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CHAPTER 1: THE PHILIPPINES IN THE 19th CENTURY Natives or Indios Looked Down

THE PHILIPPINES IN THE 19th CENTURY


POLITICAL SYSTEM
 19th Century- Dynamic & Creative Age in Europe
and US.  Ministro de Ultramar (Ministry of Colonies)-
 Concepts Triggered Revolutionary established in Madrid in 1863.
1. Industrialism Changes: -Spain governed the Philippines.
2. Democracy  Centralized Machinery
Science, Technology,
3. Nationalism a) Executive
Economics, Politics
 Revolutionary Changes b) Legislative
-enable men to achieve the heights of c) Judicial
prosperity and dignity. d) Religious Powers
 19th Century Phil.- largely medieval, signs of
Central Government
progress or change were noted in certain
sectors.  Governor General- appointed by the Spanish
 Social and Economic Structure- based on the Monarch.
feudalistic patterns of abuse and exploitation of Characteristics:
the Indio. a) King’s representative- state & religious
 Racial Discriminatory Practices- oppressive. matters.
 Intellectual Decadence- prevailed. b) Exercised extensive powers.
 Gov’t Processes- no respect for the needs of c) Issued executive orders and
people. proclamations.
d) Supervision and Disciplinary Powers.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE
e) Commander in Chief- Armed Forces of
 Phl. Society- predominantly feudalistic. the Phil.
 Conquistadores (Spanish Soldier)- Spanish f) Supreme Authority- financial matters
landholding system imposed. until 1784.
g) Gov’t & Religious Activities
 Elite class- exploited masses
- Petty official negligence
-“master slave” bet. Spaniards & Fil.
- Faulty administration of Justice.
 Spaniards- exacted all forms of taxes & tributes.
-drafted natives for manual labor. Provincial Government (Alcaldias)
 Poor became poorer and the rich, richer. - led by Alcaldes Mayors (Civil Governors)
 Pyramidal Structure- favoured the Spaniards.
Apex Spanish officials, City Government (Cabildo or Ayuntamiento)
peninsulares & friars. – administers by two alcaldes en ordinario (Mayor and
Middle Favored Natives, Vice Mayor)
Mestizos and
Creoles.
 Gobernadorcillo (Captain)
Base Indios (Filipino)
 Racial Discrimination - Chief Executive & Judge of Town.
Peninsulares Highest Offices and - Elected at the beginning of the year of
Positions Board composed:
Creoles (Phil. born Second Priority a) Members- town principalia.
Spaniards), Half breed b) Body of Citizens- high standing.
(Mestizos)
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c) Made up of the incumbent or f) Fit only for manual labor.
Ex- cabeza de Barangay. g) These practices resulted:
-Lack of Personal Confidence
-Development of Inferiority Complex
Barangay (Barrio)
Absence of Academic Freedom
- Controlled by a:
 Cabeza de Barangay (Responsibility) a) Extended to the Schools
a) Maintain Peace and Order b) Learning (Every Level)- largely by rote.
b) Collect tributes and Taxes c) Students- memorizes and repeated contents of
book which they didn’t understand.
 Guardia Civil and Cuadrilleros
a) Performed Police Duties  College of San Juan de Letran- official
b) Maintain Peace and Order secondary school in the Phl.
 Alferez (Second Lieutenant)  Ateneo de Manila- also offered secondary
a) Usually a Spaniard education.
b) Headed the Corps of Guardia Civil- each  Seven Provinces- Private Colleges
town.  Latin Schools- General Studies
 Secondary Education (Girls)- furnished by
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
5 Colleges in Manila:
 300 Years- 1st settlement of Spaniards. 1. Santa Isabel
-no systematic gov’t supervision of schools. 2. La Concordia
 Schools- free to administer (own curricula) a) Santa Rosa
-prescribe the qualifications of their teachers. 3. Looban
4. Santa Catalina
Serious Criticisms Against System
End of Spanish Regime
1. Overemphasis on Religious Matters
2. Obsolete Teaching Methods  UST- only Institution of University (Manila)
3. Limited Curriculum -established solely for Spaniards and Mestizos.
4. Very poor Classroom Facilities -it opened its doors to Filipino students for
5. Absence of Teaching Materials- books in both decades (before the end of Spanish Rule)
Elementary and HS.
Educational Decree of 1863
6. Primary Education- neglected
7. Absence of Academic Freedom - Marked a milestone in the History of Education
8. Higher Learning-prejudice against Filipino in the Philippines under Spain.
9. Friar control over the system - First time- provisions were made:
b) Establishment of Teacher Training
Friars
Schools
a) Occupied a dominant position. c) Gov’t supervisions of the public school
b) Religion- main subject. system.
c) Fear of God was emphasized.
d) Obedience to Friars- instilled in the minds of
the people.
e) Had inferior intelligence.

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