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DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

National Prosecution Service

MANUAL
FOR
PROSECUTORS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAG
E

FOREWORD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
PART I. PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES
Sec. 1. Criminal Action 1
Sec. 2. How and Where Commenced 1
Sec. 3. Complaint 1
Sec. 4. Offended Party, Defined 2
Sec. 5. Information 2
Sec. 6. Sufficiency of complaint or information. 2
Sec. 7. Other Essential Matters to be alleged in Complaint or Information 2
Sec. 8. Additional Contents of a Complaint 2
Sec. 9. Name of Accused 3
Sec. 10. Designation of Offense 3
Sec.11. Cause of Accusation 3
Sec. 12. Place of the Commission of Offense 3
Sec. 13. Time of Commission of Offense 3
Sec. 14. Title of Complaint or Information 3
Sec. 15. Contents of Caption of an Information 4
Sec. 16. List of Prosecution Witnesses 4
Sec. 17. Number of Offenses Charged 4
Sec. 18. Amendment of Information or Complaint 4
Sec.19. Mistake in Form and Substance 5
Sec. 20. How Period of Prescription Computed and Interrupted 5

PART II. INQUEST


Sec. 1. Concept 6
Sec. 2 Designation of Inquest Officer 6
Sec. 3. Commencement and Termination of Inquest 6
Sec. 4. Documents Required in Specific Cases 7
Sec. 5. Incomplete Documents 8
Sec 6. Presence of Detained Person 8
Sec. 7. Charges and Counter-charges 8
Sec. 8. Initial Duty of Inquest Officer 8
Sec. 9. Where Arrest Not Properly Effected 9
Sec. 10.Where Arrest Properly Effected 9
Sec. 11. Inquest Proper 10
Sec. 12. Meaning of Probable Cause 10
Sec. 13. Presence of Probable Cause 10
Sec. 14. Contents of Information . 10
Sec. 15. Absence of Probable Cause 10
Sec. 16. Presence at Crime Scene 11
Sec. 17. Sandiganbayan Cases 11
Sec. 18.Recovered Articles 11
Sec. 19.Release of Recovered Articles 12
PART III. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Sec. 1. Concept of Preliminary Investigation 12
Sec. 2. Purpose of Preliminary Investigation 12
Sec. 3. Nature of Preliminary Investigation 13
Sec. 4. Effect of Amendment of Information 13
Sec. 5. Where Right of Preliminary Investigation may be Invoked 13
Sec. 6. Officers Authorized to Conduct Preliminary Investigation 13
Sec. 7. Commencement of Preliminary Investigation 13
Sec. 8. Complaint 14
Sec. 9. Supporting Affidavits 14
Sec. 10.Number of Copies of Affidavits 14
Sec. 11.Barangay Certification 14
Sec. 12.Lack of Barangay Certification 15
Sec. 13.Initial Action on the Complaint 15
Sec. 14. Dismissal of Complaint 15
Sec. 15.Personal Service of Documents by Investigating Prosecutor 16
Sec. 16 Service of Subpoena in Preliminary Investigation . 16
Sec. 17. Where Respondent Cannot be Subpoenaed 17
Sec. 18.Counter-Affidavit 17
Sec. 19. Motion for Dismissal/Bill of Particulars 17
Sec. 20. Consolidation 18
Sec. 21. Extension of Time 18
Sec. 22. Suspension of Proceedings 18
Sec. 23. Concept of Prejudicial Question 18
Sec. 24. Elements of Prejudicial Question 19
Sec. 25. Issuance of Orders of Suspension of Proceedings 19
Sec. 26. Reply-Affidavits and Rejoinders 19
Sec. 27. Clarificatory Questions 19
Sec. 28. Submission of Case for Resolution 20
Sec. 29. Lack of Probable Cause 20
Sec. 30. Finding of Probable Cause 20
Sec. 31. Reopening of Investigation 20
Sec. 32. Cases Transmitted by the Municipal Trial Judge 21
Sec 33. Memoranda 21
Sec. 34. Period for Resolving a Case 21
Sec. 35. Form of Resolution and Number of Copies 21
Sec. 36. Contents of the Resolution 21
Sec. 37. Caption of Resolution 21
Sec. 38. Names of Parties 22
Sec. 39. Case Number 22
Sec. 40. Designation of Offense Charged 22
Sec. 41. Contents of Body of Resolution 22
Sec. 42. Parts of a Resolution 22
Sec. 43.How Recommended Bail is Written 23
Sec. 44.Recommended Bail 23
Sec. 45.Parties to be Furnished with a Copy of the Resolution 23
Sec. 46.Signature and Initials of Investigating Prosecutor . 23
Sec. 47.Records of the Case 23
Sec. 48.Action of the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State
Prosecutor on Resolution 23
Sec. 49.Reversal by the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State
Prosecutor of Resolution of Investigating Prosecutor 24
Sec. 50.Approval of Pleading by Head of Prosecution 24
Sec. 52. Confidentiality of Resolutions 24
Sec. 53. Information/Complaint 24
Sec. 54. Documents to be Attached to Information/Complaint 25
Sec. 55. Promulgation of Resolution 25
Sec. 56. Motion for Reconsideration 25
Sec. 57. Inhibition 25
Sec. 58. Period to Resolve Cases Under Preliminary Investigation 26

PART IV. PETITION FOR REVIEW


Sec.1. Subject of Petition for Review 26
Sec.2. Period to File Petition 27
Sec. 3. Form and Contents 27
Sec. 4. Cases not Subject to Review; Exceptions 27
Sec. 5. Answer 28
Sec. 6. Withdrawal of Petition 28
Sec. 7. Motion for Reinvestigation 28
Sec. 8. Disposition of Petition 28
Sec. 9. Motion for Reconsideration 28
Sec. 10. Effect of Filing of Petition 28

PART V. BAIL
Sec. 1. Bail Defined 29
Sec. 2. Nature of Right to Bail 29
Sec. 3. Non-Bailable Offense 29
Sec. 4. Criteria in Recommending Amount of Bail 29
Sec. 5. Burden of Proof in Bail Application 30
Sec. 6. Recognizance 30
Sec. 7. Bail, When not Required; Reduced Bail or Recognizance 30
Sec. 8. Notice of Application for Bail to Prosecutor 30
Sec. 9. Cancellation of Bail Bond 30
Sec. 10.Arrest of Accused Out on Bail 30
Sec. 11.No Bail After Final Judgment, Exception 31
Sec. 12.Rules in Computing the Bail to be Recommended 31
Sec. 13.Petition for Bail in a Continuous Trial 32

PART VI. ARREST


Sec. 1. Definition of Probable Cause as a Ground for an Arrest or
Issuance of a Warrant of Arrest 32
Sec. 2. Remedy if no Warrant of Arrest is Issued by
the Investigating Judge 32
Sec. 3. Request for a Copy of the Return 32

PART VII.ARRAIGNMENT AND PLEA


Sec. 1. Concept of Arraignment 33
Sec. 2. Duties of Trial Prosecutor 33
Sec. 3. Effect of Filing a Petition for Review 33
Sec. 4. Concept of Plea 33
PART VIII. PRE-TRIAL
Sec. 1. Concept of Pre-trial 33
Sec. 2. Duties of Prosecutor Before and After the
Pre-trial Conference 33
Sec. 3. Subject Matters of Pre-trial 34
Sec. 4. Plea of Guilty to a Lesser Offense 34
Sec. 5. When Accused Pleads Guilty to a Capital Offense 35

PART IX. TRIAL


Sec. 1. Definition of Trial 35
Sec. 2. Concept of Trial 36
Sec. 3. Expeditious Prosecution of Criminal Cases Filed with the
Courts 36
Sec. 4. Order of Presentation of Witnesses 36
Sec. 5. Preparation of Formal Offer of Exhibits 36
Sec. 6. Defense Evidence 36
Sec. 7. Discharge of Accused to be State Witness 36
Sec. 8. Witness Protection 37
Sec. 9. Other Persons Who May Avail of the Witness Protection
Program 37
Sec. 10. Motions for Postponement of Accused 38
Sec. 11. Discontinuance of Proceedings 38
Sec. 12. Presentation of Evidence 38
Sec. 13. Order of Trial 38
Sec. 14. Presentation of Witnesses 39
Sec. 15. Examination of Witness for the Prosecution 39
Sec. 16. Cross-Examination of Defense Witnesses 39
Sec. 17. Rebuttal Evidence 39
Sec. 18. Request for Subpoena
Sec. 19. Custody of Physical and Real Evidence Pending Trial

PART X. MOTION TO QUASH


Sec. 1. Definition and Purpose of Motion to Quash
Sec. 2. Form of Motion to Quash
Sec. 3. Time to Move to Quash
Sec. 4. Grounds of Motion to Quash
Sec. 5. Amendment of Complaint or Information
Sec. 6. Court Action Sustaining Motion to Quash
Sec. 7. Nature of Court Order Granting a Motion to Quash
Sec. 8. Denial of Motion to Quash
Sec. 9. Nature of Order Denying Motion to Quash
Sec.10. Meaning of "Appeal in Due Time
Sec. 11. Order Sustaining the Motion to Quash not a Bar to
Another Prosecution; Exception

PART XI. MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS


Sec. 1. Hold Departure Orders of Accused Persons
Sec. 2. Cancellation of Travel Documents
Sec. 3. Handling of Complaints Filed Against Public Officers and
Employees
Sec. 4. Notification of Prosecutor of the Filing of an Application for
Probation
Sec. 5. Comment on Application for Probation
Sec. 6. Release of Applicant for Probation
Sec. 7. Objection to Grant of Probation
Sec. 8. Hearing for Revocation of Probation
Sec. 9. Procedure in Cases Involving Children

APPENDICES

Appendix 'A1,Control of Case Record


Appendix 'B, NPS Form 1, Order (To submit additional evidenciary documents)
Appendix "B-i", NPS Form 2, Release Order Of Detained Person
Appendix "B-2", NPS Form 3, Request for Preliminary Investigation and Waiver of
Article 125, Revised Penal Code
Appendix "B-3", NPS Form 4, Certification
(For Information in Inquest Cases) 74
Appendix "B-4", NPS Form 5, Release Order Of Recovered Articles
Appendix "B-S", NPS Form 6, Request for Release Of Recovered Articles
FOREWORD

There is a need t~ ii~aintain the level of competence of our prosecutors to enable them t~
creditably perform their delicate tasks of prosecuting the guilty and protecting the innocent.

This Manual partly answers this need.

A compilation of pertinent provisions of the Rules on Criminal Procedure, Department of Justice


issuances and decisions of the Supreme Court, this work will be a useful teaching guide for
those who ~~ire to be prosecutors and a handy reference book for the prosecutors in the field.

We expect this Manual to be enriched and improved through use. ()~'3rcls this end any
suggestions for its improvement will )C highly appreciated.

Doubtless, this Manual will help elevate the quality of prosecutorial ~ and answer the
clamor ~i; our people for fast and efficient justice.

TEOFISTO 1 GUINGONA, JR
Secretary
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This manual was put together by a Committee created by


Secretary of Justice Teofisto T. Guingona, Jr. under Department of
Justice Order No.153 dated 28 May 1996. The Body is headed by
Assistant Chief State Prosecutor Francisco L. Santos and the
following as members: then Assistant Chief State Prosecutor and
now Chief State Prosecutor Jovencito R. Zuno, Assistant Chief
State Prosecutors Nib C. Mariano and Apolinario G. Exevea, Regional
State Prosecutor Claro A. Arellano, Quezon City Prosecutor Candido
F. Rivera, Pasig City Prosecutor Antonio L. Liorente,Laguna Provincial
Prosecutor George C. Dee and Rizal 2nd Assistant Provincial Fiscal
Apolinario D. Brusel as, Jr.

The Committee was assisted in its work by former Rizal


Provincial Prosecutor Mauro M. Castro and Deputy Ombudsman for
Luzon Jesus F. Guerrero both of whom contributed valuable and
refined insights into the work of a prosecutor.

In this regard, I wish to acknowledge the rote of Rizal Provincial


Prosecutor Gregono A. Arizala and his team in putting the Manual in
its final form and State Prosecutor II Teresita R. Domingo for taking
pains in reading the manuscript.

RAMON J. LIWAG
Undersecretary
Chairman, Committee created under
Department Order No.153, series of 1996
NOTE

THIS MANUAL IS DESIGNED TO BE REVISED AND UPDATED AS


THE NEED ARISES.

WHEN CHANGES OCCUR IN THE RELEVANT LAW, ISSUANCE OR


JURISPRUDENCE ,THESE CHANGES WILL BE FORWARDED TO YOU IN
THE FORM OF NEW LOOSE LEAF PAGES.

FILE THESE NEW PAGES AS SOON AS POSSIBLE TO KEEP YOUR


MANUAL CURRENT AND COMPLETE.
RULES ON PROCEDURE IN THE
INVESTIGATION, PROSECUTION
AND TRIAL OF CRIMINAL CASES

PART I. PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES

SECTION 1. Criminal action. - A criminal action is one by which the state prosecutes
a person for an act or omission punishable by law. 1

SEC. 2. How and where commenced. - A criminal action is commenced by the filing
of a complaint with the City/Provincial Prosecution Office or with the Municipal Trial Court
or Municipal Circuit Trial Court. However, a criminal action for an offense committed within
Metro Manila, may be commenced only by the filing of the complaint with the Prosecutor's
Office.

SEC. 3. Complaint. - A complaint is a sworn written statement charging a person with


an offense and subscribed by the offended party, any peace officer or public officer charged
with the enforcement of the law violated. 2

To discourage the filing of harassment charges, the prosecutor shall warn the
complainant that any false statement in the complaint may give rise to a finding of a prima
facie case for perjury before the same office.

1
Sec. 3 (b), Rule 1, 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure.
2
Sec. 3, Rule 110, Rules on Criminal Procedure; Example of public officer charged with the
enforcement of the law violated: Bureau of
Customs officials for violation of the customs law; Bureau of Forest
Development officials for violation of forestry laws; chief of police of
a municipality for violation of a municipal ordinance which constitutes
a criminal offense.

The sworn complaint referred to usually refers to a complaint filed in court and not in the
prosecutor's office. It is not necessary to file a sworn complaint with the prosecutor before the
latter can conduct a preliminary investigation. A mere unsworn letter suffices to start an
investigation, except if the offense charged is one which cannot be prosecuted de oficio or is
private in nature i.e., where the law requires that it be started by a complaint sworn to by the
offended party.

In a case involving a private offense, the phrase "complaint filed by the offended party" as
used in Section 5, Rule 110 should be given a liberal or loose interpretation, meaning a
"charge, allegation, grievance or accusation" rather than a strict construction for often than
not the offended party who files it is unschooled in law The purpose of the complaint in
Section 5, Rule 110, is merely to initiate or commence the prosecution of the accused. Thus,
the "Sinumpaang Salaysay" of the victim of a private offense is already deemed a complaint"
required in the aforesaid Sec. 5. (People vs. Sangil, 208 SCRA 696 [1992]).
SEC. 4. Offended party, defined. - The offended party is the person against whom or
against whose property the crime was committed. 3

SEC. 5. Information. - An information is the accusation in writing charging a person


with an offense, subscribed by the prosecutor, and filed with the court. The information need
not be placed under oath by the prosecutor signing the same. The prosecutor must, however,
certify under oath that -

a) he has examined the complainant and his witnesses;


b) there is reasonable ground to believe that a crime has been
committed and that the accused is probably guilty thereof;
c) the accused was informed of the complaint and of the
evidence submitted against him; and
d) the accused was given an opportunity to submit
controverting evidence.4

SEC. 6. Sufficiency of complaint or information. - A complaint or information t


shall be considered sufficient if it states -

a) the name of the accused;


b) the designation of the offense committed;
c) the act or omission complained of;
d) the name of the offended party;
e) the approximate time of the commission of the offense; and
f) the place where the offense was committed. 5

SEC. 7. Other essential matters to be alleged in complaint or information. -The


following shall also be alleged in a complaint or information:

a) every essential element O{ the offense;


b) the criminal intent of the accused and its relation to the act or
omission complained of;
c) all qualifying and generic aggravating circumstances which
are integral pans of the offense;
d) all matters that are essential to the constitution of the offense,
such as the ownership and/or value of the property robbed or
destroyed; the particular knowledge to establish culpable intent; or
the particular intention that characterizes the offense;
e) age of the minor accused, and whenever applicable, the fact
that he acted with discernment; and
f) age of the minor complainant, when age is material.

SEC. 8. Additional contents of a complaint - In addition to the matters listed above, a


complaint or information shall contain a certification that the recitals therein are true and

3
Sec. 12, par. 1, Rules on Criminal Procedure
4
Sec. 4, Rule 112, ibid.
5
Sec. 6, Rule 110, ibid.
correct and not in the nature of a countercharge to avoid conflict in the appreciation of the
facts and evidence.

3EC. 9. Name of accused. - The complaint or information shall state the name and
surname of the accused, if known, or any appellation or nickname by which he -has been or is
known. If his name is not known, the accused shall be mentioned under a fictitious name such
as "John Doe'1 or "Jane Doe."

SEC. 10. Designation of offense. - To properly inform the accused of the nature and
cause of the accusation against him, the complaint or information shall state, whenever
possible, -

a) the designation given to the offense by the statute;


b) the statement of the act or omission constituting the same, and if there is no such
designation, reference shall be made to the section or subsection of the law
punishing it.6

SEC. 11. Cause of accusation. - The act or omission complained of as constituting the
offense shall be stated in an ordinary and concise language without repetition. The statement
need not use the terms of the statute defining the offense so long as a person of common
understanding is able to know what offense was intended to be charged and to enable the
court to pronounce proper judgment.7

SEC. 12. Place of the commission of offense. - The complaint or information is


sufficient if it states that the crime charged was committed or some of the ingredients
thereof occurred at some place within the jurisdiction of the court, unless the
particular place in which the crime was committed is an essential element of the crime
e.g. in a prosecution for violation of the provision of the Election Code which
punishes the carrying of a deadly weapon in a t'polling place ", or if it is necessary to
identify the offense charged e.g., the domicile in the offense of "violation of
domicile." 8

SEC. 13. Time of commission of offense. - The precise time of the commission of the
offense shall be stated in the complaint or information if time is a material ingredient of the
offense e.g. ,treason, infanticide. Otherwise, it is sufficient that it be alleged that the offense
was committed at any time as near to the actual date at which the offense was committed. 9

SEC. 14. Title of complaint or information. - The title of the complaint or information
shall be in the name of the "People of the Philippines" as Plaintiff against all persons who
appear to be responsible for the offense involved. 10

6
Sec. 8, ibid.
7
Sec. 9, ibid.
8
Sec. 10, ibid.

9
9.Sec. 11, ibid. Sec. 2, ibid.

10
Sec. 2, ibid.
SEC. 15. Contents of caption of an information. - The caption of an information shall,
in addition to the name of the Plaintiff, indicate the following:

a) the complete names i.e., given name, maternal name, surname, and addresses, of all the
accused. In the case of accused minors, their age shall be indicated in the caption;
b) the case number; and
c) the offense charged. The denomination of the offense and the specific law and
provision violated shall be specified.

SEC. 16. List of prosecution witnesses. - The information shall contain the complete
names and addresses of all identified witnesses for the prosecution. In cases for violation of
B. P. Blg. 22 and estafa cases, the list of witnesses shall include the complainant, the bank
representative with specific reference to the check and account numbers involved and in the
proper cases, the company auditor; and in physical injuries cases, the attending physician with
specific reference to the medical report and date of the incident.

SEC. 17. Number of offenses charged. - A complaint or information shall charge only
one offense so as not to confuse the accused in his defense, except in those cases in which
existing laws prescribe a single punishment for various offenses, e.g., complex crimes under
Article 48 of the Revised Penal Code.11

SEC. 18. Amendment of information or complaint. - An information or complaint may


be amended before the accused pleads, after the accused has pleaded, and during the trial.

Before plea, amendment of the information or complaint, in substance or form, is a


matter of right.

After plea and during trial, amendment may be made only with leave of court and
only as to matters of form wherein the same can be done without prejudice to the rights of the
accused.

At any time before judgment, if there has been a mistake in charging the proper
offense, the court shall dismiss the original complaint or information upon the filing of a new
one charging the proper offense in accordance with Rule 119, Section 11, 12 provided the
accused would not be placed thereby in double jeopardy. The court may also require the

11
Sec. 13, ibid; " Penalty for complex crimes. - When a single act constitutes two or
more grave or less grave felonies, or when an offense is a necessary means for
committing the other, the penalty for the most serious crime shall be imposed, the
same to be applied in its maximum period". (An. 48, Revised Penal Code).

12
"when mistake has teen made in charging the proper offense. - When it becomes manifest at
any time before judgment, that a mistake has been made in charging the proper offense, and
the accused cannot be convicted of the offense charged, or of any offense necessarily included
therein, the accused shall not be discharged, if there appears to be good cause to detain him.
In such case, the court shall commit the accused to answer for the proper offense and dismiss
the original case upon the filing of the proper information."
witnesses to give bail for their appearance at the trial. 13

SEC. 19. Mistake inform and substance. - A mistake in form refers to clerical errors,
matters which are not essential to the charge, and those which will not mislead or prejudice
the accused as when a defense under the original information can be used after the
amendment is made and any evidence that the accused may have would be equally applicable
to the one form as in the other.

A mistake in substance is any omission or misstatement which prevents an


information from showing on its face that an offense has been committed, or from showing
what offense is intended to be charged.14

SEC. 20. How Period of Prescription Computed and Interrupted. - For an offense
penalized under the Revised Penal Code, the period of prescription commences to run from
the day on which the crime is discovered by the offended party, the authorities, or their
agents, and shall be interrupted:

a) by the filing of the complaint with the Office of the City/Provincial Prosecutor; 15 or
wit the Office of the Ombudsman;16 or

b) by the filing of the complaint or information with the court even if it is merely for
purposes of preliminary examination or investigation, or even if the court where the
complaint or information is filed cannot try the case on its merits. 17

However, for an offense covered by the Rules on Summary Procedure, the period of
prescription is interrupted only by the filing of the complaint or information in court. 18

The prescription of an offense filed before the Prosecutor or Ombudsman shall


commence to run again when such proceedings terminate; while the prescription of an offense
filed in court starts to run again when the proceedings terminate without the accused being
convicted or acquitted or are unjustifiably stopped for any reason not imputable to the
accused.19

13
Sec. 14, Rule 110, ibid.

14
42 C.J.S.,Sec. 240 at pp.1249-1250.
15
Sec. 1, par. 2, Rule 110, Rules on Criminal Procedure.

16
Llenes vs. Dicdican, 260 SCRA 207 (1996).

17
Ibid.

18
Ibid.

19
An. 91 Revised Penal Code.
For violation of a special law or ordinance, the period of prescription shall commence to run
from the day of the commission of the violation, and if the same is not known at the time, from the
discovery and the institution of judicial proceedings for its investigation and punishment. The
prescription shall be interrupted only by the filing of the complaint or information in court and shall
begin to run again if the proceedings are dismissed for reasons not constituting double jeopardy. 20

For cases falling within the jurisdiction of the Katarungang Pambarangay, the period
of prescription is likewise interrupted by the filing of the complaint with the punong
barangay; but shall resume to run again upon receipt by the complainant of the certificate of
repudiation or of the certification to file action issued by the lupon or pangkat secretary;
Provided, however, That such interruption shall not exceed sixty (60) days from the filing of
the complaint with the punong barangay. 21

22
Prescription shall not run when the offender is absent from the country. 22

In cases where the imposable penalty is imprisonment and/or a fine, the greater penalty shall
be the basis for the computation of prescription.

PART II. INQUEST23

SECTION 1. Concept. - Inquest is an informal and summary investigation conducted


by a public prosecutor in criminal cases involving persons arrested and detained without the
benefit of a warrant of arrest issued by the court for the purpose of determining whether or not
said persons should remain under custody and correspondingly be charged in court.

SEC. 2. Designation of In quest Officer. The City or Provincial Prosecutor shall


designate the Prosecutors assigned to inquest duties and shall furnish the Philippine National
Police (PNP) a list of their names and their schedule of assignments. If, however, there is only
one Prosecutor in the area, all inquest eases shall be referred to him for appropriate action.

Unless otherwise directed by the City or Provincial Prosecutor, those assigned to


inquest duties shall discharge their functions during the hours of their designated assignments
and only at the police stations/headquarters of the PNP in order to expedite and facilitate the
disposition of inquest eases.

SEC. 3. Commencement and termination of inquest.- The inquest proceedings shall be


considered commenced upon receipt by the Inquest Officer from the law enforcement
authorities of the complaint/referral documents which should include:

a) the affidavit of arrest;


b) the investigation report;
c) the statement of the complainant and witnesses; and

20
Sec. 2, Act No.3326, as amended.
21
Sec. 40 par.,Local Govt. Code.
22
Art. 91, par. 2, Revised Penal Code.

23
Department of Justice Circular No.61 dated 21 December 1993.
d) other supporting evidence gathered by the police in the course of the
latter's investigation of the criminal incident involving the arrested or
detained person.

The Inquest Officer shall, as far as practicable, cause the affidavit of arrest and
statements/affidavits of the complainant and the witnesses to be subscribed and sworn to
before him by the arresting officer and the affiants.

The inquest proceedings must be terminated within the period prescribed under the
provisions of Article 125 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended. 24

SEC. 4. Documents required in specific cases. - The Inquest Officer shall, as far as
practicable, require the submission/presentation of the documents listed below, to wit:

Murder, Homicide and Parricide

a) certified true/machine copy of the certificate of death of the victim; and


b) necropsy report and the certificate of post-mortem examination, if
readily available.

Frustrated or Attempted Homicide, Murder, Parricide and Physical Injuries

a) medical certificate of the complaining witness showing the nature or


extent of the injury;
b) certification or statement as to duration of the treatment or medical
attendance; and
c) certificate or statement as to duration of incapacity for work.

Violation of the Dangerous Drugs Law (R.A. No.6425, as amended)

a) chemistry report or certificate of laboratory examination duly signed


by the forensic chemist or other duly authorized officer. If the foregoing
documents are not available, the Inquest Officer may temporarily rely on the
field test results on the seized drug, as attested to by a PNP Narcotics
Command operative or other competent person, in which event, the Inquest
Officer shall direct the arresting officer to immediately forward the seized
drug to the crime laboratory for expert testing and to submit to the
prosecutor's office the final forensic chemistry report within five (5) days
from the date of the inquest;
b) machine copy or photograph of the buy-bust money; and
c) affidavit of the poseur-buyer, if any.

Theft and Robbery, Violation of the Anti-Piracy and Anti-Highway Robbery Law (P.D.
No.532) and Violation of the Anti-Fencing Law (P.D. No.1612)

24
12 Hours for light offenses; 18 hours for less grave offenses; and 36 hours for grave
offenses.
a) a list/inventory of the articles and items subject of the offense; and b)
statement of their respective values.

Rape, Seduction and Forcible Abduction with Rape

a) the medico-legal report (living case report), if the victim submitted


herself for medical or physical examination.

Violation of the Anti-Carnapping Law (R.A. No.6539)

a) machine copy of the certificate of motor vehicle registration;


b) machine copy of the current official receipt of payment of theregistration
fees of the subject motor vehicle; and
c) other evidence of ownership.

Violation of the Anti-Cattle Rustling Law (P.D. No.533)

a) machine copy of the cattle certificate of registration; and


b) photograph of the cattle, if readily available.

Violation of Illegal Gambling Law (P.D. No.1602)

a) gambling paraphernalia; and


b) cash money, if any.

Illegal Possession of Explosives (P.D. No.1866)

a) chemistry report duly signed by the forensic chemist; and


b) photograph of the explosives, if readily available.

Violation of the Fisheries Law (P.9. No.704)

a) photograph of the confiscated fish, if readily available; and


b) certification of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.

Violation of the Forestry Law (P.9. No.705)

a) scale sheets containing the volume and species of the forest products
confiscated, number of pieces and other important details such as estimated
value of the products confiscated;
b) certification of Department of Environment and Natural
Resources/Bureau of Forest Management; and
c) seizure receipt.

The submission of the foregoing documents shall not be absolutely required if there
are other forms of evidence submitted which will sufficiently establish the facts sought to be
proved by the foregoing documents.

SEC. 5. Incomplete documents. - When the documents presented are not complete to
establish probable cause, the Inquest Officer shall direct the law enforcement agency to
submit the required evidence within the period prescribed under the provisions of Article 125
of the Revised Penal Code, as amended.25 Otherwise, the Inquest Officer shall order the
release of the detained person26 and, where the inquest is conducted outside of office hours,
direct the law enforcement agency concerned to file the case with the City or Provincial
Prosecutor for appropriate action.

SEC. 6. Presence of detained person. - The presence of the detained person who is
under custody shall be ensured during the proceedings.

However, the production of the detained person before the Inquest Officer may be
dispensed with in the following cases:

a) if he is confined in a hospital;
b) if he is detained in a place under maximum security;
c) if production of the detained person will involve security risks; or
d) if the presence of the detained person is not feasible by reason of age, health,
sex and other similar factors.

The absence of the detained person by reason of any of the foregoing factors shall be
noted by the Inquest Officer and reflected in the record of the case.

SEC. 7. Charges and counter-charges.- All charges and counter-charges arising from
the same incident shall, as far as practicable, be consolidated and inquested jointly to avoid
contradictory or inconsistent dispositions.

SEC. 8. Initial duty of Inquest Officer. - The Inquest Officer shall first determine if the
arrest of the detained person was made in accordance with paragraphs
(a) and (b) of Section 5, Rule 113 of the 1985 Rules on Criminal Procedure, as
amended, which provide that arrests without a warrant may be effected: 27

a) when, in the presence of the arresting officer, the person to be arrested has
committed, is actually committing, or is attempting to commit an offense; or
b) when an offense has in fact just been committed, and the arresting officer has
personal knowledge of facts indicating that the person to be arrested has
committed it.

For this purpose, the Inquest Officer may summarily examine the arresting officers on
the circumstances surrounding the arrest or apprehension of the detained person.

25
NPS Form No.1.

26
NPS Form No.2.

27
Go vs. Court of Appeals, 206 SCRA 138 [1992]; Umil, et.al. vs. Ramos, 202 SCRA 251
[1991] and companion cases People vs. Malmstedt, 198 SCRA 401 and People vs. Aminudin,
163 SCRA 402 [1988].
SEC. 9. where arrest not properly effected. - Should the Inquest Officer find that the
arrest was not made in accordance with the Rules, he shall;

a) recommend the release of the person arrested or detained;


b) note down the disposition on the referral document;
c) prepare a brief memorandum indicating the reasons for the action taken; and
d) forward the same, together with the record of the case, to the City or Provincial
Prosecutor for appropriate action.

Where the recommendation for the release of the detained person is approved by the
City or Provincial Prosecutor but the evidence on hand warrants the conduct of a regular
preliminary investigation, the order of release shall be served on the officer having custody of
said detainee and shall direct the said officer to serve upon the detainee the subpoena or notice
of preliminary investigation, together with the copies of the charge sheet or complaint,
affidavits or sworn statements of the complainant and his witnesses and other supporting
evidence.28

SEC. 10. where arrest properly effected. - Should the inquest Officer find that the
arrest was properly effected, the detained person shall be asked if he desires to avail himself
of a preliminary investigation and, if he does, he shall be made to execute a waiver of the
provisions of Article 125 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended 29, with the assistance of a
lawyer and, in case of non-availability of a lawyer, a responsible person of his choice. 30 The
preliminary investigation may be conducted by the Inquest Officer himself or by any other
Assistant Prosecutor to whom the case may be assigned by the City or Provincial Prosecutor,
which investigation shall be terminated within fifteen (15) days from its inception.
9

SEC. 11. Inquest preliminary investigation Inquest Officer shall statements/affidavits


of evidence submitted to him.

proper.- Where the detained person does not opt for a or otherwise refuses to execute
the required waiver, the proceed with the inquest by examining the sworn the complainant
and the witnesses and other supporting

If necessary, the Inquest Officer shall require the presence of the complaining
witnesses and subject them to an informal and summary investigation or examination for
purposes of determining the existence of probable cause.

28
See NPS Form No.2.

29
See NPS Form No.3.

30
Such responsible person may be a parent, elder brother or sister, spouse, the municipal mayor, the

municipal judge, district school supervisor, or priest/minister of the gospel as chosen by him (Sec. 2 (d)

RA 7438, An Act Defining Rights of Person Arrested, Detained or under Custodial Investigation)
SEC. 12. Meaning of probable cause.- Probable cause exists when the evidence
submitted to the Inquest Officer engenders a well-founded belief that a crime has been
committed and that the arrested Or detained person is probably guilty thereof.

SEC. 13. Presence of probable cause.- If the Inquest Officer finds that probable
cause exists, he shall forthwith prepare the corresponding complaint/information with the
recommendation that the same be filed in court. The complaint/information shall indicate the
offense committed and the amount of bail recommended, if bailable.

Thereafter, the record of the case, together with the prepared


complaint/information, shall be forwarded to the City or Provincial Prosecutor for appropriate
action.

The complaint/information may be filed by the Inquest Officer himself or by any


other Assistant Prosecutor to whom the case may be assigned by the City or Provincial
Prosecutor.

SEC. 14. Contents of Information.- The information shall, among others,


contain:

a) a certification by the filing Prosecutor that he is filing the same in accordance


with the provisions of Section 7, Rule 112, Rules on Criminal Procedure, in
cases cognizable by the Regional Trial Court; 31
b) the full name and aliases, if any, and address of the accused;
c) the place where the accused is actually detained;
d) the full names and addresses of the complainant and witnesses;
e) a detailed description of the recovered items, if any;
f) the full name and address of the evidence custodian;
g) the age and date of birth of the complainant or the accused, if eighteen (18)
years of age or below; and
h) the full names and addresses of the parents, custodians or guardians of the
minor complainant or accused, as the case may be.

SEC. 15. Absence of probable cause.- If the Inquest Officer finds no probable cause, he
shall:

a) recommend the release of the arrested or detained person; 32


b) note down his disposition on the referral document;
c) prepare a brief memorandum indicating the reasons for the action taken; and
d) forthwith forward the record of the case to the City or Provincial Prosecutor
for appropriate action.

If the recommendation of the Inquest Officer for the release of the arrested or
detained person is approved, the order of release shall be served on the officer having custody

31
NPS Form No.2.

32
NPS Form No.4.
of the said detainee.

Should the City or Provincial Prosecutor disapprove the recommendation of release,


the arrested or detained person shall remain under custody, and the corresponding
complaint/information shall be filed by the City or Provincial Prosecutor or by any Assistant
Prosecutor to whom the case may be assigned.

SEC. 16. Presence at crime scene. - Whenever a dead body is found and there is reason
to believe that the death resulted from foul play, or from the unlawful acts or omissions of
other persons and such fact has been brought to his attention, the Inquest Officer shall:

a) forthwith proceed to the crime scene or place of discovery of the dead person;
b) cause an immediate autopsy to be conducted by the appropriate medico-legal
officer in the locality or the PNP medico-legal division or the NBI medico-
legal office, as the case may be;
c) direct the police investigator to cause the taking of photographs of the crime
scene or place of discovery of the dead body;
d) supervise the investigation to be conducted by the police authorities as well
as the recovery of all articles and pieces of evidence found thereat and see to
it that the same are safeguarded and the chain of the custody thereof properly
recorded; and
e) submit a written report of his finding to the City or Provincial Prosecutor for
appropriate action.

SEC. 17. Sandiganbayan cases.- Should any complaint cognizable by the


Sandiganbayan be referred to an Inquest Officer for investigation, the latter shall, after
conducting the corresponding inquest proceeding, forthwith forward the complete record to
the City or Provincial Prosecutor for appropriate action.

SEC. 18. Recovered articles.- The Inquest Officer shall see to it that all articles
recovered by the police at the time of the arrest or apprehension of the detained person are
physically inventoried, checked and accounted for with the issuance of corresponding receipts
by the police officer/investigator concerned.

The said articles must be properly deposited with the police evidence custodian and
not with the police investigator.

The Inquest Officer shall ensure that the items recovered are duly safeguarded and the
chain of custody is properly recorded.

SEC. 19. Release of recovered articles.- The Inquest Officer shall, with the prior
approval of the City or Provincial Prosecutor or his duly authorized representative, order the
release33 of recovered articles to their lawful owner or possessor, subject to the conditions
that:

a) there is a written request for their release; 34


b) the person requesting the release of said articles is shown to be the lawful

33
See NPS Form No.5.
owner or possessor thereof;
c) the requesting party undertakes under oath to produce said articles before the
court when so required;
d) the requesting party, if he is a material witness to the case, affirms or
reaffirms his statement concerning the case and undertakes under oath to
appear and testify before the court when so required;
e) the said articles are not the instruments, or tools in the commission of the
offense charged nor the proceeds thereof; and
f) photographs of said articles are first taken and duly certified to by the
police evidence custodian as accurately representing the evidence in his custody.

PART III. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

SECTION 1. Concept of preliminary investigation - A preliminary investigation is


an inquiry or proceeding to determine whether there is sufficient ground to engender a well
founded belief that a crime cognizable by the Regional Trial Court has been committed and
that the respondent is probably guilty thereof and should be held for trial. 35

A preliminary investigation is essentially a judicial inquiry since there is the


opportunity to be heard, the production and weighing of evidence, and a decision rendered on
the basis of such evidence. In this sense, the investigating prosecutor is a quasi-judicial
officer.36

SEC. 2. Purpose of preliminary investigation. - A preliminary investigation is


intended:

a) to secure the innocent against hasty, malicious and oppressive prosecution


and to protect him from an open and public accusation of a crime and from
the trouble, expense and anxiety of a public trial; 37 and
b) to protect the State from having to conduct useless and expensive trials. 38

SEC. 3. Nature of preliminary investigation. - The conduct of a preliminary


investigation is a substantive right which the accused may invoke prior to or at least at the
time of plea, the deprivation of which would be a denial of his right to due process.

34
See NPS Form No.6.

35
Section 1, Rule 112, Rules on Criminal Procedure.

36
Cruz, Jr. vs. People, 233 SCRA 439 [1994].

37
People vs. Poculan, 167 SCRA 176 [1988]; Rodis, Sr. vs.
Sandiganbayan, Second Division, 166 SCRA 618 [19881; Salonga vs.
Pano, 134 SCRA 438 [1985]; Trocio vs. Manta, 118 SCRA 241
[1982]; Sausi vs. Querubin, 62 SCRA 155 [1975]; and Hashim vs.
Boncan, 71 Phil. 216 [1941].
38
Tandoc vs. Resultan, 175 SCRA 37 [1989].
SEC. 4. Effect of amendment of information. - In case an information is amended, a
new preliminary investigation shall be conducted if the amended charge is not related to the
crime originally charged; if there is a change in the nature of the crime charged; or if the
information on its face is null and void for lack of authority to file the same.

SEC. 5. where right of preliminary investigation may he invoked. - The right to a


preliminary investigation may be invoked only in cases cognizable by the Regional Trial
Court. The right is not available in cases triable by inferior courts.

SEC. 6. Officers Authorized to Conduct Preliminary Investigation. - The following


may conduct a preliminary investigation;39

a) Provincial or City Prosecutors and their assistants;


b) Judges of Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts;
c) National and Regional State Prosecutors; and
d) Other officers as may be authorized by law. 40

Their authority to conduct preliminary investigation shall include all crimes


cognizable by the proper court in their respective territorial jurisdiction. 41

SEC. 7. Commencement of Preliminary Investigation.- A preliminary investigation


proceeding is commenced:

a) by the filing of a complaint by the offended party or any competent person 842
directly with the Office of the Investigating Prosecutor or Judge;
b) by referral from or upon request of the law enforcement agency that
investigated a criminal incident;
c) upon request of a person arrested or detained pursuant to a warrantless arrest
who executes a waiver of the provisions of Article 125 of the Revised Penal
Code, as amended;
d) by order or upon directive of the court or other competent authority; or
e) for election offenses, upon the initiative of the Commission on Elections, or
upon written complaint by any citizen, candidate, registered political party,
coalition of registered parties or organizations under the party-list system or
any accredited citizen arm of the Commission on Elections. 43

SEC. 8. Complaint. - For purposes of preliminary investigation, the complaint filed


with the prosecutor's office shall, as far as practicable, be accompanied or covered by an

39
Par. 1, Sec. 2, Rule 112, supra.

40
The Special Prosecution Officers and Graft Investigation Officers in
cases cognizable by the Office of the Ombudsman and the COMELEC
officials in cases involving violations of the Election Code, PCGG Officers
41
Par. 2, Section 2, Rule 112, supra.
42
Ebarle vs. Sucaldito, 156 SCRA 803 [1987].
43
Sections 3 & 5, Rule 34, COMELEC Rules of Procedure.
Information Sheet and shall state, among others -

a) the full and complete names and exact home, office or postal addresses of the
complainant and his witnesses;
b) The full and complete name and exact home, office or postal address of the
respondent;
c) The offense charged and the place and exact date and time of its commission;
and
d) Whether or not there exists a related case and, if so, the docket number of
said case and the name of the Investigating Prosecutor thereof.

SEC. 9. Supporting affidavits.- The complaint shall be accompanied by the affidavits of the
complainant and his witnesses, as well as other supporting proofs or documents, if any. The affidavits
shall be sworn to before a Provincial, City or State Prosecutor, or other government official authorized
to administer oaths or, in their absence or unavailability, a notary public, who must certify that he
personally examined the affiants and that he is satisfied that they voluntarily executed and understood
their affidavits.44

When the preliminary investigation is commenced by referral from or upon request of the law
enforcement agency that investigated the incident, the affidavits of the complainant and his witnesses
to be submitted by the said agency shall consist of the original or duplicate original or certified
machine copies thereof.

SEC. 10. Number of copies of affidavits. - The complaint and supporting affidavits shall be in
such number of copies as there are respondents, plus four (4) copies for the court/official file.

Where a complaint charges multiple offenses which cannot be the subject of one indictment or
information, the complainant may be required to submit such additional copies of the complaint and
supporting affidavits as there are offenses charged in the complaint.

SEC. 11. Barangay certification . - If the offense charged is punishable by imprisonment not
exceeding one (1) year or a fine not exceeding Five Thousand Pesos (5,000.00) and the parties to the
case are all residents of the same city or municipality, the complaint shall be accompanied by the
certification required under Section 412 (a) of R.A. Act No.7160, "The Local Government Code of
1991.45

SEC. 12. Lack of harangay certification.- The absence of a barangay certification shall not be
a ground for the dismissal of the complaint. The Investigating Prosecutor shall, however, make the
corresponding referral of the complaint to the proper Lupong Tagapamayapa for appropriate action
pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 7, Book III of R.A. No.7160. In connection therewith, the
complainant may be summoned for the purpose of delivering the referral to the Chairman of the
appropriate barangay and to secure the necessary certification within thirty (30) days.

44
Sec. 3(a), Rule 112, Rules on Criminal Procedure.

45
See Appendix "0", List of Offenses cognizable by the Lupong Tagapamayapa (Crimes
Covered by the Katarungang Pambarangay).
In any of the following cases. the Investigating Prosecutor shall proceed to take cognizance of
the complaint for purposes of preliminary investigation46 even if there is no Barangay Certification:

a) where the respondent is under detention; or


b) where the respondent has been deprived of personal liberty calling for habeas corpus
proceedings; or
c) where the case may be barred by the Statute of Limitations.

SEC. 13. Initial/ action on the Complaint.- Within ten (10) days after the filing of the
complaint, the Investigating Prosecutor shall either dismiss the same if he finds no ground to continue
with the inquiry, or issue a subpoena to the respondent, attaching thereto a copy of the complaint
together with the affidavits of witnesses and other supporting documents. 47
9

SEC. 14. Dismissal of complaint. - The following, among others, shall constitute
sufficient basis for the outright dismissal of a complaint:

a) that the offense charged in the complaint was committed outside the
territorial jurisdiction of the Office of the Investigating Officer; 48
b) that, at the time of the filing of the complaint, the offense charged therein had
already prescribed;
c) that the complainant is not authorized under the provisions of pertinent laws
to file the complaint;
d) that the acts and/or omissions alleged in the complaint and/or the supporting
affidavits do not sufficiently show that a criminal offense or violation of a
penal law has been committed; or
e) that the complaint and the supporting affidavits are unsigned and/or have not
been duly subscribed and sworn to as prescribed under the Rules on Criminal
Procedure.

SEC. 15. Personal service of documents by investigating prosecutor. -Whenever


circumstances warrant and to prevent the loss of documents in the course of the service of a
subpoena through ordinary modes, the Investigating Prosecutor may require the respondent or
other parties to appear before him on a designated date, time and place and then and there
personally furnish them with copies of the complaint, supporting affidavits and other
documents.

At the said or any other setting, the respondent shall have the right to examine all other
evidence submitted by the complainant.

Failure on the part of the respondent or his counsel/representative to appear before the
Investigating Prosecutor to obtain copies of the complaint, supporting affidavits and other

46
Sec. 412(b), R.A. No.7160.

47
Section 3(b), Rule 112, Rules of Criminal Procedure.

48
The resolution of dismissal should include a statement that the entire record of the case is
being forwarded to the office having jurisdiction over the same.
documents despite receipt of notice or subpoena shall be considered a waiver or forfeiture of
respondent9s right to be furnished copies of the complaint, supporting affidavits and other
documents, as well as to examine all other evidence submitted by the complainant.

For the purposes specified in the first paragraph hereof, the Investigating Prosecutor
shall not require the appearance before him of the respondent or other parties who are residing
in distant places. In such cases, the Investigating Prosecutor shall issue and send the
subpoena, together with copies of the complaint, supporting affidavit and other documents, by
registered special delivery mail with return card.

SEC. 16. Service of subpoena in preliminary investigation. - To expedite the conduct


of a preliminary investigation, the following guidelines shall be observed in the service of
subpoenas-

a) Service of subpoena and all papers/documents required to be attached a


thereto shall be b'~- personal service by regular process servers. In their
Absence, the cooperation of the Provincial City/Municipal Station
Commanders of the Philippine National Police (PNP) may be requested for
the purpose.
b) Under other circumstances, where personal service cannot be effected but the
respondent cannot be considered as incapable of being subpoenaed as when
he continues to reside at his known address but the return states that he "has
left his residence and his return is uncertain" or words of similar import,
service of subpoena and its attachments shall be effected by registered mail
with return card at respondent's known home/office address. On the face of
the envelope shall be indicated
I. the name and return address of the sender1 and the
Typewritten/printed phrase "First Notice
Made on______________", thus instructing the
postmaster/postal
employee of the necessity of informing the sender of the
date the first notice was made on the addressee; and

ii.the typewritten/printed request: "If not claimed within


five (5) days from first notice, please return to sender."

c) Upon receipt of the unclaimed/returned envelope, the Investigating Prosecutor


may then proceed to resolve the complaint on the basis of the evidence
presented by the complainant.49

SEC. 17. where Respondent cannot he subpoenaed - If a respondent cannot be


subpoenaed, as, for instance, he transferred residence without leaving any forwarding address,
the Investigating Prosecutor shall base his resolution on the evidence presented by the
complainant.

SEC. 18. Counter-Affidavits.- In cases where the respondent is subpoenaed, he shall

49
Sec 3(d), Rule 112, Rules on Criminal Procedure; Department of Justice
Memorandum Circular No.25 dated 2 October 1989.
within ten (10) days from receipt of the complaint and other documents, submit his counter-
affidavit and other supporting documents which shall be sworn to and certified as prescribed
in the second sentence of par. 1 of Section 9 this Part, copies of which shall be furnished by
the respondent to the complainant.50

Only a counter-affidavit subscribed and sworn to by the respondent before the Public
Prosecutor can dispute or put at issue the allegations in the complaint. A memorandum, manifestation
or motion to dismiss signed by the counsel cannot take the place of a counter-affidavit. Thus, a
respondent relying on the manifestation, memorandum or motion to dismiss of his counsel is deemed to
have not controverted complainant's evidence. 51

However, if such memorandum, manifestation or motion to dismiss is verified by the


respondent himself, the same may be considered a counter-affidavit.

SEC. 19. Motion for dismissal of bill of particulars.-The filing of a motion for the
dismissal of the complaint or for the submission of a bill of particulars shall not suspend or
interrupt the running of the period for the submission of counter-affidavits and other
supporting documents.

All the grounds for the dismissal of the complaint, as well as objections to the
sufficiency thereof, shall be alleged or incorporated in the counter-affidavit and shall be
resolved by the Investigating Prosecutor jointly on the merits of the case.

The Investigating Prosecutor may grant a motion to dismiss filed by a respondent who
is yet to file or has not filed his counter-affidavit if the said motion is verified and
satisfactorily establishes, among others:

a) the circumstances specified in sub-paragraphs (a), (b) 9 (c) and (d)


and (e) of Section 14 of this Part;
b) the fact that the complaint, or one similar thereto or identical
therewith, has previously been filed with the Office and has been fully
adjudicated upon on the merits after due preliminary investigation
proceedings; or
c) the extinction of respondentts criminal liability by reason of death,
pardon, amnesty, repeal of the law under which prosecution is sought, or
other legal causes.

SEC. 20. Consolidation.- The following cases shall, as far as practicable, be


consolidated for preliminary investigation purposes and assigned to and jointly heard by one
Investigating Officer:

a) charges and counter-charges;

50
Secs. 3(b) & (c), Rule 112, supra.

51
DOJ Resolution No.109, Series of 1990. (I. S. NO.89-243, "Bulacan Garden Corporation
vs. Filomena", OPP, Bulacan).
b) cases arising from one and the same incident or transaction or series
of incident or transactions; and
c) cases involving common parties and founded on factual and/or legal
issues of the same or similar character.

SEC. 21. Extension of time. - No motion or request for extension of time to submit
counter-affidavits shall be allowed or granted by the Investigating Prosecutor except when the
interest of justice demands that the respondent be given reasonable time or sufficient
opportunity to:

a) engage the services of counsel to assist him in the preliminary


investigation proceedings;
b) examine or verify the existence, authenticity or accuracy of voluminous
records, files, accounts or other papers or documents presented or submitted
in support of the complaint; or

c) undertake studies or research on novel, complicated or technical


questions or issues of law and of facts attendant to the case under
investigation.

Extensions of time to submit a counter-affidavit for any of the reasons stated above
shall not exceed ten (10) days. Additional extensions may be authorized by the
Provincial/City Prosecutor concerned.

SEC. 22. Suspension of proceedings.- Upon motion of a party, or when raised in a


counter-affidavit, the Investigating Prosecutor may suspend the preliminary investigation
proceedings if the existence of a prejudicial question is satisfactorily established. 52

The existence of a prejudicial question shall, however, not be a ground for the
dismissal of the complaint.

SEC. 23. Concept of prejudicial question.- A prejudicial question is one the resolution of
which is a logical antecedent of the issue involved in a case and the cognizance of which pertains to
another tribunal.53 It is based on a fact distinct and separate from the crime charged but so intimately
connected with it that it determines the guilt or innocence of the accused. To suspend the criminal
action, it must not only appear that said case involves facts intimately related to those upon which the
criminal prosecution would be based but also that in the resolution of the issue or issues raised in the
civil case, the guilt or innocence of the accused would necessarily be determined. 54
SEC. 24. Elements of prejudicial question. - The essential elements of a prejudicial

52
Sec.6, Rule 111, ibid.

53
Ras vs. Rasul, 100 SCRA 125 [1980]; Quiambao vs. Osono, G. R. No.48157, March 16, 1988; and
Appendix “P”

54
Donato vs. Luna, G.R. No.53642, April 15, 1988; Prado vs. People, 133 SCRA 602 [1984]; and
Librodo vs. Coscolluela, Jr., 116 SCRA 303 [1982].
question are:

a) the civil action involves an issue similar or intimately related to the issue
raised in the criminal action;
b) the resolution of such issue determines whether or not the criminal action
may proceed ; and
55

c) the cognizance of the said issue pertains to another tribunal. 56

SEC. 25. Issuance of orders of suspension of proceedings.- No resolution or order


suspending the preliminary investigation based on the existence of a prejudicial question shall
be issued by the Investigating Prosecutor without the written approval of the Provincial/City
Prosecutor concerned or his duly designated assistant.

SEC. 26. Reply-affidavits and rejoinders.- The Investigating Prosecutor shall not require or
allow the filing or submission of reply-affidavits and/or rejoinders, except where new issues of fact or
questions of law which are material and substantial in nature are raised or invoked in the counter-
affidavit or subsequent pleadings and there exists a need for said issues or questions to be controverted
or rebutted, clarified or explained to enable the Investigating Prosecutor to arrive at a fair and judicious
resolution of the case. In such a case, the period for the submission of reply affidavits or rejoinders
shall in no case exceed five (5) days unless a longer period is authorized by the Provincial/City
Prosecutor concerned.

SEC. 27. Clanficatory questions. - The Investigating Prosecutor may set a hearing to
propound clarificatory questions to the parties or their witnesses if he believes that there are
matters which need to be inquired into personally by him. In said hearing, the parties shall be
afforded the opportunity to be present but without the right to examine or cross-examine. If
they so desire, they may submit written questions to the Investigating Prosecutor who may
propound such questions to the parties or witnesses concerned. 57

The Investigating Prosecutor shall make a record of the questions asked and answers
given during the clarificatory questioning which shall be signed by the parties concerned
and/or their respective counsel. Said notes shall form part of the official records of the case.
Parties who desire to file a petition for review of the Investigating Officer's resolution may, at
their option, cite specific portions of the oral testimony by reference to the transcript of
stenographic notes. Said notes shall only be transcribed in cases of appeal and shall be
obtained at the expense of the interested party.

28. Submission of case for resolution. - The Investigating Prosecutor shall case
submitted for resolution:

a) when the respondent cannot be subpoenaed or, if subpoenaed, does not


submit his counter-affidavit within the reglementary period. In such a
case, the Investigating Prosecutor shall base his resolution on the

55
Sec. 5, Rule 111, supra.

56
Cf. Ras vs. Rasul, supra; Quiambao vs. Osono, supra.
57
Sec. 3(e), Rule 112, supra.
evidence presented by the complainant; 58 or

b) upon submission by the parties of their respective affidavits and


supporting proof or documents, in which event, he shall, upon the
evidence thus adduced, determine whether or not there is sufficient
ground to hold the respondent for trial 59

SEC. 29. Lack of probable cause.- If the Investigating Prosecutor does not find
sufficient basis for the prosecution of the respondent, he shall prepare the resolution
recommending the dismissal of the complaint.

SEC. 30. Finding of probable cause. - If the Investigating Prosecutor finds that probable cause
exists, he shall prepare the resolution and the corresponding information or complaint in the
appropriate cases.

Where the respondent is a public officer or employee or a member of the Philippine


National Police (PNP), the Investigating Prosecutor shall also determine whether or not the
offense with which he is charged was committed in relation to his office and, if so committed,
such fact should be alleged in the information to be filed with the Sandiganbayan through the
Ombudsman 60

SEC. 31. Reopening of investigation.- After a case under preliminary investigation


has been submitted for resolution under the provisions of the preceding Section but before
promulgation of the resolution, the preliminary investigation may be reopened for the purpose
of receiving new and/or additional evidence upon the prior authorization given by the
Provincial/City Prosecutor concerned or upon motion of the interested party, Provided, That
in the latter case, it shall be subject to the following conditions:

a) the motion is verified and a copy thereof furnished the opposing


party;
b) the motion is accompanied with the new and/or additional evidence;
and
c) the motion sufficiently and satisfactorily shows valid and justifiable
reason for the failure of the movant to submit the new and/or additional
evidence during the preliminary investigation proceedings.

SEC. 32. Cases Transmitted by the Municipal Trial Judge. - Upon receipt of the
records of the case from the Municipal Trial Court or Municipal Circuit Trial Court which
conducted the Preliminary Investigation, the Prosecution Office shall review the case based
on the existing records, without requesting the parties to submit memorandum of authorities ,61
58
Secs. 3 (d) & (f), Rule 112, ibid.

59
Sections 3(d) & (f), Rule 112, ibid.

60
Republic vs. Maximiano Asuncion, G.R. No. L-108208, March 1994.

61
Department of Justice Memorandum Circular No.7, s.1988.
and may affirm, modify or reverse the finding of the Municipal Trial Court judge. However, if
the interest of justice so requires, the prosecutor may conduct a full blown reinvestigation
giving the parties the opportunity to submit additional evidence, and thereafter, resolve the
case on the basis of the totality of the evidence thus adduced.

SEC. 33. Memoranda. - The Investigating Prosecutor shall not require nor allow the
filing or submission by the parties of memoranda unless the case involves difficult or
complicated questions of law or of fact. In any event, the filing of memoranda by the parties
shall be done simultaneously and the period therefore shall not exceed ten (10) days, unless a
longer period is authorized by the Provincial/City Prosecutor concerned.

SEC. 34. Period for resolving a case. - The Investigating Prosecutor shall resolve the
case within ten (10) days from the time the case is deemed submitted for resolution, 62 unless
otherwise provided herein or a longer period is authorized by the Provincial/City Prosecutor
concerned.

SEC. 35. Form of resolution and number of copies.- The resolution shall be written in the
official language, personally and directly prepared and signed by the Investigating Prosecutor.
It shall be prepared in as many copies as there are parties, plus three (3) additional copies.

SEC. 36. Contents of the resolution. - A resolution shall contain a caption and a body.

SEC. 37. Caption of resolution. - The caption of the resolution shall indicate the:

a) names of all the complainants and all of the respondents;


b) Case Number, otherwise known as the Investigation Slip Number or 1.8.
No.;
c) the offense charged;
d) the date of the filing of the complaint with the office;
e) the date of the assignment of the case to or receipt of the case record by
the Investigating Officer; and
f) the date the case was submitted for resolution.

SEC. 38. Names of parties. - The complete names of all the complainants and
respondents in the case shall be set out in the caption of the resolution. It is not proper to use
the phrase "et. al." to refer to other complainants and respondents.

The name of the victim or injured party, not their representative, shall appear in the
caption. In cases referred to the prosecution by the police where there is no identified victim,
as in prohibited drugs cases, the complainant shall be the police station involved, followed by
the name and designation of the police officer representing the police station. In homicide or
murder cases, the name of the victim or of the complainant shall be in the caption. The heirs
or relatives of the slain victim shall be indicated as "Legal heirs of deceased (name or person

62
Sec. 3(f), Rule 112, supra.
killed)", represented by "(either the surviving spouse, father or mother)".

In the case of a corporation or judicial entity, its corporate name or identity shall be
indicated and written as follows. " 'X' Corporation, represented by its (position title), (name of
corporate officer)".

SEC. 39. Case number. - The number of a case shall indicate the year and month; it
was filed and its entry number in the log book of the office, e.g. 97 (year)A(month)-024(entry
number).

SEC. 40. Designation of offense charged. - For offenses that are punishable under the
Revised Penal Code, the caption shall set forth the denomination of the offense and the
specific article and paragraph of the statute violated.

Where there is another charge or countercharge in the same case having one case number or
in case of a consolidated resolution involving two or more criminal cases with two or more
docket numbers, the caption shall also contain said information.

SEC. 41. Contents of body of resolution. - In general, the body of resolution should
contain:

a) a brief summary of the facts of the case;


b) a concise statement of the issues involved; and
c) the findings and recommendations of the Investigating Prosecutor.

All material details that should be found in the information prepared by the
Investigating Prosecutor shall be stated in the resolution.

SEC. 42. Parts of a resolution. - As a rule, the body of a resolution is made up of four
parts, namely:

a) Part 1 shall state the nature of the case as disclosed in the evidence presented
by the complainant such as his affidavit-complaint, the affidavit of witnesses
and documentary and physical evidence. The affidavits shall be numbered in
the order of the presentation of the prosecution witnesses as disclosed in the
list of witnesses appearing in the information. As for the documentary
evidence, they shall be alphabetically marked as they would be marked
during the pre-trial and trial stages of the case.
b) Part 2 shall contain the version of complainant of the incident. The
presentation of the complainant's case should be concise and shall not be
cluttered with details that are not necessary to show the elements of the
offense.
c) Part 3 shall allege the respondent1s version of the incident. This must also be
concise.
d) Part 4 shall contain the discussion, analysis and evaluation by the prosecutor
of the evidence presented by the complainant and the respondent, without
relying on the weakness of the defense of the respondent. It shall also contain
the conclusion of the prosecutor. The complainant's and respondent's versions
of the incident need not be repeated in this part except to point out excerpts
relating to the existence or absence of the elements of the crime. Citations of
pertinent laws and jurisprudence should support the conclusions reached.
Where numerical values are important, the number shall be written in words
and figures.

SEC. 43. How recommended hail is written. - The bail recommended in the resolution
shall be written in words and figures.

SEC. 44. Recommended bail. - The bail recommended in the resolution shall be stated
in the information, written in words and figures, and initialed by the investigating prosecutor.

SEC. 45. Parties to be furnished with a copy of the resolution. - The complete names
and addresses of the complainant and the respondent shall be set out at the end of the
resolution after the signature of the investigating prosecutor and the head of the Prosecutor's
Office concerned under the phrase: "Copy furnished:".

If the parties are represented by counsel and the latter's appearance is entered formally
in the record,63 the counsel, not the party, shall be given a copy of the resolution.

SEC. 46. Signature and initials of investigating prosecutor. - The investigating


prosecutor shall sign the resolution and if the resolution consists of two or more pages, the
prosecutor shall initial all of said pages, excluding the signature page.

SEC. 47. Records of the case. - The investigating fiscal shall forward his resolution,
together with the complete records of the case, to the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief
State Prosecutor concerned within five (5) days from the date of his resolution. 64

SEC. 48. Action of the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State Prosecutor on
resolution. - The Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State Prosecutor concerned shall act
on all resolutions within ten (10) days from receipt thereof by either approving or
disapproving the resolution or returning the same to the investigating prosecutor for further
appropriate action.' 'immediately after approving or disapproving the resolution, the
Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State Prosecutor concerned shall transmit a copy of the
resolution to the parties.

SEC. 49. Reversal by the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State Prosecutor of
resolution of investigating prosecutor. - If the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State
Prosecutor reverses the recommendation in the resolution of the investigating prosecutor, the
former may, by himself, file the corresponding information or direct any other assistant
prosecutor or state prosecutor, as the case may be, to do so without need of conducting
another preliminary investigation.

SEC. 50. Approval of pleading by head of prosecution office. - A pleading prepared by


the trial prosecutor, including exparte motions, shall not be filed in court without the prior
written approval by the Provincial or City Prosecutor or Chief State Prosecutor, as the case
63
Note: A special appearance does not qualify.

64
Sec. 4, par.1,Rule 112, supra.
may be, of said pleading.

SEC. 51. Motion for reinvestigation, where filed. - Before the arraignment of the
accused, a motion for reinvestigation of the case may be filed with the City/Provincial
Prosecutor, Provided, That when the case has been appealed to the Regional State Prosecutor
or the Department of Justice, such motion may be filed, respectively, with the said offices.
After arraignment, said motion may only be filed with the judge hearing the case.

SEC. 52. Confidentiality of resolutions. - All resolutions prepared by an Investigating


Prosecutor after preliminary investigation, whether his recommendation be for the filing or
dismissal of the case, shall be held in strict confidence and shall not be made known to the
parties, their counsel and/or to any unauthorized person until the same shall have been finally
acted upon by the Provincial/City Prosecutor or his duly authorized assistant and approved for
promulgation and release to the parties.

Violation of the foregoing shall subject the Investigating Prosecutor or the employee
of the office concerned to severe disciplinary action.

SEC. 53. Information/Complaint.- The information/complaint shall be personally and


directly prepared by the Investigating Prosecutor or such other prosecutor designated for the
purpose and signed by him or the complainant, as the case may be. It shall state and contain,
in addition to the requirements of the Rules of Court on the sufficiency of the allegations in an
information or complaint, the following:

a) the full name and aliases, if any, and address of the accused;
b) the age and date of birth of the complainant or the accused, if eighteen (18)
years of age or below;
c) the full names and addresses of the parents, custodian or guardian of the
minor complainant or accused, as the case may be;
d) the place where the accused is actually detained;
e) the full names and addresses of the complainant and witnesses;
f) a detailed description of the recovered items, if any;
g) the full name and address of the evidence custodian; and
h) the bail recommended, if the charge is bailable.

The Investigating Prosecutor shall certify under oath that he or, as shown by the
record, an authorized officer, had personally examined the complainant and his witnesses; that
there is reasonable ground to believe that a crime has been committed and that the accused is
probably guilty thereof; that the accused was informed of the complaint and of the evidence
submitted against him and that he was given an opportunity to submit controverting evidence;
and that he is filing the complaint or information with the prior authority and approval of the
Provincial/City Prosecutor concerned.65

SEC. 54. Documents to be attached to information/complaint. - An


information/complaint that is filed in court shall, as far as practicable, be accompanied by a
copy of the resolution of the Investigating Prosecutor, the complainant's affidavit, the sworn

65
Section 4 (2) Rule 112, supra.
statements of the prosecution's witnesses, the respondent's counter-affidavit and the sworn
statements of his witnesses and such other evidence as may have been taken into account in
arriving at a determination of the existence of probable cause. 66

SEC. 55. Promulgation of resolution.- The result of the preliminary investigation shall
be promulgated by furnishing the parties or their counsel a copy of the resolution by:

a) personal service;
b) registered mail with return card to the complainant, and by ordinary mail to
the respondent, if the resolution is for the dismissal of the complaint; or
c) registered mail with return card to the respondent, and by ordinary mail to the
complainant, if the resolution is for the indictment of the respondent.

SEC. 56. Motion for reconsideration. - A motion for reconsideration may be filed
within ten (10) days from receipt of the resolution. The motion shall be verified, addressed to
the Provincial/City Prosecutor or the Chief State Prosecutor, and accompanied by proof of
service of a copy thereof on the opposing party and must state clearly and distinctly the
grounds relied upon in support of the motion.

A motion for reconsideration is still part of due process in the preliminary


investigation. The denial thereof is a reversible error as it constitutes a deprivation of the
respondent's right to a full preliminary investigation preparatory to the filing of the
information against him.67 The court therefore may not proceed with the arraignment and trial
pending resolution of the motion for reconsideration.

SEC. 57. Inhibition. - A Prosecutor shall inhibit himself from conducting a


preliminary investigation in a case wherein -

a) he or his wife or child is interested as heir, legatee, creditor or otherwise; or


b) he is related to either affinity or to counsel
c) he has been named counsel. party within the 6th degree of consanguinity or within
the 4th degree; or executor, administrator, guardian, trustee or

A motion to disqualify or inhibit the Investigating Prosecutor may be filed with the
City/Provincial or Chief State Prosecutor concerned for just or valid reasons
other than those mentioned above.

SEC. 58. Period to resolve cases under preliminary investigation. - The following
periods shall be observed in the resolution of cases under preliminary investigation:

a) The preliminary investigation of complaints charging a capital offense shall


be terminated and resolved within ninety (90) days from the date of
assignment to the Investigating Prosecutor.
b) The preliminary investigation of all other complaints involving crimes
cognizable by the Regional Trial Courts shall be terminated and resolved

66
Lim V. Felix, G. R. No.94054-57, and Fernandez V. Felix, G.R. No.94266-57, 194 SCRA 292
[1991]; See also Allado V. Diokno, 232 SCRA 192 [1994].

67
Torralba vs. Sandiganbayan, 230 SCRA 33 [1994].
within sixty (60) days from the date of assignment.
c) In cases of complaints involving crimes cognizable by the Metropolitan Trial Courts,
Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts, the preliminary
investigation - should the same be warranted by the circumstances - shall be
terminated and resolved within sixty(60) days from the date of assignment to
the Investigating Prosecutor.

In all instances, the total period (from the date of assignment to the time of actual
resolution) that may be consumed in the conduct of the formal preliminary investigation shall
not exceed the periods prescribed herein. 68

PART IV. PETITION FOR REVIEW69

SECTION 1. Subject of petition for review.- Only resolutions of the Chief State
Prosecutor/Regional State Prosecutor/Provincial or City Prosecutor dismissing a criminal
complaint may be the subject of a Petition for Review to the Secretary of Justice except as
otherwise provided in Section 4 hereof.

A petition from the resolution of a Provincial/City Prosecutor where the penalty


prescribed for the offense charged does not exceed prision correccional, regardless of the
imposable fine, shall be made to the Regional State Prosecutor who shall resolve the petitions
with finality. Such petitions shall also be governed by these rules.

The provision of the preceding paragraph on the finality of the resolution of the
Regional State Prosecutor notwithstanding, the Secretary of Justice may, in the interest of
justice and pursuant to his residual authority of supervision and control over the prosecutors
of the Department of Justice, order the automatic review by his office of the resolution of the
Regional State Prosecutors in the cases appealed to the latter.

SEC. 2. Period to file petition.- The petition must be filed within a period of fifteen
(15) days from receipt of the questioned resolution by the party or his counsel. The period
shall be interrupted only by the filing of a motion for reconsideration within ten (10) days
from receipt of the resolution and shall continue to run from the time the resolution denying
the motion shall have been received by the movant or his counsel.

SEC. 3. Form and contents. - The petition shall be verified by the petitioner and shall
contain the following:

a) date of receipt of the questioned resolution; date of filing of the mot )n for
reconsideration; if any; and date of receipt of the resolution on the motion for
reconsideration;
b) names and addresses of the parties;
c) the Investigation Slip Number or I.S. No. and/or criminal case number and
68
Department of Justice Circular No.24 dated 24 March 1995.

69
Department Order No.223 dated June 30,1993 as amended by DO No.359 dated October
17, 1995.
the title of the case;
d) the venue of the preliminary investigation;
e) a clear and concise statement of the facts, the assignment of errors, and the
legal basis of the petition;
f) in case of a finding of probable cause, that petitioner has filed in court a
motion to defer further proceedings; and
g) proof of service of a copy of the petition to the adverse party or his counsel and the
prosecutor either by personal delivery or registered mail evidenced by the registry
receipts and affidavit of mailing.

The petitioner shall append to his petition copies of the material and pertinent
affidavits/sworn statements (including their translations, if any, duly certified by the
city/provincial prosecutor) and evidence submitted in the preliminary investigation by both
parties and the questioned resolution.

The prosecutor concerned shall immediately inform the Department or


the Regional State Prosecutor of the action of the court on the motion to defer
further proceedings. If the accused is arraigned during the pendency of the
petition, the prosecutor concerned shall likewise immediately inform the
Department or the Regional Stat& Prosecutor of such arraignment.

SEC. 4. Cases not subject to review; exceptions.- No petition may be


allowed from a resolution of the Chief State Prosecutor/Regional State
Prosecutor/Provincial or City Prosecutor finding probable cause except upon
showing of manifest error or grave abuse of discretion. Either
complainant/offended party or respondent/accused may file a petition.
Notwithstanding the showing of manifest error or grave abuse of discretion no
petition shall be entertained where the accused had already been arraigned.
Once arraigned, the petition shall be dismissed motu proprio by the Secretary
of Justice.

SEC. 5. Answer.- Within a non-extendible period of fifteen (15) days


from receipt of a copy of the petition, the respondent may file a verified answer
indicating therein the date that the copy of the petition was received with proof
of service of the answer to the petitioner. If no answer is filed, the case shall be
resolved on the basis of the petition.

SEC. 6. Withdrawal of petition.- The petition may be withdrawn at any


time before it is finally resolved, in which case the questioned resolution shall
stand.

SEC. 7. Motion for reinvestigation.- At any time after the filing of the
petition and before its resolution, the petitioner may, with leave of court, file a
motion for reinvestigation on the ground that new and material evidence has
been discovered which petitioner could not, with reasonable diligence, have
discovered during the preliminary investigation and which if produced and
admitted would probably change the resolution. The Department or the
Regional State Prosecutor, as the case may be, shall then issue a resolution
directing the reinvestigation of the case, if still legally feasible. When
reinvestigation is granted, it shall take place in the Office of the Prosecutor
from which the petition was taken.

SEC. 8. Disposition of petition.- The Secretary of Justice or the Regional State Prosecutor may
reverse, affirm or modify the questioned resolution. They may, motu proprio or on motion of the
petitioner, dismiss outright the petition on any of the following grounds:
9

a) that the offense has prescribed;


b) that there is no showing of any reversible error;
c) that the procedure or requirements herein prescribed have not been complied
with;
d) that the questioned resolution is interlocutory in nature, except when it
suspends the proceedings based on the alleged existence of a prejudicial
question; or
e) that other legal or factual grounds exist to warrant a dismissal.

SEC. 9. Motion for Reconsideration.- The aggrieved party may file a motion for
reconsideration within a non-extendible period of ten (10) days from receipt of the resolution
on the petition, furnishing the adverse party or his counsel and the prosecutor with copies
thereof. No second motion for reconsideration shall be entertained.

SEC. 10. Effect of filing of petition. - A petition for review, motion for
reconsideration/reinvestigation from a resolution finding probable cause shall not hold the
filing of the information in court.

Pending resolution of the Petition for review, the accused is entitled to a suspension of
the proceedings, to the holding in abeyance of the issuance of warrant of arrest, and deferment
of the arraignment.70

PART V. BAIL71
9
SECTION 1. Bail defined. - Bail is the security given for the release of a person in
custody of the law, furnished by him or a bondsman, conditioned upon his appearance before
any court as required under the conditions hereinafter specified. Bail may be given in the
form of corporate surety, property bond, cash deposit, or recognizance.

70
Like a motion for reconsideration of the resolution of the City/Provincial
Prosecutor, the right to a petition for review is a part of due process.
Notwithstanding the ruling in Crespo vs. Mogul (151 SCRA 463 [1987]), the
Court may not proceed with the criminal proceedings until after the
resolution of the Regional Prosecutor or of the Secretary of Justice shall
have become final, and the corresponding motion has been filed in Court
by the trial prosecutor to withdraw or dismiss the information or to
proceed with the trial as the case may be, per findings in the petition for
review. (See Roberts; Jr. et al. vs. C.A. et al., 254 SCRA 307 [1996]).
71
Rule 114, Rules on Criminal Procedure, as amended by Supreme Court Administrative
Circular No.12-94 dated August 16, 1994.
SEC. 2. Nature of right to bad.- The right to bail is guaranteed by the Constitution. It
is the duty of the prosecutor to recommend such amount of bail to the courts of justice as, in
his opinion, would ensure the appearance of an accused person when so required by the
court.72

SEC. 3. Non-bailable offense. - No person charged with a capital offense, or an


offense punishable by reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment, when evidence of guilt is
strong, shall be admitted to bail regardless of the stage of the criminal prosecution.

SEC. 4 Criteria in recommending amount of bail. - In recommending the amount of


bail to be granted by the court, the prosecutor shall take into consideration the following
standards and criteria:

a) financial ability of the respondent/accused to post bail;


b) nature and circumstances of the offense;
c) penalty for the offense charged;
d) age, state of health, character and reputation of the respondent/accused under
detention;
e) weight of the evidence against the respondent/accused under detention;
f) forfeiture of other bonds and pendency of other cases wherein the
respondent/accused under detention is under bond;
g) the fact that respondent/accused under detention was a fugitive from justice
when apprehended; and
h) other factors affecting the probability of the accused appearing at the trial. 73

SEC. 5. Burden of proof in bail application. - At the hearing of an application for


admission to bail filed by any person who is in custody for the commission of an offense
punishable by death, reclusion perpetual or life imprisonment, the prosecution has the burden
of showing that evidence of guilt is strong. The evidence presented during the bail hearings
shall be considered automatically reproduced at the trial, but upon motion of either party, the
court may recall any witness for additional examination unless the witness is dead, outside of
the Philippines or otherwise unable to testify.

SEC. 6. Recognizance. - Whenever allowed pursuant to law or these Rules, the court
may release a person in custody on his own recognizance or that of a responsible person.

SEC. 7. Bail, when not required; reduced bail or recognizance. - No bail shall be
required when the law or the Rules issued by the Supreme Court so provide 74.

72
Department of Justice Circular No.36, Sept. 1, 1981.

Sec. 6, Rule 114, supra; Department of Justice Circular No.4, series of 1996, effective 1
73

February 1996.

74
See RA 6036 and Rules on Summary Procedure; Art. 29, Revised
Penal Code; BP BIg 85 [1980]; Sec. 13, Rule 114, ibid.
When a person has been in custody for a period equal to or more than the possible
maximum imprisonment of the offense charged to which he may be sentenced, he shall be
released immediately without prejudice to the continuation of the trial thereof or the
proceedings on appeal. In case the maximum penalty to which the accused may be sentenced
is destierro, he shall be released after thirty (30) days of preventive imprisonment.

A person in custody for a period equal to or more than the minimum of the principal
penalty prescribed for the offense charged without application of the Indeterminate Sentence
Law or any modifying circumstance, shall be released on a reduced bail or on his own
recognizance, at the discretion of the court.

SEC. 8. Notice of application for hail to prosecutor. - In an application for bail, the
court shall give reasonable notice of the hearing to the prosecutor or require him to submit his
recommendation.

SEC. 9. Cancellation of hail bond. - Upon application filed with the court and after
due notice to the prosecutor, the bail bond may be canceled upon surrender of the accused or
proof of his death.

The bail bond shall be deemed automatically canceled upon acquittal of the accused
or dismissal of the case or execution of the final judgment of conviction.

In all instances, the cancellation shall be without prejudice to any liability on the
bond.

SEC. 10. Arrest of accused out on hail. - For the purpose of surrendering the accused,
the bondsmen may arrest him, or on written authority endorsed on a certified copy of the
undertaking may cause him to be arrested by any police officer or any other person of suitable
age and discretion.

An accused released on bail may be re-arrested without the necessity of a warrant if


he attempts to depart from the Philippines without prior permission of the court where the
case is pending.

SEC. 11. No had after final judgment, exception. - An accused shall not be allowed
bail after the judgment has become final, unless he has applied for probation
before commencing to serve sentence, the penalty and the offense being
within the purview of the Probation Law. In case the accused has applied
for probation, he may be allowed temporary liberty under his bail bond,
but if no bail was filed or the accused is incapable of filing one, the court
may allow his release on recognizance under the custody of a responsible
member of the community. In no case shall bail be allowed after the
accused has commenced to serve sentence.

SEC. 12. Rules in computing the bail to be recommended. - To achieve uniformity in


the amount of bail to be recommended, the following rules shall be observed:

a) Where the penalty is reclusion perpetua, life imprisonment,


reclusion perpetua to death or death, bail is not a matter of right;
hence, it shall not be recommended.
b) Where bail is a matter of right and the imposable penalty is
imprisonment and/or fine, the bail shall be computed on the basis of
the penalty of imprisonment applying the following rules:

1. where the penalty is reclusion temporal (regardless of


period) to reclusion perpetua, bail shall be computed based
on the maximum of reclusion temporal.
ii. where the imposable penalty is correccional or afflictive, bait
shall be based on the maximum of the penalty, multiplied by
P2,000.00. A fraction of a year shall be rounded-off to one
year.
iii. for crimes covered by the Rules on Summary Procedure and
Republic Act No. 6036, bail is not required except when
respondent/accused is under arrest, in which case, bail shall
be computed in accordance with this guideline.
iv for crimes of reckless imprudence resulting in homicide
arising from violation of the Land Transportation and Traffic
Code, bail shall be P30,000.00 per deceased person.
v. for violation of Batas Pambansa Blg. 22, bail shall be 50% of
the amount of check but should not be less than
P2,000.O0nor more than P30,000.00.

Where the imposable penalty is only a fine, bail shall be computed as

follows:
9

1. fine not exceeding P2,000.00,bail is not required.


ii. fine of more than P2,000.00,bail shall be 50% of the fine but
should not exceed P30,000.00.
iii. in case of reckless imprudence resulting to damage to property, bail
shall be three-eighths (3/8) of the value of the damage but not
exceeding P30,OOO.OO except when covered by the Rules on
Summary Procedure.

d) Bail based on the maximum penalty, multiplied by P1O,OOO.OO,shall be


applied to the following offenses under the following laws:

I. Republic Act No.6425 (Dangerous Drugs Act), as amended


by RA 7659;
ii. Republic Act No.6539 (Anti-Carnapping Act), as amended
by RA 7659;
iii. Republic Act No.7659 (for other crimes covered by it);
iv. Presidential Decree No. 186 (Illegal Possession of Firearms,
Ammunition or Explosives), as amended by RA 8294;
v. Republic Act No. 1937 (Tariff and Customs Code), as
amended; or
vi. Rebellion, insurrection or Coup d'etat as amended by
Republic Act No.6968.
SEC. 13. Petition for bail in a continuous trial. - In case a petition for bail is filed by
the accused and the court orders a continuous trial of the case, the public prosecutor shall be
prepared with his principal witnesses. Where there are several accused and one or two filed a
petition to bail, the trial prosecutor shall, before the presentation of his first witness, manifest
in open court that the evidence to be presented in the hearing of the petition for bail shall be
adopted as its evidence-inchief.

PART VI. ARREST

SECTION 1. Definition of probable cause as a ground for an arrest or issuance of a


warrant of arrest. - Probable cause is such facts and circumstances which would lead a
reasonably discreet and prudent man to believe that an offense has been committed by the
person sought to be arrested.75

SEC. 2. Remedy if no warrant of arrest is issued by the investigating judge. -If the
investigating judge is satisfied that there is probable cause but did not issue the warrant of
arrest contrary to the prosecutor's belief that there is a need to place the accused under
custody, the speedy and adequate remedy of the prosecutor is to immediately file the
information so that the Regional Trial Court judge may issue the warrant for the arrest of the
accused.76

SEC. 3. Request for a copy of the return. - If a warrant of arrest has been issued, the
prosecutor may request the warrant officer that he be furnished with the officer's return
relative thereto. The prosecutor shall, as far as practicable, coordinate with the witnesses from
time to time to ascertain the whereabouts of the accused pending the latter's arrest.

PART VII. ARRMGNMENT AND PLEA

SECTION 1. Concept of arraignment. - Arraignment is a mandatory requirement that


seeks to give the accused the opportunity, at the first instance, to know why the prosecuting
arm of government has been mobilized against him and to plead. At the arraignment, the
accused may enter a plea of guilty or not guilty.

SEC. 2. Duties of trial prosecutor. -

a) Before the arraignment of the accused, the trial prosecutor shall examine the
information vis-a-vis the resolution of the investigating prosecutor in order to
make the necessary corrections or revisions and to ensure that the information
is sufficient in form and substance.
b) After arraignment, the trial prosecutor shall prepare his witnesses for trial.
75
Bemas, The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, a
Commentary, Vol. I, First Ed., 1987, pp.86-87 cited in Department
Circular No.24, dated March 24 1995.
76
Samulde vs. Salvani,Jr., 165 SCRA 724 [1988].
Government witnesses, e.g. medico-legal officer, chemist, forensic experts,
examiners etc. should, as much as practicable, be presented in accordance
with the logical a~d chronological sequence of the technical aspects to be
proved.

SEC. 3. Effect of filing a petition for review. - When an aggrieved partymanifests in court that
he has a pending petition for review with the Department of Justice and moves for a deferment of the
arraignment pending resolution of his petition, the Trial Prosecutor may conform thereto once proof of
said petition has been presented by the petitioner to his satisfaction.

SEC. 4. Concept of plea. - The plea is the reply of the accused to the charge. It raises the issue
to be tried and on which the judgment/sentence of the court can be properly based.

PART VIII. PRE-TRIAL77

SECTION 1. CoflcQpt ofpre-trial. - A pre-trial is a process whereby the accused and


the prosecutors in a criminal case work out, usually at the arraignment stage, a naturally
satisfactory disposition of a case subject to court approval in order to expedite the trial of the
case. 78

The prosecutor shall enter into a pre-trial only when the accused and counsel agree
and upon order of the court.

SEC. 2. Duties of prosecutor before and after the pre-trial conference. -Before the
pre-trial conference, the prosecutor should know every fact and detail of the case. This can be
accomplished by interviewing the complainant and other witnesses and after a thorough
examination of the available documentary and other physical evidence. The prosecutor should
place importance ';;n the testimony of the expert witness. The knowledge that the prosecutor
will gain from said witness will help him determine the procedures undertaken in the
examination of a subject or thing; the scientific or technical terms applied, and the reason/s in
arriving at a certain conclusion.

During the pre-trial process, the prosecutor shall bear in mind that he has to prove his
case beyond a reasonable doubt and that every act or incident should be proved by the
testimony of qualified and competent witnesses.

After the pre-trial conference, the prosecutor shall ensure that any agreement or
admission made or entered therein is in writing and signed by the accused and his counsel.

SEC. 3. Subject matters ofpre-tn.al. - The pre-trial conference shall consider the
following:

a) Plea bargaining - This is a process where the defendants usually plead guilty
to a lesser offense or to only one or some of the counts of a multi-count

77
Rule 118, Rules on Criminal Procedure.
78
Black's Law Dictionary, 5th Ed. 1979, p.1037.
indictment in return for a lighter sentence than that for the graver charge 79;
b) Stipulation of facts- This is the agreement of the parties on some facts admitted,
some facts covered by judicial notice (Sec. 1, Rule 129), judicial admissions (Sec. 2
Rule 129), or on matters not otherwise disputed by them. In cases requiring the
presentation of government witnesses or evidence, the Trial Prosecutor should exert
every effort to secure a waiver by the accused of objections to the admissibility of
certain documentary evidence, e.g., medical or death cenificare, necropsy report,
forensic chemistry report, ballistics report, PhilippineOverseas and Employment
Administration (POEA) Certification, and the like, if such evidence has no relevance
whatsoever to the theory of the defense, in order to d~spense with the presentation
and testimony in court of government witnesses. Whenever appropriate or necessary,
the counter-affidavit of the accused submitted luring the preliminary investigation
may be resorted to or availed of to denions~rate or establish the defense theory;
c) Marking of documentary evidence in advance for identification;
d) Waiver in advance of objections to admissibility of evidence;
e) List of witnesses to be presented which should be qualified by the
following statement: "that other witnesses may be presented in the
course of the trial"; and
f) Such other matters as will promote a fair and expeditious trial.

SEC. 4. Plea of guilty to a lesser offense. - The following rules shall apply to cases
where the accused pleads guilty to a lesser offense:

a) The Trial Prosecutor shall immediately move for the suspension of the
proceedings whenever the accused manifests his intention in court to
plead guilty to a lesser offense. This will enable the Trial Prosecutor
to evaluate the implications of the offer.
b) If the lesser offense to which the accused will plead guilty is not a
capital offense, the Trial Prosecutor may dispense with the
presentation of evidence unless the court directs otherwise.
c) The Trial Prosecutor, with the consent of the offended party, may
motu propno agree to the offer of the accused to plead guilty to a
lesser offense if the penalty imposable therefor is prision correcional
(maximum of six [61 years) or less or a fine not exceeding
P12,OOO.OO.
d) When the penalty imposable for the offense charged is prision mayor
(at least six [6] years and one [11 day or higher) or a fine exceeding
~12,OOO.OO, the Trial Prosecutor shall first submit his
comment/recommendation to the City or Provincial Prosecutor or to
the Chief State Prosecutor, as the case may be, for approval. If the
recommendation is approved in writing, the Trial Prosecutor, may,
with the consent of the offended party, agree to a plea of guilty to a
lesser offense. For this purpose, the Chief State Prosecutor or the
Provincial or City Prosecutor concerned shall act on the
recommendation of the Trial Prosecutor within forty-eight (48) hours
from receipt thereof. In no case shall the subject plea to a lesser

79
ibid, p.1037.
offense be allowed without the written approval of the above
respective heads of office.
e) In all cases, the penalty for the lesser offense to which the accused
may be allowed to plead guilty shall not be more than two (2)
degrees lower than the imposable penalty for the crime charged,
notwithstanding the presence of mitigating circumstances. The lesser
offense shall also be one that is necessarily related to the offense
charged or the offense must belong to the same classification or title
under the Revised Penal Code or therelevant special laws. 80

However, the plea of guilty to a lesser offense may not be allowed where it so
contravenes lo~ nd common sense as to be unconscionable, thereby resulting in
us, where the offense charged is homicide, a plea of guilty to a lesser offense of frustrated or
attempted homicide, may not be allowed, since the fact of death cannot be reconciled with the
plea of guilty to frustrated or attempted homicide. Homicide necessarily produces death,
while frustrated or attempted homicide does not. 81

SEC. 5. when accused pleads guilty to a capital offense. - If the accused pleads guilty
to a capital offense, the Trial Prosecutor must present evidence to prove the guilt of the
accused and the precise degree of his culpability. This is mandatory.

PART IX. TRIAL'

SECTION 1. Definition of trial. - A trial is a judicial examination of the claims at


issue in a case which are presented by the prosecution and defense to enable the court to
arrive at a judgment pronouncing either the guilt or innocence of the accused. 2

SEC. 2. Concept of trial. - The object of a trial is to mete out justice, and to convict
the guilty and protect the innocent. Thus, the trial should be a search for the truth and not a
contest over technicalities and must be conducted under such rules as will protect the
innocent.3

SEC. 3. Expeditious prosecution of criminal cases filed with the courts. -The Trial
Prosecutor shall always be prepared to conduct the prosecution with his witnesses who shall
be subpoenaed well in advance of the scheduled trial dates. 4 No postponement of the trial or
other proceedings of a criminal case shall be initiated or caused by the Trial Prosecutor except
in instances where the postponement is occasioned by the absence of material witnesses or for
other causes beyond his control or not attributable to him.

SEC. 4. Order of presentation of witnesses. -

a) The order in the presentation of witnesses will be left to the


discretion of the Trial Prosecutor. However, the prosecutor should take into
consideration the order of events as established by the evidence of the

80
Department of Justice Circular No.55, dated 31 July 1990.
81
Amatan vs. Aujero 248 SCRA 511(1995).
prosecution.
b) Witnesses who will testify for the first time shall be afforded the
opportunity to be advised to observe criminal proceedings in court to help
them overcome their anxiety, excitement and tension.

SEC. 5. Preparation of formal offer of exhibits. - The Trial Prosecutor shall safely
keep his documentary and other physical evidence and prepare a list thereof in the order they
have been marked as exhibits, identifying each by letter or number, describing it briefly, and
stating its specific purpose or purposes.

SEC. 6. Defense evidence. -

a) Before reception of evidence for the defense starts, the Trial Prosecutor shall
ask from the adverse counsel the number of witnesses he intends to present.
b) If the names of defense witnesses are disclosed the Trial Prosecutor shall elicit from
reliable sources the whereabouts of these witnesses, their moral character,,
background, reasons for testifying and

relationship with the accused, among other things, to enable him to have a clear view
of the defense of the accused.

SEC. 7. Discharge of accused to he state witness. - When two or more persons are jointly
charged with the commission of any offense, upon motion of the prosecution before resting its case, the
court may direct one or more of the accused to be discharged with their consent so that they may be
witnesses for the state provided the court, after hearing, is satisfied that:

a) There is absolute necessity for the testimony of the accused whose discharge
is requested.5
b) There is no other direct evidence available for the proper prosecution of the
offense committed, except the testimony of said accused, 6 as when he alone has
knowledge of the crime, and not when his testimony would simply corroborate or
otherwise strengthen the evidence in the hands of the prosecution;7
c) The testimony of said accused can be substantially corroborated in its material points.
This is an indispensable requirement because it is a notorious fact in human nature
that a culprit, confessing to a crime, is likely to put the blame on others rather than
himself. Thus, even though a court may get the statement of a discharged accused
that other particular persons were engaged in the crime, it is unsafe to accept without
corroborating evidence, his statements concerning the relative blame to be attached to
different members of his gang;~
d) Said accused does not appear to be the most guilty.9 The mere fact that the witness
sought to be discharged had pleaded guilty In the crime charged does not violate the
rule that the discharged defendant must not "appear to be the most guilty”. And even if
the witness should lack some of the qualifications enumerated by Sec. 9, Rule 119,
his testimony will not, for that reason alone, be discarded or disregarded.10 The
ground underlying the rule is not to let a crime that has been committed go
unpunished; so an accused who is not the most guilty is allowed to testify against
the most guilty, in order to achieve the greater purpose of securing the conviction of
the more or most guilty and the greatest number among the accused permitted to be
convicted for the offense they committed.'' However, although an accused did not
commit anv of the stabbing, it is a mistake to discharge him as a state \witness where
he is bound in a conspiracy. All the perpetrators of the offense bound in conspiracy
are equally guilty.
e) Said accused has not at anv time been convicted of any offense involving moral
turpitude.

Evidence adduced in support of the discharge sha11 automatically form part of the trial. If
the court denies the motion for discharge of the accused as state witness, his sworn statement
shall be inadmissible in evidence.

SEC. 8. Witness protection. - An accused who is discharged from an information or


criminal complaint in order that he may be a state witness as provided in the preceding
section may, upon his petition, be admitted to the Witness Protection Program under R.A.
No.6981, "The Witness Protection, Security and Benefit Act" if he complies with the other
requirements of said Act.

SEC. 9. Other persons who may avail of the Witness Protection Program. -The following
may also avail of the Witness Protection Program under R.A. No.
6981:

a) Any person who has witnessed or has knowledge of or information


on the commission of a crime and has testified or is testifying or is about to
testify before any judicial or quasijudicial body, or before any investigating
authority, Provided, that:

1. the offense in which his testimony will be used is a grave felony as


defined under the Revised Penal Code or its equivalent under special
laws;
ii. his testimony can be substantially corroborated on its material points;
iii. he or any member of his family within the second civil degree of
consanguinity or affinity is subjected to threats to his life or bodily
injury or there is a likelihood that he will be killed, forced,
intimidated, harassed or corrupted to prevent him from testifying, or
to testify falsely or evasively, because or on account of his testimony;
and
iv. he is not a law enforcement officer, even if he would be testifying
against other law enforcement officers. In such a case, only the
immediate members of his family may avail themselves of the
protection provided for under the Act.

b) Any person who has participated in the commission of a crime and


desires to be a witness for the State, whenever the following circumstances
are present:

i. . the offense in which testimony will be used is a grave felony as


defined under the Revised Penal Code or its equivalent under
special laws;
ii. there is absolute necessity for his testimony;
iii. there is no other direct evidence available for the proper prosecution
of the offense committed;

iv his testimony can be substantially corroborated on its material


points;
V. he does not appear to be the most guilty; and
vi he has not at any time been convicted of any crime involving
moral turpitude.

SEC. 10. Motions for postponement of accused. - Motions for postponement that are
initiated by the accused should be vigorously opposed by the Trial Prosecutor and he should
make of record his objections thereto, leaving to the court's discretion the disposition of the
subject motions.'3

SEC. 11. Discontinuance of proceedings. - During the presentation of the prosecution's


evidence, the Trial Prosecutor shall not cause or allow the discontinuance of the proceedings
except for other similarly compelling reasons not attributable to him. 14

SEC. 12. Presentation of evidence. - Each party is bound to complete the presentation of
his evidence within the trial dates assigned to him. After the lapse of said dates, the party is
deemed to have completed his evidence presentation. However, upon verified motion based
on serious reasons, the judge may allow the party additional trial dates in the afternoon;
provided that said extension will not go beyond the three-month limit computed from the first
trial date. '5

Where a Trial Prosecutor, without good cause, secures postponements of the trial over
the objections of a defendant beyond a reasonable period of time, the accused is entitled to
relief by a proceeding in mandamus to compel a dismissal of the information, or if he be
restrained of his liberty, by habeas corpus to obtain his freedom 16.

SEC. 13. Order of trial.- Upon receipt of the notice of trial, the prosecutor shall review
the record of the case for trial and complete his preparation therefore bearing in mind that
trial, once commenced, may continue from day to day until terminated, and that trial shall
proceed in the following order pursuant to Sec. 3, Rule 119 of the Rules of Criminal
Procedure:

a) The prosecution shall present evidence to prove the charge and, in the
proper case, the civil liability.
b) The accused may present evidence to prove his defense, and damages, if
any, arising from the issuance of any provisional remedy in the case.
c) The parties may then respectively present rebutting evidence only, unless
the court, in furtherance of justice, permits them to present additional
evidence bearing upon the main issue.
d) Upon admission of the evidence, the case shall be deemed submitted for decision
unless the court directs the parties to argue orally or to submit memoranda.
e) However, when the accused admits the act or omission charged in the complaint
or information but interposes a lawful defense, the order of trial may be modified
accordingly.

SEC. 14. Presentation of witnesses.- The order in the presentation of witnesses shall, as far as
practicable, conform to he logical sequence of events obtaining in the case on trial in order to present a
clear, organized and coherent picture to the court of the prosecution's evidence.

For example, in the case of prosecution under the Dangerous Drugs Law, the Trial Prosecutor
should present the forensic chemist who examined the dangerous drug ahead of the other
witnesses in order that the court may at once have a view of the real evidence (either the
prohibited or regulated drug subject of the case) and so that such evidence may immediately
identified by the other witnesses thus avoiding the recall of witnesses later on.

The rule of logical sequencing notwithstanding, a witness whose testimony is vital to the case
and whose life is in danger or who may be sick/injured arid may possibly die, should be made to testify
as early as practicable.

SEC. 15. Examination of witnesses for the prosecution.-Where it shall satisfactorily appear
that the witness for the prosecution is too sick or infirm to appear at the trial as directed by order of the
court, or has to leave the Philippines with no definite date of returning thereto, he may forthwith be
conditionally examined before the judge or the court where the case is pending. Such examination in
the presence of the accused, or after reasonable notice to attend the examination has been served on
him, will be conducted in the same manner as an examination at the trial. Failure or refusal on the part
of the accused to attend the examination after notice herein before provided, shall be considered a
waiver. The statement thus taken may be admitted on behalf of or against the accused.

SEC. 16. Cross-Examination of defense witnesses. The prosecutor shall endeavor to secure
well in advance all available information about a defense witness in order to prepare for an effective
cross-examination. Where the testimony of a defense witness bears no effect on the evidence of the
prosecution, a cross-examination need not be conducted.

SEC. 17. Rebuttal evidence.- The presentation and nature of rebuttal evidence will depend on
the effect which the defense evidence may have caused on the prosecution's evidence-in-chief. The
recall of a witness who already testified during the evidence-in-chief presentation merely to refute what
a defense witness may have stated during his defense testimony is not generally a rebuttal evidence.
\Where there is nothing to refute, rebuttal evidence is unnecessary.
48