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Pre-Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 1

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Pre-Partition - Pakistan

Ind National congress. It came into existence in 1885 on the initiative of a retired British civilian servant
Allan Octavian Hume.
Partition of Bengal
Finding the Bengal Presidency too large for one governor to administer, in 1905 the English decided to
redraw its boundaries and divided it into two parts.
Curzon, the Viceroy of India, sent the proposal to London in February 1905. The Secretary of State for
India St. John Brodrich sanctioned it in June, and the proclamation of the formation of the new province
was issued in September. The province of Bengal and Assam came into being on October 16 1905.
The Muslims of India welcomed the partition of Bengal, but the Hindu community strongly opposed it.
They launched a mass movement, declaring October 16 as a day of mourning in Calcutta. British undo
their earlier decision to please the Hindus. The provinces were reunited in 1911.
Simla Deputation
Lord Minto was appointed as the Viceroy on India in 1905. To safeguard their interests, the Muslim
leaders drew up a plan for separate electorates for their community, and presented it to the Viceroy Lord
Minto at Simla, on October 1, 1906.
Mr. Bilgrami wrote the text of the plan. The Simla Deputation consisted of 70 representatives, and
headed by Sir Agha Khan who read the address. The acceptance of the Deputation's demands proved to
be a turning point in the history of the Sub-continent. For the first time, the Hindu-Muslim conflict was
raised to the constitutional plane.
Separate electorates were given statutory (legal) recognition in the Indian Councils Act of 1909. Muslims
were accorded not only the right to elect their representatives by separate electorates, but also the right
to vote in general constituencies. In addition, they were also given weightage in representation.
Establishment of All Ind Muslim league
On December 30 1906, the annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference was held at Dhaka
under the chairmanship of Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. Almost 3,000 delegates attended the session making it
the largest-ever representative gathering of Muslim India. For the first time the conference lifted its ban on
political discussion, when Nawab Salim Ullah Khan presented a proposal for establish a political party to
safeguard the interests of the Muslims; the All India Muslim League.
The headquarters of the All India Muslim League was established in Lucknow, and Sir Agha Khan was
elected as its first president. The initial membership was 400. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar wrote the
constitution of the League, known as the "Green Book".
Minto Morley reforms
The Minto Morley reforms introduced the system of elections for the first time. The reforms conferred on
Muslims , the separate electorate in the province where legislative councils existed. The Act of 1909 is
commonly known as the Minto-Morley Reforms.
Pre-Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 2
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Lucknow pact

Congress and Muslim league held a jt session at Lucknow on December 29 and December 31, 1916
respectively. An agreement was made, according to which Hindus ack Muslims as a separate nation
and accepted their right to separate electorate and almt of 1/3rd seats to Muslims in cen. Sarojini
Naidu gave Jinnah, the chief architect of the Lucknow Pact, the title Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.

Montague, the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs said that in order to satisfy the local demands, his
government was interested in giving more representation to the natives in India. New reforms would
be introduced in the country to meet this objective. Finally, in cooperation with the Governor General
Lord Chelmsford, Montague presented a report on the constitutional reforms for India in 1918. The
report was discussed and approved by the British Parliament and then became the Act of 1919. This
Act is commonly known as Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.

The Montague-Chelmsford reforms were not accepted by most quarters in India as they fell far short
of the Indian natives' expectations.

Khilafat Mov

After World War I, the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. Under the leadership of the Ali
Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched
the historic Khilafat Movement to try and save it. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi linked the issue
of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to associate Hindus with the movement. The ensuing movement
was the first countrywide popular movement. The Muslims of India launched the Tehrik-i-Khilafat.
On April 13, 1919, a crowd assembled at the Jalianwala Bagh. These protestors were unaware of a
ban that had just been imposed by the martial law administrators on public meetings. Sir Michael
O'Duiyer opened fire on the crowd, resulting in 379 dead and 1,200 wounded. This incident is known
as the Jalianwala Bagh Tragedy.

A tragic offshoot of the Khilafat Movement was the Hijrat Movement proposed by Jamiyat-al-
Ulema-i-Hind. When a land is not safe for Islam, a Muslim has two options; Jihad or Hijrat. Gandhi,
who was using this movement to accelerate India's advance towards Swaraj, also withdrew his
support for the Muslim cause in the aftermath of the Chauri Chaura incident in February 1922. Using
the excuse that the national volunteers were responsible for the murder of 21 policemen, thus leading
to violence, he called off the whole movement.
Pre - Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 3
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Delhi Muslim Proposals (1927)

Considering separate electorates to be the main hindrance in improving Hindu-Muslim relations, Quaid-i-
Azam proposed that if the Hindus agreed to provide certain safeguards, the Muslims would give up this
demand. Consequently, the proposals were formally approved at a conference held by the Muslims in
1927 at Delhi, and are now called "The Delhi-Muslim Proposals".

Simon Commission

In 1927, Brirish govt appt a Commission under the command of Sir John Simon to evaluate the pol conds
of ind for the intro of constitutional reforms. All members of the commission were British. When the Simon
Commission arrived, the local masses welcomed it by with slogans of "Go back Simon!". All the major
political parties of Sub-continent, except the Shafi League of Punjab, boycotted the Simon Commission.

Nehru report

After the failure of Simon Commission, there was no alternative for the British government but to ask the
local people to frame a constitution for themselves. Birkenhead, Secretary of Sate for Indian Affairs, threw
the ball in the Indian politicians' court, and asked them to draw a draft of the forthcoming Act on which
both Hindus and Muslims could agree. All Parties Conference was held for three times but failed. It was
then decided that a small committee should be appointed to work out the details of the constitution.
Motilal Nehru headed this committee. There were nine other members in this committee including two
Muslims, Syed Ali Imam and Shoaib Qureshi.

Fourteen Points of M. A. Jinnah (1929)

A positive aspect of Nehru Report was that it resulted in the unity of divided Muslim groups. In a meeting
of the council of All India Muslim League on March 28, 1929, members of both the Shafi League and
Jinnah League participated. Quaid-i-Azam termed the Nehru Report as a Hindu document, but
considered simply rejecting the report as insufficient. He decided to give an alternative Muslim agenda. It
was in this meeting that Quaid-i-Azam presented his famous Fourteen Points.

Allahabad Address (1930)

Allama Muhammad Iqbal gave the most lucid explanation of the inner feelings of Muslim community in his
presidential address to the All India Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930. As a permanent solution to the
Muslim-Hindu problem, Iqbal proposed that Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Baluchistan and Sindh
should be converted into one province.

The greatest historical significance of Allama Iqbal's Allahabad address was that it cleared all political
confusion from the minds of the Muslims, thus enabling them to determine their new destination.
Pre - Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 4
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Round table Conference

The Indian political community received the Simon Commission Report issued in June 1930 with great
resentment. Different political parties gave vent to their feelings in different ways.
The Congress started a Civil Disobedience Movement under Gandhi's command. The Muslims reserved
their opinion on the Simon Report declaring that the report was not final and the matters should decided
after consultations with the leaders representing all communities in India.

First Round Table Conference

The first session of the conference opened in London on November 12, 1930. All parties were present
except for the Congress, whose leaders were in jail due to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Almost 89
members attended the conference including Quaid-i-Azam.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact

After the conclusion of the First Round Table Conference, the British government realized that the
cooperation of the Indian National Congress was necessary for further advancement in the making of the
Indian constitution. Thus, Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, extended an invitation to Gandhi for talks. Gandhi
agreed to end the Civil Disobedience Movement without laying down any preconditions. The agreement
between Gandhi and Irwin was signed on March 5, 1931.

Second Round Table Conference

The second session of the conference opened in London on September 7, 1931. Gandhi again tabled the
Congress scheme for a settlement, a mere reproduction of the Nehru Report, but all the minorities
rejected it. Quaid-i-Azam did not participate in the session. On his return to India, Gandhi once again
started Civil Disobedience Movement and was duly arrested.

Third Round Table Conference

The third session began on November 17, 1932. It was short and unimportant. The Congress was once
again absent, so was the Labor opposition in the British Parliament. The conference ended on December
25, 1932.

The recommendations of the Round Table Conferences were embodied in a White Paper. It was
published in March 1933, and debated in parliament directly afterwards, analyzed by the Joint Select
Committee and after the final reading and loyal assent, the bill reached the Statute Book on July 24,
1935.
Pre - Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 5
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The Communal Award 1932

After the failure of the Second Round Table conference, British PM Mr. MacDonald announced the
'Communal Award' on August 16, 1932. According to the Award, the right of separate electorate was not
only given to the Muslims of India but also to all the minority communities in the country. The Award was
not popular with any Indian party. Muslims were not happy with the Communal Award, as it has reduced
their majority in Punjab and Bengal to a minority. Yet they were prepared to accept it.

Government of India Act 1935

After the failure of the Third Round Table Conference, the British government gave the Joint Select
Committee the task of formulating the new Act for India. Lord Linlithgow was appointed as the president
of the Committee. After a year and a half of deliberations, a bill was enforced as the Government of India
Act, 1935, in July 1935.
Both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League opposed the Act, but participated in the
provincial elections of winter 1936-37, conducted under stipulations of the Act. At the time of
independence, the two dominions of India and Pakistan accepted the Act of 1935, with few amendments,
as their provisional constitution.

Rule of Congress Ministries (1937-1939)

The Government of India Act of 1935 was practically implemented in 1937. The provincial elections were
held in the winter of 1936-37.

Out of the 1,771 total seats in the 11 provinces, Congress was only able to win slightly more than 750.
Out of the 491 Muslim seats, Congress could only capture 26. Muslim Leagues' condition was also bad
as it could only win 106 Muslim seats. The party only managed to win two seats from the Muslim majority
province of Punjab.

When Congress demanded an immediate transfer of power in return for cooperation of the war efforts,
the British government refused. As a result Congress resigned from power. Quaid-i-Azam asked the
Muslims to celebrate December 22, 1939 as a day of deliverance and thanksgiving in token of relief from
the tyranny and oppression of the Congress rule.
Pre - Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 6
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The Ideology of Pakistan: Two-Nation Theory

The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the
base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the
philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly
of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the
realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate
electorates. When they realized that their future in a 'Democratic India' dominated by Hindu majority was
not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state.

The speech made by Quaid-i-Azam at Minto Park, Lahore on March 22, 1940. he stated that Hindus and
Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, with different social customs and literature.
On March 24, 1940, the Muslims finally abandoned the idea of federalism and defined a separate
homeland as their target. Quaid-i-Azam considered the creation of Pakistan a means to an end and not
the end in itself. He wanted Pakistan to be an Islamic and democratic state. According to his wishes and
in accordance with the inspirations of the people of Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
passed the Objectives Resolution. The adoption of Objectives Resolution removed all doubts, if there
were any, about the ideology of Pakistan. The Muslims of Pakistan decided once and for all to make
Pakistan a state wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in their individual and collective
spheres, in accordance to the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and
Sunnah.

Lahore resolution

From March 22 to March 24, 1940, the All India Muslim League held its annual session at Minto Park,
Lahore. The Resolution rejected the concept of United India and recommended the creation of an
independent Muslim state consisting of Punjab, N. W. F. P., Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and
Bengal and Assam in the northeast.

The Resolution was passed on March 24. It was made a part of the All India Muslim League's constitution
in 1941. It was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one state
for the Muslims, instead of two.

Cripps Mission (1942)

The British government wanted to get the cooperation of the Indian people in order to deal with the war
situation. The divergence between the two major representative parties of the country harassed the
British government. It found it difficult to make the war a success without the cooperation of both the
Hindus and the Muslims. On March 22, 1942, Britain sent Sir Stafford Cripps with constitutional
proposals. However, both the Congress and the Muslim League rejected these proposals.
Pre - Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 7
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Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944)

The talks between the two great leaders of the Sub-continent began in response to the general public's
desire for a settlement of Hindu-Muslim differences. The Gandhi-Jinnah talks began in Bombay on
September 19, 1944, and lasted till the 24th of the month. Gandhi's real purpose behind these talks was
to extract from Jinnah an admission that the whole proposition of Pakistan was absurd. Talks ended w/o
any result.

Wavell Plan and Simla Conference (1945)

In May 1945, Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, went to London and discussed his ideas about the future
of India with the British administration. The talks resulted in the formulation of a plan of action that was
made public in June 1945. The plan is known as Wavell Plan.
To discuss these proposals with the leadership of major Indian parties, Wavell called for a conference at
Simla on June 25, 1945. Leaders of both the Congress and the Muslim League attended the conference,
which is known as the Simla Conference. However, differences arose between the leadership of the two
parties on the issue of representation of the Muslim community. Finally, Wavell announced the failure of
his efforts on July 14 1945.

Provincial and General Elections (1945-46)

With the failure of the Simla Conference, Lord Wavell announced that the Central and Provincial
Legislature elections would be held in the winter of 1945, after which a constitution-making body would be
set up.
Both the Muslim League and the Congress promulgated opposite slogans during their campaigns. The
Muslim League presented a one-point manifesto "if you want Pakistan, vote for the Muslim League".
Elections for the Central Legislature were held in December 1945. The Congress managed to win more
then 80 percent of the general seats and about 91.3 percent of the total general votes. The Muslim
League managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims. The results of the provincial election
held in early 1946 were not different. Congress won most of the non-Muslim seats while Muslim League
captured approximately 95 percent of the Muslim seats.

Muslim League celebrated January 11, 1946, as the Day of Victory.


Pre - Partition (Pakistan) Information - Part 8
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Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)

The results of the general elections held in 1945-46 served to underline the urgency to find a solution to
the political deadlock, which was the result of non-cooperation between the two major parties. To end
this, the British government sent a special mission of cabinet ministers to India. The mission consisted of
Lord Pethic Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of
Trade, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty.

The mission arrived on March 24, 1946. After extensive discussions with Congress and the Muslim
League, the Cabinet Mission put forward its own proposals on May 16, 1946.

On March 22, 1947, Lord Mountbatten arrived as the last Viceroy. It was announced that power would be
transferred from British to Indian hands by June 1948. Lord Mountbatten entered into a series of talks
with the Congress and the Muslim League leaders. Quaid-i-Azam made it clear that the demand for
Pakistan had the support of all the Muslims of India and that he could not withdraw from it. With staunch
extremists as Patel agreeing to the Muslim demand for a separate homeland, Mountbatten now prepared
for the partition of the Sub-continent and announced it on June 3, 1947.

June 3rd Plan (1947)

When all of Mountbatten's efforts to keep India united failed, he asked Ismay to chalk out a plan for the
transfer of power and the division of the country. It was decided that none of the Indian parties would view
it before the plan was finalized.

The plan was finalized in the Governor's Conference in April 1947, and was then sent to Britain in May
where the British Government approved it. However, before the announcement of the plan, Nehru who
was staying with Mountbatten as a guest in his residence at Simla, had a look at the plan and rejected it.
Mountbatten then asked V. P. Menon, the only Indian in his personal staff, to present a new plan for the
transfer of power. Nehru edited Menon's formula and then Mountbatten himself took the new plan to
London, where he got it approved without any alteration. Attlee and his cabinet gave the approval in a
meeting that lasted not more than five minutes. In this way, the plan that was to decide the future of the
Indo-Pak Sub-continent was actually authored by a Congress-minded Hindu and was approved by Nehru
himself.
Main Problems - Pre Partition Pakistan - Final Part
The main problems were:
1. Refugees
2. Indus Water
3. Accession of Princely States
Refugees

It had been agreed between Jinnah and Nehru that a Boundary Commission should be setup to define
the borders between India and Pakistan. The British Government immediately appointed a Boundary
Commission under Sir Cyril Radcliffe to demarcate permanent borders.

The boundaries had to be defined as such that provinces, districts, and villages that were predominantly
Muslim went to Pakistan, while Hindu majority areas went to India. Provinces like Baluchistan, Sindh, N.
W. F. P. and East Bengal provided little difficulty. But deep problems arose when boundaries in Punjab
had to be fixed; there were also a substantial number of Hindus and Sikhs residing in this region, other
than the Muslims. However, the province was partitioned.
When the boundaries were drawn between India and Pakistan, it resulted in many tragic events.It left on
Pakistan's doorstep, seven million refugees who had to be rehabilitated, clothed, fed and sheltered.
At the time of partition, the cash balances of undivided India stood at about Rupees 4,000 million. At the
beginning of December 1947, India and Pakistan mutually came to an agreement that Pakistan would get
Rupees 750 million as her share. Rupees 200 million had been already paid to Pakistan while Rupees
550 million were to be paid immediately. But this amount was withheld on the plea that Pakistan would
use it in the war going on in Kashmir. However, as this stand was morally untenable, the remaining
amount was later on released after Gandhi's fast and under world pressure on January 15, 1948.
Soon afterwards, Sardar Patel threatened that the implementation of the agreement would depend upon
the settlement of the Kashmir issue. But, it was upon Gandhi's request that the Reserved Bank of India
paid Pakistan Rupees 500 million, retaining the balance of Rupees 50 million to adjust some trumped up
claim against Pakistan.
Accession of Princely States

Prior to partition, there existed in British India many semi-autonomous Princely states whose future had to
be settled before Britain withdrew from India.
There were some 560 such states all over the Sub-continent. But there were four states, Junagadh,
Hyderabad, Jodhpur and Kashmir, which defied the principle of partition.

I. Junagadh: The ruler of Junagadh was a Muslim but 80 percent of his subjects were Hindus. On
September 15, 1947, the Nawab acceded to Pakistan, despite the fact that his state did not fall within the
geographical grouping of Pakistan. India protested, stormed in her troops, and forcibly reversed the
Nawab's decision and Junagadh became a part of India.

II. Hyderabad: Hyderabad, the second of the defiant states was the largest and richest in India. Its
population was 85 percent Hindu but the ruler (Nizam) was a Muslim. He was reluctant to accede either
to India or Pakistan but was dismissed by Mountbatten for adopting this course. The Nizam was forced by
the Indian government and Lord Mountbatten to join India. The whole province suffered turmoil and
violence. Hyderabad filed a compliant with the Security Council of the United Nations. Before the hearing
could be started, Indian troops entered Hyderabad to "restore order", and under the pretext of "police
action" Hyderabad was forced to join India. The Hyderabad army surrendered on September 17, 1948,
and finally Hyderabad was annexed into the Indian Union.

III. Jodhpur: Yet another prince, the Maharaja of Jodhpur, expressed a wish to join Pakistan but
Mountbatten warned him that his subjects were mostly Hindus and his accession to Pakistan would
create problems. As a result Jodhpur, too, acceded to India.
IV. Kashmir: Kashmir, had a Hindu ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, having 78 percent Muslims population.
The Maharaja was reluctant to join either India or Pakistan. But Lord Mountbatten urged him to take a
decision to join either of the states before August 15, 1947.
The Maharaja asked for more time to consider his decision. In the meantime he asked the Indian and the
Pakistani government to sign a "standstill agreement" with him. Pakistan consented but India refused.
The local population of Poonch began to press the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan. In August 1947, they
held a massive demonstration to protest against the Maharaja's indecisiveness. The Maharaja panicked.
He asked his Hindu paratroopers to open fire, and within a matter of seconds, several hundred Muslims
were killed. Rising up against this brutal action, a local barrister called Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim
immediately set up the Azad Kashmir government and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the
Maharaja.
By October 1947, the war of Kashmir had begun in earnest. The Pathan tribesmen from the North West
Frontier Province, wanting to avenge the deaths of their brothers, invaded the valley. On reaching the
valley of Kashmir, they defeated the Maharaja's troops and reached the gates of Srinagar, the capital.
The Maharaja sensing his defeat took refuge in Jammu whence he appealed to India to send troops to
halt the onslaught of the tribesmen. India agreed on the condition that Kashmir would accede to India. On
October 26, 1947, the Maharaja acceded to India. Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession on behalf of
India.
On October 27, 1947, India began to airlift her troops to Srinagar, and launched a full-scale attack on the
tribesmen. Pakistan was stunned. Despite her scant military resources, Pakistan was prepared to send in
her troops but the British General Gracey, Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, was against it.
Jinnah proposed an immediate ceasefire and later on a fair and free plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir

In July 1949, the ceasefire line was demarcated. Pakistan's side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of
Jammu, Poonch, some areas of Western Kashmir, Gilgit, and a great chunk of Laddakh territory near the
Chinese border in the North. India kept the valley of Kashmir, Jammu and the remainder of Laddakh
territory near the Tibet border.
Friday, 16 December 2016

Pakistan Post Independence - Objectives Part 1


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1. Lord Wavel was the Governor General of Indo-Pakistan before Mountbatten.


2. Mountbatten came to India in March 1947.
3. Mountbatten was an officer in British Navy.
4. Plan for the Separation of Indo Pakistan was announced on 23rd June 1947.
5. Election to the First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan took place in 1946.
6. The first Cabinet of Pakistan consisted of 7 members.
7. Finance Portfolio in the first Cabinet was held by Malik Ghulam Muhammad.
8. The Chief Minister of N.W.F.P refused to salute the Pakistani flag in 1947.
9. CM of N.W.F.P Doctor Khan Sahib was dismissed by Quaid e Azam.
10. Chief Minister of Bengal was dismissed by Quaid e Azam.
11. Approximate population of Pakistan at the inception in 1947 was 7 crores.
12. First census of Pakistan was held in 1951.
13. Population of west Pakistan in 1951 was 34 million.
14. The only country to oppose Pakistan’s entrance into the UNO in1947 was Afghanistan.
15. Total area of Jammu and Kashmir in 1947 was 84,471 sq. miles.
16. India stopped the passage of water from the rivers Ravi and Sutluj in April 1948.
17. Madhupur Head works is located on the river Ravi.
18. Ferozpur Head works is located on river Sutluj.
19. Muslim majority Tehsil Zira was handed over to India in Redcliff award it was a tehsil of
Ferozepur District.
20. Amir of Kuwait was the first head of state to visit Pakistan in 1947.
21. Quaid e Azam relief fund was set up in September 1947.
22. At the time of division the cash balances of undivided India stood at about Rs. 4,000 million.
23. India and Pakistan mutually came to an agreement that Pakistan would get Rs. 750 crore as her
share.
24. Only Rs. 200 crors had been paid as an interim installment
25. Referendum in 1947 in N.W.F.P province was held in July.
26. On 15th August 1947 the state of Junaghadh announced that it had acceded to Pakistan.
27. Francis Moody was the first Governor of Punjab.
28. Governor Moody imposed the Governor Rule in Punjab in January 1949.
29. Pakistan Fund was setup by Quaid in June 1947.
30. State Bank of Pakistan was inaugurated by Quaid in July 1948.
31. Karachi was declared Federal area by the legislative Assembly in May 1948.
32. Mian Iftikhar –ud- din was the only Muslim to oppose the Objectives Resolution in the
Assembly.
33. Pakistan’s flag was designed by two brothers and name of one of them is Altaf Hussain.
34. White strip in the flag was added in August 1947.
35. In February 1949, moon and star was added in the flag.
36. Ayub Khoro ministry in Sindh was dissolved by Quaid in April1948.
37. The Quaid delivered his last message to the nation on 27th August, 1948.
38. Khan Qayyum Khan was called the iron man of N.W.F.P.
39. Peer Sahib Manki Shareef founded the Awami Muslim League in September 1949.
40. In the East Bengal elections were held in 1954.
41. Jinnah Awami League was the first opposition party of the country.
42. Rawalpindi Conspiracy was unearthed in March 1951.
43. The accused of the conspiracy were prosecuted in the Hyderabad Jail.
44. Liaqat Nehru Pact announced at Delhi in April 1950.
45. Liaquat ali Khan visited America in May 1950.

Information about Pakistan and Ocean


Oceans

1. Pacific Ocean covers 49.9% of the earth surface.


2. Atlantic Ocean covers 25.7% of the earth surface.
3. Indian Ocean covers 20.5% of the earth surface.
4. Arctic Ocean covers 3.9% of the earth surface.

Pakistan

1. Pakistan is divided into six physio graphical divisions.


2. The total area of Pakistan (Excluding Azad Jammu and Kashmir) is 796,095 sq km.
3. Pakistan lies between the latitudes 24 N and 37 N.
4. In 1963, boundary agreement was signed between Pakistan-China.
5. Area of Wah khan is under the control of Afghanistan.
6. The Border agreement between Pakistan and India on Runn of Kuchh was singed in 1968.
7. Runn off Kutch boundary line is known as 24th parallel line.
8. In 1972, line of control came into existence.
9. In Simla agreement the cease-fire line’s name was changed as line of control.
10. Total area covered by FATA is 27,220 sq km.
11. According to international law Pakistan’s territorial sea limit is 12 NM.
12. Contagious zone of Pakistan is spread over 24NM.
13. The Kachhi Sibi plain is located in Lower Indus plain.
14. Oldest mountains of the world are present in India and youngest mountains of the world are
present in Pakistan.
15. The range which separates China from Pakistan is Karakoram.
16. The range which separates Pakistan from Afghanistan is Hindu Kush.
17. The salt range is situated between rivers Soan and Jhehlum.
18. Nanga Parbat means Naked mountain.
19. First Pakistani to climb the K-2 was Ashraf Aman.
20. Pamir Plateau is called Roof of the world.
21. Bolan Pass connects Sindh Plain with Quetta.
22. Babusar Pass connects Abbottabad with Gilgit.
23. Khojak Pass connects Qila Abdullah with Cheman.
24. The total length of Khyber Pass is 56 km.
25. Malakand Pass connects Peshawar with Chitral.
26. Muztagh Pass is the highest Pass of Pakistan.
27. Khyber Pakhtunkuwa province has no desert.
28. Balochistan province has the desert Kharan. The ranking of Thar desert in the world is 9th.

Important Facts

1. Benito Mussolini was the Ruler of Italy during World War-II.


2. Pearl Harbor is located in Hawaii (US).
3. Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 Dec 1941.
4. Allied Forces attacked Normandy on 6 June 1944.
5. Truman authorized nuclear strikes against Japan.
6. Winston Churchill was the British PM during 2nd World War.
7. the first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan on 6 Aug 1945 at Hiroshima.
8. Japan surrendered on 15 Aug 1945 in World War – II.
9. Operation Barbarossa was the name of the Operation launched by Germans
against Russia during 2nd World War.
10. Operation Neptune was the name of the Operation carried out by Allied Forces at Normandy in
1944.
11. Operation Husky was the name of the Operation launched by Allied Forces in order to
capture Sicily during 2nd World War.
12. Operation Nepal was the name of the Operation launched by Indians against Sialkot Sec in 1965.
13. Operation Grand Slam was the name of the Operation launched by Pakistan in1965.
14. Operation Desert Storm was the name of the Operation launched by Allied Forces against Iraq in
1991.
15. Operation Blue Star was the name of the Operation launched by Indian Government under PM
Indira Gandhi against Golden Temple in 1982.
16. Borneo (Indonesia) is the oldest forest in the world.
17. South Africa is the largest producer of Gold.
18. USA is the largest producer of manganese in the world.Brazil is the largest coffee growing
country in the world.
19. Malaysia is the largest producer of rubber in the world.
20. Malaysia is the largest producer of tin in the world.
21. Zambia is known as “Country of Copper”.
22. Blue Whale is the largest mammal on earth.
23. Beijing is known as ‘Forbidden City’.
24. Japan is known as “The Land of Rising Sun”.
25. Cuba is known as “The Sugar Bowl of the World”.
26. Norway is known as “The Land of Midnight Sun” of the World.
27. Thailand is known as “The Land of Elephants”.
28. Madagascar is known as “Island of Cloves”.
29. Korea is known as “Morning Calm”.
30. Bhutan is known as “Land of Thunderbolts”.
31. New York is known as “City of Skyscrapers”.

Basic Knowledge about regions


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Australasia
Australasia, in physical geography, designation sometimes applied to all the lands and
islands of the Pacific Ocean lying between the equator and latitude 47° South. The region
includes Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Dependencies, the
Marquesas Islands, and a large part of the Malay Archipelago.
The term Australasia is occasionally used to designate Oceania, which includes most of the
islands of the Pacific Ocean.
United Kingdom and Great Britain
UK and GB. Beginning in the 16th century, the British Isles underwent a series of political
changes that eventually led to the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland in 1801. The creation of the United Kingdom brought England, Scotland, Ireland,
and Wales (the four cultural regions of Britain) under the rule of a central government
headed by a common monarch and administered by a single parliament. When Ireland (with
the exception of its six northern counties) achieved independence in 1922, the kingdom was
renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Middle East
Middle East, geographic and cultural region located in southwestern Asia and northeastern
Africa. The geopolitical term Middle East, first coined in 1902 by United States naval officer
Alfred Thayer Mahan, originally referred to the Asian region south of the Black Sea between
the Mediterranean Sea to the west and India to the east. In modern scholarship, and for the
purposes of this article, the term refers collectively to the Asian countries of Bahrain,
Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel (and the Israeli-occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank), Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and
Yemen, and the African country of Egypt. A broader, more cultural definition might include
the Muslim countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Sudan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
The area is mostly arid with hot, dry summers and cool winters. It contains about 65 percent
of the world’s oil reserves, primarily in the states bordering the Persian Gulf.
Scandinavia
Scandinavia (ancient Scandia), name applied collectively to three countries of northern
Europe—Norway and Sweden (which together form the Scandinavian Peninsula), and
Denmark. The three countries are so grouped because of their historical, cultural, and
linguistic affinities. The term Scandinavia is sometimes extended to include Iceland, which
is linguistically related to the others, and less often to Finland, which is not linguistically
related. The term Nordic has been applied to the five countries of northern Europe (Norway,
Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland) that are united by geographical and economic
factors.
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations is the worldwide association of nations and their
dependencies, whose members share a common commitment to promoting human rights,
democracy, and economic development. All members accept the British monarch as the
symbolic head of the Commonwealth. All but one, Mozambique, were once associated in
some constitutional way with either the former British Empire or with another member
country. The association was formerly known as the British Commonwealth of Nations, but
today is referred to simply as the Commonwealth.
Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
upon the death of her father, King George VI, in 1952. The primary role of Elizabeth
throughout her reign has been as a symbol of unity and continuity within the Commonwealth
of Nations.
About 1.7 billion people live in the 54 independent nations and the more than 20
dependencies that make up the Commonwealth. Commonwealth members share many
customs and traditions as a result of their association with Britain. Many have parliamentary
systems of government on the British model, and their judicial and educational institutions
are often similar to those in Britain. English is an official language of many members of the
Commonwealth. Since 1977 the second Monday in March has been celebrated as
Commonwealth Day; on that day the British monarch, as the head of the Commonwealth,
presents an annual message to all member countries.

Today the British monarch is considered the head of state in only 16 Commonwealth
countries, which are now formally called realms. Realms include Canada, Australia, and
New Zealand. The other members recognize the Crown only as head of the
Commonwealth.

Seven Wonders of the world


The Pyramids of Egypt, built at Giza during the 4th Dynasty (circa 2575 bc - 2467 bc) are
the oldest of the seven wonders and the only ones remaining intact today.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, perhaps built by King Nebuchadnezzar II about 600
bc, were a mountain like series of planted terraces.
The 12-m (40-ft) Statue of Zeus (mid-5th century bc) by the Greek sculptor Phidias was the
central feature of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greece.
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Asia Minor (356 bc), which combined great size
with elaborate ornamentation, was destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD.
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (circa 353 bc) was a monumental marble tomb,
decorated by the leading sculptor of the age, for King Mausolus of Caria in Asia Minor; only
fragments remain.
The Colossus of Rhodes was a 30-m (100-ft) bronze statue of the Greek sun god Helios,
erected about 280 bc to guard the entrance to the harbor at Rhodes; it was destroyed about
55 years later.
The Pharaohs of Alexandria (circa 280 bc), located on an island in the harbor of
Alexandria, Egypt, was a famous ancient lighthouse standing more than 134 m (440 ft) tall;
it was destroyed in the 14th century.

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prizes, annual monetary awards granted to individuals or institutions for outstanding
contributions in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature,
international peace, and economic sciences. The Nobel prizes are internationally
recognized as the most prestigious awards in each of these fields. The prizes were
established by Swedish inventor and industrialist Alfred Bernhard Nobel, who set up a fund
for them in his will. The first Nobel prizes were awarded on December 10, 1901, the fifth
anniversary of Nobel’s death.
In 1900 the Nobel Foundation was established to manage the fund and to administer the
activities of the institutions charged with selecting winners. The fund is controlled by a board
of directors, which serves for two-year periods and consists of six members: five elected by
the trustees of the awarding bodies mentioned in the will, and the sixth appointed by the
Swedish government. All six members are either Swedish or Norwegian citizens.

Bermuda Triangle
Bermuda Triangle, region of the western Atlantic Ocean that has become associated in the
popular imagination with mysterious maritime disasters. Also known as the Devil's Triangle,
the triangle-shaped area covers about 1,140,000 sq km (about 440,000 sq mi) between the
island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida, and Puerto Rico.

The sinister reputation of the Bermuda Triangle may be traceable to reports made in the
late 15th century by navigator Christopher Columbus concerning the Sargasso Sea, in
which floating masses of gulf weed were regarded as uncanny and perilous by early sailors;
others date the notoriety of the area to the mid-19th century, when a number of reports
were made of unexplained disappearances and mysteriously abandoned ships. The earliest
recorded disappearance of a United States vessel in the area occurred in March 1918,
when the USS Cyclops vanished.

Battles of World War 1 - Summary


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Battles of World War 1

 Battle of Tannenberg - 23 Aug 1914


1. Tannenberg was fought in Poland but German Field Marshal gave the battle
name of " Tannenberg to avenge the Battle of Teutonic Knights in 1410.
2. Battle is known for the speedy concentration of German forces by Rail and
Russian failure of encoding their radio messages.
3. As a result of Tannenberg battle, Russian remained off balance till spring of
1915 due to destruction of 1st and 2nd Russian Army
 Battle of Marne - 25 Sep 1914
1. Battle of Marne is also known as the Miracle of Marne.
2. It was French General Joseph Joffre to launch counter attack on advancing
Germans in order to save Paris.
3. It is the offensive by French and British Expeditionary Force (BEF) against
advancing Germans who were within 48 kms of Paris.
4. French 6th Army under General Micheal - Joseph Maunoury attacked
German 1st army which reacted and a gap of 30 mile was formed between German
1st and 2nd Army.
5. Allies quickly grabbed the opportunity and counter attacked on German 2nd
Army to further widen the gap.
6. This forced the Germans to retreat to River Aisne which turned he offensive
action into Trench Warfare.
7. It is the first battle in which reconnaissance planes were used.
 Battle of Verdun - 21 Feb 1916
1. Battle of Verdun was one of the longest, largest and costly battle of the WW
1.
2. It was a planned German offensive in order to take France as German
thought without taking over France, battle can not be won.
3. German wanted that Battle of Attrition is to be imposed on France through
this battle.
4. Verdun acts like a salient and capturing it would definitely wore down the
capability of France due to commitment of its reserve in this battle.
5. France hastily built their forces on boarder and used motorized means to
transport the forces. Some 3000 Trucks were used which were spread in 57 km from
Bar - le - Duc to Verdun known to be "The Scared Way".
6. German's advance a little but their advancement was held up by French
troops.
7. Artillery was used extensively in this battle.
8. Eight of the villages of France were completely wiped off by Artillery shelling
and were memorized as Died for France.
9. 40 Tons of un exploded ordnance is extracted from these villages on yearly
basis and is estimated that with this rate the process will continue for centuries to
come.
 Battle of Jutland - 31 May 1916
1. Battle of Jutland (Denmark) is also known as Battle of Skagerrak ( North
Sea).
2. Battle was indecisive as Germans destroyed more ships and Britishers
retained the control of North Sea.
 Battle of Somme - 1 Jul 1916
1. Battle was fought between Germans and Allied ( Germans and French).
2. British Army include Kitchener's Army ( recruited by Lord Kitchener) and
distributed in Pal's Battalion (Soldiers kept with their relatives and friends which were
part of the same battalion).
3. Due to prolonged trench warfare Allied decided for an offensive but Germans
went offensive in Battle of Verdun.
4. French asked Britishers to go for Battle of Somme so as to divert the
Germans from Verdun.
5. Britishers started the battle with Artillery barrage consisting of 3000 Artillery
guns which fired 16 lac Artillery shells for 8 continuous days in order to destroy the
front line of Germans.
6. On 1st day of attack, Britishers suffered 60,000 causalities.
7. From 1st July to 18th November 2016, Britishers gained 7 miles and suffered
6,230,000 casualties.
 Second Battle of Marne - 16 Jul 1918
1. The offensive was planned by General Erich Luddendorff in order to divert the
attention of Allied forces from main objective.
2. French foresaw the German offensive and reinforced its defenses by
Britishers and Americans.
3. Germans crossed the River Marne from several points but made little
advancements.
4. Germans were shocked when allied counterattacked the bulge (prepared by
German's) and pushed them to their earlier defensive line of Aisne - Vesle line.
 Battle of St Mihiel - 23 Sep 1918
1. It was the first independent battle which was undertaken by US Army.
2. The objective was to recapture the Mihiel, a salient captured by Germans
located at south of Verdun.
3. US Army took assistance of 3000 Artillery Guns, 430 planes and indulged
550,000 troops and eventually recaptured the salient.

World War 1
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World War 1
 Important To Know
1. WW 1 is the fifth deadliest conflict in world history.
2. Italy, Germany and Austria - Hungary were members of Triple alliance.
3. Russia, France and Britain were members of the Triple Entente.
4. WW 1 started on 28 Jul 1914.
5. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand caused the start of WW 1.
6. Gavrilo Princip assassinated Franz Ferdinand.
7. Italy joined WW 1 in 1915.
8. Russia did not participate in the African theater of WW 1.
9. Luxembourg was invaded first by Germany in WW 1.
10. Strategy of Erich von Falkenhayn (German Chief of Staff) were unrestricted
submarine warfare and high causality attacks against French Troops.
11. Radars were NOT used in western front during WW 1.
12. Battle of Ypres is significant for use of chemical weapons.
13. Estimated causalities during Battle of Verdun are 7 lac.
 Main Events of World War 1

1. 23 Jun 1914 - Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.


2. 28 Jul 1914 - Austrian - Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia.
3. 3 Aug 1914 - Germany ( allied with Austrian - Hungarian Empire invaded
Belgium(execution of Schlieffen Plan) (Siege of Liege was the first battle in Belgium).
4. 23 Aug 1914 - Battle of Tannenberg ( Germans stopped Russian advance)
5. 7 to 10 Aug 1914 - Battle of Mulhouse - French 1st offensive against German
advance towards France.
6. 25 Sep 1914 - Battle of Marne (German were stopped by Allies) (The battle is
considered to be the turning point of the German advance on the Western Front).
7. 7 May 1915 - German took the war to waters. German U Boat sank Lusitania
( British passenger ship).
8. 21 Feb 1916 - Battle of Verdun ( French hold their defensive line against
German attacks).
9. 31 May 1916 - Battle of Jutland (Naval battle between Germans and
Britishers).
10. 1 Jul 1916 - Battle of Somme
11. 2 Apr 1917 - USA made its entry in war and declared war on Central Powers.
12. 10 Nov 1917 - USSR withdrew from war.
13. 21 Mar 1918 - German spring offensive started on western front.
14. 1 Apr 1918 - Royal Air force was formed.
15. 16 Jul 1918 - Second Battle of Marne took place ( Allied defeated the central
powers and continued their advance till the end of war).
16. 23 Sep 1918 - Battle of St Mihiel.
17. 3 Nov 1918 - Austrian - Hungarian Empire surrendered.
18. 11 Nov 1918 - Central Powers signed the armistice which ended WW 1.

 Emperors/ Rulers During WW 1

1. George V was the King of United Kingdom in WW 1.


2. Mehmed V was the Sultan of Ottoman empire in WW 1.
3. Ferdinand 1 was the ruler of Bulgaria during WW 1.
4. Wilhelm 1 was the emperor of Germany during WW 1.
5. Franz Joseph 1 was the emperor of Austria during WW 1.
6. Raymond Poincare was the president of France in WW 1.
7. Victor Emmanuel is the king of Italy during WW 1.

Salient of NATO and League of Nations


United Nations - The Essentials
UNITED NATIONS
1. United Nation organization is established to promote international cooperation.
2. It was established on 24 October 1945, after world war II, as a replacement of League of nations.
3. During its inception, UN has 51 x countries as its members.
4. Currently, 193 x countries are its members and 2 x countries have the status of observer states
(Holy see and Palestine)
5. UN HQ is at Manhattan, New York, USA.
6. UN Secretary General is Banki Moon (South Korean) who is in chair since 2007.
7. UN charter was drafted from Apr to Jun 1945 and was enforced in October 1945.
8. UN has won noble prize for promoting peace in 2001.
9. Official Languages of UN are
i. Arabic
ii. Chinese
iii. English
iv. French
v. Russian
vi. Spanish.

UN has six principal organizations namely


1. General Assembly
2. Security Council
3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
4. Secretariat
5. International Court of Justice
6. United Nations Trusteeship Council.

General Assembly
1. General Assembly is located in Newyork, USA.
2. General Assembly has a total of 193 x members.
3. The distribution of seats between the continents are :- Asia - 50, Africa - 55, Europe - 42, Latin
America and Caribbean - 33, North America - 2 and Oceania - 11.
4. It holds its meeting annually, selecting the president from member countries after 5 x years.

Security Council
1. Security Council Headquarters is located in New York, USA.
2. Responsible for International peace and security.
3. It was originally consisted of 11 members. Distribution is 5 x Permanent members and 6 x Non
Permanent members (selected for 2 x years).
4. As the members rose, Security council consisted of 15 x members. Distribution is 5 x Permanent
members and 10 x Non Permanent members (selected for 2 x years. 5 x members are elected
annually by the General Assembly and 5 x members retire each year).
5. Germany, India and Germany have applied for the permanent seats in Security council but still
the permanent members remained the same.
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
1. Economic and Social Council is located at New York, USA.
2. Responsible for economic and social issues of the UN and its agencies.
3. It was originally consisted of representatives of 18 members but the members were increased to
54 as per amended charter in 1974.
4. Out of 54 x members, 5 x members are constant while 49 x members are elected for a period of
3 x years.
5. ECOSOC authorizes consultative status to non Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
6. 3 x Types of non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) work under this council. Category I include
General Category NGOs with multiple activities. Category II include Special Category NGOs with
a specialized focus on certain fields. Category III include Roster NGOs which have occasional
interest in UN;s activities.

Secretariat
1. The secretary general is the principle administrative officer of UN.
2. The Secretary General is elected for 5 x years with the 2/3rd votes of General Assembly,
recommendations of Security Council and approval from permanent members.
3. Secretary General usually hails from small and neutral countries.
4. Two of the Secretary General had been awarded noble prize. Dag Hammarskjold (1961) and Kofi
Annan (2001).
5. The Secretariat is located at New York, Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi (Kenya), and other locales.

International Court of Justice


1. It is located at Hague.
2. International Court of Justice is commonly called World Court.
3. The idea of its creation was envisaged in 1899 at Hague.
4. It continued to remain its operation under "league of nations" under the name of "Permanent
Court of International Justice".
5. Panel of International Court of Justice consists of 15 x judges which serve for 9 x years. No two
judges may be the nationals of the same state.

United Nations Trusteeship Council


1. Responsible to supervise the government of trust territories and lead them to independent
government.
2. Holds it council annually and consisted of permanent members, trustee members and other
members voted to join from General Assembly.
3. After the independence Palau ( the last Trust Territory), it has stopped its operations since 1994.

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

1. NATO has its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.


2. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949 at the beginning of the Cold War.
3. The original purpose of NATO was to defend Western Europe against possible attack by
Communist nations led by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
4. The original signatories were 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy,
Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States).
5. Until 1950 NATO consisted primarily of a pledge by the United States to defend other members
of the alliance under the terms of Article 5 of the treaty.
6. NATO’s importance grew with the worsening of relations between the Soviet Union and
Western powers.
7. Greece and Turkey were admitted to the alliance in 1952, West Germany in 1955 and Spain in
1982.
8. The 1960's were characterized by two consequent developments in NATO: the withdrawal of
France, and the rising influence of the smaller nations, which sought to use NATO as an
instrument of détente as well as defense.
9. The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) in 1987 presaged the
breakdown of the Warsaw Pact.
10. In 1990 the newly unified Germany replaced West Germany as a NATO member.
11. After the formal end of the Cold War in 1991, NATO reached out to former members of the
Warsaw Pact, the Communist military alliance created in 1955 by the USSR to counter NATO.
12. In 1995, after a 30-year boycott, France returned to NATO, accepting a seat on the military
committee after U.S. president Bill Clinton accelerated plans for NATO’s expansion.
13. In 1999 former Warsaw Pact members Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic became
members of NATO, bringing the total membership to 19 nations.
14. In 2002 Russia, once the USSR’s largest republic became a limited partner in NATO as a member
of the NATO-Russia Council.
15. In 2003, for the first time in its history, NATO took up peacekeeping activities outside of Europe
by deploying troops in Afghanistan.
16. The North Atlantic Treaty consists of a preamble and 14 articles.
17. The highest authority within NATO is the North Atlantic Council, composed of permanent
delegates from all members, headed by a secretary general.
18. The secretary general runs the Secretariat, which handles all the nonmilitary functions of the
alliance.
19. The Military Committee consists of the chiefs of staff of the various armed forces; it meets twice
a year.
20. In 2002, Russia became a limited partner in NATO as part of the NATO-Russia Council.
21. Also in 2002, NATO invited seven other countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,
Slovenia, and Slovakia) to become members of the organization. All seven were admitted in
2004, bringing NATO’s total membership to 26.
22. In 2003, NATO expanded its mission beyond Europe for the first time in its history by assuming
control of peacekeeping operations in Afghanistan.
23. The member countries in 2016 is 28.

LEAGUE OF NATIONS
1. League of Nations was international alliance for the preservation of Peace.
2. The league existed from 1920 to 1946.
3. The first meeting was held in Geneva, on November 15, 1920, with 42 nations represented.
4. The last meeting was held on April 8, 1946; at that time the league was superseded by the
United Nations (UN).
5. During the league's 26 years, a total of 63 nations belonged at one time or another; 28 were
members for the entire period.
6. In 1918, as one of his Fourteen Points summarizing Allied aims in World War I, United States
president Woodrow Wilson presented a plan for a general association of nations. The plan
formed the basis of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the 26 articles that served as
operating rules for the league
7. The covenant was formulated as part of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, in
1919.
8. The machinery of the league consisted of an assembly, a council, and a secretariat.
9. Before World War II (1939-1945), the assembly convened regularly at Geneva in September; it
was composed of three representatives for every member state, each state having one vote.
10. The council met at least three times each year to consider political disputes and reduction of
armaments; it was composed of several permanent members.
11. The secretariat was the administrative branch of the league and consisted of a secretary general
and a staff of 500 people.
12. Although Germany joined the league in 1926, the National Socialist (Nazi) government withdrew
in 1933. Japan also withdrew in 1933 after Japanese attacks on China were condemned by the
league.
13. The USSR, a member since 1934, was expelled following the Soviet attack on Finland in 1939.
14. In 1946, the league voted to affect its own dissolution, whereupon much of its property and
organization were transferred to the UN.

International Organizations - IAEA and ICJ


INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
1. Head of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is Yukiya Amano.
2. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), intergovernmental organization, part of the United
Nations.
3. The agency shared the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize with its director, Mohamed ElBaradei, for its
ongoing efforts combating nuclear weapons proliferation.
4. Established in 1957, the IAEA has more than 168 member countries.
5. The agency is led by a director general, who is elected to a four-year term that can be renewed.
6. A Board of Governors, consisting of representatives from 35 nations, oversees the work of the
agency.
7. The IAEA headquarters is in Vienna, Austria.
8. In the field of disarmament the IAEA plays an important policing role in connection with the
Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which went into effect in 1970.
9. The IAEA, however, has no authority to inspect the nuclear facilities of nations that do not
participate in the NPT.
10. After initially opposing a third term for IAEA director El Baradei, the United States agreed to
support him and he was reappointed in June 2005.

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE


1. International Court of Justice, also known as World Court, principal judicial organ of the United
Nations (UN).
2. It was created in 1945 under the UN Charter as the successor to the Permanent Court of
International Justice under the League of Nations.
3. The court has its headquarters in The Hague, The Netherlands.
4. All members of the UN are automatically parties to the court’s statute. A nation that is not a UN
member may become a party to the statute or use the court if it accepts conditions set by the
UN and agrees to contribute to the expenses of the court.
5. The UN Security Council is empowered to take measures to enforce the decision of the court if
the parties to the dispute fail to enforce it themselves.
6. The court has 15 judges, each elected by an absolute majority of the Security Council and the
General Assembly, voting independently of each other.
7. The judges are elected for Nine years and may be reelected; no two may be nationals of the
same country.
8. A judge may be removed from the court only by unanimous vote of the other judges.
9. They do not represent their countries but are elected on the basis of their knowledge of
international law.
10. Nine judges constitute a quorum (the minimum number necessary to decide a case), and
questions before the court are decided by a majority of judges present.

International Organizations ( ECOSOC and G - 8)

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

1. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), one of the six principal organs of the United Nations,
composed of representatives of 56 countries.
2. Each year 18 members are elected by the UN General Assembly for 3 years terms.
3. ECOSOC's early activities were directed toward providing aid to war-ravaged countries of Europe
and Asia.
4. Today, the problems of developing nations are its major concern.
5. The decisions reached at council meetings, where each member has one vote and a simple
majority rules, are sent as recommendations to the General Assembly.
6. The six functional commissions deal with problems relating to social development, human
rights, the status of women, narcotic drugs, population, and national and international statistics.
7. There are also five standing committees and assorted expert bodies that deal with such matters
as natural resources, development of science and technology, and crime prevention.
8. Five regional commissions are currently in operation within the council.
9. Each one is headed by an executive secretary.
10. The Economic Commission for Europe, headquartered in Geneva has 56 members.
11. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, headquartered in Bangkok has 53 full
members and 9 associate members.
12. Both were established in 1947.
13. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, with 45 full members and 13
associate members, was set up in 1948 in Santiago, Chile.
14. In 1958 the Economic Commission for Africa was established at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, it has 54
participating member nations.
15. The Economic Commission for Western Asia, with 18 members, was organized in 1973 in Beirut,
Lebanon its headquarters was subsequently moved to Baghdad, Iraq because of the war in
Lebanon.

Group of Eight
1. Group of Eight, economic and political forum for eight of the world’s most industrialized nations:
Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States.
2. The group arose informally during the 1970 from the meetings of finance ministers arranged by
President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing of France and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt of West Germany.
3. Initially the group was formed as G - 6 minus Canada which joined in second year. After Russia
joined the group it is then known as G - 8.
4. The Group of Eight, known as the G - 8, now meets once a year to exchange information and
ideas particularly in economics and to discuss matters of international concern.
5. Russia was first invited to the summit as a guest in 1991.
6. In 1997 Russia for the first time was invited to participate in almost all of the deliberations, was
officially recognized as a member in 1998.
7. Before Russia became a member, the forum was known as the Group of 7 or G - 7.
8. The G-8 has no headquarters or formal structure.
9. President of European commission is also present who represents European Union.
10. Presently, Russia is suspended from G - 8.

International Organizations
African Union
1. The African Union has 54 member nations.
2. Its headquarters is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
3. The organization was founded in Addis Ababa on May 25, 1963.
4. It retained that name until 2002 when it formally became the African Union.
5. The AU is divided into 8 commissions and 14 directorates.
6. The Assembly of the Heads of States and Governments is the supreme body.
7. It consists of a representative from each member nation, usually the head of state.
8. The Assembly meets at least once a year.
9. The key organ for the day-to-day functioning of the AU is the AU Commission, which consists of
a chairperson, a deputy chairperson, eight commissioners, and a staff.
10. In 1975 the organization’s members became divided over which side to support in the Angolan
Civil War.
11. South Africa was excluded from OAU membership until 1994, when white minority rule and
apartheid (the policy of racial segregation) ended.
12. The organization sent an observer mission to the United Nations (UN) in 1963.
13. The OAU received a boost when South Africa became a member in 1994.
14. In 2002 the OAU formally changed its name to the African Union, believing that the new name
better captured the organization’s goal of establishing a common economic market and political
union across the entire continent.

ARAB LEAGUE
1. Arab League has 22 x members and 4 x observers.
2. Arab League, informal name of the League of Arab States, a voluntary association of
independent countries whose peoples are mainly Arabic speaking.
3. The league was founded in Cairo in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Trans
Jordan (Jordan, as of 1949), and Yemen( 7 countries).
4. The Palestine Liberation Organization was admitted in 1976.
5. Egypt's membership was suspended in 1979 after it signed a peace treaty with Israel; the
league's headquarters was moved from Cairo, Egypt, to Tunis, Tunisia.
6. In 1987 Arab leaders decided to renew diplomatic ties with Egypt. Egypt was readmitted to the
league in 1989 and the league's headquarters was moved back to Cairo.
7. The supreme organ of the Arab League is its council, made up of all the member states; each
state has one vote.
8. The council convenes twice annually, in March and September.
9. The league appoints, by two-thirds majority, a secretary general, who is in charge of the
administration and financial offices, called the secretariat general.
10. Ahmed Esmat Abdul Maguid was unanimously voted secretary general by the council in 1991.
11. The Egyptian government first proposed the Arab League in 1943.
12. The members eventually formed a joint defense council, an economic council, and a permanent
military command.

World Geography and facts


1. Andes – South America (4500 miles) is the longest mountain range.
2. Mariana trenches – Pacific Ocean (10923 m) is the deepest pt in Ocean.
3. Lake Superior in Canada / US is the largest fresh water lake in world.
4. Atlantic and Pacific are connected by Panama canal.
5. Ural Mountains range divides European and Asian Russia.
6. Canada is the 2nd largest country in the world (area wise).
7. Indonesia is the largest archipelago state in the world.
8. Kazakhstan is the largest Muslim country in the world (area wise).
9. Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan constitutes CAR states.
10. Dover Strait is the busiest strait in the world.
11. River Lore is the largest river in France.
12. Angel Falls, Venezuela is the highest waterfall in the world.
13. Sahara Desert is the biggest desert in the world.
14. Verkoyansk (Siberia) is the coldest place on the earth.
15. Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
16. Coastal Area of Dead Sea is the lowest point on the earth.
17. Sunder bans is the oldest delta of the world.
18. Greenland is the biggest island in the world.
19. The River Volga flows into Caspian Sea.
20. The River Jordan flows into Dead Sea.
21. Belgrade is located on River Danube.
22. Port of Baku is located in Azerbaijan.
23. Venice is known as “City of Canals”.
24. The River Wangchu flows in Myanmar.
25. Mississippi carries maximum water into the sea.
26. Tibet is known as “Roof of the World”.
27. The length of English Channel is 564 Km.
28. Dublin is located on River Liffey.
29. Damascus is the world’s oldest known city.
30. Nicolas II was the last CZAR of Russia.
31. Napoleon was finally defeated in Waterloo on 18 June 1815.
32. 1st World War started on 7 Aug 1914.
33. Singapore separated from Malaysia on 9 Aug 1965.
34. The last King of Afghanistan was Zahir Shah.
35. Hong Kong joined Peoples Republic of China in 1997.
36. Neil Armstrong (US) was the 1st man on the moon.
37. Yuri Gagarin (USSR) was the 1st man in the space.
38. Valentina Tereshkova was the 1st woman in the space.
39. Rear Peary was the first man to reach North Pole.
40. Ronald Amundson was the first man to reach South Pole.
41. Japan manufactured the 1st ac carrier.
42. Mohammed Nequib was the first president of Egypt.
43. Garibaldi is known as father of modern Italy.
44. Bismarck is known as founder of modern Germany.
45. San Yat Sen was the founder of China.
46. Abdul Salam was the first Pakistani to receive Nobel prize.
47. Ralph Jonson Bunche was the first Negro to receive Nobel prize.
48. Margaret Thatcher was the first woman Prime Minister of Britain.
49. Mujib ur Rehman was the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh.
50. Trygve Lie was the first Secretary General of UN.

Pakistan Geography and History


1. Total area of Pakistan is 7,96,096 sq.km.
2. Pakistan is located between 24 N to 36.5 N and 61 E to 75.5 E.
3. Raja Poras was the Indian ruler fought Alexander the Great on River Jhelum.
4. Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded Sub-continent in 712 AD.
5. East India Company first arrived in India in 1615.
6. All India Muslim League was founded in 30 Dec 1906.
7. Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in 1913 and remained member of both Muslim League and
Congress till quit Congress in 1920.
8. Red Cliff award was established in 3 Jun 1947.
9. 565 princely states were present on the eve of independence of Sub continent.
10. The ruler of Kashmir on the eve of independence was Hari Singh.
11. The instrument of accession of Kashmir to India was signed on 27 Oct 1947.
12. Indus water treaty was signed in 1960 between India and Pakistan.
13. Mangla Dam is constructed on river Jhelum.
14. Warsak dam is constructed on river Kabul.
15. Sukkar barrage is constructed on river Indus.
16. River Kabul flows from Afghanistan and joins Indus at Attock Br.
17. The longest river of sub continent is Indus River - 3200 Km.
18. Ravi is the shortest river of Pakistan.
19. Driest place of Pakistan is naukundi in Baluchistan.
20. Height of K-2 is 28250 feet.
21. Highest peak of Himalayas is Nanga parbat.
22. Highest place of salt range is Soan sakesar.
23. Highest peak of Suleman range is known as Takht-i-Suleman.
24. Babusar pass connects Abbottabad and Gilgit.
25. Lawari pass connects Dir and chitral.
26. Dargai pass connects Mardan and malakand.
27. Lake Saif ul Maluk is situated in kaghan valley.
28. Hamun-e-Makhkel is the largest dry lake of Balochistan.
29. Sea frontage of Pakistan is 1046 Km.
30. Sir Creek is situated in the South East of Karachi.
31. Iran is surrounded on the north by Caspian sea.
32. Iran consists of 30 provinces.
33. India is comprised 28 states.
34. Total number of provinces of China is 22.
35. Afghanistan consists of 34 provinces.
36. Length of common border between Pakistan and Iran is 909 Km.
37. Length of common border between Pakistan and Afghanistan is 2430 Km.
38. The Durand Line i.e. the boundary between then British India now Pakistan and Afghanistan was
established in 1893.
39. Length of border between China and Pakistan is 523 Km.
40. Length of common border between Pakistan and India is 2912 Km.
41. Coastal Length of Pakistan is 1046 Km.
42. 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan was Mr Liaqat Ali Khan.
43. Indus Water Basin Treaty was signed in 19 Sep 1960.
44. Simla Agreement was signed on 2 Jul 1972 between Pakistan and India.
45. The present constitution of Pakistan was adopted on 14 Aug 1973.
46. The total no of seats in the National Assembly of Pakistan are 342, out of which 272 are direct
elected, 60 x seats are reserved for women and 10 x seats are reserved for religious minorities.
47. The total no of seats in the Provincial Assemblies are as:- Punjab - 371, Sind - 168, Balochistan -
65 and KPK - 124. Seats are distributed in 2 x broad categories of General Seats and Women
Seats.
48. The largest export item of Pakistan is Garments.
49. Types of border of Pakistan shared with India are Line of Actual Contact, Line of Control ,
Working Boundary and Intl Border.
50. Line of Control is recognized through Simla Agreement.
51. Working bdry is a de-facto border between India and Pakistan till resolution of the Kashmir
Issue.
52. International border between Pakistan and India runs over a length of 2240 Km.
53. The first border agreement in between India and Pakistan is known as KarachiAgreement.
54. FATA is comprised of Peshawar Tribal Area , Kohat Tribal Area, DI Khan Tribal Area, Bannu
Tribal Area, Bajur Agency, Khurram Agency, Mahmand Agency, Khyber Agency, North
Waziristan Agency, South Waziristan Agency and Orakzai Waziristan Agency.

General Knowledge - Miscellaneous Facts


1. Canada has the largest coastal boundary country.
2. Brazil is located in South America.
3. McMahon line is the international boundary between India and china.
4. 1 meter is equal to 3.28 foot.
5. Caspian sea boarders Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan..
6. Old name of Iraq is Mesopotamia.
7. Blood is red due to hemoglobin.
8. Mariana Trench is found near Philippines.
9. Headquarter of Gandhara civilization is at Taxilla.
10. Headquarter of SAARC is located at Kathmandu.
11. Maximum wool producing country is Australia.
12. The official religion of japan is Shintoism.
13. Niagara fall lies between USA and Canada.
14. Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) appointed Hazrat Muaz bin Jabal as governor of Yemen for collection
zakat.
15. Zakat is mentioned for 32 times in Quran.
16. Surah which gives details about zakat is Surah Tuba.
17. Zakat is made compulsory in 2 Hijra.
18. Headquarter of ILO is located in Geneva.
19. Jaundice is caused due to disturbance of liver.
20. liver organ gets disturbed in hepatitis.
21. Nisab in the amount of gold is 87.48 gram.
22. Nisab in silver is 612.32 gram.
23. 948kg wheat or equal is equal to nisab.
24. Father of the French Revolution was Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
25. Statue of freedom in New York was given by France.
26. Wall Street is a famous for stock market in New York.
27. Sunlight consists of 7 colours.
28. Theory of relativity is presented by Einstein.
29. Cash crop is the crop which is not cultivated for own use.
30. .Zakat on goats is applicable on 40 goats.
31. Amount of zakat on gold, silver and similar things is 2.5 %of the value.
32. Zakat ordinance is promulgated on 20 June 1980.
33. Dasman palace is residence of Ameer of Kuwait.
34. Cartography is the study of secret writing.
35. Elysee palace is the residence of French president.
36. Second largest population in Afghanistan is of Tajik.
37. The magnitude of earthquake is measured with Richter Scale.
38. The largest Muslim country (according to area) in he world is Kazakistan.
39. Napoleon was known as the Man of Destiny.
40. Adam’s Peak is located in Srilanka.

Important Facts

1. The country close to international date line is New Zealand.


2. 21st June is the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere.
3. Antarctica is the coldest place situated in the world.
4. Africa has the least rainfall in the world.
5. South Pole is located in the continent of Antarctica.
6. Sahara is the largest desert in the world present in North Africa.
7. The first successful expedition to the Mount Everest was made in 1953.
8. The shortest day is 22 December.
9. The duration of a day at the poles is of 6 months.
10. Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula.
11. Earth completes one rotation on its axis in 23 hours 56 mints and 4.9 sec.
12. The “Roof of the world” is Pamir plateau (Tibet).
13. Antarctica is the least populated country in the world?.
14. The Kalahari Desert, which stretches over 1, 40,000 miles, is in South Africa.
15. Australia is the smallest continent of the world area-wise.
16. Himalaya range is located in Asia.
17. Africa is the continent which is without glaciers.
18. Hydrogen gas is most predominant in the sun.
19. Plants exhale carbon dioxide at night.
20. Velocity of sound is 343 m/s.
21. Vitamin C is not stored in human body.
22. Lake of vitamin c create skin disease.
23. Vitamin K helps blood clotting.
24. Founder of Muslim rule in India is Qutubuddin Abek.
25. Razia sultana belong to slave dynasty.
26. Second battle of Panipat was fought between Akbar and Himu Bakal.
27. Taklamakan desert is found in Xinjaning China.
Rivers/ Lakes/ Canals
1. Lake Superior is the biggest fresh water lake in the world.
2. The two seas linked by Suez canal are the Mediterranean and red sea.
3. Nile is the longest river in the world.
4. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.
5. Victoria is the largest lake in Africa.
6. The city of London is located at the banks of River Thames.
7. The rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Bea and Sutlej are tributaries of Indus River.
8. Humidity in the river in Monsoon is maximum.
9. World’s largest river is Amazon.
10. The Panama Canal links North America with South America.
11. The word “Tsunami” belongs to Japanese language.
12. The largest coral reef is located at Australia.
13. Sumatra was epicenter of Tsunami of 26, December 2004.

General Knowledge - Facts and Figures


1. Mississippi is the longest river of America.
2. Don is river of Russia.
3. The length of Khyber Pass is 56 km.
4. Longest glacier of the world is Lambert situated in Antarctica, it’s length is 320 Miles.
5. Budapest is the capital of Hungary situated on the bank of River Danube.
6. Paris is the capital of France situated on the bank of Seine.
7. Great Victoria Desert is present in Australia.
8. Simpson Desert is present in Australia.
9. Andes is the longest mountain range in the world.
10. The origin of earth dates back to approximately 4.6 billion year.
11. The second largest continent is Africa.
12. South pole was discovered by Amundsen.
13. The dates on which day and night is equal are 21st march and 23rd September.
14. Pacific is the deepest ocean in the world.

Some Facts About Rivers/ Canals/ Waterfalls/ Bays

1. Lake Eire is most polluted lake in the world.


2. Tugela water fall is present in South Africa.
3. Gota canal is the ship canal situated in Sweden.
4. Kiel canal of Germany was opened in 1895 its length is 61.3 miles.
5. Erie canal is located in USA.
6. Houston and Delaware canals are present in the France.
7. Grand canal is oldest man made canal for shipping purpose situated in China.
8. Persian Gulf is located in Arabian ocean.
9. Sutherland waterfall is present in New-Zealand.
10. Hudson Bay is present in Northern Canada.
11. Gulf of Mexico is the largest gulf of the world.
12. Hudson bay is the largest bay of the world.
13. Yosemite is a famous waterfall of USA.
14. Agra is very famous city of India due to Taj Mahal, it is situated on the bank of river Jumna.
15. The river Volga pours its water into the Caspian Sea.
16. South China Sea is the largest sea in the world.
17. Congo River crosses the equator twice.

Some Facts About Straits

1. Strait of Bosporus connects Black sea and sea of Marmara.


2. Messina separates Italy from Sicily.
3. Strait of Malacca separates Malaysia and Indonesia.
4. Palk strait separate India From Sri Lanka.
5. Johor strait separates Malaysia from Singapore.
6. Sea of Marmara and Aegean sea are connected by the strait Dardanelles.
7. Cook Strait separates south New-Zealand from North New-Zealand.
8. English Channel separates England from France.
9. Gulf of sidra is present in Libya.
10. Ecology is the study of the relation between organisms and environment.
11. CACM stands for Central American Common Market. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua are part of it.
12. Penicillin is used as antibiotic.
13. Weight Lifting was introduced in Olympics in 1986 at Athens.
14. First Afghan war was fought in 1839.
15. The first Olympics was hosted by Athens in 1896.
16. China tested its first nuclear device in 1964.
17. Burger King was opened in 1954 in Miami by James Mclamore and David Edger ton.
18. Denmark has the oldest national flag.
19. The Ural mountains separate Europe from Russia.
20. Imaginary line that closely follows the Meridian is called International Date Line.
21. Aquicludes are the rock formation that can not store water.
22. Lowest point of the Dead sea lie at Israel and Jordon.
23. Rhine river of northern Europe empties in North sea.
24. Wind which reverses seasonally is called monsoon.
25. The interval between two high tides is 12 hours.
26. The lowest point of Australia is Eyre Lake.
27. Monaco is the most densely populated nation of the world.
28. Spring tide occur when sin, moon and earth are in a straight line.
29. The largest producer of the fuel wood in the world is Russia.
30. Moon's volume is 1/50th to earth.
31. Pakistan has the world's largest cultivated area of cotton.
32. Diamante Trench is located in Indian ocean.
33. Great bear Lake is located at Canada.
34. Lake Victoria is the largest fresh water lake by area in Africa.
35. Commonwealth countries meet biannually in Commonwealth conference.
36. Rome is the capital of Italy.
37. Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina.
38. Bissau is the capital of Guinea.
39. Human Saliva contains pain killer "opiorphin" which is six times more powerful than "morphine".

Sunday Special 40 General Facts


Articles will be uploaded on daily basis. Be a regular visitor otherwise visiting once will not
give the desired results and will not achieve the purpose of this blog.

1. Caddle is associated to Golf.


2. The Rovers cup is associated with football.
3. Football hero who is nicknamed as The Sundance Kid is Jim Kiick.
4. Cricket is the game which is not included in Olympics.
5. 3rd largest continent of the world is North America.
6. Death Valley is located in California in USA.
7. France and Italy are connected by Mont Blanc Tunnel.
8. Radiations of the sun which are reflected in the space constitute 36% of the total
radiations.
9. Baltic states are Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
10. Thermal equator is located in northern hemisphere.
11. North America occupies 16.30% of the total surface of the earth.
12. World's largest city by area is New York.
13. World's largest strait is Malacca Strait.
14. Mercury and Venus has no natural satellite.
15. Stage is the smallest division on geological time scale.
16. Continents are drifted apart due to tectonic activities.
17. Earth is to rotating from West to East.
18. Earth is referred as Blue Planet due to presence of water.
19. Stromboli volcano is also termed as Light house of Mediterranean.
20. Third world countries include countries from Africa, Asia and Central America.
21. The biggest desert of the world is Sahara Desert.
22. Kazakhstan has the world's largest deposits of minerals.
23. December 22 is the longest day in Southern Hemisphere.
24. Capital of Italy is Rome.
25. Capital of Argentina is Buenos Aires.
26. Bissau is the capital of Guinea.
27. Capital of Iceland is Reykjavik.
28. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
29. Currency of Cyprus is pound.
30. Currency of Belgium is Euro.
31. Cedi is the currency of Ghana.
32. Dollar is the currency of East Timor.
33. Currency of Brazil is Real.
34. Indian space programme begin in 1962.
35. Indian Air force celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 1982.
36. State Bank of India has the highest number of branches in India.
37. Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace prize in 1979.
38. Tomb of Vasco da gamma is located at Kochi in Kerala.
39. National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) was set in India in 1980.
40. Indian first nuclear blast at Pokhran in Rajasthan were carried in 1974.

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Weekend Special 50 General Facts


1. 3rd crusade was led by Richard 1 of England, Philip 2 of France and Fredrick Barbarossa
of Germany.
2. The Head quarter of Economic Commission for Africa is located at Addis a Baba.
3. Leonardo da Vinci painted the painting of Mona Lisa in 1504 AD.
4. Lotus flower depicts culture and civilization.
5. Thiamine is the chemical name of Vitamin B.
6. The refrigerant used commonly in domestic refrigerators is Ammonia.
7. The first meeting of UN General Assembly was held in London.
8. G-15 is the economic grouping of Third world countries.
9. Neil Armstrong and Edwin E Aldrin landed on moon on 21 Jul 1969.
10. Sky is of blue colour due to dispersion of light.
11. The significance of peace is denoted by Olive Branch.
12. Pakistan left commonwealth in 1972 but rejoined in 1991 as 49th member.
13. Principal bodies of UN are General Assembly, Security council, Economic and social
council, international court of Justice, Trustee ship council and Secretariat.
14. Capital of Kyrgyzstan is Bishkek.
15. Capital of Indonesia is Jakarta.
16. Capital of Mauritania is Nouakchott.
17. Low pressure belt around the equator where air is thin and seas are calm.
18. Equatorial evergreen forests are known as Selvas.
19. Rodents constitute 40% of the mammals ( mammals without canine teeth).
20. Mercury is the smallest planet of our solar system.
21. Tropic of Capricorn is South in relation to the equator.
22. Tropic of Cancer is in North in relation to the equator.
23. Peninsula is the kind which is surrounded by water from three directions.
24. Densely populated continent is Europe.
25. Widened river mouth when river enters into the sea is known as Estuary.
26. Marina Trenches in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest point in the world.
27. In Pakistan, Monsoon begins in late July.
28. Two larger landmasses connected with a narrow neck of land is known as Isthmus.
29. Antarctica does not has the permanent population.
30. Amazon is the largest river of the world.
31. Assal Lake is the lowest point in Africa.
32. River flowing on the boarder of USA and Mexico is Rio Grande.
33. Elbrus is the highest point in Europe.
34. International date line passes through Bearing Strait.
35. Second largest continent by area is Africa.
36. Country having largest volcanoes in the world is Philippines.
37. Language which is spoken the most is Spanish.
38. Caspian Sea is also known as Island sea.
39. Suez canal connects Mediterranean and Red seas.
40. Lowest point on land is the Dead sea.
41. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are called Superior planets.
42. Bangladesh is the world's largest Delta.
43. Cloudy nights are warmer than clear nights due to terrestrial radiation.
44. Cliff are formed due to wind effect.
45. Lowest point of South America is Called Peninsula.
46. The weight of the body is decreased when it is taken from earth to moon.
47. Deep parts of the oceans are referred as Abyssal.
48. Bridge situated on Palm Strait is known as Adam Bridge.
49. Andes mountains are located in South America.
50. Oldest monarchy of the world is of Japan.
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Tuesday, 23 August 2016

Geography Part 3
1. Temperature point at which water vapour present in atmosphere are sufficient to
saturate is called Dew point.
2. The greatest and most productive industrial area in Asia is Singapore.
3. Gulf that separates Finland and Sweden is called Strait of Bothnia.
4. PH range of maximum soil fertility lies between 6 to 7.2.
5. Panama Canal connects Pacific Ocean with Caribbean Sea.
6. Equator is also known as Great Circle.
7. Panama Canal links North and South America.
8. Low lying countries are Netherland and Belgium.
9. Great Victoria desert is located in Australia.
10. Age of the earth is 55000 million years.
11. 15 degree of Latitude is equal to 60 minutes.
12. River which flows through Shanghai is Hwang Ho.
13. Tide formed as a consequence to pull experienced by earth from sun and moon in same
direction is known as Spring Tide.
14. Friendship Bridge on Oxus river connects Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.
15. Boundary between Pakistan and India is known as Radcliffe Line.
16. Australia is the largest producer of electricity through wind.
17. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system.
18. Layer of the earth which is immediately below the earth's Crest is known as outer
mantle.
19. High tides are experienced during full moon.
20. A total of 6.70% of the world is occupied by Europe.
21. The deepest lake in the world is Bakal.
22. Johar Strait connects Singapore and Malaysia.
23. Antarctica is located at South Pole.
24. Island state of Australia is Tasmania.
25. Global warming is increasing due to increase concentration of Carbon dioxide.
26. Longest ship canal in the world is Saint Lawrence Seaway which connects USA and
Canada.
27. Minsk is the capital of Belarus.
28. San Jose is the capital of Costa Rica.
29. Tbilisi is the capital of Georgia.
30. Tirana is the capital of Albania.

Geography Part 2
1. Australian Regions contains 70% of the Tropical shallow water coral reefs.
2. River which has Victoria waterfall is Zambenzi.
3. Sudden fall in Barometer reading indicates Stormy weather.
4. The highest mountain pass in the world is Alpine Pass.
5. Sea of Japan is famous for fishing.
6. Tasman Sea separates Australia from New Zealand.
7. Spring tides occurs at new moon.
8. The most densely populated areas of the world are the monsoon climatic region.
9. Green Land is the biggest island in the world.
10. The longest continuous mountain chain in the world is the Andes.
11. Area around the North and South poles within the polar circle is called the Fright Zone.
12. Minimum Solar radiation occurs at the Arctic.
13. The largest coal reservoir is found in Kuznetsk Basin.
14. Delta of the river is the area drained by river and it's tributaries.
15. Extensive coffee plantation in Brazil is known as Fazendas.
16. 1 nautical mile is equal to 6080 feet.
17. The phenomenon in which jet of hot water and steam gushes out from a hole from earth
surface is known as Geyser.
20. Moon is a natural satellite of the earth. It has no atmosphere and no liquid water.
21. Mist is caused by process of condensation.
22. American Dust Bowl is located along the Pacific coast.
23. Homolographic projection is the correct representation of the area of the body.
24. Gulf of Mexico is the largest gulf in the world.
25. Mount Aconcagua is the highest point in South America.
26. Intensity of earthquakes are measured in Richter Scale.
27. Mountain located on the border of France and Spain is Pyrenees.
28. The largest coral reefs is found near the coast of Philippines.
29. Study related to day to day changes in weather is known as meteorology.
30. 1 degree of Latitude is equal to 111 kms.

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Geography Facts
1. Layer of water in oceans and lakes that separates the warmer surface layer from deeper
colder layer is called Thermocline.
2. Time required for the earth to return to given point in reference with a fixed star is called
Sidereal Year.
3. China is the largest gold producing country in the world.
4. Forest lie in the Amazon Basin in South Africa is Tropical Rain Forest.
5. The highest point in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro.
6. Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej has their origin in Tibet.
7. Tropical easterlies wind lie between 0 to 30 Latitude.
8. Australia contains 5.20% of the total world surface.
9. Wind blowing from land to sea is called Land Breeze.
10. South America contains 8.90% of the total world surface.
11. Ratio between Earth and Ocean by area is 70.8% to 29.2%.
12. The reason due to which wind in Southern Hemisphere is deflected towards left is due
to the rotation of the earth.
13. Hanging Valleys are formed by the action of moving ice.
14. Transition zone between two ecosystems is called ecotone.
15. Broken Hills which are famous for zinc and lead are located in Australia.
16. The famous natural bridge is located in Virginia.
17. World largest active volcano is Mauna Loa and is located in Huwaii.
18. The largest fish exporting region in the world is the North - East Atlantic Region.
19. Strait of Gibraltar connects Mediterranean Sea with Atlantic Ocean.
20. The Southern most part of the world is Cape of Horn, South America.

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Saturday, 20 August 2016

Week 4. Post 4 " Basic Facts about India"


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give the desired results and will not achieve the purpose of this blog.

India

Biggest/ Longest/ Tallest


1. The state with longest coastline in india is Gujrat.
2. India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.
3. Bailey Bridge between Daras and Suru rivers in Laddakh is the highest bridge
in the world built in 1982.
4. The most populous city in India is Mumbai.
5. The longest national Highway in India is NH-7 (Varanashi to Kanyakumari).
6. The longest road in India is Grand Trunk Road.
7. The tallest statue in india is Statue of Unity Gujarat.
8. The largest lake in India is Wular Lake (Jummu & Kashmir).
9. The largest lake (saline water) in India is Chilka Lake (Orissa).
10. The largest mosque in India is Jama Masjid (New Delhi).
11. The largest zoo in India is Zoological Zoo at Alipur (Kolkatta).
12. The longest river in India is Ganges.
13. The largest state in India (area wise) is Rajasthan.
14. The largest state in India(population wise) is Uttar Pardesh.
15. The smallest state in India (area wise) is Goa.
16. The smallest state in India (population wise) is Sikkam.
17. The highest dam in India is Tehri dam in Uttarakhand.
18. The longest dam in India is Hirakud dm (Orissa).
19. The highest award is Bharat Ratna.
20. The highest gallantry award is Permaveer Chakara.
21. The highest airport in India is Leh (Laddakh).
22. The highest rainfall place in India is Cheranpunji.
23. The highest waterfall in India is Nohkalikai falls in Shorra.
24. The largest delta in India is Sunderbun Delta.
25. The biggest hotel in India is Oberai-Sheraton in Mumbai.
26. The longest tunnel in India is Jawahar Tunnel in Jammu & kashmir.
27. The longest railway platform in India is Kharagpur (west Bengal). Its length is
833 m.
28. The largest museum in india is National Museum (Kolkota).
Nicknames of Cities in India
1. Ahmedabad is also known as Manchester of India.
2. Mumbai is known as India's Hollywood, Gateway to India and City of seven
Islands.
3. Jaipur is known as Pink city of India.
4. Jamshedpur is known as Steel city of India.
5. Himachal Pardesh is known as Fruit Basket of India.
6. Ajmer is known as Heart of Rajasthan.
7. Srinagar is known as City of Lakes amd City of Bridges.
Days Celebrated in India
1. National Youth Day is celebrated on 12 Jan.
2. Army Day is celebrated on 15 Jan.
3. India's Republic Day is celebrated on 26 Jan.
4. National Science Day is celebrated on 28 Feb.
5. Kargil Vijas Diwas is celebrated on 26 Jul.
6. Independence Day is celebrated on 15 Aug.
7. Sansikrit Day is celebrated on 24 Aug.
8. Hindi Day is celebrated on 14 Sep.
9. Mahatma Gandhi Birthday is celebrated on 2 Oct.
10. Airforce Day is celebrated on 8 Oct.
11. National Post Day is celebrated on 10 Oct.
12. Navy Day is celebrated on 4 Dec.
13. Farmers Day is celebrated on 23 Dec.
14. National Consumer Day is celebrated on 24 Dec.
Week 4. Post 3 " National Symbols of India/ Afghanistan/
China and Iran
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National Symbols

INDIA
1. Lion Capital of Asoka was adopted as national emblem of India on 26 Jan
1950.
2. Motto inscribed on Lion Capital of Asoka is Truth Alone Triumph.
3. National Anthem of India is Jana Gana Mana is adopted on 24 Jan 1950. It is
written by Rabindranath Tagore.
4. National song of India is Vande Mataram.
5. National flower of India is Lotus.
6. National bird of India is Peacock.
7. National currency of India is Indian Rupee.
8. National fruit of India is Mango.
9. National river of India is River Ganga.
10. National reptile of India is King Cobra.
11. National aquatic animal of India is River Dolphin.
12. National tress of India is Banyan.
13. National animal of India is Royal Bengal Tiger.
14. National sports of India is Hockey.

Afghanistan
1. National anthem of Afghanistan is Milli Surood.
2. National motto of Afghanistan is Qalma Tayyab.
3. National flower of Afghanistan is Tulip.
4. National animal of Afghanistan is Snow Leopard.
5. National bird of Afghanistan is Golden Eagle.
6. National sports of Afghanistan is Buzkashi.
7. National currency of Afghanistan is Afghani.
8. National day of Afghanistan is 19 Aug.
China
1. National animal of china is Chinese Dragon and Giant Panda.
2. National fruit of china is Kiwi.
3. National anthem of china is March with Volunteers.
4. National currency of china is Renminbi.
5. National bird of china is Red Crown Crane.
6. National tree of china is Ginkgo.
7. National flower of china is Plum Blossom.
8. National song of china is The East is Red.
9. National sports of china is Table Tennis.
Iran
1. National flowers of Iran are Tulip, Rose, Lilly and Lotus.
2. National fruit of Iran is Pomegranate.
3. Motto of Iran is Independence, freedom , Islamic Republic.
4. National animals of Iran are Cheeta, Leopard, cat and dear.
5. National birds of Iran are Nightingale and Falcon.
6. National sports of Iran is Wrestling.
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Tuesday, 16 August 2016

Week - 4. 2nd Post " General Facts"


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General Facts - Part 4

1. Yankee is the nickname of American.


2. The International court of Justice is located in Hague, Holland.
3. The headquarters of World Bank is located at Washington DC.
4. Victoria Falls was discovered by David Livingstone.
5. The technique to produce the first test tube baby was evolved by Patrick
Steptoe and Robert Edwards.
6. The oldest residential university of Britain is the Oxford University.
7. The name of the large clock on the tower of the House of Parliament in
London is called Big Ben.
8. The number of keys in an ordinary piano is Eighty eight.
9. The term 'anesthesia' was coined by Oliver Wendell Holmes.
10. The first man to reach Antarctica was Fabian Gottlieb.
11. The Kilimanjaro volcano is situated in Tanzania.
12. The invention that is considered to have built America is Dynamite.
13. The world's oldest underground railway is at London.
14. The White House was painted white to hide fire damage.
15. The largest oil producing nation in Africa is Nigeria.
16. The longest river in Russia and Europe is Volga River.
17. The last French Monarch was Louis Napoleon III.
18. The term 'astrology' literally means Star Speech.
19. Coal is also known as Black Diamond.
20. The first ruler who started war games for his soldiers was Genghis Khan.
21. The first cross word puzzle in the world was published in 1924 by London
Sunday Express.
22. The lightest known metal is Lithium.
23. The Atacama Desert is located in North Chile.
24. The oil used to preserve timber is Creosote oil.
25. The founder of USA was George Washington.
26. The chemical name of laughing gas is Nitrous oxide.
27. The US state Mississippi is also known as Tar Heel state.
28. The US state Indiana is also known as Volunteer state.
29. The US state Missouri is also known as Hoosier state.
30. The US state West Virginia is also known as Blue Grass state.
31. The US state known as 'Pine Free State' is Vermont.
32. The US state known as 'Mountain state' is Pennsylvania.
33. The US state known as 'Land of 1000 Lakes' is Arkansas.
34. Yoghurt means Fermented milk.
35. The biggest desert in the worls is Sahara Desert.

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Monday, 15 August 2016

Week - 4. 1st Post " General Facts"


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General Facts - Part 3

1. International Civil Aviation Organization is located at Montreal.


2. The Angel Falls is located in Venezuela.
3. The Victoria Falls is located in Rhodesia.
4. The number regarded as lucky number in Italy is thirteen.
5. The aero planes were used in war for the first time by Italians. (14 Oct.1911).
6. Slavery in America was abolished by Abraham Lincoln.
7. The founder of plastic industry was Leo Hendrik Baekeland.
8. The country where military service is compulsory for women is Israel.
9. The country which has more than 10,000 golf courses is USA.
10. The famous painting 'Mona Lisa' is displayed at Louvre museum, Paris.
11. The earlier name for tomato was Love apple.
12. The first President of USA was George Washington.
13. The famous words 'Veni Vidi Vici' were said by Julius Caesar.
14. The practice of sterilization of surgical instruments was introduced by Joseph
Lister.
15. The number of countries which participated in the first Olympic Games held at
Athens was nine.
16. Mercury is also known as Quick Silver.
17. Disneyland is located in California, USA.
18. The country which built the first powerful long range rockets is Germany.
19. Sewing Machine was invented by Isaac M. Singer.
20. Adding Machine was invented by Aldrin.
21. The national emblem of Spain is Eagle.
22. Archimedes was born in Sicily.
23. The total area of Vatican City is 0.272 square kilometers.
24. The largest strait in the world is Tartar Strait.
25. The Mohenjo-Daro ruins are found in Larkand District of Sind, Pakistan.
26. The largest city of Africa is Cairo.
27. The founder of KODAK Company was Eastman.
28. The Heathrow Airport is located in London.
29. The place known as the land of Lincoln is Illinois.
30. The US state Utah is also known as Beehive state.
31. The person known as the father of aeronautics is Sir George Cayley.
32. The most densely populated Island in the world is Honshu.
33. The two nations Haiti and the Dominion Republic together form the Island of
Hispaniola.
34. The famous ‘General Motors' company was founded by William Durant.
35. The country that brings out the FIAT is Italy.
36. The first actor to win an Oscar was Emil Jannings.
37. The first animated colour cartoon of full feature length was Snow White and
Seven Dwarfs.
38. The first demonstration of a motion picture was held at Paris.
39. The first country to issue stamps was Britain.
40. The Pentagon is located at Washington DC.

Week - "General Facts - Part 2"


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General Facts - Part 2

1. Sir Creek is situated in the South East of Karachi.


2. Iran is surrounded on the north by caspian sea.
3. Iran consists of 30 provinces.
4. India is comprised 29 states.
5. Total number of provinces of China is 22.
6. Afghanistan consists of 34 provinces.
7. Length of common border between Afghanistan and Iran is 936 Km.
8. Length of common border between Pakistan and Afghanistan is 2430 Km.
9. Length of border between China and Pakistan is 595 Km.
10. Ravi is the shortest river of Pakistan.
11. In which country did the ‘sauna' originate? FINLAND.
12. On which day and which year did America declare itself an independent
country? 4th July 1776.
13. Vasco de Gama discovered the sea-route to India by rounding the Cape of
Good Hope.
14. Canada is popularly called ‘The Land of the Maple Leaf'.
15. Which U.S President was assassinated in 1865? Abraham Lincoln.
16. Which is longer the Danube or Volga river? Volga.
17. Which planet is named after the Roman god of war? Mars.
18. The largest museum in the world is the American Museum of Natural History.
19. The lowest mountain range in the world is the Buena Bhaile.
20. The country known as the Land of Cakes is Scotland.
21. The place known as the Garden of England is Kent.
22. The country famous for its fish catch is Japan.
23. The old name of Taiwan was Farmosa.
24. The city of Bonn is in Germany.
25. Julius Caesar was killed by Brutus.
26. The title of Desert Fox was given to Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.
27. The largest bay in the world is Hudson Bay, Canada.
28. The largest church in the world is Basilica of St. Peter, Vatican City, Rome.
29. The largest peninsula in the world is Arabia.
30. The largest gulf in the world is Gulf of Mexico.
31. The tallest statue in the world is the Motherland, Volgograd Russia.
32. The world's loneliest island is the Tristan da cunha.
33. The word 'Quiz' was coined by Jim Daly Irishman.
34. The original meaning of 'Quiz' was Trick.
35. The busiest shopping centre of London is Oxford Street.
36. The residence of the Queen in London is Buckingham Palace.
37. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria.
38. The country whose National Anthem has only music but no words is Bahrain.
39. The country where there are no Cinema theatres is Saudi Arabia.
40. In the year 1811, Paraguay became independent from Spain.
41. WHO (World Health Organization) is located at Geneva.
42. FAO is located at Rome and London.
43. UNIDO stands for United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
44. UNIDO is located at Vienna.
45. WMO stands for World Meteorological Organization.
46. WMO is located at Geneva.
47. International Civil Aviation Organization is located at Montreal.
48. The Angel Falls is located in Venezuela.
49. The Victoria Falls is located in Rhodesia.

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Thursday, 11 August 2016

Week - 3. General Facts


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General Facts

1. Strait of Hornuz links Persian Gulf with Gulf of Oman.


2. Mauritius Islands are situated in Indian Ocean.
3. North Pole of earth is occupied by Arctic ocean.
4. The Pamirs are also known as Roof of the world.
5. The Cape Route connects London and Freetown.
6. Alexandria is the famous sea port of Egypt .
7. Smallest Planet of solar system is known as Mercry.
8. Torres strait connects New Guinea with Australia.
9. Suez Canal links Red Sea with Mediterranen Sea.
10. Bandar Abbas is the famous seaport of Iran.
11. Rio de Janerio is the famous seaport of Brazil.
12. Total area of Pakistan is 796095 sq km.
13. Pakistan is located between 23 30' N to 37 N and 61 E to 75 30' E.
14. Length of common border between Pakistan and Iran is 805 Km.
15. Driest place of Pakistan is Nokundi Balochistan.
16. Highest place of salt range is Sakesar.
17. Dargai pass connects Mardan and Malakand.
18. Lake Saiful Maluk is situated in Kaghan valley.
19. Hamun-e-Makhkel is the largest dry lake of Balochistan.
20. River Kabul flows from Afghanistan and joins Indus at Attock.
21. Sea frontage of Pakistan is 1046 Km.
22. Sir Creek is situated in the South East of Karachi.
23. Iran is surrounded on the north by caspian sea.
24. Iran consists of 30 provinces.
25. India is comprised 28 states.
26. Total number of provinces of China is 22.
27. Afghanistan consists of 34 provinces.
28. Length of common border between Afghanistan and Iran is 936 Km.
29. Length of common border between Pakistan and Afghanistan is 2430 Km.
30. Length of border between China and Pakistan is 595 Km.

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Wednesday, 10 August 2016

Week - 3: 19th Century Wars and Interesting Facts


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19th Century Wars (Excluding Napoleonic Wars)

1. Vellore Mutiny was large scale resistance against East Indian Company and
lasted for one day. The cause was the change in dress of sepoys. Hindus were
prohibited to wear religious signs on their forehead while Muslims were forced to
shave their beard and Moustaches. Vellore Mutiny originated from Indian city Vellore
and the resistance occured on 10 Jul 1806.
2. Froberg Mutiny was the mutiny of Forberg Regiment against Britishers on
Malta. The cause was lower wages and problematic enrollment as the persons were
enrolled in Albana and Ottoman Empire. Mutiny lasted for 8 days from 4 April to 12
April 1807.
3. Rum Rebellion was also known as Great Rebellion in 19th century. It is the
successful armd take over of the Governor of New South Wales (William Bligh) in
1808.
4. Gottscheer Rebellion was the rebellion against French by Gottscheer village
(Germans) from 7th to 18th October 1809. At the end of the revolt French imposed
strict laws and executed the rebel leaders.
5. Punjab war was fought between Britishers and Sikh Empire in India from
1810 to 1820. Sikh empire was victorious.
6. Combodian Revolt occured from 1811 to 1812 when Thailand supported the
revolt and supported Ang Snguon who overthrew his brother Ang Chan. Ang Chan
was supported by Vietnam and his government was reinstated.
7. War of 1812 was fought between British and America. Some of the causes
include Britishers support of American India, Britishers support for annexation of
Canada, forced recruitment of American sailors in the Royal Navy and non supporter
of American trade with France. The war was fo3ught from 1812 to 18th February
1815.
8. Afghan Sikh wars were fought from 1813 to 1837. Five major battles were
fought during this period which include Battle of Attock (1813), Battle of Multan
(1818), Battle of Shopian (1819), Battle of Nowshera (1823) and Battle of Jamrud
(1837). Sikhs were victorious in these battles.
9. Creek war was fought from 1813 to 1814. Creek war is also known as Creek
Civil War or Red Stick War. It was fought between opposing Creek factions,
European empires and United States.
10. 3rd Anglo Maratha war was fought from 1817 to 1818 at modren day
Maharashtra. British victory at this war marks the end of Maratha empire.
General Science

1. Amazon (river) in Brazil, ranked as the largest.


2. Arctic Ocean, smallest of the four world oceans.
3. Indian Ocean, third largest of Earth's four oceans.
4. Pacific Ocean, largest and deepest of the world's four oceans, covering more
than a third of the earth's surface and containing more than half of its free water.
5. Panama Canal, canal allows vessels to travel between the Pacific and
Atlantic oceans.
6. Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of
the Red Sea.
7. Ural Mountains chain is in Russia.
8. Baltic States, are Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
9. Scandinavia, name applied collectively to three countries Norway ,Sweden,
Denmark Finland, and Iceland are called as Scandinavian countries.
10. Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
and the United Arab Emarates.
11. Narrow portion of Sea Stretching deep into the land is called Gulf.
12. Bearing strait links Pacific Ocean with Atlantic Ocean.
13. Strait of Malacca links Indian Ocean with Pacific Ocean.
14. Altai mountains are located in Morocco.
15. Tanganyka lake is situated on the border of Democratic republic of Congo
and Tanzania.
16. The longest river of the world is Nile river.
17. The largest river of the world is Amazon.
18. Strait of Hornuz links Persian Gulf with Gulf of Oman.
19. Mauritius Islands are situated in Indian Ocean.
20. North Pole of earth is occupied by Arctic ocean.

Week - 3 , 19th Century Wars (Excluding Napoleonic Wars)


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19th Century Wars (Excluding Napoleonic Wars)

1. War of Oranges was fought between France and Spain (at one side ) with
Kingdom of Portugal (on other side). The war was fought in year 1801 (20th May to
9th Jun) and France and spain were victorious.
2. First Barbery war was fought between United States and Sweden (on one
side) with Barbery States and Ottoman Empore (on other side). The war was fought
from 1801 to 1805 and United States and Sweden were victorious.
3. Tedbury's war was fought between British and Australian Aborigines. The
victorious side is British and the war was fought from 1802 to 1810.
4. Souliote War was fought between Souliote and Ottoman Empire (Ali Pasha)
in 1803 finally defeating Souliote marking end of Souliote wars.
5. Second Anglo Marhata War was fought between Britishers and Marahattas
from 1803 to 1805. Britishers were victorious. Treaties concluded at the end of war
were :-Treaty of Deogaon, Treaty of Surji Anjangaon, Treaty of Rajghat.
6. Kandyan war was fought between Kingdom of Kandy (Srilanka nowadays)
and Britishers from 1796 to 1818 resulting in Britishers victory.
7. Burmese Siamese war was fought from 1803 to 1804 between Burma and
Siam resulting Burma as victorious side.
8. Battle of Sitka was fought between Russia and Alaska Natives in 1804. It was
the last major armed conflict between Russians as apart of their American
colonization. Russia remained victorious.
9. Finnish war was fought between Russian and Sweden from 1808 to 1809 in
Finland resulting in Russian victory.Treaty of Fredrikshamn was signed and Finaland
became part of Russia.
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Tuesday, 2 August 2016

Week -3, Post -3, General Science/ Islam


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Amazing Facts - General Science/ Islam


1. The constitution of 1973 was enforced on 14th aug,1973.It is comprises of
twelve parts consisting of 280 articles.
2. WAPDA (water and power development authority) is responsible for the
generation and distribution of electricity.
3. Indus water treaty was signed by india and pakistan in 1960 to resolve the
outstanding canal water dispute bw 2 countries.
4. The miracle of a pregnant female camel was sent to the nation of samood.
5. The soap was made by Hazrat Salih (AS) first of all.
6. The nation of Hazrat Loot (AS) was destroyed by a rain of stones.
7. In six days (Surah Yunus,Verse no three) Allah had created the earth and the
heaven.
8. 22 times along with namaz ,Zakat has been mentioned in the Holy Quran.
9. Hajj made compulsory In the year 9 A.H.
10. Hazrat Hamza (RA)was the first commander of Islamic Army.
11. There are 114 surahs , 30 Paras and 6236 Ayats in the holy Quran.
12. Surah-e-Fatiha is the first surah and Surah-e-Nas is the last Surah of the holy
Quran.
13. Seven stages are there in the Holy Quran.
14. A shooting star is a meteor that comes from space,burning out in the earth`s
upper atmosphere.
15. The total number of star visible with the naked eye can not be more than
6000.
16. Star twinkle for two main reasons, The intensity of the stars decreases and
increases because of line-of-sight effect and there are disturbance in the gases of
the atmosphere.
17. One light year is equal to 9461,000 million km ( 5875,000 million miles).
18. The earth is about three million miles closer to the sun in january.
19. An engine which could do work equal to lifting 550 pounds one foot per
second,is said to work at rate of one horsepower.
20. The essential parts of radio are: Vacuum tubes, transistors , Amplifier and
Oscillator.
21. If you look at sky from the moon,It appears completely black because the
moon has no atmosphere.
22. FM stands for Frequency modulation.
23. There is no colour of the sky but it is the blue part of the white light of the sun
which gets scattered by the dust particles hanging in the atmosphere.
24. Kilowatt hour (kWh) is a bigger unit of energy used in addition to SI unit.
25. Mitosis and meiosis are two types of cell division.
26. Light travels at a speed of 186,000 miles per sec.
27. The volcanoes of HAWAII are the most common and thoroughly studied in
the world
28. Acre-foot is a unit of volume and is used to measure irrigation water, runoff
volume and reservoir capacity.
29. The dead sea is the world lowest sea.Its surface is 400 metres below the
mediterranean.
30. MegaWatt is a unit of power equal to 1000 kiloWatts.
31. There are 15 main tectonic plates which makes the dynamic crust of the
earth.
32. Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide at a temperature of -80 C.
33. Chronic disease usually begins slowly and persists over a longer time.

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Monday, 1 August 2016

Week -3, Post -2, Amazing Facts (Part 2 - General Science)


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Amazing Facts - General Science

1. The rice grain is a seed.


2. Ethylene is a hormone concerned with Ripening of fruits.
3. Bamboo is Grass.
4. The biotic relationship between insects and plants with reference to
pollination is called Mutualism.
5. Carbon dioxide is required during photosynthesis process in addition to
sunlight and water.
6. The membranous labyrinth of the ear is filled with End lymph.
7. Man is Homoeothermic.
8. The compound eye of insect produces Mosaic vision.
9. Central nervous system control the reflex action in the body.
10. The terminal part of vertebral column in man is called Coceyx.
11. The "Urinary system" of the body consists of 3 organs.
12. Kari Landsteiner discovered the blood groups of man.
13. Prothrombin which helps in clotting of blood is released by Blood platelets.
14. Glycogen is mainly stored in Liver and muscles.
15. The most important function of perspiration is to regulate the body
temperature.
16. The main function of white blood cells in the body is to protect the body
against diseases.
17. The number of chromosomes in the human body is 46.
18. One micron is equal to One-thousandth of a millimeter.
19. Solar eclipse occurs at the new moon and not on the full moon and atleast
one & seven is maximum no of solar eclipse in a year.
20. The highest magnitude of earth quake had been recorded at Valdivia at
southern chile in 1960 which was 9.5.
21. Hally's comet will return in the year 2062.
22. The speed of light is nearly 300,000 km/sec.
23. Our solar system has about 182 natural satellites or moons.
24. Blue colour has shortest wavelength.
25. Bacteria ,fungi,virus are Non-green plants.
26. LASER stands for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation".
27. Brazil covers nearly half of south america.

Week -3, Post -1, Amazing Facts (Part 1)


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Amazing Facts (Part 1)


1. The only fish that can blink with both eyes is a shark.
2. The Niagara falls froze solid as it was so cold in winter of 1932.
3. Tigers don't have striped fur but striped skin.
4. Compared to men, women blink nearly twice.
5. Its not possible to keep your eyes open and sneeze.
6. The scissors was invented by Leonardo Da Vinci.
7. When we are born our nose and ears keeps growing but the size of our eyes
remains the same.
8. The longest word typed with the left hand is stewardesses and with the right
is lollipop.
9. In every two weeks if the stomach does not produce a new layer of mucus it
will digest itself.
10. The words read left to right or right to left in the words racecar kayak and
level are the same.
11. The brain of the Ostrich is smaller than its eyes.
12. Vocal sounds of a dog are 10 and that of a cat are over one hundred.
13. In each ear of the cat there are 32 muscles.
14. Life span of a dragonfly is 24 hours.
15. A snail can sleep for three years.
Names of the Days
1. Monday :It is the abbreviated form of moon-day.
2. Tuesday :Both Romans and Anglo-saxons dedicated this day to the god of
war.
3. Wednesday :It is derived from Anglo-Saxon chief god woden.
4. Thursday :It is derived from Thore the god of thunder.
5. Friday :It is derived from Friga the goddess of married love.
6. Saturday :It is a shortened form of saturn`s day.
7. Sunday :Day devoted for the worship of sun.

Names of Months
1. January : Named after god janus.
2. February :Name after Februalia.
3. March :Derived from Mars (the god of war).
4. April :Derived from latin word Aperire meaning buds.
5. May :Named after Maria ( goddess of growth of plants).
6. June : Taken from Latin word Juvenis ( youth ).
7. July :Named after Julius Caesar.
8. August :Named after Augustus (First Roman Emperor).
9. September :Adopted from Latin word septem (seven).
10. October :Derived from Latin word Octo (eight).
11. November :Adopted from Latin word Novem ( Nine ).
12. December :Derived from Latin word Decem ( Ten ).
13. Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise.

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Saturday, 30 July 2016

Week -2, Post 7 - Interesting Facts


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Interesting Facts - Pakistan Specific


1. Tarbella Dam is the world,s largest earth filled dam and 5th largest by
structure in the world. It has the capacity of 13.69 cbic km. It was completed in 1976.
2. Bahria Icon Tower is the tallest building in the Pakistan which is located in
Karachi and has the height of 286 m.
3. Khan Mehtarazai Railway station is the highest railway station in Pakistan
with an elevation of 2221 feet.
4. Hotest place in Pakistan is Jacobabad in Baluchistan where highest
temperature was 126 °F in 1919.
5. The Kachhi Sibbi re-entrant is one of the driest place in Pakistan while
Murree is wettest place in Pakistan.
6. Hangol National Park is considered to be the largest protected area in
Pakistan is located in Makran. It has an area of 1650 sq kms. It was established in
1988.
7. The Indra Gandhi National University (India) is the biggest university by
enrollment (4 lac) of the world.
8. Jinnah International Airport is the largest airport in the Pakistan. It is operated
by Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan.
9. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. Punjabi is the most spoken
regional language of the Pakistan and is spoken by 44.17% population of Pakistan.
10. Shah Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in Pakistan which located in
Islamabad. It is completed in 1986.
Interesting Facts - Part 4
1. The cambodian language is a language which has a total number of 74
alphabets.
2. The Sumerian civilization is considered to be the oldest civilization of the
world.
3. Jericho,situated in the Jorden valley is the oldest town of the world.
4. The maximum ever temperature of 136.4 F was recorded on september
13,1922 in the city Azizia (Libya) and The minimum temperature of -129.6 F was
recorded in the town of Vostok near Antarctica on 24th august , 1960.
5. The highest rainfall for one month was recorded at Indian town of
Cherapoonje. 366,14 inches rain fell there during the month of july 1861.
6. Robert E. Peary (1856-1920) an American explorer reached North Pole on
6th April,1909 for the first time in human history.
7. South Sudan has the lowest GDP per capita of 245.9 US dollars and USA
has the highest GDP per capita of 17,968 US dollars.
8. The UNO originated during the second world war.Its charter was drawn up
from 25th april to 26th june,1945 at San francisco which was signed by 51 countries.
9. The umayyad Dynasty (661-750 A.D) was the first muslim dynasty.
10. Light is the fastest thing in the universe.It travels at a phenomenal speed of
187,000 miles per second.
11. Bill gates (USA),founder and chairman of microsoft corporation, is currently
the richest person in the world and Liliane Bettencourt (france) is the richest woman
in the world.
12. People`s republic of china has the largest army of the world.
13. The deficiency of "Boron" micronutrients causes the death of the stem and
root apices.
14. Plant development is influenced by Quality,Quantity and Duration of light.
15. Lettuce,wheat and spinach are the long day plants and Sugarcane, Soya
bean and tobacco are short day plants.
16. ATP is a molecule containing high energy bonds.
17. Edible part of tomato is whole fruit.
18. The primary producers of organic matter in nature are Green plants.
19. The total weight of a cell in a leaf or a petal constitutes about 90% of water.
20. The primary plant body consist of 3 tissue systems.
21. A tissue is a group of cells which has similar structure and function.
22. The edible portion of mango is Mesocarp.

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Week 2 - Post 6 - Interesting Facts


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1. The himalaya mountain range (asia) is the greatest mountain range in the
world.
2. Three Gorgoes Dam is the world,s largest volume dam and has the volume of
39,300,000 cubic meters and is located in China.
3. Burj khalifa is the tallest building in the world which is located in Dubai and
has the height of 828 m and is the tallest building since 2008.
4. China is the largest electric producing country in the world.It produces
56,49,746 MW of electricity.
5. Dalol Danaki depression in ethiopia with an average annual temperature of
35c (95f) is the hottest place on earth and Plateau station,in antaretica with an
average annual temperature of -56.7c (-71.7f), is the coldest place of the globe.
6. The Atacama desert in chile is the driest place of the world and Masynram in
Assam (india) is the wettest place in the world.
7. Canada has the longest coastline which is 151,489 miles in the length and
Monaco`s coastline measures only 3.5 miles in length.
8. The present palace of sultan ( Nurul Iman ) of brunei in the capital city of
bandar seri begawan consisting of 1788 rooms is the largest palace.
9. Grand central terminal of new york is the largest railway station.it covers an
area of 48 acres and has 44 platforms.
10. The Gotthard Base Tuneel is the longest railway tunnel in in the world. Its
length is 57 km and is expected to be opened in 2016. It is located in Swiss Alps.
11. Pacific Remote Islands are considered to be the largest protected area and is
located in USA.It has an area of 12,71,500 sq kms.
12. The Indra Gandhi National University (India) is the biggest university by
enrollment (4 lac) of the world
13. Hartfield Jackson Atlanta International Airport, USA, is the busiest airport in
the world.
14. Ningo- Zhoushan (China) is the largest seaport in the world.
15. Mandarain (chinese) is the most spoken language of the world.It is estimated
that a total number of 999 million ppl speak it.
16. The nobel prize is the largest prize.Each prize carries an amount of one
million dollars.
17. Masjid Alharam located in Saudi Arabia is the largest mosque.
18. The asian development bank established in 1966 with headquarter located at
MANILA (philipines).
19. Eqypt , Iraq , jorden , Lebanon , Saudi Arab , Syria and Yemen are the
founder nations of the arab league.
20. First world war was began on 1914 A.D. and second world war started in
1939 when germany attacked on poland, it is also considered as Greatest war.
21. Columbus discovered america on 1492.
22. Harmony of the seas is the largest pessenger ship in the world.It is 362.12
metres long and can accommodate 6360 passengers.

Week 2 - Post 5 - Interesting Facts


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Interesting Facts
1. Gwadar became a part of Pakistan on September 9,1958.
2. All India Muslim league was formulated on December 30,1906 and first
president was Sir Agha Khan.
3. Hygrometer is instrument used for measuring humidity of air.
4. Heliscope is used for viewing the sun.
5. Asian development bank was established in 1966 with headquarter located at
manila (Philippine).
6. China has the largest population, Russia has largest land area.
7. Vatican city has smallest population and land area in the world.
8. Afghanistan got independence on 19th Aug 1919.
9. Lord Clive was the first and lord Mountbatten was the last British ruler of
India.
10. Air conditioner invented by "Willis H. carrier" USA in 1902.
11. Camera(photographic) has been invented by "Joseph N. Niepce" France in
1822.
12. Largest continent of the world is "Asia" and smallest is "Australia".
13. Largest ocean of the world is "pacific ocean"and smallest ocean is "Indian
ocean".
14. The Sahara is the largest desert of the world.
15. Kazakhstan is the largest Muslim country in land area in the world.it has an
area of 1,049,000 sq.miles.
16. Maldives is the smallest muslim country in land area of 115 sq. miles.
17. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim country and Maldives is less populous
Muslim country.
18. Antarctica is the uninhabited continent of the world which is without any
regular population.
19. Seoul (South Korea) is the most populous city of the world.
20. The lake Baikal of Prussia has the maximum depth of 5315 feet.
21. The largest tides of the world occur in Bay of Fundy (Canada).
22. The earth is the densest planet of universe .It has density of 5.515 time that
of water.
23. Kilauea situated in Hawaii (US) is the most active volcano of the world.
24. Nauru, an island located in western pacific ocean, is the smallest republic of
the world.
25. The Panch Pokhri lake situated in the Himalaya mountains is the highest lake
in the world.
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Week 2 - Post 4 - Interesting Facts


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Interesting Facts
1. Paleontology is the science of history of life.
2. Mhavira(founder of jainism)and gautama buddha (founder of buddism) were
contemporaries nd flourished in india in the 6th century B.C.
3. The three pyramids of eqypt were built from 2700 to 2500 B.C.,these are
tombs of khufu,khafra and menkaura.
4. The great wall of china was completed in 204 B.C.it is 1500 miles long.Its
average height is 25 feet and about 12 feet wide at the top.
5. The city rome was founded in 753 B.C. by romolus.
6. Christianity emerged as the distinct sect in the second half of the first century
A.D.
7. The light of islam dawned in the 7th century A.D. when in 611 A.D. The Holy
Prophet of Islam Muhammad (P.B.U.H) announced the revelation from the one true
Allah.
8. The muslim rule of spain lasted from 711 to 1492 A.D.
9. The earth is calculated to b 4540 million years old.
10. The statue of liberty (newyork) was installed in 1886.It is 151 feet one inch
high from the base to torch.
11. The world is divided into 24 time zones, each 15` longitude wide. the
longitudinal meridian passing through Greenwich, England is the starting point and is
called the prime meridian.
12. Christopher Columbus discovered Bahamas on 12 oct 1492 A.D.
13. Ostrich is the largest bird in the world.
14. Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil in the world.
15. The world famous golden gate bridge is located in San Francisco(usa).
16. Russia invaded Afghanistan on dec 27,1979.
17. Hong Kong was returned to china on july 1,1997.
18. Eritrea became an independent state on may 24,1993.
19. The normal temperature of human body is 98.6 F.
20. A billion contain 1000 million. It has 9 zeroes. similarly a trillion has 12
zeroes, a quadrillion 15 zeroes, a quintillion 18 zeroes and a decillion 33 zeroes.
21. One inch is equal to 2.5400 cms and one mile is equal to 1.6093 kms.
22. About half of the world population speaks indo-European languages. The
Indo-European branch to which English belongs is Germanic.
23. Air is composed of nitrogen (78.08%),oxygen (20.95%),argon (0.94%) and
carbon dioxide (0.03%).
24. The original inhabitants of USA are known as Red Indians.
25. Out of the 193 sovereign independent nations of the world 147 are republics
and other 46 are under personal rules (14 kings,1 emperor,3 queens,7 hereditary
sheikhs,1 grand duke,2 sultans,1 constitutional monarch etc).
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Saturday, 23 July 2016

Week 2- Post - 3 - International Boundries


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International Boundries

1. Durand Line is the international boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan.


2. Radcliffe Line is the international boundary between India and Pakistan.
3. 24th Parallel is the international boundary between India and Pakistan.
4. Macmahon Line is the international boundary between India and China.
5. Pal Strait is the international boundary between India and SriLanka.
6. Majinot Line is the international boundary between France and Germany.
7. Markat Reef is the international boundary between Sweden and Finland.
8. Alpine Line is the international boundary between Italy and France.
9. Hindenburg is the international boundary between Germany and Poland.
10. Marginal Line: is the international boundary between Russia and Finland.
11. Medicine Line is the international boundary between Canada and the United
States of America.
12. Order-Neisse Line is the international boundary between Poland and Germany .
13. 6th Parallel Line is the international boundary between Namibia and Angola.
14. 17th Parallel is the international boundary between North Vietnam and South
Vietnam.
15. 36th Parallel is the international boundary between of the Missouri State with the
Arkansas State.
16. 38th Parallel is the international boundary between North Korea and South
Korea.
17. 40th Parallel is the international boundary between of the British Colony of
Maryland.
18. 42nd Parallel is the international boundary between New York and
Pennsylvania.
19. 49th Parallel is the international boundary between United States and Canada.

Week 2 - Post 2 - Mixed Facts and Figures


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Mixed Facts and Figures


1. Narrow portion of Sea Stretching deep into the land is called Gulf.
2. Bearing strait links Pacific Ocean with Arctic Ocean.
3. Strait of Malacca links Indian Ocean with Pacific Ocean.
4. Total area of the earth is 510 million sq Km.
5. Altai mountains are located in Morocco.
6. Tanganyika lake is situated on the border of Democratic republic of Congo
and Tanzania.
7. Nanga Parbat is highest peak of Himalayas mountains in Pakistan.
8. The longest river of the world is Nile.
9. The largest river of the world is Amazon.
10. Strait of Hormuz links Persian Gulf with Gulf of Oman.
11. Mauritius Islands are situated in Indian Ocean.
12. North Pole of earth is occupied by Arctic ocean.
13. The Pamir’s are also known as Roof of the world.
14. The Cape Route connects London and Freetown.
15. Alexandria is the famous sea port of Egypt .
16. Smallest Planet of solar system is known as Mercury.
17. Torres strait connects New Guinea with Australia.
18. Suez Canal links Red Sea with Mediterranen Sea.
19. Bandar Abbas is the famous seaport of Iran.
20. Rio de Janerio is the famous seaport of Brazil.
21. Total area of Pakistan is 796096.
22. Pakistan is located between 23 30’ N to 37 N and 61 E to 75 30’ E.
23. Indus water treaty was signed in1960 between India and Pakistan.
24. Length of common border between Pakistan and Iran is 805 Km.
25. Driest place of Pakistan is Nokundi Balochistan.
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Wednesday, 20 July 2016


Week - 2. Post - 1 - Dams on River Beas and Chenab
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Beas River
 Pandoh Dam
1. Loc– Mandi District Himachal Pardesh.
2. On Beas River 3. Reservoir.
3. Capcity – 990 MW.
 Pong Dam
1. Loc– Talwara , Himachal Pardesh.
2. On Beas River.
3. Reservoir.Capcity – 360 MW.
Chenab River
 Bagliar Dam
1. Loc– Doda , Jammu & Kashmir.
2. On Chenab River.
3. Reservoir.
4. Capcity – 900 MW.
5. ROR (Run of the River Hydroelectric) – Power Plant having no or little water
storage.
 Dul Hasti Hydroelectric Plant.
1. Loc – Kishtwar , Jammu & Kashmir.
2. On Chenab River.
3. Capcity – 390 MW.
4. ROR (Run of the River Hydroelectric).
 Khanki HW
1. Loc– Gujranwala.
2. On Chenab River.
3. Irrigation and Flood Control.
4. Oldest HW- Constructed in 1889.
 Marala HW
1. Loc– Gujrat and Sialkot.
2. On Chenab River.
3. Water Flow and Flood Control
 Qadirabad HW
1. Loc – Mandi Bahauddin.
2. On Chenab River.
 Ratle Dam
1. Under Construction will be completed in 2018.
2. Loc – Ratle , Jammu & Kashmir.
3. On Chenab River.
4. Reservoir.
5. Capcity – 850 MW.
 Salal Hydroelectric Power station
1. Loc – Reasi , Jammu & Kashmir.
2. On Chenab River.
3. Capcity – 690 MW.
 Seli Hydroelectric Plant
1. Loc – Lahaul & Spitidistrict, Himachal Pardesh.
2. On Chenab River.
3. Capcity – 400 MW.
 Trimmu Barrage
1. Loc – Jhang , Jammu & Kashmir.
2. On confluence of Jehlum and Chenab River.
3. Irrigation and Flood Control.
4. Oldest HW- Constructed in 1937 and 1939.
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Post - 7 - Test 1 ( Post 1-6)


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TEST ( Post 1-6)


1. Olympics occurs after every ------------.
2. IOC stands for ----------.
3. First Summer Olympics was held in 1896 in -------------.
4. In 2016, ------------- will host the Summer Olympics in South America.
5. ICC World Cup will be hosted by ------------- from 30 May to 15 Jul 2019.
6. ICC under 19 World Cup will be held in ----------- at New Zealand.
7. Australia is the champion of the tournament held in 2014 at ------------.
8. World Snooker Championship was 1st held in ------- and was won by Joe
Davis.
9. Pakistan Sports Board was created by ------------ in 1962.
10. Kirun Balouch hold the record of highest score i.e --------- in Women’s Test
Match.
11. ----------- is the Pakistan Number One player and won Asian Gold Medal.
12. ------------ is the 1st Pakistani woman who sumit Mount Everest.
13. 8000 m Mountains are known as -------------.
14. ------------- is 7690 m high and is highest peak in Hindu Kush.
15. Mount Sikaram is 4761 m high and is highest mountain of -----------
mountains.
16. ---------- is Mountain in Karakorum (5029 m).
17. Broghol Pass ( Elevation – 3798 m) is located Hindu Kush Mountains and
connects ------.
18. Hayal Pass ( Elevation – 4700 m) is loc in -----------.
19. Shandur is oftenly referred as ------------.
20. Mintaka Pass or Mingteke Pass connects ----------------.
21. Men’s World Open Squash Championship will be held in ------------ in 2016.
22. Before scientific era, ------------- was in driving seat on system of beliefs based
on ancient teachings of Greeks and Romans till 1350 AD.
23. In Scientific era, ------------- explored the laws of motion and demonstrated
that all the objects accelerated to earth at the same rate.
24. John Kepler worked on ---------------- and came up with the elliptical movement
but unable to make an effective model.
25. Galileo in 1630 in “ Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World”
substantiated the ------------------ with the help of physics.
26. Middle Ages Period is from -------------.
27. Seven years war is dubbed as ----------------- in USA.
28. American Revolution duration is from ------- to ----------.
29. Forces in American Revolution are -----------------.
30. Napoleon declared himself as Emperor in ------------.
31. In 1814 Napoleon was exiled to -------------.
32. Battle of Austerlitz was fought in ------------.
33. Treaty of Paris was signed in ------------.
34. Next Winter Olympics will be held in -------------- in 2018.
35. Ice hockey is played with ------- players and players uses sticks and Puck.

Ans :- 1. 4 years 2. International Olympics Committee 3. Athens, Greece 4. Rio De Janerio


5. England and wales 6. 2018 7. Hague (Netherland) 8. 1927 9. Ministry Of Education 10.
242 11. Shoukat Ali 12. Samina Baig 13. Eight Thousanders 14. Tirich Mir 15. Spin Ghar
16. Snow Dome 17. Wah Khan with Chitral 18. Nalter Valley 19. Roof of the World 20.
Pakistan With Xinjiang in China 21. Cairo, Egypt 22. Catholic Church 23. Galileo Galilei 24.
Planetary motions 25. Copernicus theory (heliocentric theory) 26. 500 AD to 1350 AD 27.
French and India War 28. 1765 – 1783 29. Patriots and Loyalists 30. 1804 31. Elba bad
Louis XVIII 32. 1805 33. 1783 34. Pyeongchang, South Korea 35. 6

Post - 6 - Pakistan Mountains Passes - Part 2 ( Facts and


Figures)
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Pakistan Mountains Passes - Part 2
1. Khunjarab Pass ( Elevation – 4693 m) (China and Pakistan). Range
Karakuram Range. Connects Gilgit with Nagar District of Xinjiang.
2. Khyber Pass ( Elevation (1070 m) (Afghanistan and Pakistan). Range Safed
Koh/ Spin Ghar muntains. Length is 5 Km. Connects Afghanistan with Pakistan.
3. Kilik Pass ( Elevation – 4827 m) (China and Pakistan). Connects Gilgit with
Xinjiang.
4. Kohat Pass. Range Khigana Mountains. Connects Kohat with Peshawer.
Kohat Tunnel is constructed on this pass in Jun 2003.
5. Lowari Pass ( Elevation – 3118 m). Range – Hindukush Mountains. Connects
Chitral with Dir.
6. Malakand Pass. In malakand and was built by Britishers to channel water
from Swat River.
7. Mintaka Pass or Mingteke Pass ( Elevation 4709 m) (China and Pakistan).
Range Karakuram Mountains. b. Connects Pakistan With Xinjiang in China.
8. Naltar Pass in Naltar Valley.
9. Shandur Top. Length – 2 km. Shandur is oftenly reffered as Roof of the
World. It is located in Chitral.
10. Tochi Pass Connects Ghazni to Bannu (Afghanistan and Pakistan).

If some passes are left, you can contribute via comments. Moreover size of the post is kept
small intentionally so as to grab the numeric data easily.
Posted by Haseeb Farid at 23:25:00 1 comment:
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Post - 5 - Pakistan Mountain Passes (Facts and Figures -


Part 1)
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Pakistan Mountain Passes
Part 1
1. Babusar Pass ( Elevation – 4173 m). Connecting Kaghan Valley with Chilas.
2. Bolan Pass ( Elevation – 1793.4 m) ( Afghanistan and Pakistan). Located at
Tobba Kakar Range of Balochistan. Length 89 Kms. Connecting Sibbi with Quetta.
3. Broghol Pass ( Elevation – 3798 m). Located Hindu Kush Mountains.
Connects Wah Khan with Chitral.
4. Chaprot Pass ( Elevation – 4904 m). Located Hindukush Mountains.
Mountain Pass to Mehrbani Peak (5639 m).
5. Dora Pass – ( Elevation – 4300 m) (Afghanistan and Pakistan). Located
Hindu Kush Mountain in Pamir. Connects Badakshan Province with Chitral District.
6. Gondogoro Pass ( Elevation – 5615 m). Range Karakurum – located 25 Km
south of K -2. Connects Gondogoro Glacier with Ghanche Glacier.
7. Gomal Pass ( Afghanistan and Pakistan). Range – Hindu Kush Range.
Connects 8.
8. Hayal Pass ( Elevation – 4700 m). Loc in Nalter Valley.
9. Hisper Pass (Elevation – 5128 m). Located in Karakoram Range. Connects
Biafo Glacier and Hispar Glacier which meet to form the longest glacial traverse
outside of polar regions ( 100 km in length).
10. Karakar Pass ( Elevation – 1336 m). Range Hindu Kush Range.
Less details are covered in this post intentionally so as to give enough time to grab the
details. Part 2 will be covered in the next post.
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Sunday, 17 July 2016

Post - 4 - Pakistan Sports and Mountains (Facts and


Figures)
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1. Pakistan Sports Board was created by Ministry Of Education in 1962. Now
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism is controlling it.
2. First National Games were held at Polo Ground Karachi in 1948.
3. Jahangir Khan won World Open 6 Times and British Open 10 Times. He
remained unbeaten in 555 consecutive games (1981- 1986).
4. Jansher Khan won World Open 8 Times and British Open 6 Times.
5. Pakistan has won Cricket World Cup in 1992 and won T 20 World Cup in
2009. Muhammad Yousaf has scored the most Test runs in a calendar year. Shahid
Afridi holds the record of 3rd fastest Century in ODIs. Kirun Balouch hold the record
of highest score in Women’s Test Match (242).
6. Pakistan Hockey Team had won 3 Gold Medals in Olympics and became
world champions 4 times, a world record. It has won Champion Trophy for 3 times.
7. Muhammad Yousaf was World Snooker Champion in 1994 and 2006.
Shoukat Ali is the Pakistan Number One player and won Asian Gold Medal.
8. Pakistan has qualified for Golf World Cup 4 times in 1975, 1977, 1982 and
2009. Taimur Hussain has been Pakistan’s most Succesful Golfer who won
Myanmar Open in 1998.
9. Pakistan Army remains Winner of National Games from 1956 to 2010. In
2012 the event was won by WAPDA held in Lahore.
10. Samina Baig is the 1st Pakistani woman who sumit Mount Everest.
11. Ashraf Aman is the 1st Pakistani man who sumit K – 2 in 1977.
12. Amir Mehdi ia famous mountain climber who was also referred as Hunza
Tiger.
13. Nazir Sabir is the 1st Pakistani who summit Mount Everest in 2000. He
climbed K-2 in 1981 and 5 x 8000 m above peaks in Pakistan including K-2.
Pakistan Mountains
1. 5 of the 14 mountains higher than 8000 m are in Pakistan. 4 out of which are
in Karakoram near Concordia.
2. 8000 m Mountains are known as Eight Thousanders.
3. K2 is 8611 m and is the 2nd highest mountain.
4. Nanga Parbat is 8126 m high and is the highest peak of Himalyan mountain
and 9th in the world.
5. Tirich Mir is 7690 m high and is highest peak in Hindu Kush.
6. Koh –e-Safed starting from Tora Bora west of Khyber pass.
7. Tkht-e-Suleman is 3487 m high and is highest peak of Slaiman Mountains.
8. Mount Sikaram is 4761 m high and is highest mountain of Spin Ghar
mountains.
9. Sakaser is the highest peak of Salt Range and is 1522 m high.
10. Tilla Charouni is the highest peak of Margalla Hills and is 1604 m high.
11. Hill Station of Sindh at Gorakh in Kirthur Mountains at the height of 1734 m is
one of the two largest plateaus in Sindh segment of Kirthur Mountains.
12. Snow Dome is Mountain in Karakorum (5029 m).

Post - 3 - Scientific Revolution To Napoleonic Era


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SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (1550 – 1700 AD)


1. Middle Ages Period is from 500 AD to 1350 AD.
2. Scientific era has also seen notable advancement in Astronomy, Physics,
Biology and Mathematics (Calculus).
3. Important Events of Scientific Era
 Before scientific era, Catholic Church was in driving seat on system of beliefs based
on ancient teachings of Greeks and Romans till 1350 AD.
 Nicholas Copernicus discarded the Aristotle concept of Geocentric System and
came up with the heliocentric theory which states that Earth like all other planets orbit
around Sun.
 Copernicus theory was not accepted as Mathematics and Physics were not
advanced enough to support his claim.
 In early 1600 AD mathematics progressed under Rene Descartes in the fields of
Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry and numeric values.
 Galileo Galilei explored the laws of motion and demonstrated that all the objects
accelerated to earth at the same rate.
 John Kepler worked on planetary motions and came up with the elliptical movement
but unable to make an effective model.
 Galileo in 1630 in “ Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World” substantiated
the Copernicus theory (heliocentric theory) with the help of physics.
 Sir Issac Newton combined the Kepler and Galileo work and came up with the
comprehensive understanding of universe and laws of motion.
Seven Year/ American Revolution
1. Seven years war – ( dubbed as French and India War in USA, War of
conquest in French speaking Canada, 7 years war in English speaking Canada,
Pomeranian war in Sweden and Prussia, Third Canatic War in Indian Continent and
3rd Silesian War in Prussia and Austria).
 Duration – 1754 - 1763
 Forces – Great Britain and France
 Domination/ emergence of Great Britain as Sole power of Europe
 Culmination – Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflicts and treaty of
Hubertusberg 1763 between Saxony, Austria and Prussia.
1. AmericanRevolution– Political Rising in which 13 states rejected the authority
of British Rule. Patriots ( later sp by France, Spain and Dutch) were the 13 states
which are against the British rule and Loyalists were the states which are in favour of
British rule.
 Duration – 1765 - 1783
 Forces – Patriots and Loyalists
 Patriot Commander – George Washington formation of Continental Army. d.
Culmination – Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflicts.
Napoleonic Era
1. Herder Publishes Ideas on History of the Philosophy of Mankind in 1784.
2. Napoleon became the first consulate in 1799 over throwing the Directory.
3. 1804 – Napoleon declared himself as Emperor.
4. Napoleon son is referred as The King of Rome in 1810.
5. Battles in Napoleonic Era
 Battle of Marengo between France and Austria in Jun 1800.
 Battle of Austerlitz in 1805.
 Battle of Jena-Auerstadt and Friedland in 1807.
 Battle of Trafalgar – Naval Loss to Britain
1. 1806 Napoleon issued Berlin Decree imposing Continental System on Europe
(stoppage on trade with Britan).
2. In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia in response of withdrawal of Russia from
Continental System in 1810.
3. Napoleon although pushed the Russian Army till Moscow but due to winters
large no of troops were casualties and he had to retreat to France to raise new army
in 1813.
4. October 1813 Napoleon was defeated by international coalition of armies at
the Battle of Leipzig at home front.
5. In 1814 Napoleon was exiled to Elba bad Louis XVIII.
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Friday, 15 July 2016

Post - 2 - Sports Events Planned in 2016/ 2017


1. Military Patrol is Cross country Skiing and rifle shooting. (25 Km for Men and
15 km for women). In 1924 the games was played in Olympics.
2. Winter Olympics occurs after every 4 years. First Winter Olympics was held in
1924 in Chamonix, France. In 1992, summer and Winter Olympics were due in the
same year but (IOC - International Olympics Committee) decided to keep the
Olympics separate and winter Olympics was held in 1994. Next Winter Olympics will
be held in Pyeongchang, South Korea in 2018. In 2022, Winter Olympics will be held
in Beijing, China.
3. Summer Olympics occurs after every 4 years. Summer Olympics is known as
Games of the Olympaid. First Summer Olympics was held in 1896 in Athens,
Greece. In 2016, Rio De Janerio will host the Summer Olympics in South America.
In 2020, Tokyo , Japan will host the Summer Olympics.
4. USA has hosted both the Olympics for 4 times.
5. Bandy is played on Ice like Ice hockey but has 11 players and players uses a
ball with bow sticks.
6. Bandy World cup in held in 2017 in Sweden.
7. Ice hockey is played with 6 players and players uses sticks and Puck.
8. Sledge Hockey is a designed for handicapped persons to play ice hockey. It
was invented in 1960s in Stockholm Sweden.
9. Curling was invented Scotland in Feb 1541. It is played with 4 or 3 players
each and each team has 8 x stones to roll. Curling is also known as Chess on Ice
and The roaring Game.
10. Badminton - BWF World Championship (Singles and Doubles) will be held in
2017 at Aug 21 – 27 in Glasgow, Scotland.
11. Badminton – Thomas Cup is founded in 1949 and is also known as World
Men’s Team Championship. It is conducted after every 2 years. a. In 2016 the
Thomus and Uber Cup was held in China and winner was Denmark. b. Uber Cup
was for the Women’s Badminton Championship in ( first held in 1956-57) after 1984
both Tomas and Uber Cup are held together .
12. Baseball World Cup will be held in 2017. It started in 1938 and restarted in
2006. Defending Champions is Dominican Republic (2013).
13. Beach Soccer championship will be held in 2017 in Bahamas.
14. 49th Biathlon World Champion ship will be held in 2017 in Austria. Total of 11
competitions will be held in this world cup. In 2016 Most Medals were won by France
in this event.
15. ICC World Cup will be hosted by England and wales from 30 May to 15 Jul
2019. ICC World Cup Champions were Australia in 2015 which was hosted in
Australia and New Zealand.
16. ICC under 19 World Cup will be held in 2018 in New Zealand. West Indies is
the Champion of Previous ICC under 19 World Cup which was held in Bangladesh.
17. ICC T 20 World Cup will be held in 2020. West Indies is the champion of T 20
World Cup in 2016 held in India.
18. UCI Road Cycling Championship (Union Cycliste Internationale) is hosted by
Doha, Qatar in 2016.
19. Men’s Hockey World Cup will be held in 2018 in India. Australia is the
champion of the tournament held in 2014 at Hague (Netherland).
20. World Polo Championship is held in 2019. Chile was the champion in
previous tournament held at Santiago, Chile in 2015.
21. World Snooker Championship was 1st held in 1927 and was won by Joe
Davis. Mark Selby (England) is the champion of the game held in 2016 at England.
22. Men’s World Open Squash Championship will be held in Cairo, Egypt in
2016. Gregory Gaultier of France was the champion in 2015 World cup held in
Washington USA.
Posted by Haseeb Farid at 03:07:00 No comments:
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Thursday, 14 July 2016

Post 1 - French Revolution ( Important Events)


1. Nobility was excused from taxation in France.
2. In 1783 Charles de Calonne was appointed as Finance Minister and he
suggested that nobility be included in taxation which was refused by nobility.
3. 1789 Louis convened Estates General which consisted of the three states.
Nobility, Clergy and General Public.
4. Nobility and Clergy were exempted from taxes and in the meeting they
oppose the imposition of taxes on every one. Riots broke out quickly and Third
estate Convened it's own independent National Assembly.
5. After the National Assembly formed, its members took the Tennis Court Oath,
swearing that they would not relent in their efforts until a new constitution had been
agreed upon.
6. In Paris, citizens stormed the city’s largest prison, the Bastille, in pursuit of
arms.until the early August issuing of the August Decrees, which freed those
peasants from their oppressive contracts.
7. The assembly released the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
Citizen, which established a proper judicial code and the autonomy of the French
people.
8. Division occurred in National Assembly and Girondins took a stance in favor
of retaining the constitutional monarchy, while the radical Jacobins wanted the king
completely out of the picture.
9. Neighboring countries feared that revolutionary movement may spill over so
they insisted Louis to return to the throne through Declaration of Pillnitz.
10. French leaders interpreted the declaration as hostile, so the Girondin-led
assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia. T
11. The war went poorly and French lost considerable ground in war. Girondins
(who overlooked the labourers) were thrown away and Jacobins led by Maximilien
Robespierre, took control.
12. Reign of Terror in late 1793–1794, during which he had more than 15,000
people executed at the guillotine.
13. When the French army successfully removed foreign invaders and the
economy finally stabilized, however, Robespierre no longer had any justification for
his extreme actions, and he himself was arrested in July 1794 and executed.
14. The era following the ousting of Robespierre was known as the Thermidorian
Reaction, and a period of governmental restructuring began, leading to the new
Constitution of 1795 and a significantly more conservative National Convention.
15. To control executive responsibilities and appointments, a group known as the
Directory was formed. It had no legislative abilities, the Directory’s abuse of power
soon came to rival that of any of the tyrannous revolutionaries France had faced.
16. Napoleon who was in command of French army was called who returned to
Paris. H
17. He arrived in time to lead a coup against the Directory in 1799, eventually
stepping up and naming himself “first consul”—effectively, the leader of France.
18. With Napoleon at the helm, the Revolution ended, and France entered a
fifteen-year period of military rule.