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= Asfy

2. Calculate a Eq. 3.32

0.85f b

( a”

i. M =

— j Eq. 3.31

4. Calculate where c = & see if it is less than 0.375 for q = 0.9 & less than 0.429 for

5. This can also be checked by calculating

= 0.65 + 0.25

(— —

= Eu

(at—c)

& (fl = 0.65 + (Et — 0.002) ()

6. Calculate cpM

Design of a Beam: For a given load or moment find the section & area of steel

P0.005 = o.856

()

comes from Eq. 3.26 & p82

(E+005)

= 0. 8Sf.? i

() () where Eu = 0.003 for concrete.

2. Get an approximate h from deflection limit of hmjn spun ten.gth for simply supported

= 16

beam. For others refer ACT 9.5.2 & text p226

3. The depth d should be 2 to 3 times the width for practical purposes. Also h = d + cover

(about 2.5”) should be in even numbers for practical purposes.

4. Determine starting b & d from Eq. 3.38 & assume q 0.9 to start:

(Pln = ppfbd2 (i — 0.59 ). Keep b & h multiple of 2

5. Having an approximate b,d, p determine A5 to be used in terms of# of bars to suite A5

etc.

6. Check the design as stated in the analysis by computing Mn & ip

7. Make sure M çoM

3,J 200

8. Check p > p = — — ACI 10.5 & Eq. 3.41

fy f

9. Check spacing of the bars & cover:

Cover 1.5”+ diameter of stirrup + 0.5(diameter of bar), usually 2.5” to 3”’- p97

bar spacing: Smin Max(qbar, 1”) p98-ACI 7.6

10. Draw a figure similar to p97 fig. 3.13

___________

Analysis

A5 ,A

1. Compute p = —

bd

and p —

bd

fy) EuEy) d)

3. If P <Pmax disregard compressive steel and compute M as singly reinforced member.

4. If p > Pmax compute as doubly reinforced

5. IfP<t5max&[P>Icyord>dmtn](PlO3),

then f5’ = f, and compute M = M1 + M2 where M1 = Af(a — a’) &

a”

= (A — A)f (a — -)

2)

as per Eq. 3.46.

Check for q = 0.9 or less by computing strain on the tension side.

6. If p <Pmax & [P <t5cy or a <dmin], then is C’ — C

iy

[A5-A)]f

(AsA)fy

a) Compute a = by assuming f’ = f, then a =

0.S5f b ‘ 0.85f b

a

b) Compute c =

c—ct’

c) Compute f5’ = EE5 (—) Eq. 3.55 where E = 0.003 for concrete

Substitute computed f’ from step c) into step a) and repeat steps

until assumed f’ = computed f5’

Compute M = M1 + M2

/ a

Where M1 = Af5’(d — a’) & M2 = [A — A ()]i a — -)

2, \

as per page 104.

Design:

Knowing the section due to space limitation or assume a section to start and proceed as follows:

1. Compute M2 = A52f ta

1 a\ for p and p 0.9, need to select A52 and

—

P0.005 =

2. Compute M1 = —

M

— M2

3. If a > dmin assume f = f, then A,, = get tota 1 area A = A52 + [A or A1]

f(dd’)

and check the final moment.

4. If a <amin and f’ <f (--)

then f,’

for this “c” use the “a” value

calculated for M2. Design the bar and check the section

= EE5

as in step 6 in the analysis.

—

Calculate A

M1

— f(d-d’) & A, = A2 + A

Select reinforcement and check the design or final moment

(f).

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