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GRE Math Arithmetic – 1 © EducationUSA Russia, Moscow, Graduate Students Support Group (GSSG), 2017.

GRE Math

Arithmetic 1

© EducationUSA Russia, Moscow, Graduate Students Support Group (GSSG), 2017.

Common Math terms Numbers

integer

целое число

-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …

positive

положительное ( > 0)

23, 528, 1000

negative

отрицательное (< 0)

-7, -999

even

чётное

-6, -292, -2, 0, 2, 4, 586

odd

нечётное

-41, -5, -1, 1, 3, 5, 625

prime

простое

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, …

composite

составное

4, 9, 282, 56

Some more types:

fraction

дробь

decimal

десятичная дробь

rational number

рациональное число

irrational number real number

иррациональное число действительное (вещественное) число

Common math terms

set

множество (совокупность объектов – например, чисел)

finite

конечный (имеющий конечное число элементов)

infinite

бесконечный (имеющий бесконечно много элементов)

Finite sets of numbers:

{-1, 3, 12, -456, 929, 1, 1, 8} {0, 3.4, -5, 8, 99.9}

{-100}

Infinite sets of numbers:

{…-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …} – set of integers

{-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, …} – set of even integers

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7… } – set of positive integers

Common math terms

equality

=

равенство

inequality

>, <, ≥, ≤

неравенство

greater than

>

больше

less than

<

меньше

greater than or equal to

больше или равно

less than or equal to

меньше или равно

Common math terms

to double

×2

удвоить

to triple

×3

утроить

to quadruple

×4

увеличить в 4 раза

to halve

:2

уменьшить вдвое («уполовинить»)

twice a number

×2

число, взятое дважды

triple a number

×3

число, взятое трижды

n

times a number

×n

число, взятое n раз

x

less than a number

- x

число, уменьшенное на x

x

more than a number

+ x

число, увеличенное на x

Five less than twice a number is ten more than the product of four and the number.

2 × number 5 = 4 × number + 10

Slide 6

Common math terms

how much more/greater is x than y?

на сколько x больше y?

how many more/greater is x than y?

how much less/fewer is x than y? how many less/fewer is x than y?

на сколько x меньше y?

x is how many times as much as y? how many times as much as y is x? how many times as much is x as y?

во сколько раз x больше y?

what is x less than y?

какое число на x меньше, чем y?

a) How many less is 648 than 708?

b) How many more is 12 than 8?

c) How many times as much as 5 is 20?

d) What is 2 less than 6?

Slide 7

Common math terms

to add

складывать

to subtract

вычитать

sum

сумма

difference

разница

a)

7 + 8 =

b)

78 87 =

c)

7 (18) =

Slide 8

Common math terms

to multiply

умножать

to divide

делить

product

произведение

quotient

частное

a)

7 × 8 : 2 =

b)

7 × (8 : 2) =

c)

28 : 4 × 7 =

d)

28 : (4 × 7) =

e)

64 : 8 : 2 =

f)

64 : (8 : 2) =

Slide 9

Positive and negative numbers

a)

6 × 7 =

e)

positive × positive = positive

b)

(11) × (3) =

f)

negative × negative =

c)

64 × (2) =

g)

positive × negative =

d)

(12) × 50 =

h)

negative × positive =

Slide 10

Odd and even numbers

a)

odd + odd = even

i)

odd × odd =

b)

odd + even =

j)

odd × even =

c)

even + odd =

k)

even × odd =

d)

even + even =

l)

even × even =

e)

odd odd =

f)

odd even =

g)

even odd =

h)

even even =

Slide 11

Common math terms

exponent

степень, показатель степени

power

степень, показатель степени

base

основание степени

to raise to power

возводить в степень

3 to the fourth power

3 в четвёртой степени

x to the y-th power

x в степени y

8 is a power of 2

8 – одна из степеней числа 2

8 is the third power of 2

8 – третья степень числа 2

of 2 8 – третья степень числа 2 exponent (power) 3 4 = 3 × 3

exponent (power)

третья степень числа 2 exponent (power) 3 4 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3

3 4 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81

base

exponent (power) 3 4 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81 base 4

4 times

a)

(5) 3 = ?

d)

b)

2 0 = ?

e)

c)

0 0 = ?

f)

g)

7 -1 = ?

h)

1 2098456 = ?

(1) 2098456 = ?

(1) 10888993 = ?

7 -2 = ?

Common math terms

to square

возвести в квадрат

x squared

x в квадрате

(5) 3 = (5) × (5) × (5) = 125 x 0 = 1 (for any x ≠ 0) 0 0 is undefined 1 n = 1 (for any n) (1) n = 1 (for any even n) (1) n = 1 (for any odd n)

7 -1 =

7 -2 =

x -n =

1

7

1

1

2 49

7

1

(for any x ≠ 0)

n

x

Slide 13

Exercises

a)

9 2 =

b)

(9) 2 =

c)

9 2 =

d)

4 3 =

e)

(4) 3 =

f)

4 3 =

g)

(332) 0 =

h)

6 squared =

i)

(8) squared =

j)

2 to the fifth power =

Common math terms

digit

цифра (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

two-digit number

двузначное число (13, 42, 39, 56, 99)

three-digit number

трёхзначное число (101, 234, 692)

n-digit number

n-значное число

distinct

различный

consecutive

последовательный

average

среднее арифметическое

2, -5 and 3 are distinct numbers 3, 3, and 3 are not distinct numbers 2, 3, and 2 are not distinct numbers

-6, -5, -4, -3 : four consecutive integers

2, 4, 6 : three consecutive even integers -5, -3, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7 : seven consecutive odd integers

n, n+1, n+2, n+3, … consecutive integers 2k, 2k + 2, 2k + 4, …

consecutive even integers

2k + 1, 2k + 3, 2k + 5, … consecutive odd integers

Factors, divisors, multiples

divisible

делящийся нацело (без остатка), кратный

12 is divisible by 6

12 делится на 6

multiple

кратное

12 is a multiple of 6

12 – кратное 6 (12 кратно 6, 12 делится на 6)

factor

множитель

divisor

делитель

2 × 3 × 10 = 60, => 2, 3, 10 are factors of 60

(4) × (15) = 60, => 4, 15 are also factors of 60

60 is divisible by 2, 3, 10, 4, 15 => 2, 3, 10, 4, 15 are divisors of 60

All factors (divisors) of 60:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, 60, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -10, -12, -15, -20, -30, -60

Multiples of 60: …, -120, -60, 0, 60, 120, 180, …

Slide 16

Factors, divisors, multiples

1 is a factor / divisor of every integer (every integer is divisible by 1) 0 is a multiple of every integer (0 is divisible by every integer)

a) 1 is a multiple of what integers?

b) Name an integer that has 0 as its factor.

c) List all positive factors of 100.

d) List all factors of 25.

e) List all positive multiples of 25 that are less than 200.

Признаки делимости

Число делится на 3, если сумма его цифр делится на 3:

42912 4 + 2 + 9 + 1 + 2 = 18 делится на 3, => 42912 делится на 3

Число делится на 9, если сумма его цифр делится на 9:

42912 4 + 2 + 9 + 1 + 2 = 18 делится на 9, => 42912 делится на 9

Число делится на 10, если оно заканчивается на 0:

10, -30, 60, 100090 Число делится на 5, если оно заканчивается на 5 или на 0:

2345, 410, -34115

Число делится на 4, если две его последние цифры образуют число,

которое делится на 4:

234512

Число делится на 8, если три его последние цифры образуют число, которое делится на 8:

12 делится на 4, => 234512 делится на 4

Factors, divisors, multiples

least common multiple

наименьшее общее кратное

greatest common divisor / factor

наибольший общий делитель

The least common multiple of two nonzero integers a and b is the least positive integer that is a multiple of both a and b.

The least common multiple of 30 and 75? Positive multiples of 30: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300Positive multiples of 75: 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450, … Common positive multiples of 30 and 75: 150, 300, … The least common multiple of 30 and 75 is 150.

The greatest common divisor of two nonzero integers a and b is the greatest positive integer that is a divisor of both a and b .

The greatest common divisor of 30 and 75?

Positive divisors of 30: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30.

Positive divisors of 75: 1, 3, 5, 15, 25, 75. The greatest common divisor of 30 and 75 is 15.

Slide 19

Factors, divisors, multiples

a) Find the least common multiple of 4 and 6.

b) Find the greatest common divisor of 4 and 6.

c) Find the greatest common divisor of 9 and 16.

Slide 20

Prime numbers

prime number

простое число

composite number

составное число

A prime number is an integer greater than 1 that has only two positive divisors: 1 and itself. An integer greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number.

a)

Is 1 a prime number?

b)

How many even prime numbers are there?

c)

List all prime numbers less than 100.

Slide 21

Prime numbers

prime factorization

разложение на простые множители

Prime factorization:

12 = 2 × 2 × 3 = 2 2 × 3 14 = 2 × 7 800 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 × 5 = 2 5 × 5 2

What is the prime factorization of 585?

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