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DAMS of concrete gravity dams. In essence, they STEPS OF SOLUTION B.

Overturning Moment, OM (rotation

Dams are structures that block the flow of a river, more closely match the natural slope of a towards the downstream side)
With reference to the previous Figure,, for purposes
stream, or other waterway. Some dams divert the pile of rocks or earth. 𝑂𝑀 = ∑ 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠
of illustration, an assumption was made in the
flow of river into a pipeline, canal, or channel. 3. Arch Dams – are concrete or masonry
shape of uplift pressure diagram. V. Location Ry (x)
Others raise the level of inland waterways to make structures that curve upstream into a
them navigable by ships and barges. Many dams reservoir, stretching from one wall of a I. Consider 1 unit (1m) length of dam 𝑅𝑀 − 𝑂𝑀
harness the energy of falling water to generate river canyon to the other. This design, (perpendicular to the sketch) 𝑥̅ =
electric power. Dams also hold water for drinking based on the same principles as the II. Determine all forces acting
and crop irrigation, and provide flood control. architectural arch and vault, transfer some A. Vertical Forces Factor of Safety
water pressure onto the walls of the 1. Weight of the dam Factor of Safety against sliding, FSs
canyon. Arch dams require relatively 𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒 = 𝛾𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒 𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒 𝜇𝑅𝑦
1. Irrigation and drinking water
narrow river canyon with solid rock walls 2. Weight of the water in the upstream 𝐹𝑆𝑠 = >1
2. Power supply (hydroelectric) 𝑅𝑥
capable of withstanding a significant side (if applicable)
3. Navigation Factor of safety against overturning, FSo
amount of horizontal thrust. These dams 𝑊𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝛾𝑤 𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑀
4. Flood Control
do not need to be massive as gravity dams 3. Weight or permanent structures on 𝐹𝑆𝑜 = >1
5. Multi-purposes 𝑂𝑀
because the canyon walls carry part of the the dam. Where:
TYPES OF DAMS pressure exerted by the reservoir. 4. Hydrostatic Uplift 𝜇= coefficient of friction between the base of
1. Gravity Dams – use only the force of 4. Buttress Dams – consist of a wall, or face, ℎ1 + ℎ2 the dam and the foundation
gravity to resist water pressure – that is, supported by several buttresses on the 𝑈 = 𝛾𝑤 ( )𝐵
they hold back the water by sheer force of downstream side. The vast majority of B. Horizontal Forces FOUNDATION PRESSURE
their weight pushing downward. To do this, buttress dams are made of concrete that 1. Total Hydrostatic Force acting at the For e:
gravity dams must consist of a mass so is reinforced with steel. Buttresses are vertical projection of the submerged 𝐵
heavy that the water in a reservoir cannot typically spaced across the dam side 𝑒= − 𝑥̅
portion of the dam. 2
push the dam downstream or tip it over. every 6 to 30m, depending upon the size 𝐹 = 𝑝𝑐.𝑔. ℎ CASE I: 𝑒≤

They are much thicker at the base than the and design of the dam. Buttress dams are 2. Wind pressure
𝑅𝑦 6𝑒
top – a shape that reflects the distribution sometimes called hollow dams because 3. Wave Action 𝑞= − (1 ± )
the buttresses do not form a solid wall 𝐵 𝐵
of the forces of the water against the dam. 4. Floating bodies Note: Use (+) to get the stress at point where
As water becomes deeper, it exerts more stretching across a river valley 5. Earthquake Load Ry is nearest. In the diagram shown above, use
horizontal pressure on the dam. Gravity ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY DAMS III. Solve For Reaction (+) to get qT and (-) to get qH. A negative stress
dams are relatively thin near the surface of A dam is subjected to hydrostatic force due A. Vertical Reaction, Ry indicates compressive stress and a positive
the reservoir, where the water pressure is to water which raised on its upstream side. stress indicates tensile stress.
𝑅𝑦 = ∑ 𝐹𝑣
light. A thick base enables the dam to These forces cause the dam to slide horizontally 𝐵
B. Horizontal Reaction, Rx CASE II: 𝑒≥
withstand the more intense water pressure on its foundation and overturn it about its 6
at the bottom of the reservoir. Since soil cannot carry any tensile stress, the
downstream edge or toe. These tendencies are 𝑅𝑥 = ∑ 𝐹ℎ
2. Embankment Dam is a gravity dam result of the previous equation is invalid if the
resisted by friction on the base of the dam and IV. Moment about the Toe
formed out of loose rock, earth, or stress is positive. This will happen if e>B/6.
gravitational forces which causes a moment A. Righting Moment, RM (rotation towards
combination of these materials. The Should this happen use the following equation
opposite to the overturning moment. The dam the upstream side)
upstream and downstream slopes of may also be prevented from sliding by keying its 2𝑅𝑦
embankment dams are flatter than those base. 𝑅𝑀 = ∑ 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑞𝑐 =
1. The section of concrete gravity dam is shown. Unit weight of concrete is 24 KN/m3. Hydrostatic uplift pressure varies
linearly from heel to toe. Coefficient of friction between the base of the dam and the foundation is 0.8.