati b us lex o b si s ti t . (H ALK .

—Th e law i s Opposed t o perpet u i t i es .

1 8 30 . P e r s on a c e ndu n c t a aqu i p ar at ur i n t e r e sse


p p
r e r i e . B
( C
A . MAx .
—A u n i on wi th a per
so n i s e qu i vale n t o n e s own i n ter e st

to .

1 8 31 . P e rs o n a e st h em e , c um st at u qu e dam
c e n si d e r at us .
(HE IN . EL JUR CW . . . 1 . 3
.

A p erson is a m an c on si der ed i n r elat i on to a


c ertai n s tatu s .

1 8 32 . P er s on a vi c e f un gi t ur m uni ci pi um et

d ec u r i a. (23 WE N D N Y 1 03 . . . .
—T own s an d
borou gh s ac t as if person s .

1 8 33 . P e r s on al t h i n gs c an n ot be d on e b y
an ot h e r . ( FIN C H LA W 1 3 , . . .

1 8 34 . P ers on al thi n gs c ann ot be gr an t e d


ov e r . (FI N C H LAW 1 3 , . . .

1 8 35 . P e r son al t h i n gs di e wi t h t h e p e rso n .

(FI N C H LAw 1 3
, . . .

1 8 36 . P er s pi c ua v er a nen s un t pr ob an da .
222 L E G A L M A X I MS .

( C O KE LI TT , . 16 b . .

) Plai n t ru th s n eed n ot t o be
p rov ed .

1 8 37 . P i r ata e st h e s ti s h u m an i g e n e r i s .
(3
IN ST .
— A p i rat e i s an en em y of th e h u m a n
r ac e .

1 8 38 . pt e c on cl u d e r e (LOFFT
P l ac i t a d e b e n t a .
,

—P leas ou g h t t o c on c lu de p rop erly .

1 8 39 P l aci ta 9 : di r e c t e e s s e d e b an t, e t n i l
.

p e r i n du c ti e n e m su pp o n e r e (L OFFT 41 7 — T h e .
,

w i lls of su p e ri o rs sh o u ld b e di re c tly e xp ressed an d ,

n ot h i n g su pp o se d by w ay o f i n f e renc e .

1 8 40 P l ac i t a n e gati v a du o e x i t um n on f ac i u n t
. .

( LOFFT — T wo n eg at i ve pl eas f or m n o i ss ue
,
'

1 8 41 . P l ac i t o ru m ali a dil at o r i a ; ali a p e r e m p


t e ri a .
(LOFFT ,

Pleas are ei th er di l atory or

p er em p tory .

1 8 42 . P l ac i t u m ali u d p erson al e , ali u d r e al e ,


ali u d m i x t um .
(C O K E , LI TT 28 4 b ) —Pl eas ar e
. . .

p e rson al , r e al , an d m i xed .

1 8 43 . P l aci t u m m e n d ax n on e st pl aci t um .

(LOFFT , —A lyi n g wi ll i s n o wi ll .

1 8 44 . P l ac i t u m n em o c e ss ab i t , ni s i m e li us
d an d o .
(H A L K .
—A p lea in a at e m en t
b m u st
g i v e a be tt er p l ea .

1 8 45 . P l en a et c el er i s J us t i ti a fi at p ar ti b us .

(4 IN S T .
—Let f u ll an d s p eedy j u sti c e be don e
t o th e p ar ti es .

1 8 46 . c o r pu s qu am m e m b r a
P lur a su pp li ci a .

( RIL E Y 8 , .
—Th e wh ole body i s c apable of g r eat e r

suff eri n g th an any on e m em ber .


224 L E G A L M A XI M S .

1 8 57 . Pa n a ad p au c o s , m et u s ad o m n e s p e r

v e n i at . ( LOFFT ,
—Lc t p u n i sh m en t c om e t o

f ew f e ar t o all
, .

1 8 58 . Pa na e x d e l i c t o d e f u n ct i , h a res te n e r i
n on d eb et .
(2 I N S T .
—T h e h ei r o ug h t n ot t o

be bou n d by a pe n al t y f or t h e c r i m e of t h e dead .

1 8 59 . Pa na gr av i e r
, u l t r a l e ge m p os i t a a st i

mat i on e m c ons e r v at . 4
( IN S T . 66 .
—A h eav i e r
p u n i sh m en t pu t beyo n d th e l aw p reserves es teem .

1 860 . Pa na n on de b et an t e ire cr i m e n .

(LOE E T ,
—Pu n i sh m en t sh ou ld n ot prec ede a

c ri m e .

186 1 . Pa na n on pot e st ,
. c ul p a p e r e n ni s e ri t.

(21 VIN A E R . .
—P u n i sh m e n t c an n o t be, c ri m e

wi l l be p erpe t u al
, .

1862 . Pa na p oti u s m o l l i e n da qu am e x as

p e r an d a su n t .
(3 I N S T .
—Pu n i sh m en ts sh ou ld
r at h e r be sof te n ed t h an ag gravate d .

1863 . Pa na sun t r e s t r i n ge n da .
(JE N K .

CE N T .
—P u n i sh m en ts S h o u ld be r es tr ai n ed .

1864 . Pa na su e s t en ere deb et , a c t or e s et

n on al i os . (BRACT .
—P u n i sh m en t o u gh t to
fi n d i ts ow n au th ors an d n ot o t h e rs .

1865 . P oli ti a l e gi b u s n on l e ge s pe li ti i s ad ap t
an da .
(H O B .
— Pol i ti c s are t o b e adap t ed t o
t h e laws , an d n ot t h e laws t o p ol i t i c s .

1866 . P o n d e r an tu r t e st e s n on n u m e r an t u r .

(1 STARK . Ev .
—Wi tn e sses are wei gh ed n ot

c o u n te d .

1 8 6 7 P e si t e
. u n o e ppo si t or u m n e gat ur al t e rum .
L E G AL M A XI M S . 225

(2 RO L .
—On e of t wo opp osi te posi ti on s b ei n g
affi rm e d, t h e o t h er i s de n i e d .

186 8 . P e si t us c on di t i o n s n o n c e n s e t u r
in
p e si t us in i n sti t u ti e n e (T R A
. Y 450 — A p er son . .

n am ed in a c o n di t i on i s n o t n ec essar i ly n am e d i n

t h e des ti n ati on .

1869 . P oss e ssi o c on tr a om n e s v al e t pr a t e r e am

c ui j u s si
t p os s e s s i o n i s (LOFFT , 26 5 — P oss.e ss i on .

i s val i d agai n s t all exc ep t h i m wh o h as t h e ri g h t of


posse ssi on .

1 8 70 . P oss e s si o e st qu asi p e di s po si ti o .
(3
COK E ,
—Possessi on i s, as i t were , t h e r es t i n
g
p lac e of th e f e e t .

1 8 71 . P o ss e ssi o fr atr i e d e f e e d e si m p li c i f a ci t
sor o r e m e ss e h a r e d om . (3 C O KE ,

Th e
b rot her s p ossessi on i n f ee si m p le m akes t h e s i ster

-

t o b e h ei r .

1 8 72 .P oss e ss i o pac i fi c a po u r arm s 6 0 f ac i t


j us . (JE NK CE NT . Peac eabl e
.
— p ossessi on f or
S i xt y years g i ves a ri gh t .

1 8 73 . P o ss e ssi on is a g o o d t i tl e w h er e no

b e tt e r t i t l e a pp e ar s .
(20 VI N A BR . .

1 8 74 . P o ss e s so r h as ri g h t ag ai n s t al l m e n but
hi m w h o h as t h e v e r y r i gh t .
(2 BO U .

1 8 75 . P o s si b i li t as po s t di ss ol u t i on e m az ao u

ti e n i s nun q u am r e v i v i s c at u r .
(1 RO L .

P ossi b i l i ty i s n ev er re vi ved af ter t h e di ssol u t i o n


o r t he e xe c u t i on .

1 8 76 . P ossi b i li ty c ann ot be on a p o ss i b i l i t y .

(2 B0 0 .
226 L E GA L M A XIM S .

1 8 77 . P ost e x e c u ti on e m st at u s l ex n on p at i t ur
p o s si b i li t at e m .
(3 BU L S .
—Af ter the e xec u

t i on of an e st ate, th e law su ff e rs n ot a p o ss i b il
i ty .

1 8 78 . P ost f ac t um n u l l u m c o n si li um .
(RILE Y ,

—Af ter th e deed c o u n sel i s i n vai n .

1 8 79 P ost e ri or a d er o gan t pri or i b u s (WHAR T


. . .

—T hi n gs su bsequ en t derogate f r om th i n gs
p ri or .

18 80 P ostli m i ni u m fin gi t e u m qu i
. c apt us e st

in ci v i t at e s e m p e r f ui sse (DI G 49 . . .
—P osth
m i n y f ei gn s th at he wh o h as been ca p tu red has
n eve r lef t t h e state .

1881 . P o te n t i a de b e t s e qui j us t i t i am , n on

an t e c e der e (3 BUL S . .
—Power ou gh t t o f ol
l o w, n ot p r ec ede j u st i c e , .

1882 P ot e n t i a i n u ti li s f r ust r a e st . (B RA N C H ,


PR ) Useless p ower
. is vai n .

1883 . P e t e n ti o n on e st n i si a d b e n um .
(TA Y

LE R, —
Power is n ot c on f err ed exc e pt f or
th e p u bl i c g ood .

1 884 . P ot e st qu i s r e n u n c i ar e pr o se , e t sn i s ,

j u ri qu e d pr o se i n t r o du c t u m e st . (BR A C T .

O n e m ay r el i n qu i sh f or h i m self an d h i s h ei rs, a

r i gh t wh i c h was i n t rodu c ed f or hi s own be n efi t .

JE N E
'

188 5 . P ot e st as st r i c t e i n t e r pr e t at ur . .

C E NT .
-
A p ower i s t o b e stri c tly i n t erp reted .

1886 . P ot e st as su pr e m a se i psu m di ss ol v er e
pe t e st , li gar e n on p ot e st .
(BAC M AX . .
—Su
prem e p ower c an di ssol ve, bu t c an n ot bi n d i tself .
2 28 LE G A L M A KI M S .

18 95 . Pra su m at u r p o
r j usti ti a s e n t en ti a .

(BE S T Ev . . IN T .
— Th e j usti c e of a se n t e n c e

s h o u ld be presu m ed .

1 896 P r a su mi t u r pr o l e gi t i m at i e n e
. .
(5 C O KE ,
—Legi ti m acy i s t o b e p r esu m ed .

1897 . Pra su m p ti o , e x a o qu e dp l e r u m q u e fit .

(22 WE ND N Y . . . 4 5
2 .
— Presu m p t i on s ari se
f rom w h at gen erally h ap pe n s .

1 1898 P r a su m pti o j u r i s es t d e
.
jure .
(T RAY .

—A legal presu m p ti on is a l egal ru l e .

1 8 99 . P r a su m pt i o v i o l e n ta, pl e n a pr ob ati o .

(CO KE , LI TT . 6 . b .
) — S t r on g p resu m pt i on i s f u ll
p r oof .

1 900 . Pra su m pt i o v i ol en ta v al e t in l e ge .

(JE N E . CE N T .
—S tron g presu m p ti on i s of wei g ht
i n l aw .

1 90 1 . Pra s u m pti e n es su n t conjec tur a ex

si g n o v e r i si m i li ad pr o b an dum as su m pt a .
(2
BO U .
—Presu m pt i on s ar e j
c on e c tu res f r om
.

p rob able pr oof , assu m e d f or p u rposes of ev i de n c e .

1 90 2 . P r a t e x t u li ci ti n on de b et adm i t ti i lli e i
tum .
(WIN G .
—Un der p retext of legal i ty
wh at i s i llegal ou gh t n ot t o b e adm i t ted .

1 90 3 P r ax i s j u di c u m es t i n t e r pr e s l e gu m .

—Th e prac ti c e of
.

H
'

( on 96 . . th e j u dges 18 t h e i n ter
pre ter of t he l aws .

1 90 4 . P r ec e de n t s h av e as m u c h l aw as j us ti ce .

(2 Be n .

1 90 5 . P r ec e de n ts t h at p as s su b si l e n ti o ar e o f
-

li tt l e or n o au th ori ty .
(1 6 VIN ABE . .
L E G AL M AXI M S .

1 90 6 . P r eti u m s u c c e di t i n l oc u m r ei .
(2 BU L S .

—T h e p r i c e s u c c eeds in plac e of t h e th i n g .

1 90 7 . P r e v i ou s i n t e n ti o n s ar e j u dge d by su b

se qu e n t act s .
(4 D E N I O N Y 31 9, . . .

1 90 8 . P r i m a p ar s a q u i
t at i s a q u ali t as (2 . BOU .

—Th e r adi c al par t of e qu i ty i s e qu al i t y .

1 90 9 . P ri m c e x e c u ti e n d a e st v erb i v i s, no

s e r m on i s v i ti c e b st ru e t u r e r at i o , s i v e lex si n e

ar g um e n ti s .

(COK E LI TT 68 b ) Th e f orc e of a
, . . .

w ord i s t o be fi rs t e xam i n ed les t by th e f au l t of ,

di c ti on t h e sen t en c e b e destroyed or t h e law be ,

w i th ou t ar gu m en ts .

19 10 . P r i n c e ps e t r es pu b li c a ex j u st a c au s a
p o s sun t r e m m e am au f e r r e . (12 COK E , —Th e
ki n g , an d th e repu bli c may , in a j u st c au se, take
away my
p rop erty .

191 1 P ri n c e p s l e gi b u s s ol u t us e st
.
(DI G 1 . . .

3.
— T h e e m pe ror i s f ree f rom l aws .

1 912 P r i n ci p ali s d e b et s em p e r e x e u t i an
.

t e qu am p e r v e ni at ur ad fi d e i j u s s e r e s (2 IN S T . .

—Th e pr i n c i pal sh ou ld always b e exh au sted


bef ore c om i n g u p on t h e su reti es .

191 3 P r i n c i p i a d at a s e qu u n tu r c e n c e mi t an ti a
. .

(W HAR T —
. G i v e n p r i n c i p l e s ar e f o ll o we d by
th ei r c on c o m i tan t s .

1914 . P r i n ci p i a
pr ob an t , n on pr e b an t u r .

C O KE ,
—Pri n c i ples prove th ey are n ot p roved , .

1915 P r i n c i pi i s ob st a
.
(B RAN C H PR ) .
,
.

W i th stan d begi n n i ngs .


30 L E G AL M A XI M S .

1916 . P r i n c i pi om m n on e st r ati o . (2 BUL S .

—Th ere is p ri n c i ples


n o r e asoni n
g of .

1 9 1 7 P r i n c i pi u m e st p o ti ssi m a p ars c ui u s qu e
.

rei .
( 1 0 C O K E — Th e p ri n c i p al o f a th i n g i s t h e
,

m ost po werf u l p ar t .

1918 P r i or p oss es si o c u m ti t ul o po st e r i or e
.

m e li or e st pr i or e t i t u l o si n e p oss e s si on e ( T R AY . .

—P ri or possessi on w i th su bse qu e n t ti tle i s , ,

better th an p ri or ti t le w i th o u t p ossessi on .

1919 P r i v at i e pr a s u ppe ni t h ab i t u m
.
( RO L
2 . .

—A dep ri vati on presu pposes a p ossessi on .

1 9 20 . P ri v ati e pac ti e ni b us n on du b i um e st

n on la di j u s c a t er oru m ( D I G . . 2 15 3
. . .
—Th er e
is no dou b t th at th e r i gh ts of oth ers c an n ot be
p rej u di c ed by pr i vate agreem e n t .

1 921 . P r i v at e r um c on v e n t i o j u r i pu b li c c n on

d e r ogat .
(DI G . 50 1 7 45
. . .
—An ag reem e n t of

pri vate i n di vi du al s c an n ot der ogate f r om p u bl i c


law .

1 9 22 . P r i v at u m c e mm e dnm pu b li c c c e di t .

(J E N K . C EN T .
-
Pr i vate yi elds to pu b l i c
g o od .

1 9 23 . P r i v atu m i n c e mm e du m pu b li c c b on e
p e n s at ur .
(J E N K . CE N T —Pr i vate i n c on ven
.

i e n c e i s c om p en sated by p u bli c good .

1 9 24 P r i v i l e gi at u s c on tr a pr i v i l e gi at u m n on
.

u t i t ur pr i v il e gi e (T Y R A —
. O n e pri vi leg ed .

p erson c an n ot p lead h i s p ri vil ege agai n st an oth er


p ri v i leged person .

1 9 2 5. P r i vi l e gi um e st b e n e fi oi um p ers on al e
2 32 LE GAL M A XI M S .

1 9 34 . P re lem an t e m a t r i m on i u m n atam , i ta
ut p e st , l e gi t i m am , l e x ci v i li s et c c e d e r e f ac i t
su

in ha r e di t at e p ar e n t u m . ( FO R TE S C .
— Th e
c i vi l l aw p e r m i t s b o th th e off sp r i n g b or n bef or e

and af ter m ar ri age to be t h e h ei rs of t h e i r p are n t s .

1 9 35 . Preles se qui tu r sor t em p at e r n am (1 .

SAND E . CK . N . Y 583. .
—Th e ofi s pr i ng f ol l ow s

the c on di ti on o f th e f at h er .

1 9 36 . t pr opi n qu u m ; p r e
P r e pi n qu i e r e x c l u di

i
p qn u us r e m e t u m ; e t r e m e t u s r e m e t i o rem (C O K E ,
.

LI TT 1 0 . . b —He . wh o i s n e arer e xc lu des h i m wh o


is n ear ; h e w h o i s n ear ,
h i m wh o i s r e m o t e ; h e

wh o i s r e m o te h i m wh o i s m or e re m o te
, .

1 937 . P r opo si ti o i n de fi ni t a a q p
u i ol l e t u ni

v e r s ali .
( W H ART .
—An i n defin i te p roposi
t i on i s e qu al t o a gen eral on e .

1 9 38 P r e p r i e t as te ti n a n av i s
. c ar i n a cau s am
se qu i t u r .
(DI G . 6 . l .
—Th e pr op erty o f th e
wh ole sh i p f ollows t h e c o n di ti on of th e keel .

1 9 39 . P r e pr i e t as v e r b o r um e st s al u s pr e pr i e

t at u m .
(JE NK CE N T . .

The p rop ri ety of words
i s th e saf ety of p rop er ty .

1 9 40 . P r e pr i e t at e s v er b o r um ob se r v an da

su u t . ( J E N K . CE N T .

Th e p rop ri et i es of words
are t o be ob ser ved .

1 9 41 . P re se c u ti o l e gi s e st gr av i s v e x at i o ;
e x e c u ti o l e gi s c or e n at e pus . ( CO K E , LI TT 28 9
. . b)
—Th e pro sec u ti on of
.

th e law i s a gr i evou s ve xa
t i on t h e exe c u t i on of t h e l aw c r own s t h e work .

1 9 42 . P r ot ec t i e t r ahi t su hjec t i on em , et su b

LE GA L M A XI M S . 3

j ec t i e pr ot e c t i o n e m .
(COKE ,
LI TT . 65 . a ) —
.P ro
tec t i on draws t o i t su bj ec t i on ; an d su b e c t i o n ,
j
prot ec t i on .

1 9 43 . P r ov i s o e st pr e v i der o pr a s e n t i a et

f ut ur a, n on pr a t e r i ta .
(2 C O K E ,
—A p rovi so
i s to p rovi de f or t h e p resen t an d f u t u re , n ot th e
p ast .

1 9 44 . P r o x i m us e st c ui n em o an t ec e di t;
su pr e m us e s t qu e m n em o se qu i t u r (DI G 50 . 16
—He i s n ext whom
. . .

n o on e p rec edes ; h e i s l ast


wh om n o on e f ollows .

1 9 45 P r u d e n tu r agi t q ui pre pt o l e gi s
—H
. ce

ob t e m p er at . (5 C O KE , e ac ts p ru de n tly
wh o o e b ys t h e c om m an ds of t h e law .

1 9 46 . P u et i su n t de s an gu i n e p ar en t u m , s e d,
pat e r e t m at e r n on sun t de s an gu i n e pu e r e ru m .

(3 C O K E , —Ch i ldren are of th e blood of t h ei r


p aren ts , bu t th e f ath e r an d m oth er are n ot of t he
b l ood of t h e c h ildren .

1 9 47 . P u pi ll us pati po sse n on i n t e lli gi t ur .

(DI G . 50 1 7 1 1 0
. . .
—A pu p i l is n ot c ons i der ed

abl e to do an ac t t o hi s own prej u di c e .

1 9 48 .
Qu a ab h e st i b us c api un t ur stat i m c ap

i e n ti u m fi un t .
(INS T . 2. 1 .