Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 169

CHIKANKARI: BEAUTY OF WHITE

BY

NEHA SHARMA

SUBMITTED TO NIFT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE

REQUIREMENTFOR DEGREE OF MASTER OF DESIGN

FACULTY MENTOR

PROF. KUNDALATA MAM

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY

MUMBAI

2013-2015

I
DECLARATION

The work in this project titled “Chikankari: Beauty of White” is authentic and

original and outcome of my research. The project was carried under the guidance

of Prof. Kundalata Mishra. No portion of this work has been submitted in support

of an application for another degree/ qualification to NIFT or any other university

or professional organisation.

SIGNATURE

Place Date

II
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLGY MUMBAI

Chikankari: Beauty of White


Neha Sharma
M.Des.
2013-2015

Submitted by Ms Neha Sharma to NIFT in partial fulfilment of the requirements

for the degree of Master of Design of the National Institute of Fashion Technology

at New Delhi and hereby certify that in the judgment of the following members of

jury it is worth of acceptance:

Name Institute/ Organization Signature & Date

Remarks regarding fulfilling further requirements, if any: -

Signature of CC - Design Space


Date:

III
ABSTRACT

The research paper has been developed by taking “Chikankari – Beauty on


White “ as its main centre of focus, where its existence over the time is being
studied with the different evolution it has shown in its products. Chikankari is a
distinctive integral part of Lucknow culture. In India it is believed that Chikan
embroidery may have existed from times immemorial. It is said that Noor Jahan
brought this craft to India and later it was whole-heartedly adopted by the
Nawabs of Lucknow. Thus it became a part of the culture of Lucknow.
The paper describes how it has been a centre of attraction for the whole world
during the times. Throughout the history of Indian textile, the embroidery work on
clothes was a common feature. In ancient and medieval periods embroidery may
have been more popular among the elites but in the present age it is common
even among the masses.
Because of which nowadays the market is flooded with coarsely executed work
and thoughtless design diversifications which has eroded the sensibility of the
craft. The implementation of this research will increases the need of chikankari in
a totally new unexplored and most demanded sector using various designing
channel which can reach consumers globally. It provides a general understanding
of change and explorations done in the chikankari products and how it is being
perceived in today’s fashion world.it also tends to find out the factors by which
they are influence to set a definite market for the product.

KEYWORDS: Elegant, fine, extravagant, global presence, coarsely designs, elite


class

IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Kundalata Mishra, for her
guidance, valuable advice, encouragement and sustained interest throughout my
preparation and the completion of the thesis.
I also want to thank my entire department faculties, especially Prof. Sharmila Dua
for her motivation and insights which helped me to complete my project.
I want to convey my deepest regards to Mr. Ayyub Khan for his great contribution
and help.
I would also like to show my appreciation for all the respondents and interviewees
for their assistance in completing the questionnaire; their feedbacks and
suggestions remains to be valuable.
Most importantly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my family and
friends for their patience and support throughout this work.

V
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………..…..1
1.1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE……………………………………2
1.2 OBJECTIVE……………………………………………………….2
1.3 SCOPE SIGNIFICANCE………………………………………….2
1.4 LIMITATION………………………………………………………..3

CHAPTER 2
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 AN OVERVIEW OF EMBROIDERY CLUSTERS IN INDIA……5
2.2 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………6
2.2.1 A BRIEF OF CHIKANKARI…………………………………7
2.2.2 CHIKAN AS AN EXPORT INDUSTRY……………………7
2.2.3 CHIKAN IN GLOBAL WORLD…………………………….8
2.2.4 DESIGNER INTERVENTIONS……………………………9
2.2.5 CHANGES TAKING PLACE………………………………9
2.2.6 CHANGES IN FAVOUR……………………………………10
2.2.7 PROBLEMS………………………………………………….10
2.2.8 THE INNOVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTATIONS IN
CHIKANKARI………………………………………............11

CHAPTER 3
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH PROCESS……………………………………………13
3.1.1 PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION………………….………...14
3.1.2 SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION……………….………15

CHAPTER 4
4. DATA STUDY AND ANALYSIS………………………..…….16
4.1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………..………17
4.2 LUCKNOW: CITY OF NAWABS………………………..…..……...17
4.3 GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE……………………………………18
4.4 CHIKANKARI GI……………………………………………………..18
4.5.1 MEANING…………………………………………………..…19
4.5.2 CHIKANKARI IN LITERATURE………………………….…19
4.5.3 CHIKANKARI: A BRIEF TRAVELL THROUGH TIME……21
4.5.4 RAW MATERIALS……………………………………………25
4.5.5 PROCESS OF MAKING………………………………………26
4.5.6 CHANGES IN TRADITIONAL PRACTICE…………………..28
4.5.7 THE TECHNIQUE/ TYPES OF CHIKANKARI STITCHES..28
4.5.8 MOTIFS AND THEIR INSPIRATION………………………35
4.5.9 MOTIFS……………………………………………………….36
4.6 TRADITIONAL LAYOUT PATTERN OF MOTIFS………………42
4.7 DESIGNERS INTERVENTIONS……………………………..……43
4.8 ARTISANS AND NGO………………………………………………44
4.9 .PRESENT SCENARIO……………………………………………..46
4.10. COMMERCIALISATION AND CHIKANKARI…………………..47
4.10.1 COMMERCIALISATION AND ARTISANS…………….47
4.10.2 COMMERCIALISATION AND MARKET SCENARIO …48
4.11. MARKET STUDY………………………………………………….49
4.11.1 STATE MUSEUM LUCKNOW: OLD SAMPLES………..50
4.11.2 VISUAL ANALYSIS OF MARKET (LUCKNOW )………52
4.11.3 VISITS TO MUMBAI MARKET…………………………...54
4.11.4 CONSUMER STUDY……………………………………...55
4.11.5 MARKET FINDINGS………………………………………56
CHAPTER 5
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
5. DESIGN BRIEF………………………………………………………..59
5.1 CURRENT TREND ANALYSIS 2015: SUMMER SPRING…...60
5.2 MOOD BOARD……………………………………………………62
5.3 CLIENT PROFILE……………………………………………….…63
5.4 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT………………………..…64
5.4.1 DESIGN EXPLORATIONS…………………………………64
5.5 FINAL DESIGNS………………………………………………...…66
5.6. FEEDBACK AND REVIEWS OF DESIGNS……………………81
CHAPTER 6

6.1 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………83
6.2 FURTHER RECOMMENDATION…………………………………83

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………85
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………87
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………..……………88
LIST OF PLATES………………………………………………………………89
ANNEXURE 1……………………………………………………..……………91
ANNEXURE 2…………………………………………………………..………93
ANNEXURE 3………………………………………………………………...…94
CHIKANKARI
“beauty of white ”

Presented by : Neha Sharma

Faculty Guide : Prof. Kundalata Mishra


PROBLEM STATEMENT

• Chikankari is the intricate art of doing fine and delicate embroidery on


cloth by hand which is facing commercialization because of its great
demand from domestic as well as from the foreign market which is
indirectly effecting the quality of embroidery present in the market.
Eventually the sophistication from the embroidery has been lost.
OBJECTIVES

• To make an effort towards preservation of the art of chikankari from losing


its identity by contemporizing the craft.

• To identify the market and to study the available products in various


categories in terms of quality , finishes , designs , colors , etc.

• To design and develop a collection of indo-western garment using


traditional motifs .
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE OPPORTUNITY

• To create products which depicts identity of chikankari through its visual


appearance using traditional motifs and creating forms that speaks of its
value and priceless dedication done on detailing

• So that the craft is envisioned as creative fine art .

• Creativity and composition is at its best to depict the beauty of craft in the
authentic form

• So that the consumer should feel the worth of having the product.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

PRIMARY
PHASE 1 SECONDARY

PHASE 4

QUALITATIVE ONLINE
LIBRARY
QUANTITATIVE (Visual analysis)

PHASE 5

INTERVIEW NIFT AND


INTERVIEW SURVEY JOURNALS
PUBLIC
SURVEY OBSERVATION ARTICLES
LIBRARIES
OBSERVATION (SPECIFIC BLOGS MUSEUMS OF
(MANUFACTURERS, CONSUMER, CRAFT BOOKS LUCKNOW AND
DESIGNERS, STORE LOVERS WHO SALES MUMBAI
AND MARKET WANTS TO BUY, REPORTS
VISITS) AND GENERAL
USERS)
DATA STUDY AND ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION

• Word ‘Chikan’ is derived from Persian word ‘Chakin’


means making delicate pattern over fabrics.

• Chikankari is an art worked with needle and


untwisted thread of cotton on sheer fabric.

• Helpful in cooping up the heat and dirt of summers

• The chikankari embroidery of Lucknow is registered


under GI (2008)
CHIKANKARI OF LUCKNOW ( AVADH)

• Chikankari is an embroidered craft that is known for its


sheer excellence of skill and play of textures.

• It is essentially in shades of white.

• Its an amalgamation of transparency and opacity


• Its known for its delicacy , evenness minuteness and
even for its subtle appearance
HISTORY OF CHIKANKARI

• Chikankari dates back from the III


century B.C.

• Ajanta’s rock painting show early


samples of chikankari
embroidery, as few designs and
motifs are similar even their
pattern of placement is even at
someplace.
CHIKANKARI IN LITERATURE

• In the third century B.C. Megasthenes


wrote about ‘White flowered muslin
worn by courtiers in reign of
Chandragupta Maurya

• It was subtle and rich in texture though


colourless.

• It is also believed chikankari was used in


courts of Harshvardhan, where White
signified Royalty and Sophistication

• The prominent belief is that it was


introduced by Noor Jahan in the Mughal
courts in 1600 A.D. from where it went Pottery of 6th century , considered
to Bengal and then it came to Nawabs of as inspiration of Kangan and Keel
Avadh in 17th century and became a royal Motif
embroidery .
“TIMELINE OF ITS PRODUCT EVOLUTION”
NAWABS
CAME TO LEFT
AWADH LUCKNOW
IN EARLY
( LUCKNOW
19TH
AND CENTURY
FAIZABAD)
DESIGNERS
INFLUENCE INCREASE
FLOURISHED FASHION IN
AND DEMAND
MORE IN
EXPERIMENT IN
MEGASTHENES WROTE LUCKNOW HAKOBA MILLS FOREIGN
FLOWERED MUSLINS BY INDIANS UNDER ATION
FLOURISH CHIKANKARI MARKETS
NAWABS 1966
IN
AND BRITISH (GOLDEN
CALCUTTA RAJ PERIOD)

3RD CENTURY 5TH CENTURY


15TH 16TH 17TH 18TH 1990S - 1999 2000 2010 TILL NOW
B.C. B.C.
FUSION GARMENTS
LEHENGAS ODHNIS
KURTA PYJAMA KURTAS AND
ACHKAN ANGARKHAS ,PRAYER
MUGHAL CHAPKAN CLOTHS AND
PERIOD 16TH – CHAU GOSHIAS ( SCARVES FOR LADIES
17TH TOPIS) WERE CREATED
CHIKANKHARI SEEN INTRODUCED
IN AJANTA AND BY
BAGH PAINTINGS “NOORJAHAN”
Now its only practiced in Lucknow ‘the city of Nawabs’ which is known for
its courtly manners music artistry and architecture.
There are 2.5 lac people who are attached with Chikankari.
PROCESS

CUTTING FINAL
STITCHING PRINTING EMBROIDERY WASHING
STITCHING
CHANGE IN TRADITIONAL PRACTICE OF SUSTAINABILITY

• Printing done with synthetic indigo and


emulsion of synthetic gum

• Traditionally ‘Gerua’ a natural pigment that


comes from earth was used for printing.

• Bleaching was done with Goat dung , Reetha


and Rehu (acidic salt extracted from the earth)

• But now Bleaching powder , caustic soda ,


baking soda and washing powder are used
CHARACTERISTICS

Fabric –
• Traditional Chikankari was embroidered on Muslin with a
white thread.
• After that work was started being done on other fabrics like
Organdie, Mulmul, Cotton and Silk.
• Presently all types of fabrics, namely Voile, Chiffon, Lenin,
Khadi, Handloom cloth, Terry Cotton, Polyester, Georgette,
Terry voile etc.

• Threads - fine untwisted cotton or tussah silk threads are


used.
Embroideries

1. Flat Stitches
(Subtle stitches that remain close to the fabric)
1. tepchi
2. Bakhia
3. Khatao
4. Gitti
5. Jamjira

2. Embossed Stitches
(they give a grainy appearance)
1. Murri
2. Phanda

3 Net work ( Jali)


(Created by thread tension, it gives a
delicate net effect)
Flat Style
Bakhia-

1. It is done with satin or herringbone stich


2. It has opaque effect
3. It gives shadow appearance due to herringbone
stich
4. It is done in two forms ulta bakhia and sidha
bakhia

Tepchi (running stitch)

1. Tepchi is occasionally done within parallel rows to


fill petals and leaves in a motif, called ghaspatti.
2. Sometimes tepchi is used to make the bel buti all
over the fabric.
3. A variation of tepchi is pechni and pashni.
Khatao-

1. It is white on white applique work using paisley and


floral patterns
2. It gives different opacity on different places of a fabric

Gitti-

1. Mainly blanket stich with button hole stitch are done


to create circular patterns in the form of wheel like
motifs

Janjira-

1. In Janjira only chain stich is used to create the outlines


of motif
2. It is also used as filling stich
Knotted Embossed Effect

Murri-

• Murri is typically an oval shaped French knot that creates


an embossed effect on the fabric.

Phanda-

• Phanda is another style of chikankari. It resembles millet


and gives a raised effect as it falls under the knotted
style
• This stich is used to fill petals ,leaves ,etc.
Jali Work-

• Jali work gives an effect of open mesh or


net like appearance.

• Sometimes it looks like drawn thread


work or lace like .This effect is produced
by pushing apart the warp and the weft
yarns with the help of needle

• Forming into tiny holes and are later


tightened to give the cloth firmness and
appearance of a net
STITCHES AND THEIR INSPIRATION

Chameli Phool ( Jasmine Flower) Karan Phool (Elaborate Ear Ornament)

Bijli ( Ear Ornament) Kauri (Conch)

Murri (Puffed rice) Dhaniya (coriander seeds)


MOTIFS
• Motifs generally tells about the association of people with the environment as motifs
used depicts the flora and fauna .

Crescent shape of moon, a rare


motif which has a religious
significance used for few outfits
and prayer caps.

Mountains

Rivers
• Tree of life made using various other motifs of chikankari
and also represented as creeper of jasmine or other
flowers.

• Later it took the shape of Akheri (paisley )

Jasmine Lilies Fruit buds Grapes

Peepal patta :
Inspired by Pepal leaf which is a holy symbol for Hindus.
• Lotus used in axis of circular patters and used as bels
in borders ( gives cosmic balance)

• As well as solar symbol for Hinduism


• And for Buddhist it’s a symbol of Lord Buddha.

Marigold and Lillie mostly used in repetitive


patterns of bels.

Turanj is a stylised papal leaf from Himalayan foothills,


sacred for both Hindus and Buddhist.

Akheri or paisley which is believed as representation of


Mango.
MOTIFS INSPIRED FROM ANIMALS AND BIRDS

Fish or Mahi represented both in realist as


well as symbolic form it is treated as goodwill
and related with water means a symbol of
life.

Peacock symbolises divine force.


MOTIFS INSPIRED FROM MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

• Jalis revealed the underneath skin or coloured fabric to


give an accent of colour to alternate white of
chikankari.
• These jalis were also the parts of Islamic architecture.

Java

The seams and hems have java as a common motif .

Other common motifs for seaming are fish and


chevron (tara) which is a European motif.

Daraz (joining applique seams) mainly done by using


such motifs.
TRADITIONAL LAYOUT PATTERN OF MOTIFS

Lehriya pattern is most prominent where


creepers run diagonally from right to left

Serrated Arrangement of Buttis


and akheris on the axis

The flower creepers were flipped in


orientation to show more continuous effects
DESIGNERS INTERVENTIONS
Designers like Abu and Sandeep, Manish Malhotra , Ritu kumar, Tarun Tahiliani , Sabyasachi
always added a new charm to this elegant embroidery work as

• New fusions are introduced by them.


• They opened new doors for the embroidery to come out of its restricted technique of
designing and develop a new and contemporary look.
• Introducing designs or motifs having a fashionable touch of value addition like sequins,
mirror work, zardozi etc., to satisfy fashionable crowd
• New patterns of placing designs have been introduced .
Colour story

• In earlier times colour does not play


any roles in chikankari embroidery as it
was done with the royalty of White.

• But now in modern time due to rise in


demand and variety colour are brought
in as design interventions.

Umair Zafars collection


Sandeep Khosla And Abu Jani Collection
Chikankari revival collection made by them was focused on introduction of contemporary
and beautiful patterns for placement of motifs over the garments.

Abu and Sandeep were designers who took chikankari to a new extent in 1999
Their design collection mainly focused on developing ethnic wears from chikankari along
with structured pattern
Manish Malhotra’s collection from Mijwan
“THE MAN CARES FOR THE WOMAN”

Collection from designers act as a support for the chikankari artisans from backward regions
of Lucknow
ARTISANS AND NGO

• As embroidery has gained one more aspect added to it with the changing time i.e.
G.I. for chikankari of Lucknow . It has developed a self confidence among the
artisans.

• Increase in demand which will be good for both craft and craftsmen.

• Fusions with the western garment will help in increase in foreign export sector
which will help the craftsmen to be with craft and carry it forward.

• Comitato, an italian company, is 10 years old customer of SEWA.

• NGOs like SEWA, NEED along with the contribution of government organisations
doing a great job in contributing in its marketing activities.
MARKET STUDY OF CHIKANKARI
Present scenario
Traditionally, this was is found in ethnic wear for men and
women , nowadays among the youth who wear lightly
embroidered apparel over jeans and shorts.

Impact of fashion and experimentation with designing has


made chikankari to take a shift which resulted in certain
changes like

• Change of colour

• Change in design of end products

• Somewhat simplifications of motifs because of


commercialisation but should not lead to
disappearance of old traditional motifs.
Market Scenario : Factors responsible for increase in Demand

• Large domestic market as well as increase in export


opportunity

• High competitions among manufacturers

• Variety in availability of raw material

• Availability of designer work catalogue

• Garments are available in all price ranges

• Government support for promotion of craft


COMMERCIALISATION AND CHIKANKARI

THRUST ON
COMPETITION
QUANTITY
FROM MACHINE
WORK
MANUFACTURERS
ONLY FOCUS ON
PROFIT

COMMERCIALISATION

DUBLICATE
PRODUCTS CHEAP GOODS
FROM CHINA ARE
MARKETS PRODUCED TO
MEET THE
DEMAND
EMBROIDERY
WORK HAS
BECOME
COARSE AND
ROUGH

Disappearance of
traditional motifs
MARKET STUDY

• Halwasia market
• Janpath market
• Manufacturers and suppliers ,Chowk market
• Street shops ,Aminabad
• State museum, Lucknow

• Craft exhibition : Khargar , CBD Belapur


• Linking road : Lucknawi crafts
• Andheri : Tirumala Fashion Mall
• Branded Stores : Max , Naveen Boutique ,
State Museum Lucknow : old product collections from Nawabs of Lucknow
VISUAL ANALYSIS OF MARKET SAMPLES FROM LUCKNOW
Chikankari at street of Lucknow
( Market : Aminabad And Chowk )
Chikankari at shops of Manufactures , exporters and Suppliers
(Market Chowk, Janpath market )

Pieces for Rs. 150 / Rs. 250 Price Rs. 700

Chikankari at design boutiques and shops Price : Rs. 2500 / 2700


VISITS TO MUMBAI MARKET
Craft Exhibition : Kharghar, navi Mumbai Bandra West: Lukhnowi Crafts ( Mr. Saif Rehman)

Machine work of chikankari on thick kota fabric


for tapping a new market of South India(Rs. 200)
Fabric piece for Rs. 3500

Chikankari done on hakoba


fabric

Branded Stores ( Max , Sanskriti )

Look alike pieces are


Top of Rs. 400 available at Rs 1200
CONSUMER STUDY
CONSUMER STUDY : REVIEWS AND PREFFERENCES
Women from
• 2 metro cities : Delhi Mumbai
• Lucknow
• Others
were covered and their response were collected on the basis of their age , marriage
status, occupation, etc.

AIM :
Questionnaire was taken to know their perception about Chikankari and their
association with it in several aspects

25 women Lucknow Mumbai 35 women

20 women Delhi Other( Bhopal,


Ranchi,jaipur, )
20 women
1 .They Know About
2. Price Analysis
Chikankari…

20-24
500-1000
24-26
1000-3000
26-28
3000-6000
28 -30
6000-above

1005
4.5
90

80 4 white
3.5
70 28-30
60 3
bright
2.5
50
colours 26-28
40 2
indowestern
pastels ethnic
1.5
30

20 1
24-26
western
0.5
10 black and
0 0 white 20-24

00 230 4
60 6
100
4. Women Preference On Chikankari
3. Colour choice Apparels
DESIGN BRIEF

• Designing Chikankari Indo Western Blouses which will redefine the beauty of
chikankari according to the trend analysis.

• Creating Blouse which are trendy and appealing according to the need of the
modern female which will be fitted to their modern clothing needs.

• Which aims providing modern women an opportunity to STAY, TRENDY carrying


their love for chikankari with it.

Young,
Fresh, Chic
Look With
Indian As Well As
The Blend
Fusion Look For Both Of Tradition
Casual As Well
As Dressy
Events.
Mood Board : White on White
CURRENT TREND 2015 : SUMMER SPRING

Bollywood,
On Ramps,
On The Streets.
Client Profile

Category : Women's Wear


Market : Semi Luxury and Luxury market
Targeted Age : 20 – 30
Occupation : Student , Working Women
Limitations

• While conducting this research it could not be generalised as a whole


segment of market.

• As collection will be for females aging 20 and above so trends will be


considered accordingly.
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT

• Designing a collection of indo-western crop top which could be wore


with Indian as well as western garment.

• The MUGHAL, BRITISH AND WESTERN influences have been


considered while designing so as to keep the aura of chikankari all over
the products.
Design explorations
FINAL DESIGNS
Spec sheets design 1

NECK - Collar neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 7.5 inch
SHOULDER – 10 inch
LENGTH – 15 inch
WIDTH – 30 inch
MOTIFS: Peepal Patta With Bels, Bel, Chameli Phool,

Cost Sheet
material cost quantity Total cost
Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 2 120
Embroided buttons Rs. 8/- 4 32
Cotton Embroidery Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30
thread
Rs. 50 / piece
50
Block printing
Embroidery labour Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500
cost
Tailoring charges Rs.350 1 350
Dry wash Rs 100 100
Total 2082
Spec sheet design 2
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 2

NECK – Boat Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 7.5 inch
SHOULDER – 10 inch
LENGTH – 15.5 inch
WIDTH – 30 inch
MOTIFS: Turanj With Bels, River, Bel, Chameli Phool,
Kangan, Dhaniya

Cost Sheet
material cost quantity Total cost
Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 2 meter 120
Cotton Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30
Embroidery
thread
Rs. 50 / piece
50
Block printing
Embroidery labour Rs 1500/ 1 1500
cost
piece
Tailoring charges Rs.350 1 350
Total 2050
Spec sheets design 3
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 3

NECK – collar v Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 14.5 inch
SHOULDER – 13 inch
LENGTH – 14.5 inch
WIDTH – 28 inch
MOTIFS: River ,Hathkati Jali,Keel,Janjira Bel

Cost Sheet
material cost quantity Total cost
Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 1.5 meter 90

Cotton Embroidery Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30


thread
Rs. 50 / piece
50
Block printing
Embroidery labour Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500
cost
Tailoring charges Rs.350 1 350

Total 2020
Spec sheets design 4
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 4

NECK – collar V Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 14.5 inch
SHOULDER – 13.5 inch
LENGTH – 14 inch
WIDTH – 32 inch
MOTIFS: Akheris , Bels with akheris, Bels

Cost Sheet

material cost quantity Total cost


Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 2 meter 120
Cotton Embroidery Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30
thread
Rs. 50 / piece
50
Block printing
Embroidery labour Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500
cost
Tailoring charges Rs.400 1 400
Total 2100
Spec sheets design 5
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 5

NECK – Boat Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 13.5 inch
SHOULDER – 14.5 inch
LENGTH – 15 inch
WIDTH – 60 inch
MOTIFS: Ghaspatti, janjira bel, mahi(fish)

Cost Sheet
Material Cost Quantity Total cost

Butter Crepe Rs. 90 / meter 2 meter 180

Buttons Rs. 10/ - 10 100

Tailoring Rs. 450 450

Embroidery labour cost Rs. 1500/- 1500

Cotton Embroidery thread Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30

Block printing

Rs. 50 / piece 50

Dry clean Rs 100 100

2380
Total
FURTHER RECOMMENDATION

• Various other aspects of chikankari has not been seen as the research was more
focused on motifs over apparels compared from present scenario with the old
founded samples.

• So there could be another of such research compared with other embroideries


like Kasuti which has been mechanised, so what could be if such a beautiful
samples developed with such a hard work is converted into machine work.

• There could be more scope of explorations done with the designs materials which
could be used with chikankari which can beautify it more .
CONCLUSION

Research shows that

• Commercial contemporisation is leading cause for the lost intricacy of


chikankari due to the high rise in demand and competition.

• For tapping new market different experiments are done causing few negative
effect over a beautiful traditional craft.

• Hence through this research, better structural and decorative pattern , motifs
and stiches are tried to be explored along with balancing statement of fashion
for the consumer.

• And creating possibility for relocate its beauty of its fine and intricate work.
Bibliography

Books

• Chikankari Of Uttar Pradesh (Pg.117) Embroideries Of India (NIFT LIB.) As Retrived


On 6 Feb2015
• Indian Embroidery, Prakash Books , By Rosemary Crill, Pg. 188 White Work
• Chikankari By Abu And Sandeep Khosla , Retrived On 15 April2015
• Textile Arts Of India By Kokyo As Retrived On 20 April 2015
• World Textiles, Bulfinch Data Retrived On 20 April 2015
• Indian Embroideries Volume 2 By Anne Morrel As Retrieved On 19 April 2015
Web sources

• DASTANGOI by Jaspal Kalra https://jaspalkalra.typeform.com/to/AmxmxS, as


retreived on 22feb2015
• Craft revival
• Indian roots : trend analysis for crop tops as retrived on 1 april 2015
• Rahul shukla : art beyond time lining legacy of the Taj, clarion
press,mumbai,1997, p.54 2. as retreived on 21feb2015
• Foster William, the English factories in india,vol.1637-1641 (oxford) 1912, p.278
• Abdul Haleem Sharar, Lucknow: the last phase of an oriental culture, (translated
and edited by E.S. Harcourt and fakir Husain), anchor press ltd., Great Britain,
1975.
• www.Culturalindia.Net/indian-craft/chikankari.Htmlas retrieved on 22feb2015
• Http://em.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/chikanembroidaryretreived on 22feb2015
• http://www.Chikanbran.Com/ as retrieved on 22feb2015
• Http://www.Hand-embroidary.Com/history-ofchikankari.Html as retrieved on 3
march2015
• http://travelspedia.Com/southasia/indiauttarpradesh/7919.Html
• Frah Sultana Final Thesis pdf..pdf
11_chapter2.pdfhttp://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/10603/2
3080/10/11_chapter2.pdf as retrieved on 3march2015
• https://punvirdi.wordpress.com/category/indian-designers/
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1
1. INTRODUCTION

Chikankari of Uttar Pradesh also famous as “Shadow work “. It is a very

delicate work. This delicate pattern making of hand is facing tough

competition from the commercialised market version of cheap quality

products. Because of which it is rare to see the beauty of its fine work of

motifs and stiches. The aim of the research will be study the problem and a try

a way to help in the revival of the craft.

1.1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

Chikankari is the intricate art of doing fine and delicate embroidery on cloth by
hand. But today it is facing commercialization because of its great demand
from domestic as well as from the foreign market which is indirectly affecting
the quality of embroidery present in the market. Eventually the sophistication
from the embroidery has been lost.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

• To make an effort towards preservation of the art of chikankari from


losing its identity by contemporizing the craft.

• To identify the market and to study the available products in various
categories in terms of quality finishes, designs, colors, etc.

• To design and develop a collection of garment using traditional motifs.

1.3 SCOPE SIGNIFICANCE

To create products which depict identity of chikankari through its visual


appearance using traditional motifs and creating forms that speaks of its value
and priceless dedication done on detailing. So that the craft is envisioned as

2
creative fine art .Creativity and composition is at its best to depict the beauty
of craft in the authentic form. So that the consumer should feel the worth of
having the product.

1.4 LIMITATION

While conducting this research, it could not be generalised as a whole


segment of market where the customers who wants it as a traditional wear.

3
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

4
2.1 AN OVERVIEW OF EMBROIDERY CLUSTERS IN INDIA

Embellishing and ornamenting one own self has been the most attractive and
passionate activities practiced for centuries all over the world. With time the
same logic and passion got transferred to fabric that was used to cover the
body and we were introduced to many new forms of art or handicraft aiming
for fabric decoration.

Another way to look at its development long long ago is that when mankind
was introduced to cloth; need to tailor, patch, mend and reinforce cloth
fostered the development of sewing techniques and the decorative
possibilities of sewing led to the art of embroidery.

Using a thread or yarn and a needle, raised surface effects are created on the
flat woven fabric surface imparting it a distinctive appearance. Initially basic
stitches viz. chain, buttonhole, blanket, running, satin, cross stitch were
employed and with time other materials like mirrors, pearls, beads etc. were
also incorporated to build unique creations. However, those basic stitches still
form the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery in India today. India
boasts a range of traditional embroideries from different states embodying
their regional, cultural and social influences.

In India there are many popular embroidery clusters such as Chikankari of


Lucknow, Katha of Bengal, Phulkari of Punjab, Kutchi embroidery of Gujarat &
Kashidakari of Kashmir. Each style of embroidery is different from the other
and has its own beauty
and significant value . The city of Lucknow has a prominent place in the
history of India, particularly for its art, historical monuments and rich cultural
heritage. The rulers of Awadh, specially the Mughals, were very fond of art
and cultural activities such as music, poetry, architecture and handicrafts.
Besides being famous for its hot summers and a glorious past, Lucknow is
also known the world over for its many fine handicrafts. Some of the most
popular names in this list are chikankari, hand block textile printing,
zari/zardozi [gold and silver

5
Embroidery], ivory or bone carving, terracotta and many others that are
practiced by various artisans of Lucknow. Chikankari is the most popular
amongst these and is recognized in the world,

2.2 INTRODUCTION

Chikankari is subtle embroidery, white on white, in which minute and delicate


stitches stand out as textural contrasts, shadows and traceries. Some stitches
are worked from the back and some from the front. In a unique, anokhi
chikan, the stitches do not appear at the back. The fabric used is fine, and
traditionally muslin. Chikan appears to have been derived from the Persian
word chikin or chakin, meaning cloth wrought with needlework. It was
originally a court craft having been introduced by the Mughal empress
Norjahan. There were chikankaars in the courts of Kolkata, Delhi, Dhaka
(Bangladesh), Gaya, Varanasi, Allahabad, Rampur and Bhopal. In Lucknow,
the Nawabs of Avadh made the finely embroidered muslins a prescribed
requirement of the ceremonial court. A single piece of chikan relies on many
skilled craftsmen, designer, printer, embroiderer, washer man. Traditionally,
different artisan families practiced and perfected one type of stitch and it
would, therefore, often take between three to four craftsmen to embroider a
single garment. Bakhiya, herringbone stitch, done on the reverse of the fabric,
gives a shadow effect that became a dominant feature of the craft in the
1980s.

Chikankari has six basic stitches and over thirty-five other traditional stitches
used in various combinations based on what the pattern to be embroidered
requires. The six basic stitches are: Tepchi, (back Running stitch), Bakhiya
(double back stitch), Hool (Eyelet), Zanzeera (chain stitch), Rahet (stem
stitch) and Banarsi. Other stitches are phanda, chana patti, ghaas patti, ulti
jaali, bijli, jaali, kharau, keel, kangan, bulbul and hath kadi. Depending on the
type of garment and the pattern to be embroidered the entire process
happens in a series of stages over a period of months or even years.

6
2.2.1 A BRIEF OF CHIKANKARI

Chikankari flourished under the patronage of the rulers of Awadh. Later when
the capital of Awadh shifted to Lucknow from Faizabad, in the year 1722, the
knowledge of the craft came to Lucknow. The Mughals found that hand block
printing skills made it easy for them to practice this embroidery, as earlier the
tracing of design was very difficult. This availability of easy process of drawing
of base design encouraged them to teach this fine embroidery-work to their
kaniz (servants), who in turn taught it to their family members and gradually
this embroidery become a part-time earning source for many women of rural
areas .

2.2.2 CHIKAN AS AN EXPORT INDUSTRY

It grew producing goods for populations outside Lucknow, instead of only for
the local elite, with the labour of impoverished women and children desperate
even for small wages.
The organisation and finance for the chikankari industry were provided by
members of the Hindu commercial castes who had transferred their activities
from banking to
money lending and manufacturing. Among them were Rastogi, and Sunni and
Hindu
Khatri businessmen, who began to set up karkhanas (workshops) to cater to
the tastes of the new elite (Oldenburg 1984). Craft of chikankari is quite
distinctive and forms an integral part of life in Lucknow. The fine needlework
adorned the garments made from gossamer silk fabrics and muslin for the
ruling elite. The love and hard work of the artisans created delicate designs on
fabrics and were reminiscent of sheer grace.
The tradition of chikankari has come down from families who served
the ruling elite. The craftsmen with love and devotion worked on topi-palla or
angarkha, for their masters, creating designs that were unmatched in beauty.
With the decline in patronage, economic compulsions forced the men to look
out for more

7
lucrative employment and the craft passed on to the womenfolk of the
community, as a source of subsidiary earning for the family. Gradually, it
became the main source of earning.

2.2.3 CHIKAN IN GLOBAL WORLD

A consumer’s delight and the artisan’s pride, Chikankari forms an integral part
of the Indian Ethnic Wear. Be it Ladies Chikan Work or Ethnic Wear for men,
Lucknow Chikan is adorned equally by both men and women. Since time
immemorial, Chikan has been accredited as a masterpiece not only in India
but in other parts of the world as well. Chikan Embroidery has been famous
as Indian Embroidery in different countries. Chikankari has registered and
witnessed global acknowledgment and this has proved as a catalyst for the
export of not only embroidered traditional apparel but also Embroidered Bed
Sheets, Embroidered Table Cloth, and Embroidered Cushion Covers.
Chikan craft has a global presence. Ancient Europe has been greatly
enamoured of Indian fabrics from Greek and Roman times . So fine and
delicate Indian fabrics that the Romans romantically called them woven
winds ,wherein the beauty of the craft is not sacrificed on the altar of
mechanical necessity, but the Chikan workforce made up largely of women
who are adequately compensated for their efforts and keep up the aesthetic
spirit of the beautiful whispering white woven winds, that are restored to some
semblance of their former glory.

There are global celebrity like Madonna wearing Chikan apparel is a clear
indication of the popularity the Lucknow Chikankari has outside the country.
MLK Exports is the leading export company that is famous for exporting
product of this Hand Embroidery. Since 1975, this company has exported
Chikan Embroidery products like Dresses to global brands like Amina (Japan),
Fashion Fuse (United States), Ghora Tabela (Uruguay), Jackpot
(Copenhagen), Betina Gers (Argentina), HHG (Spain), Coline (French), etc.
Many more such brands including the aforementioned have ordered stocks
worth crores of Rupees and this indicates about the reach and the global
appeal of this unique hand crafted artistry. Internationally acclaimed designers

8
Abu Jani and Sandeep Khosla have been using Chikankari Embroidery in
their designs for 20 years now. What makes their contribution even more
uplifting for the image of this beautiful Embroidery is that the duo got an
actress of James Bond series fame, Judi Dench, to wear one of their
magnificent Chikan embroidery creations to receiver an Oscar in 2004.
Calvin-Klein, one of the most respected and famous fashion brands of the
world once gave an order of 1000 pieces to a vendor in the Chowk area of
Lucknow that defines how it imaged its place in the foreign market.

2.2.4 DESIGNER INTERVENTIONS

Chikankari, a riot of threads is often picked by renowned designers to rock the


runways. This prolific needle work by the artisans resonate elegance and
dedication.

Designers like Manish Malhotra , Ritu Kumar, Tarun Tahiliani , Sabyasachi


always added a new charm to this elegant embroidery work as

• New fusions are introduced by them.

• They opened new doors for the embroidery to come out of its restricted
technique of designing and develop a new and contemporary look.

• As well as given new look to ethnicity.

2.2.5 CHANGES TAKING PLACE

Traditionally, this was is found in ethnic wear for men and women , nowadays

among the youth who wear lightly embroidered apparel over jeans and
shorts..

Impact of fashion and experimentation with designing has made chikankari to


take a shift which resulted in certain changes like

9
• Change of colour

• Change in design of end products

• Somewhat simplifications of motifs because of commercialisation but


should not lead to disappearance of old motifs.

2.2.6 CHANGES IN FAVOUR

• As embroidery has gained one more aspect added to it with the


changing time.

• More options are available to consumers; hence increase in demand


which will be good for both craft and craftsmen.

• Fusions with the western garment will help in increase in foreign export
sector which will help the craftsmen to be with craft and carry it
forward.

2.2.7 Problems

 Undercutting practice among manufacturers


 No regular work to artisans
 Very less wages to artisans
 Abundance of artisans of only 4-5 styles of stitches
 Lengthy production
 No designer input: Chikan Embroidery dresses are now treated as
fashion garments but manufacturers do not use designers for product
designing or for development of new products. Very few i.e. just two or
three manufacturers are making use of designers expertise. All the
designing work is carried out by the manufacturer himself, either by
copying designs from fashion catalogues or by ideas imparted by
buyers.
 Specialisation in product manufacturing: In this cluster usually
manufacturer has specialization in manufacturing one or two products.

10
Some are only manufacturing Ladies suits while some only produce
saris.

2.2.8 THE INNOVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTATIONS IN

CHIKANKARI

The colour selection for chikankari has undergone a change tremendously.


Out went the voiles and mulmuls and the pastel shades and came georgettes,
Tussars and silk that exhibit the styles. It's not just chikankari work on fabrics
like cotton, but experimentation, the order of the day, has enhanced basic
chikan with more detailing- with zardozi, crystals and so on. Changes in
patterns, design, motifs and use less stiches have lead chikankari and its
elegant beauty to a detreating stage. And even high rise of demand is leading
to producing low quality products along with thoughtless designs.

11
CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

12
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

PRIMARY
SECONDARY

PHASE 4

QUALITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE (Visual analysis) ONLINE LIBRARY

PHASE 5

INTERVIEW INTERVIEW NIFT AND PUBLIC


JOURNALS LIBRARIES
SURVEY SURVEY ARTICLES
BLOGS MUSEUMS OF
OBSERVATION OBSERVATION BOOKS LUCKNOW AND
SALES REPORTS MUMBAI
(MANUFACTURERS, (SPECIFIC CONSUMER,
DESIGNERS, STORE AND CRAFT LOVERS WHO WANTS
MARKET VISITS) TO BUY, AND GENERAL
USERS)

Fig. 1: Figure showing the flow of research methodology to be followed

13
3.1 Research process:

As it is a qualitative research, so data collection will be done in both the

under given categories:

3.1.1 Primary data collection:

It includes the on field survey undertaken for VISUAL RESEARCH over the
problem as well as interaction with buyers to understand their approach
towards the problem:

1. Selection of proper sample market and stores will have to be picked up


which could give a deep and vast understanding of market.

2. Various Questionnaires to be formed to collect the experience and


responses from wide range of sample selected so as to specify this
research at a very vast platform.

3. Direct personnel interaction will be done and Interviews taken which


could give a deep insights into problem of commercialisation.

4. Questionnaires and interviews with the international designers to get


a global approach towards the market of the craft.

14
3.1.2 Secondary data collection:

Then secondary data should be collected from various data available online

as well as the survey conducted by various research agencies in the form of

 reports, articles, journals, books, press releases, blogs,

magazines,

 As well as stores sales policies reports.

 Library visits in Mumbai as well as in Lucknow so as to get old

samples of chikankari to have a comparative approach of

commercialisation of motifs.

15
CHAPTER 4

DATA STUDY AND ANALYSIS

16
4.CHIKANKARI

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Chikankari is a traditional embroidery style from Lucknow, India. It was subtle


and rich in texture though colourless. Literally translated, the word means
embroidery. It’s an art, which results in the transformation of the plainest
cotton and organdie into flowing yards of magic.

4.2 LUCKNOW: CITY OF NAWABS

PLATE 1: BADA IMAM BARA, LUCKNOW

The city of Lucknow has a prominent place in the history of India particularly
for its art, historical monuments and rich cultural heritage. The rulers of
Awadh, particularly the Mughals were very fond of art and cultural activities
such as music, poetry, architecture and handicrafts. Besides being famous for
its hot summers and a glorious past, Lucknow is also known the world over for
its many fine Handicrafts. Some of the most popular names in this list are
Chikankari, Hand Block Textile Printing, Zari Zardozi, Ivory or Bone Carving,
Terracotta and many others that are practiced by various artisans of Lucknow.
Chikankari is considered to be the most popular amongst these and is
recognized worldwide.
Today, this delicate form of embroidery is traditionally practiced in and around
the city of Lucknow.it is a Lovely old city, a city of old gardens and palaces,

17
fine architectural conceit mosques, temples and ageing monuments, a city so
favoured by European travellers once upon a time, that it was popularly called
the Constantinople of the East. Like Marseille, it has a great deal of historicity.
It is synonymous with architectural elegance, cultural finesse, social warmth
and an enduring love for gracious living.
Lucknow also has the distinction of being today, the cusp of a very beautiful,
very aesthetic form of white floral embroidery, unique to this geographical
location.
Chikankari has been practiced in Lucknow for almost more than two hundred
years.

4.3 GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE

The artisans of Chikan Embroidery are scattered in and around Lucknow


within a radius of about 125K.M. The districts covered are Unnao, Barabanki,
Lakhimpur, Hardoi etc. Some other villages where one can find few artisans of
Chikankari are Raibareilly, Sultanpur and Faizabad..

There are 2.5 lac (approx.) people who are attached with Chikankari
including artisans, washer men, block printers, etc. working in chikankari
industries.

4.4 CHIKANKARI GI: A Step towards International Branding

GI is accorded to products that have a specific geographical origin. Lucknow


got the GI for chikankari in December, 2008. The government of Uttar
Pradesh can now initiate legal action against manufacturers producing Chikan
anywhere outside Lucknow (and its periphery) .The GI certification will
promote genuine chikankari as the community which is producing chikankari
in Lucknow has got the exclusive rights to manufacture and market it.

18
4.5.1 MEANING
The word “Chikan” steps from a Persian word derived from Chic, which
referred to the 'Jali’' work done on marble or wood. It is also famous as
“shadow work” or “white embroidery work”, traditionally practiced in the city of
Lucknow and its environments
Chikankari of Uttar Pradesh also famous as “Shadow work “. It is a very
delicate work. Word ‘Chikan’ is derived from Persian word ‘Chakin’ means
making delicate pattern over fabrics.Chikankari is an art worked with needle
and untwisted thread of cotton on sheer fabric Chikankari of Uttar Pradesh
also famous as “Shadow work “ . It is a very delicate work. Word ‘Chikan’ is
derived from Persian word ‘Chakin’ means making delicate pattern over
fabrics. As per its geographical origin it also is helpful in coping up with the
heat and dirt of summers.

4.5.2 CHIKANKARI IN LITERATURE

Chikankari dates back from the III century B.C. Ajanta’s rock painting show
early samples of chikankari embroidery, as few designs and motifs are similar
even their pattern of placement is even at someplace.

th
PLATE 2: Pottery Of 6 Century , Considered as Inspiration Of Kangan And Keel Motif

19
PLATE 3: AJANTA ROCK PAINTING

In the third century B.C. Megasthenes wrote about ‘White flowered muslin

worn by courtiers in reign of Chandragupta Maurya. Ancient Europe has been

greatly enamoured of Indian fabrics from Greek and Roman times. So fine

and delicate were the Indian fabrics that the Romans romantically called them

woven winds. It is also believed chikankari was used in courts of

Harshvardhan, (Dongerkery, 1954) where White signified Royalty and

Sophistication.

The prominent belief is that it was introduced by Noor Jahan in the Mughal

courts in 1600 A.D. from where it went to Bengal and then it came to Nawabs

of Avadh in 17th century and became a royal embroidery in courts and Now it

is one of Lucknow’s most famous textile decorations.

Chikankari used the finest of white cotton fabric called muslin or mulmul. This

gossamer light muslin fabric has found mention in the writings of many visitors

20
to India; a great deal of muslin was produced in and exported from Bengal.

Dacca was the main region where cotton was cultivated due to the high

humidity of the region, which prevented the delicate thread from breaking on

contact with the air. The cotton spun was very white since the Brahmaputra

and the Ganges Rivers have bleaching properties. The chikankari workers in

Bengal used this fine muslin for embroidery. Some very fine muslin was also

produced in and around Lucknow. During the seventeenth century the East

India Company decided to send two factors or employees to live in Lucknow

and buy bales of a kind of muslin which was made in the Hasanganj area of

Lucknow on the northern bank of the Gomti. The two/three categories of fine,

white fabric that are used for chikancraft, namely Addhi, Tanzeb and Girant.

These were the traditional chikan fabrics. Their sheer texture was just right for

the fine white needlework. Currently also done on cambray, mulmul, chiffon,

georgettes, nets and other similar sheer fabrics.

4.5.3 CHIKANKARI: A BRIEF TRAVELL THROUGH TIME

TILL 1860

Till 1860 this artistic embroidery was the craftsmanship of the ladies of royal
mogul families. The products were in use by royal family members only.

FROM 1860 TO 1947 (TILL THE TIME OF INDIA-PAKISTAN PARTITION)

After 1860 till 1947, the only commercial product was TOPI PALLA. The main
buyers were of Muslim Community and main markets were Dhaka (now in
Bangladesh) and some areas that are now in Pakistan, Hyderabad and
Lucknow. In this decade the business was in good condition. Few
manufacturers were catering to the entire market.

21
AFTER 1947 TILL 1970

After partition the main markets of Topi Palla of Chikan Embroidery were not
easily accessible because they became foreign markets for Indians. It forced
the manufacturers to develop new products and they started producing Gents
Kurta and after that Saris.

FROM 1970 TO 1990

Some manufacturers started manufacturing Ladies Suits (with or without


dupattas) and even Luncheon sets. But this period is also seen as the worst
period of Chikan embroidery. Because of producing only lower value
products, consumers started using the products as night wear.

FROM 1990 TO 1999

This period can be referred to as the Golden Period of this cluster. New
products, such as Suit lengths were developed and manufacturers started
producing high value products. In this era new entrepreneurs with high
ambitions entered the field and started manufacturing good quality products.
Some reputed fashion designers also included Chikan Embroidery in their
samples and catalogues which highlighted the Chikankari at national and
international levels.

FROM 1999 TO 2001

Introduction of work on Georgette has kept the manufacturers in business. An


overall general business slump in the economy has been affecting these
embroidery stakeholders also and a decline in turnover has been observed.
Sudden changes in fashion also adversely affect the performance of this
industry, as the manufacturers are not able to cope with the changes. But
nevertheless this era gave Chikankari products a good advertisement through
media especially T.V serials and films.

22
FROM 2001 TILL DATE

Now chikankari has written its name on the worlds map as it is now being
recognized by different designers and it is being loved and demanded by
importer’s also in high quantity.
As along with it there are cheap copies from China, machine work or
duplicated work is available in the market at low prices. This is ruining its
identity of being sophisticated and hand made.

23
“TIMELINE OF ITS PRODUCT EVOLUTION”

24 FIG 2: EVOLUTION OF CHIKANKARI PRODUCT


4.5.4 RAW MATERIALS
The raw materials used for the manufacturing products are:

Fabric –

• Traditional Chikankari was embroidered on Muslin with a white thread.

• After that work was started being done on other fabrics like Organdie,
Mulmul, Cotton and Silk.

• Presently all types of fabrics, namely Voile, Chiffon, Lenin, Khadi,


Handloom cloth, Terry Cotton, Polyester, Georgette, Terry voile etc.

Threads-

• Fine untwisted cotton or tussah silk threads are used.

Blocks-

 For printing

Plate 4: BLOCKS USED FOR PRINTING MOTIFS ON FABRIC

25
4.5.5 PROCESS OF MAKING

PROCESS FLOW CHART

FOR LADIES & GENTS SUITS FOR SARIS & SUIT LENGTHS

CLOTH CLOTH

CUTTING CUTTING

STITCHING PRINTING

PRINTING

EMBROIDERY

EMBROIDERY

JALI WORK

JALI WORK

PICO (in saris only)

FINAL STITCHING

WASHING

WASHING PRESSING

PRESSING FINAL CHIKANKARI PRODUCT

FINAL CHIKANKARI PRODUCT

FIG. 3: PROCESS FLOW CHART OF CHIKANKARI PRODUCTS

26
PLATE 5: BLOCKS SOAKED IN INDIGO BEFORE PRINTING

PLATE 6: INDIGO IS USED WITH SYNTHETIC GUM SO AS TO PRINT THE MOTIFS

PLATE 7: PRINTING IS DONE USING TRADITIONAL PATTERNS

PLATE 8: EMBROIDERY IS DONE USING NEEDLE

27
4.5.6 CHANGES IN TRADITIONAL PRACTICE

• Printing done with synthetic indigo and emulsion of synthetic gum

• Traditionally ‘Gerua’ a natural pigment that comes from earth was used
for printing.

• Bleaching was done with Goat dung , Reetha and Rehu (acidic salt
extracted from the earth)

• But now Bleaching powder, caustic soda, baking soda and washing
powder are used.

4.5.7 THE TECHNIQUE AND TYPES OF CHIKANKARI


STITCHES

There are 32 types of stiches that are used in chikankari which are mainly
permutations and combinations of six to seven basic stiches given below:

1. Flat Stitches (Subtle stitches that remain close to the fabric)

1. Tepchi

2. Bakhia

3. Khatao

4. Gitti

5. Jamjira

2. Embossed Stitches (they give a grainy appearance)

1. Murri

2. Phanda

28
3. Pulled work ( Jali) (Created by thread tension, it gives a delicate net
effect)

FLAT STYLE
 Bakhia

1. It is done with satin or herringbone stitch

2. It has opaque effect

3. It gives shadow appearance due to herringbone stich

4. It is done in two forms ulta bakhia and sidha bakhia

a) From back side (ulta bakhia), the floats lie on the reverse of the
fabric underneath the motif. The transparent muslin becomes
opaque and provides a beautiful effect of light and shade.

b) From front side (sidha bakhia), it is the satin stitch with criss-
crossing of individual threads. The floats of thread lie on the surface
of the fabric. This is used to fill the forms and there is no light or
shade effect.

PLATE 9: BAKHIA OR SHADOW WORK

29
 Tepchi (running stitch)

1. Tepchi is occasionally done within parallel rows to fill petals and


leaves in a motif.

2. Sometimes tepchi is used to make the bel buti all over the fabric.

3. A variation of tepchi is pechni and pashni.

4. Pechni It is the variation build on Tepchi where the tepchi base is


covered by entwining the thread over it in a regular manner thus
forming a lever spring

PLATE 10: TEPCHI OR RUNNING STITCH

 Janjira

1. In Jamjira only chain stich is used to create the outlines of motif

2. It is also used as filling stich

3. It is the chain stitch usually used as outlines in combination with a line


of pechni or thick teipchi.

 PLATE 11: JANJIRA

30
 Khatao

1. It is white on white applique work using paisley and floral patterns

2. It gives different opacity on different places of a fabric

PLATE 12: WHITE ON WHITE APPLIQUE

 Rahet
It is a stem stitch worked with six threads on the wrong side of the
fabric. It forms a solid line of back stitch on the right side of the fabric
and is rarely used in its simple form but is common in the double form
of dohra bakhiya as an outlining stitch.

PLATE 13: RAHET OR OUTLINE STITCH

 Gitti
Mainly blanket stich with buttonhole stitch is done to create circular
patterns in the form of wheel like motif.

PLATE 14: GITTI OR WHEEL LIKE MOTIF

31
 Turpai and Darzdari are also significant stitches in chikan work.
Turpai should have an effect of a thin thread. Darzdari have several
varieties, the popular ones are Kohidarz, Kamal darz, Shankarpara
darz, Muchiiand Singbhada darz.

PLATE 15: DARAZ OWITH TURPAI

 Banarsi
1. This stitch has no European equivalent and is a twisted stitch
worked with six threads on the right side of the fabric.
2. Working from the right across about five threads a small stitch is
taken over about two threads vertically.
3. The needle is reinserted halfway along and below the horizontal
stitch formed and is taken out about two threads vertically on
the right above the previous stitch.

KNOTTED EMBOSSED EFFECT

 Murri
Murri is typically an oval shaped French knot that creates an embossed
effect on the fabric.

PLATE 16: MURRI

32
 Phanda
1. Phanda is another style of chikankari. It resembles millet and gives a
raised effect as it falls under the knotted style

PLATE 17: PHANDA

 Ghas patti
It is the grass leaves formed by V-shaped line of stitches worked in a
graduated series on the right side of the fabric.

PLATE 18: GHASPATTI

PULLED WORK (JALI)

1. Jali work gives an effect of open mesh or net like appearance.

2. Sometimes it looks like drawn thread work or lace like .This effect is
produced by pushing apart the warp and the weft yarns with the help of
needle

33
3. Forming into tiny holes and are later tightened to give the cloth
firmness and appearance of a net

PLATE 19: JALI OR PULLED WORK

 Hool
1. It is a fine detached eyelet stitch. Here in, a hole is punched in the
fabric and the threads are teased apart.
2. It is then held by small straight stitches all round and worked with one
thread on the right side of the fabric.
3. It can be worked with six threads and often forms the centre of a
flower.

PLATE 20: HOOL

34
4.5.8 MOTIFS AND THEIR INSPIRATION

21a) CHAMELI PHOOL: FLOWER 21b) KARANPHOOL: EARINGS

21c) SHANQ: CONCH 21d) BIJLI: EARINGS

21e) MURRI: PUFFED RICE 21f) DHANIYA: CORRIENDER SEEDS

21g) PEEPAL PATTA: PEPAL LEAVES

PLATE 21: MOTIFS AND THEIR INSPIRATIONS

35
4.5.9 MOTIFS

• Motifs generally tell about the association of people with the


environment as motifs used depict the flora and fauna.

PLATE 22: CRESCENT SHAPE OF MOON, A RARE MOTIF WHICH HAS A RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE
USED FOR FEW OUTFITS AND PRAYER CAPS.

PLATE 23: MOUNTAINS

PLATE 24: RIVERS

36
MOTIFS INSPIRED FROM FLORA

PLATE 25: AKHERI OR PAISLEY WHICH IS BELIEVED AS REPRESENTATION OF MANGO. IT IS


USED AS VARIOUS DESIGNS ALONG WITH BELS IN IT OR WITH IT.

PLATE 26:

TREE OF LIFE MADE USING VARIOUS OTHER MOTIFS OF CHIKANKARI AND ALSO
REPRESENTED AS CREEPER OF JASMINE OR OTHER FLOWERS.

LATER IT TOOK THE SHAPE OF AKHERIS (PAISLEY)


37
PLATE 27: JASMINE PLATE 28: LILIES

PLATE 29: MARIGOLD AND LILLIE MOSTLY USED IN REPETITIVE PATTERNS OF


BELS.

PLATE 30: LOTUS USED IN AXIS OF CIRCULAR PATTERN AND USED AS BELS IN
BORDERS (GIVES COSMIC BALANCE)
 AS WELL AS SOLAR SYMBOL FOR HINDUISM
 AND FOR BUDDHIST IT’S A SYMBOL OF LORD BUDDHA.

38
PLATE 31: TURANJ IS A
PLATE 32: PEPAL PATTA
STYLISED PAPAL LEAF FROM
INSPIRED BY PEPAL LEAF WHICH IS
HIMALAYAN FOOTHILLS,
A HOLY SYMBOL FOR HINDUS.
SACRED FOR BOTH HINDUS
AND BUDDHIST.

PLATE 33: JAVA WITH SITARA (CHEVRON)


THE SEAMS AND HEMS HAVE JAVA AS A COMMON MOTIF.
OTHER COMMON MOTIFS FOR SEAMING ARE FISH AND CHEVRON (TARA) WHICH IS A
EUROPEAN MOTIF.
ALSO USED FOR DARAZ (JOINING APPLIQUE SEAMS)

39
MOTIFS INSPIRED FROM ANIMALS AND BIRDS

PLATE 34: FISH OR MAHI REPRESENTED BOTH IN REALIST AS WELL AS SYMBOLIC FORM IT IS
TREATED AS GOODWILL AND RELATED WITH WATER MEANS A SYMBOL OF LIFE. IT CAN BE
SEEN IN VARIOUS MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE.

PLATE 35: PEACOCK SYMBOLISES DIVINE FORCE

40
MOTIFS INSPIRED FROM MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

PLATE 36: JALIS REVEALED THE UNDERNEATH SKIN OR COLOURED FABRIC TO GIVE AN
ACCENT OF COLOUR TO ALTERNATE WHITE OF CHIKANKARI.
THESE JALIS WERE ALSO THE PARTS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE.

PLATE 37: CROWN MOTIF USED FOR ROYAL FAMILY MEMBERS

41
4.6 TRADITIONAL LAYOUT PATTERN OF MOTIFS

a) Lehriya pattern is most prominent where creepers run diagonally from


right to left.

b) Serrated Arrangement of Buttis and akheris on the axis

c) The flower creepers were flipped in orientation to show more


continuous effects.

42
4.7 DESIGNERS INTERVENTIONS

Designers like Abu and Sandeep, Manish Malhotra , Ritu Kumar, Tarun
Tahiliani , Sabyasachi always added a new charm to this elegant
embroidery work as New fusions are introduced by them. They opened
new doors for the embroidery to come out of its restricted technique of
designing and develop a new and contemporary look. Introducing designs
or motifs having a fashionable touch of value addition like sequins, mirror
work, zardozi etc., to satisfy fashionable crowd. New patterns of placing
designs have been introduced.

• Colour story

In earlier times colour does not play any roles in chikankari embroidery as it
was done with the royalty of White. But now in modern time due to rise in
Demand and variety colour are brought in as design interventions.

PLATE 38: UMAIR ZAFAR’S COLLECTION

• SANDEEP KHOSLA AND ABU JANI COLLECTION FOR REVIVAL 1993

PLATE 39 : ABU AND SANDEEP’ COLLECTION 1993

Abu and Sandeep were designers who took chikankari to a new extent in
1993. Their design collection mainly focused on developing ethnic wears from
chikankari along with structured pattern. Chikankari revival collection made by
them was focused on introduction of contemporary and beautiful patterns for
placement of motifs over the garments.

43
• MANISH MALHOTRA’S COLLECTION FROM MIJWAN

“THE MAN CARES FOR THE WOMAN”

PLATE 40 : CHIKANKARI BY MANISH MALHOTRA

Collection from designers act as a support for the chikankari


artisans from backward regions of Lucknow

4.8 ARTISANS AND NGO

As embroidery has gained one more aspect added to it with the changing time i.e. G.I.
for chikankari of Lucknow. It has developed a self confidence among the artisans.
Increase in demand which will be good for both craft and craftsmen. Fusions with the
western garment will help in increase in foreign export sector which will help the
craftsmen to be with craft and carry it forward.

Comitato, an Italian company, is 10 years old customer of SEWA. NGOs like SEWA,
NEED along with the contribution of government organisations doing a great job in
contributing in its market in activities.

A significant aspect of this ancient art is that it transcends religions and castes, uniting
people from varied backgrounds with a common thread in keeping alive this traditional
art form. For “Parda nasseb” women referring to Muslim ladies that remain behind doors,
not coming out to seek employment, over the centuries, it has offered a way to earn in a
respectable way. For an art infused with creativity, inherent strength to adapt to changing
times, and employing workforces generation after generation, generating harmony
between races, is it such wonder that it flourishes and continues to awe us with its
magnificence. 44
INTERVIEW of CRAFT PERSON

Mr. Ayyub khan, Age: 82

Place : Khadra, Sitapur Road, Lucknow ,Uttar Pradesh

Mr. Ayyub khan is practicing the craft of chikankari from the age of 14
years and is now himself of 82 years old. He is one of the shilp guru who
has been awarded with the National award for chikankari.

When he was asked to compare the present scenario with the old form of
this beautiful craft he just answered that “Today everything is just a
business nobody takes it as a piece of art done with such a dedication.”
After practicing such a long time with dedication he has lost his vision but
still he is attached to the craft for which he is taking teaching sessions on
training centres conducted by big govt. institutions, so as to make an
effort to preserve the fine beauty of this craft.

He with his two sons is attached with the craft and is satisfied with being
attached with the craft. They are running a company Smart Chikan in
there small house but the fine beauty of his craft is yet not displayed in
the market because of the demand for cheap products in the market.

But asking about that if he wants to continue this craft , he was sure to
make all efforts to preserve the fine beauty of the craft by teaching it more
number of people he could.

45
4.9 .PRESENT SCENARIO

Traditionally, this was is found in ethnic wear for men and women, nowadays
among the youth who wear lightly embroidered apparel over jeans and shorts.

Impact of fashion and experimentation with designing has made chikankari to


take a shift which resulted in certain changes like

• Change of colour

• Change in design of end products

• Somewhat simplifications of motifs because of commercialisation


but should not lead to disappearance of old motifs.

46
4.10. COMMERCIALISATION AND CHIKANKARI

THRUST ON
COMPETITION FROM QUANTITY
MACHINE WORK

MANUFACTURERS
ONLY FOCUS ON
PROFIT

COMMERCIALISATION

DUBLICATE
PRODUCTS
FROM CHINA CHEAP GOODS
MARKETS ARE PRODUCED
TO MEET THE
DEMAND

EMBROIDERY
WORK HAS
BECOME COARSE
AND ROUGH

FIG. 4 : VICIOUS CYCLE OF COMMERCIALISATION IN CHIKANKARI

4.10.1 COMMERCIALISATION AND ARTISANS:

This art was limited to a fast depleting community of Chikankari artisans,


mostly Muslims concentrated in muhallas of old Lucknow. Exploitation was
rampant as the middlemen grabbed the profits, giving a pittance to the
'kaarigars'. A day of back-breaking labour would yield just about ten or fifteen
rupees.
Since the payment was per piece the workers would try and turn out as many
as they could, greatly compromise the quality of work. A lot of fine traditional
designs and stitches were being corrupted. From among 32 known stitches
merely six were in common uses. The good artisans were abandoning the
trade for more lucrative zardozi. Crude and substandard shadow work was
sold even in Lucknow’s posh market Hazratganj in the name of Chikan.

47
4.10.2 COMMERCIALISATION AND MARKET SCENARIO

1. Large domestic market as well as increase in export opportunity


leads to thrust upon quantity.

2. High competitions among manufacturers as its national as well as


international demand are rising.

3. Variety in availability of raw material which is sometimes used for


producing cheap products for the market which depletes its identity
and beauty

4. Availability of designer work catalogue leads manufacturers to copy


the designs and produce that same piece in stock without a good
work done on it .

5. Garments are available in all price ranges which is making


manufacturers to sell the poor work in high prices .

6. Government also tries to support for promotion of craft like Export


Promotion Council Uttar Pradesh is providing and encouraging the
manufacturers to produce in good quality for foreign market to
increase its demand outside India.

MR. OMESH CHANDRA deputy commissioner of EPEC said that


they are collaborating with 27 manufacturers who are specially
producing good quality of products for foreign markets.

48
4.11. MARKET STUDY

A deep research has been taken to understand the demand and supply chain
of chikankari products closely and to justify the level of commercialisation
which is being faced by chikankari.

Mainly two cities were selected Lucknow the centre of chikankari and
Mumbai the centre of fashion.

The selected markets where visited and deep observation of products in


terms of their motifs and designs were studied.

• Halwasia market, Lucknow


• Janpath market, lucknow
• Manufacturers and suppliers ,Chowk market, Lucknow
• Street shops ,Aminabad , Lucknow
• State museum, Lucknow

• Craft exhibition : Khargar , CBD Belapur , Mumbai


• Linking road : Lucknawi crafts Mumbai
• Andheri : Tirumala Fashion Mall, , Mumbai
• Branded Stores : Max , Naveen Boutique , Mumbai

FIG.5 MARKET PLACES{ LUCKNOW AND MUMBAI)

49
4.11.1 STATE MUSEUM LUCKNOW: OLD SAMPLES FROM
NAWABS OF LUCKNOW

50
OBSERVATION:

 This is an old collection of garments used in the time of Nawabs of Lucknow. The
chapkan style kurtas , Achkans and band gala kurtas were the prominent garments
used by the Nawabs on which very simplistic motifs were developed with very fine
stitches of chikankari over thin muslins of that time . The patterns of laying motifs
were simple but the work done on the motif was finest of all available in today’s
markets.

 The round floral pattern, square and round shaped table cover shows the finest
technique being used with such a royalty. This shows how the art of chikankari has
royalty in it.

 Other products like shawls, caps for prayers as well caps specially developed for
kings with crown motifs were also used. it was treated as the art of royal families
only.

 But if it is compared with the products available in todays, it can be seen clearly
where the beauty of this craft has been gone.

51
4.11.2 VISUAL ANALYSIS OF MARKET SAMPLES FROM

LUCKNOW

1. Chikankari at street of Lucknow( Market : Aminabad And Chowk

Pieces for Rs. 150 / Rs. 250

Rough embroidery done using thick threads on multiple coloured

samples.

2. Chikankari at shops of Manufactures , exporters and Suppliers(Market

Chowk, Janpath market )

Price Rs. 700

52
Observation:

As compared to the street markets of Aminabad Lucknow, the embroidery

done is rough but hand work .even though Chowk is the main centre but still

the quality of work is put on sale is not good.

3. Chikankari at design boutiques and shops

 ADA Chikan Store

 Nazrana Store are being visited

Price: Rs. 2500 / 2700

Observation:

Boutiques and store are selling better embroidery products which are

visually approachable and good.

53
4.11.3 VISITS TO MUMBAI MARKET

Markets in Mumbai and even including craft exhibitions were visited to get the

visual search on quality of embroidery sold out in metros.

1. Craft Exhibition: Kharghar, Navi Mumbai

Observation:
Machine work of chikankari on thick kota fabric for tapping a new market of
South India (Rs. 200)

2. Bandra West: Lukhnowi Crafts ( Mr. Saif Rehman)

Fabric piece for Rs. 3500, high price charged from customers for not so fine work

3. Branded Stores ( Max , Sanskriti )

Look alike pieces are available at Rs 1200, Top of Rs. 400

54
4.11.4 CONSUMER STUDY

Women from

• 2 metro cities : Delhi Mumbai

• Lucknow

• Others

Were covered and their response were collected on the basis of their age ,
marriage status, occupation, etc.

AIM:

Questionnaire was taken to know their perception about Chikankari and their
association with it in several aspects.

Collected responses on the basis of

1 TIER CITY (METRO CITY) –

MUMBAI: 35

DELHI: 20

2TIER CITY

LUCKNOW: 20

OTHER: 20

And then data was analysed accordingly to finalise a design brief according to
the selected category of demanded product market.

55
4.11.5 MARKET FINDINGS

On the basis of requirement for information four main areas were analysed

 How many women are aware about it and buy it? ( Fig. 5)

 What price they prefer to pay for it? ( Fig. 6)

 What is their best colour taste for chikankari? ( Fig. 7)

 And what kind of look they love to carry with chikankari? ( Fig. 8)

1 .They Know About Chikankari…

20-24
24-26
26-28
28 -30

FIG. 5

2. Price Analysis

500-1000
1000-3000
3000-6000
6000-above

FIG. 6

56
3. Colour choice

1005
4.5
90

80 4 white
3.5
70

60 3
bright
2.5
50
colours
40 2
pastels
1.5
30

20 1

0.5
10 black and
0 0 white

FIG. 7

28-30

26-28 indowestern
ethnic
24-26
western

20-24

00 230 4
60 6
100

4. Women Preference On Chikankari Apparels


FIG. 8

57
CHAPTER 5

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

58
5. DESIGN BRIEF

1. Designing Chikankari Indo Western Blouses which will redefine the

beauty of chikankari according to the trend analysis.

2. Creating Blouse which are trendy and appealing according to the

need of the modern female which will be fitted to their modern clothing

needs.

3. It aims providing modern women an opportunity to STAY, TRENDY

carrying their love for chikankari with it.

YOUNG,
FRESH, CHIC
LOOK WITH
THE BLEND OF
TRADITION

Indian As Well As
Fusion Look

For Both Casual


As Well As
Dressy Events.

59
5.1 CURRENT TREND ANALYSIS 2015: SUMMER SPRING

Exposed midriffs have been flexed for several seasons now, and

spring/summer 2014 sees the trend explode.

"Elegant for evening or playful with matching shorts for summer days, never

has there been a more attractive incentive to hit the gym than this summer's

diverse offering of crop tops," says Vogue's fashion editor Francesca Burns.

 Midriff Baring Evening

A crop top and ladylike skirt will do the trick—and never has a stretch of skin

felt so revolutionary. Waist-whittling proportions and only the subtlest flash of

flesh turn a tried-and-true evening option into something decidedly modern.

 Go the ethnic way with crop tops

PLATE41: CROP TOP TRENDS


Crop tops may be tricky to pull off, but the way you wear one can make it look
surprisingly versatile.
True, you saw the trend before, but this year's version is brighter and has an
ethnic touch. So, make it your summer wardrobe staple.

MODERN BLOUSE WITH SARI

Using a cropped shirt instead of a blouse with the humble sari shows off the

60
mid-section. It's an example of a style that has been around since ancient
times. Instead of wearing your sari the conventional way, drape the pallu from
behind and tuck it in from the front.

IN BOLLYWOOD

ON RAMPS

ON THE STREETS

FIG 9 : FASHION TRENDS IN INDIA

61
5.2 MOOD BOARD

1. The mood board selected is to show the softness delicate intricate


shadow work created on the White Fabric with white thread.

2. It aims to show the simplistic beauty of the embroidery.

PLATE 42: MOOD BOARD FOR DESIGN COLLECTION

62
5.3 CLIENT PROFILE

PLATE 43 : CLIENTS FOR DESIGN COLLECTION

Category: Women's Wear (Ethnic as well as modern look)

Market: Semi Luxury and Luxury market

Targeted Age: 20 – 30

Occupation: Student, Working Women

63
5.4 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT

Designing a collection of indo-western crop top which could be wore with

Indian as well as western garment. The Mughal, British and western

influences have been considered while designing so as to keep the aura of

chikankari all over the products.

5.4.1 DESIGN EXPLORATIONS

64
65
5.5 FINAL DESIGNS

DESIGN 1 :

66
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 1

NECK - Collar neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 7.5 inch
SHOULDER – 10 inch
LENGTH – 15 inch
WIDTH – 30 inch
MOTIFS: Peepal Patta With Bels, Bel, Chameli Phool,

TABLE 1 Measurement for Design 1

67
Material Cost Quantity Total cost

Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 2 120

Embroider Rs. 8/- 4 32

buttons

Cotton Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30

Embroidery
Rs. 50 / piece 50
thread

Block printing

Embroidery Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500

labour cost

Tailoring charges Rs.350 1 350

Dry wash RS 100 100

Total 2182

TABLE 2 Costing of Design 1

68
DESIGN 2

69
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 2

NECK – Boat Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 7.5 inch
SHOULDER – 10 inch
LENGTH – 15.5 inch
WIDTH – 30 inch
MOTIFS: Turanj With Bels, River, Bel, Chameli Phool, Kangan,
Dhaniya

TABLE 3 Measurements for Design 2

70
Material Cost Quantity Total cost

Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 2 meter 120

Cotton Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30

Embroidery

thread
Rs. 50 / piece 50
Block printing

Embroidery Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500

labour cost

Tailoring Rs.350 1 350

Dry-cleaning Rs. 100 100

charges

Total 2150

TABLE 4 Costing of Design 2

71
DESIGN 3

72
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 3

NECK – collar v Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 14.5 inch
SHOULDER – 13 inch
LENGTH – 14.5 inch
WIDTH – 28 inch
MOTIFS: River ,Hathkati Jali,Keel,Janjira Bel

TABLE 5 Measurement for Design 3

73
material cost quantity Total cost

Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 1.5 meter 90

Cotton Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30

Embroidery
Rs. 50 / piece 50
thread

Block printing

Embroidery Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500

labour cost

Tailoring Rs.350 1 350

Dry-cleaning Rs. 100 100

charges

Total 2120

TABLE 6 Costing of Design 3

74
DESIGN 4

75
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 4

NECK – collar V Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 14.5 inch
SHOULDER – 13.5 inch
LENGTH – 14 inch
WIDTH – 32 inch
MOTIFS: Akheris , Bels with akheris, Bels

TABLE 7 Measurements for Design 4

76
Material Cost Quantity Total cost

Cotton Mulmul Rs. 60 /- meter 2 meter 120

Cotton Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30

Embroidery

thread
Rs. 50 / piece 50
Block printing

Embroidery Rs 1500/ piece 1 1500

labour cost

Tailoring Rs.400 1 400

Dry-cleaning Rs. 100 100

charges

Total 2200

TABLE 8 Costing of Design 4

77
DESIGN 5

78
MEASUREMENT FOR DESIGN 5

NECK – Boat Neck


BUST- 34 inch
ARM HOLE – 13.5 inch
SHOULDER – 14.5 inch
LENGTH – 15 inch
WIDTH – 60 inch
MOTIFS: Ghaspatti, janjira bel, mahi(fish)

TABLE 9 Measurements for Design 5

79
Material Cost Quantity Total cost

Butter Crepe Rs. 90 / meter 2 meter 180

Buttons Rs. 10/ - 10 100

Tailoring Rs. 450 450

Embroidery Rs. 1500/- 1500

labour cost

Cotton Rs. 15/- Loop 2 30

Embroidery

thread
Rs. 50 / piece 50
Block printing

Dry clean Rs 100 100

Total 2380

TABLE 10 Costing of Design 5

80
5.6. FEEDBACK AND REVIEWS OF DESIGNS

Reviews and feedback collected from the women from the sample group from
20-30 in the terms of following points to make it sure that designs are good
enough to satisfy its customers or not. It has been catagorised under:

 Aesthetics
 Value for money
 Designs
 Colour
 Material
 Overall appeal of product

FIG.10: FEEDBACK AND REVIEWS FROM WOMEN

81
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

82
6.1 CONCLUSION

The research analysis explains several new facts about chikankari:

 As it is losing its fine charm because of blind commercialisation of


chikankari by middlemen in the hope to increase the profit.

 Even artisans are paid less for their immense dedication and effort
done as this middlemen system emerged in the market in the large
numbers.

So developing such products will help artisans to catch up to the competition


and developed more contemporised products which can attract more
customers. So it will help chikankari to rediscover its beautiful form in a
modern as well as traditional way.

This research also concludes such a royal craft should be preserve as royalty
and the fine beauty of chikankari should be stopped from distortion done to it
from the hands of commercialisation and machine work.

6.2 FURTHER RECOMMENDATION

 Various other aspects of chikankari has not been seen as the research
was more focused on motifs over apparels compared from present
scenario with the old founded samples.

 So there could be another of such research compared with other


embroideries like Kasuti which has been mechanised, so what could be
if such a beautiful samples developed with such a hard work is
converted into machine work.

83
 There could be more scope of explorations done with the designs
materials which could be used with chikankari which can beautify it
more

84
REFERENCES

BOOKS

• Chikankari Of Uttar Pradesh (Pg.117) Embroideries Of India (NIFT

LIB.) As Retrived On 6 Feb2015

• Indian Embroidery, Prakash Books , By Rosemary Crill, Pg. 188 White

Work

• Chikankari By Abu And Sandeep Khosla , Retrived On 15 April2015

• Textile Arts Of India By Kokyo As Retrived On 20 April 2015

• World Textiles, Bulfinch Data Retrived On 20 April 2015

• Indian Embroideries Volume 2 By Anne Morrel As Retrieved On 19

April 2015

WEB SOURCES

• DASTANGOI by Jaspal Kalra

https://jaspalkalra.typeform.com/to/AmxmxS, as retreived on

22feb2015

• Indian roots : trend analysis for crop tops as retrived on 1 april 2015

• Rahul shukla : art beyond time lining legacy of the Taj, clarion

press,mumbai,1997, p.54 2. as retreived on 21feb2015

• Foster William, the English factories in india,vol.1637-1641 (oxford)

1912, p.278

• Craft revival

85
• Abdul Haleem Sharar, Lucknow: the last phase of an oriental culture,

(translated and edited by E.S. Harcourt and fakir Husain), anchor press

ltd., Great Britain, 1975.

• www.Culturalindia.Net/indian-craft/chikankari.Htmlas retrieved on

22feb2015

• Http://em.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/chikanembroidaryretreived on 22feb2015

• http://www.Chikanbran.Com/ as retrieved on 22feb2015

• Http://www.Hand-embroidary.Com/history-ofchikankari.Html as

retrieved on 3 march2015

• http://travelspedia.Com/southasia/indiauttarpradesh/7919.Html

• Frah Sultana Final Thesis pdf..pdf

11_chapter2.pdfhttp://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/1

0603/23080/10/11_chapter2.pdf as retrieved on 3march2015

• https://punvirdi.wordpress.com/category/indian-designers/ as retrieved

on 13 march 2015

• Stitches of Chikankari Embroidery (http:/ / www. hand-embroidery.

com/ stitches-in-chikankari. html)

• • Practical Use of Chikankari Embroidery in Plus size women's tunic

(http:/ / www. dress365days. com/ )

86
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Measurements for Design 1……………………………………………67

Table 2: Costing of Design 1 …………...........................................................68

Table 3: Measurements for Design 2…………………………………………….70

Table 4: Costing of Design 2……………………………………………………...71

Table 5: Measurements for Design 3……………………………………….…...73

Table 6: Costing of Design 3…………………………………………………….74

Table 7: Measurements for Design 4…………………………………………..76

Table 8: Costing of Design 4……………………………………………………..77

Table 9: Measurements for Design 5……………………………………………79

Table 10: Costing of Design 5……………………………………………………80

87
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1 Flow Of Research Methodology To Be Followed………………….13

Fig. 2 Evolution Of Chikankari Product…………………………………….24

Fig. 3 Process Flow Chart Of Chikankari Products………………………26

Fig. 4 Vicious Cycle Of Commercialisation In Chikankari……………….47

Fig. 5 Market Places {Lucknow And Mumbai)……………………………49

Fig. 6 Awareness about Chikankari………………………………………..56

Fig. 7 Price Preference Of Women Consumers………………………….56

Fig. 8 Colour Preference……………………………………………………57

Fig. 9 Look Carried By Women (Ethnic, Western, Or Indo-western)…..57

Fig. 10 Feedback and Reviews…………………………………………….81

88
LIST OF PLATES
PLATE 1 BADA IMAM BARA, LUCKNOW………………………………………………………17
TH
PLATE 2 POTTERY OF 6 CENTURY, KANGAN AND KEEL MOTIF……………………..19

PLATE 3 AJANTA ROCK PAINTING…………………………………………………………….20

PLATE 4 BLOCKS USED FOR PRINTING MOTIFS ON FABRIC…………………………...25

PLATE 5 BLOCKS SOAKED IN INDIGO BEFORE PRINTING………………………………..27

PLATE 6 INDIGO IS USED WITH SYNTHETIC GUM SO AS TO PRINT THE MOTIFS,….27

PLATE 7 PRINTING IS DONE USING TRADITIONAL PATTERNS………………………….27

PLATE 8 EMBROIDERY IS DONE USING NEEDLE…………………………………………..27

PLATE 9 BAKHIA OR SHADOW WORK………………………………………………………..29

PLATE 10 TEPCHI OR RUNNING STITCH…………………………………………………….30

PLATE 11 JANJIRA ……………………………………………………………………………….30

PLATE 12 WHITE ON WHITE APPLIQUE……………………………………………………….31

PLATE 13 RAHET OR OUTLINE STITCH………………………………………………………31

PLATE 14 GITTI OR WHEEL LIKE MOTIF……………………………………………………...31

PLATE 15 DARAZ OWITH TURPAI ……………………………………………………………..32

PLATE 16 MURRI …………………………………………………………………………………32

PLATE 17 PHANDA ………………………………………………………………………………33

PLATE 18 GHASPATTI…………………………………………………………………………….33

PLATE 19 JALI OR PULLED WORK…………………………………………………………….34

PLATE 20 HOOL…………………………………………….……………………………………..34

PLATE 21 MOTIFS AND THEIR INSPIRATIONS………………………………………………35

PLATE 22 CRESCENT SHAPE OF MOON, A RARE MOTIF………………………………....36

PLATE 23 MOUNTAINS………………………………………………...………………………….36

PLATE 24 RIVERS………………………………………………………………………………….36

PLATE 25 AKHERI OR PAISLEY………………………………………………………………….37

PLATE 26 TREE OF LIFE…………………………………………………………………………..37

PLATE 27 JASMINES ………………………………………………………………………….…..38

PLATE 28 LILIES…………………………………………………………………………………….38

PLATE 29 MARIGOLDS AND LILLIE……………………………………………………………..38

89
PLATE 30 LOTUSES USED FOR COSMIC BALANCE………….…………….…………….38

PLATE 31 PEPAL PATTA ………………………………………………………………………39

PLATE 32 TURANJ …..…………………………………………………………………………39

PLATE 33 JAVA WITH SITARA (CHEVRON)… ……………………………………………..39

PLATE 34 FISH OR MAHI………………………………………………………………….……40

PLATE 35 PEACOCK…………………………………………………………………………….40

PLATE 36 JALIS……………………………………………………………………………….…..41

PLATE 37 CROWN MOTIF………………………………………………………………………41

PLATE 38 UMAIR ZAFAR’S COLLECTION………………………………………………….…43

PLATE 39 ABU AND SANDEEP’ COLLECTION 1993…………………………………………43

PLATE 40 CHIKANKARI BY MANISH MALHOTRA…………………………………………....44

PLATE 41 CROP TOP TRENDS…..……………………………………………………………...60

PLATE 42 MOOD BOARD FOR DESIGN COLLECTION……………………………………...62

PLATE 43 CLIENTS FOR DESIGN COLLECTION……………………………………………..63

90
ANNEXURE 1:

INTERVIEW FOR ARTISANS (self-employed/company/NGO)

In company’s case: Name: Year of estbl.

No. of artisans:

Name Age Birthplace Marital

status: Religion

Educational qualification: high school inter school graduation & post-

graduation (if any)

Income sources:

FAMILY DETAILS:

Wife/ husband

Name: age: birthplace:

community: occupation:

Other contributions (e.g. earnings, household works)

Children

NAME AGE OCCUPATION EDUCATION

1. Who in your family initiated the craft first?

2. Is it learned (if yes from where e.g. training centres etc. specify)?

3. Age when the person got associated with it?

91
4. If the person is not from Lucknow then why they migrated to Lucknow?

5. Reason for association with the craft? (Traditional economical

other

6. From how long it is being practiced?

7. Do you want your children to follow chikankari as tradition or not?

8. Problems faced during practice of craft (like economical / physical health / or

any other)?

9. What is the line of products manufactured?

10. What are the tools used for manufacturing of chikankari products?

11. How long it takes to make 1 saree from vending its fabric till completion?

12. Any major technical difficulties faced?

13. How current process is different from traditional process of creating products?

14. Export orders or any work orders from national companies?

15. What is the total change in consumer demand in the country?

16. How and what are the changes took place in designs of product compared to

the past 8 -10 years? (e.g. . change in colour/ designs/embroideries)

17. Which are places where demand of chikankari is rising frequently?

18. What should be done to rough copies of chikankari available in market as

cheap products?

19. Which are the other craft which are competing with chikankari?

20. Is there is any assistance that government provides to artisans?

21. Any Participation in Exhibitions?

92
ANNEXURE 2:

Questionnaire for manufacturers and exporters

1. Name:

2. Year of establishment:

3. No. of artisans:

4. Salary to artisans

5. Other schemes for artisans:

6. Products:

7. Price ranges

8. Principle export products:

9. Importing countries:

10. Main demanding markets within India:

11. Main competitors for them:

12. Orders for development of demanded products:

13. Design input:

14. Question of commercialisation and companies role for it :

15. Do you think it should be stopped?

16. Problem faced for export

17. Other problem faced:

18. Participation in Exhibitions:

19. Role and expectation from Govt. for exporters

93
ANNEXURE 3

Name: Age : City:

Graduation Post Graduation Working Non-working

Married Unmarried

1 Do you buy handcrafted products? Yes No

2 Associate chikankari with a word according to you…

Fashion Beautiful n Elegant embroidery Comfort

3What you see while buying a high end craft product?

Innovation Traditionally Handcrafted Luxury Appreciation for artisans

4How much would you spend on one garment that is hand-crafted with traditional skills?

500- 1000 1000 – 3000 3000-6000 6000 above

5 how many handcrafted products you buy in one year?

6 Are you concerned about cultural significance while buying chikankari products?

Yes no

7 Is it more important to promote chikankari in elite class rather than make it more of a
commercialised product?

Yes no

8 what will be your colour preference for a chikankari product?

Pure White Pastel Shades Black and white Bright


colours

9 Are you in favour of modernising the final products of chikankari according to attest trends?

Yes no

10what will you prefer the most in chikankari embroidered product

Subtle look Intricacy Colour Design


Authenticity

94
11 which will be the most preferred time you will buy chikankari for?

Summers Festivals Party wears Casuals any other

12 Which look you will prefer the most in a chikankari outfit ?

Ethnic Indo-Western Western

13 Which product range will be your preference to buy a chikankari product?

Garments Home Furnishings and decors Jewelleries Any other

14 Any remarks or thoughts on craft development?

95