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Guru Nanak Institutions Technical Campus

(Autonomous)
(Permanently Affiliated to JNTUH, Approved by AICTE)
(NAAC & NBA Accredited)
Khanapur, Ibrahimpatnam, Hyderabad – 501 506.

LABORATORY MANUAL

Instrumentation and Control Systems Lab


For
II Year I Semester

Department of Mechanical Engineering


School of Engineering and Technology
AY: 2018-2019 (I semester)
Contents
List of Experiments
Sl.
Name of the Experiments Page No.
No.
1 Calibration of Dead Weight pressure gauge Tester 1- 2
2 Calibration of transducer for temperature measurement. 3- 4
Study and calibration of LVDT transducer for displacement
3 5- 7
Measurement.
4 Calibration of strain gauge for temperature measurement. 8 - 12
5 Calibration of thermocouple for temperature measurement. 13- 14
6 Calibration of capacitive transducer for angular displacement. 15- 16
Study and calibration of photo and magnetic speed pickups for
7 17- 19
The measurement of speed.
Calibration of resistance temperature detector for temperature
8 20- 22
Measurement.
9 Study and calibration of a roto meter for flow measurement. 23- 25
Study and use of a seismic pickup for the measurement of
10 26- 29
Vibration amplitude of an engine bed at various loads.
11 Study and calibration of McLeod gauge for low pressure. 30- 31
EXPERIMENT – 1
CALIBRATION OF DEAD WEIGHT PRESSURE GAUGE TESTER

Aim: Determine the pressure induced by given sample.

Apparatus: Plunger, weights, pressure gauge, oil cup.

Theory:

The units of a screw pump to develop sufficient pressure. The pressure developed
by screw acts on the bottom of the plunger and pushes the plunger up along with the
weight carrier and weights. The effect of the friction is eliminated by rotating the plunger
along with the weights. Each weight is marked in terms of the pressure equivalent of its
weights. There are two needle valves. One on the right and at the left side of the main
block. Oil cup is fitted on the top of one valve and the pressure gauge to be tested on the
other valve. Different types of adaptors are provided to fix the gauges with 3/8”, ½”
threading. Both valves are connected by means of metallic adaptors to main block. The
main block houses floating plunger and screw pump. The screw pump consists of main
cylinder. Screw and nut support. Rotation of the handle causes the screw movement in
cylinder.

Procedure:

It is essential that floating plunger must be vertical during operation. This could be
accomplished by leveling the top face of the weight carrier using leveling screw.

Oil filling:

1. Fix the oil cup to one of the valves. It is fitted to the right side valve.
2. Open this valve and close the other valve.
3. Fill the clean HYDAULIC MINERAL OIL into oil cup. SAE NO. 20 or 30 are
suitable. It is necessary that oil is clean.
4. Turn the screw pump handle clockwise. This will expel some air from the system
in the form of bubbles in oil cup.
5. Turn the screw handle anticlockwise. Oil will be sucked in the instrument.
6. Repeat this clockwise and anticlockwise turning, until no air bubbles appear in the
oil cup.
7. Open other valve & rotate the screw pump handle for oil to come out of this valve.
8. Close this valve and draw more oil in the instrument.

Pressure Gauge Testing:

1. Ensure that air has been expelled from the system as per the oil filling procedure
given above.
2. Place a sprit level on the top weight carrier & adjust level by means of the leveling
screws. Now the tester is ready for use.
3. Install the pressure gauge to be tested as shown in the illustration. Use an adopter if
necessary.
4. Open valve under pressure gauge (i.e. on the left valve) & close the valve under oil
cup(i.e. on the right valve)
1
5. Place a weight in the weight carrier & slowly turn the screw pump clockwise. This
increases the pressure in the system which will be shown on pressure gauge.
6. Rotate the weight to reduce the effect of friction in the free piston. Keep turning
the handle until the weight carrier rise about 3 to 4 mm. if the weight carrier is
lifted beyond the above limit, the piston may damage.
7. Take readings of the pressure gauge while the weights are rotating. Write it down
against the value of sum of markings on the weights and weight carrier.
8. Progressively add weights & take readings as above.
9. When the maximum reading has been taken reduce the pressure by turning the
handle anti clockwise & reduce the weights progressively.
10. Consider the average of the values for increasing & decreasing pressure.

In case two pressure gauges are desired to be tested simultaneously, the oil may be
removed & the second gauge be installed on the top of the other valve. The valve is under
the gauge should also be opened.

Table:

ANOLOG DIGITAL
S.NO WEIGHTS ERROR
READING READING
1
2
3
4
5

Precautions:

Floating plunger is most important part of the tester & must be handled carefully. Its
displacement must be limited to its travel length. If the handle is rotated continuously, the
floating plunger may get damaged.

Closing up:

After the work is over, turn screw pump handle anti clockwise so that

a) There is no pressure in the system.


b) Maximum oil is drawn in. Reinstall oil cup if it has been removed & open the
valve under it. This will ensure that there is no residual pressure I the system.

Result:

The pressure is determined by using dead weight pressure gauge tester.

2
EXPERIMENT – 2
CALIBRATION OF TRANSDUCER FOR TEMPERATURE
MEASUREMENT (THERMISTOR)

Aim: Determine the cut of temperatures.

Apparatus: Thermometer, flask, thermistor.

Theory:
Thermistors are semiconductors of ceramic materials that are extremely sensitive to
temperature. The material is made by sintering oxides of such metals as manganese,
nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, etc. Physical forms may bead, discs, washers & rods.
The temperature co-efficient of resistivity of metallic oxide semiconductors is –ve. The
resistance of a thermistor decreases as the temperature increases. Moreover the
temperature resistance relationship between thermistors is exponential. Most important
point in favor of thermistors is their extremely high sensitivity to temperature changes. A
typical thermistor will exhibit a decrease in resistivity by a factor of 50:1 over a
temperature range 0-100 c .The highest temperature upto which thermistors can be used is
limited up to 200c.

Circuit Operation:

Thermistors characteristics are highly non-linear. It is not very easy to establish a


linear relationship between ∆R and ∆T. Hence, a very simple circuit is designed to take
advantage of the sensitivity characteristics of the thermistor.
The thermistor of nominal value of 100 ohms is made part of the Wheatstone
bridge network. The bridge is excited from a very stable source of D.C. Voltage (6.2). The
potentiometer named MIN., on the front panel serves to balance the bridge, when the
thermistor is immersed in an ice-bath. The output of the bridge is connected to meter
through a potentiometer marked MAX., on front panel. This is the simplest circuit on this
instrumentation panel.

Operating instructions:

1) Connect the thermistor terminals to the input terminals on front panel. No polarity is
required to be observed because the thermistor os a variable resistance transducer.
2) Enter your observations in the table.

Table:

S.no Thermometer Reading in °C Thermistor Reading °C Error


1
2
3
4

3
Operating Manual:

Plot the graph or thermometer reading (x-axis) verses thermistor reading (y-axis)
1) The input & output relationship is extremely non-linear for this transducer. (Where
as thermocouples & R.T.D. exhibit excellent linear characteristics.)
2) The time response of this transducer is seen to be better than R.T.D.
3) Circuitry is extremely simple.

Precautions:

1) Insufficient preheating may cause ceramic cracks.


2) Electrode must not be scratched before during after the mounting process.
3) Avoid contamination of thermistor surface during processing.

Result:

Determined the temperature measurement by using the thermistor.

4
EXPERIMENT – 3
Displacement Measurement by linear Variable Differential Transformer
(L.V.D.T)
Aim: Measure the given sample length and calibrate the screw gauge instrument.

Apparatus: screw gauge, coils, power supply.

Theory:

One of the most useful forms of the variable inductance transducer is differential
transformer, which provides an A.C. voltage output proportional to the displacement of
core passing through the windings. It is a mutual inductance device making use of three
coils arranged generally on a single cylindrical. Concentric non-magnetic from. The centre
coil is energized from an external A.C. power source and the two end coils. Connected in
series opposite to each other, are used as pick up coils. Output amplitude and phase depend
on the relative coupling between the two pick-up coils and the power coil. Relative
coupling in them is dependent on the position of the core. Theoretically, these should be a
core position for which the voltage induced in each of the pick-up coils or secondary will
be of the same magnitude and the resulting output should be zero.

Within limits, on either side of the null position, core displacement results in a
proportional output. While the output voltage magnitudes are ideally the same for equal
core displacement of either side of null balance, the phase relation existing between power
source and output changes 180 through null. It is therefore, possible through phase
sensitive detector to distinguish between circuit outputs resulting from displacement into
proportional electrical voltage range extends for few microns to few inches. It is free from
temperature effects, unlike strain gauges. It is relatively simple, low priced and
mechanically sturdy.

Circuit Operations:

Excitation Power source – The primary winding of L.V.D.T is excited by means of a 3


kHz. Power source. The wein Bridge Oscillator circuit placed on a suitable P.C.B.
generator card is given to the input of complementary power transistors; the power
transistors in turn provide the excitation of primary of the L.V.D.T

The output from secondary is amplified by means of I.C. Separate op.amp. Converts
the excitation signal into square waves which serve to provide reference signal for phase
sensitive detection. A field effect transistor acts as an analogue switch and a phase detected
output is generated i.e., when output of secondary and reference signal are in phase,
D.C.output is also proportional to the displacement are detected. Finally, a D.C. amplifier
provided with range selector switch feeds to centre zero meter on the front panel. It is
possible to display the core displacements in the range of ±20 mm. The functioning of the
phase sensitive detector is better understood by observing the waveforms provided along
with the circuit diagram.

5
Procedure:

1. Connect the transducer to the input socket on front panel.


2. The magnetic core may be displayed using thumb wheel. So that the pointer on the
basis rod coincides to zero on scale provided. If indicator is not showing zero reading.
Adjust it to zero, using potentiometer marked MIN M panel.
3. Now if tile core is displaced by a known amount and the meter readings can be entered
in the table below.
4. Plot the graph of input displacement (X-axis) versus output indication (Y-axis).

Table:

S.No. Input Displacement (mm) Meter reading (mm) Error


1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 5
6. 6
7. 7
8. 8
9. 9
10. 10
11. -1
12. -2
13. -3
14. -4
15. -5
16. -6
17. -7
18. -8
19 -9
20. -10

Observation of waveforms:

1. When C.R.O is connected between terminal and group. One can observe the
waveform of amplified secondary coil voltage.(TPI)
2. Between TP2 and ground , observe the waveform of phase sensitive
detector(Half Sinusoidal)
3. Between TP3 and ground observe the square wave form of reference signal used
for phase sensitive detection.

6
The students may note the following:

1. Study the linearity of the output variations versus input variations.


2. Note that when the core is mechanically zero position, a small electrical output is
obtained due to imperfections of the transducer.

Precautions:

1. Initial zero setting may done properly.


2. Move the core gently.

Result:

Measured the length and calibrated the screw gauge by using linear variable
differential transformer.

7
EXPERIMENT – 4
CALIBRATION OF STRAIN GAUGE FOR TEMPERATURE
MEASUREMENT

Aim: To determine the Strain of a cantilever beam subjected to concentrated end load by
using strain gauges

Apparatus: A cantilever beam with concentrated end load arrangement, strain gauges
and strain indicator.

Theory:
The primary object of the instrumentation trainer is to introduce and to educate electronic
instrumentation systems in a manner sufficiently complete that the students will acquire
proper knowledge and the idea about the transducers and their applications to measure
mechanical and terminal quantities. The mechanical quantities include strain, force,
pressure, torque, displacement, acceleration, frequency, etc. The terminal quantities
include temperature and heat flux.
It is understood that the students will have a conceptual understanding of these quantities
through exposure of mechanics or physics courses, such as static’s, dynamics, and strength
of materials or thermodynamics. The student’s experience in actually measuring these
quantities by conducting experiments, however, will usually be quite limited. It is an
objective of this tutor to introduce methods commonly employed in such measurements
and the usage of such electrical components such as capacitance, resistance, inductance
intensity, etc.,
Emphasis in the instrumentation trainer will be directed toward electronic instrumentation
systems rather than mechanical systems. In most cases electronic systems provide better
data more accurately and completely characterize the design or process being
experimentally evaluated. Also the electronic system provides an electrical output signal
that can be used for automatic data reduction or for the control of the process. These
advantage of the electronic measurement system over the mechanical measurement system
have initiated and sustained trend in instrumentation toward electrode methods
An attempt is made through these “Instrumentation trainer” to make as easy as possible for
the students to learn about the electronic instrumentation system and various transducers
used for the measurement of mechanical component. The instrumentation tutor’s panels
are design in such a way that the block diagrams of the stages of electronic instrumentation
system are clearly pictured on them. This makes the instrumentation self-explanatory and
also the best teaching aid for engineering students

The Electronic Instrumentation System:


The complete electronic instrumentation system usually contains six sub systems of
elements.

Transducer:
Is a device that converts a change in the mechanical or thermal quantity being measured
into a change of an electrical quantity. Example strain gauges bounded in to a specimen
gives output by changing its resistance when material is strained.

8
Power Supply:
TRANSDUC SIGNAL AMPLIFIER RECORDER
CONDITION
AR

POWER DATA
SUPPLY PROCESSO
R
Provides the energy to drive the transducers example differential transformer. Which is a
transducer used to measure displacement requires an AC voltage supply to excite the coil.

Signal Conditioners:
Are electronic circuits that convert, compensate, or manipulate the output from in to a
more usable electronic quantity. Example the whetstone bridge used in the strain
transducer converts the change in resistance R to a change in the resistance E

Amplifiers:
Are required in the system when the voltage output from the transducer signal
conditioner combination is small. Amplifiers with gains of 00 to 1000 are used to
increase their signal levels to where they are compatible with voltage measuring devices.

Recorders:
Are voltages measuring devices that are used to display the measurement in a form that
can be read and interpreted. Digital/Analog voltmeters are often used to measure static
voltages

Data Processors:
Are used to convert the output signals from the instrument system into data that can be
easily interpreted by the Engineer. Data processors are usually employed where large
amount of data arc being collected and manual reduction of these data would be too time
consuming and costly

The Instrument:
Unique Digital Strain measuring setup comprises of Strain Indicator and Cantilever Beam
setup. Strain Indicator is a strain gauge signal conditioner and amplifier used to measure
strain due to load applied 011 the cantilever beam. The train gauge are bonded on the
cantilever beam and are connected in the form of whetstone bridge. A pan and weights up
to 113 grams is provided.
To load the cantilever beam. Unique Strain measuring setup is a complete system which
can be used to conduct measurement on strain gauge. The strain indicator is provided with
zero balancing facility through adjustable potentiometer. Digital di play will enable lo take
error free readings.

The digital indicator comprises of four parts.


1. Power Supply
2. Signal conditioning

9
3. Amplifier
4. Analog and digital converter.

The inbuilt regulated power supply used will provide sufficient power to electronic parts
and also excitation voltage to the strain gauge bridge transducers. The signal conditioner
Buffers the output signals of the transducers. Amplifier will amplify the buffered output
signal to the required level where it is calibrated to required unit. Analog to digital
converter will convert the calibrated analog output to digital signals and display through
LED's

Calculation:

When a material is subjected to any external load, there will be small change in the
mechanical properties of the material. The mechanical property may be, change in the
thickness of the material or change in the length depending on the nature of load applied to
the material. This change in mechanical properties will remain till the load is released. The
change in the property is called strain in the material or the material get strained. So the
material is mechanically strained, this strain is defined as ' The ratio between change in the
mechanical property to the original property'.
Suppose a beam of length L is subjected to a tensile load of P Kg the material gets
elongated by a length of DL So according to the definition strain S is given by

S= …………….Eq1
Since the change in the length of the material is very small it is difficult to measure DL. So
the strain is always read in terms of micro strain. Since it is difficult to measure the length
Resistance strain gauges are used to measure strain in the material directly. Strain gauges
are bonded directly
On the material using special adhesives. As the material get strained due to load applied,
the resistance of the strain gauge changes proportional to the load applied. This change in
resistance is used to convert mechanical property in to electrical signal which can be easily
measured and stored for analysis.
The change in the resistance of the strain gauge depends on the sensitivity of the strain
gauge. The sensitivity of strain gauges is usually expressed in terms of a gauge factor S g:
where Sg is given as

Sg= ………………..Eq2

Where D is Strain in the direction or the gauge length


The output of a strain gauge is usually converter in to voltage signal with a
Whetstones bridge, If a single gauge is used in one arm of whetstones bridge and equal but
fixed resistors is used in the other arms, the output voltage is
Eo= ……………………………Eq3
Eo=1/4EiSg ……………………………Eq4 The input voltage is controlled by the gauge
size ( the power it can dissipate) and the initial resistance of the gauge. As a result. the
output voltage Eo usually ranges between 1 to 10 Dv micro units of strain

10
Specification:
Display Range :
Gauge Factor Setting : 2.1
Balance : Potentiometer To Sc: Zero On the Panel
Bridge Configurations : Full Bridge
Max. Load : 113 grams
POWER : 230 V +/-10% at 50Hz. With perfect grounding
All specifications nominal or typical at 23° C unless noted

Cantilever Beam Specification:

Material : Stainless Steel


Beam Thickness (T) : 0.25 Cm
Beam \.Vidth (B) : 2.8 Cms
Beam Length : 22 Cms
Youngs Modulus (E) : 2 X 106 Kg I Cm2
Strain Gauge : Foil Type Gauge
Gauge Length (L) : 5 Mm
Gauge Resistance (R) : 300 Ohms
Gauge Factor (G) : 2.01

Operating Procedure:

 Check connection made and switch on the instrument by toggle switch at the back
of the box.the display glows to indicate the instrument is ON
 Allow the instrument in ON Position for 10 minutes for initial warm up
 Adjust the ZERO Potentiometer on the panel till the di play reads '000'
 Apply 1 Kg load on the cantilever beam and adjust the CAL
potentiometer till
the display reads 377 micro strain. (as per calculations given below) Remove
the weights the display should come to ZERO in case of any variation adjust the
ZERO pot again and repeat the procedure again. Now the Instrument is
calibrated to read micro-strain
 Apply load on the sensor using the loading arrangement provided in steps of
25grms upto I33grms
 The instrument displays exact micro strain strained by the cantilever beam
 Note down the readings in the tabular column. Percentage error in the readings,
Hysteresis and Accuracy of the instrument can be calculated by comparing with the
theoretical values

Specimen calculation for cantilever beam:

S = (6 PL) / BT2E
P = Load applied in Kg. (l Kg )
L = Effective length of the beam in Cms. (22 Cms)
B = Width of the beam (2.8 Cms)
T = Thickness of the beam (0.25Cm)
E = Youngs modulus (2 X 106)
S = Micro strain

Then the microstrain for the above can be calculated as fallow


11
Table:

Actual reading Indicator readings ERROR


2
S.No Weight(grams) S = (6 PL) / BT E (in micro strain) In %

Result: The strain of the cantilever beam is calibrated using strain gauge

12
EXPERIMENT – 5
CALIBRATION OF THERMOCOUPLE FOR TEMPERATURE
MEASUREMENT (THERMOCOUPLE)
Aim: To calibrate the temperature measurement by using the thermocouple.

Apparatus:
1) Thermometer
2) Thermocouples (T & J type)
3) Water heating flask
4) Heater

Theory:
The temperature of a substance is a phenomenon expressing its degree of hotness or
coldness. It is one of the fundamental parameters, denoting a physical condition of a
matter. When a body is heated or cooled, various primary effects can result, and one of
these effects can be employed for measurement purpose. They are change in physical or
chemical state, change in physical dimensions, variation in electrical properties, generation
of EMF at the junction of two dissimilar metals and change in the intensity of the total
radiation emitted. Change in the physical or chemical state are seldom used for direct
temperature measurement even though this property is basic e.g. freezing, melting or
boiling. Change in dimensions is basics of operation of the common liquid in glass
thermometers. Temperature measurement based on method of measuring energy radiation
from hot body is specially used for high temperature measurement. The methods based on
change in resistance and generation of EMF is far most convenient and accurate.
Thermocouples are most commonly used device for temperature measurement. The
sensing is based on the principle that a current flows in a closed circuit made up of two
dissimilar metals if the junction of two metals are kept at different temperatures .In each
lead ,the concentration of valence electrons is proportional to the temperature ,and at the
point of contact ,the electrons diffuse through the boundary layer between the two leads
,resulting in one lead becoming positive and the other lead negative thus the EMF
generated is proportional to the temperature difference in a predictable manner. This
phenomenon is known as see back effect(S). The magnitude of S depends upon the
chemical composition and the physical treatment of the materials used. The output voltage
of any two given materials, compare with each other, is obtained from the difference of the
S values. In practice, the temperature measurement is carried out with two junctions. One
of them, the reference junction, is kept at a constant temperature (usually 273.15K), and
other is exposed to the medium whose temperature is to be measured. The properties of
few standard thermocouples are given in table no.
Sharp techno systems have introduced a Thermocouple Calibration Trainer to study this
phenomenon and compare results using various thermo couples.

Set up:
 The unit consists of a control panel housing Digital Temperature indicator, Digital
mili Volt meter and Potentiometers for calibration
 Set of thermocouples comprising following Thermocouples-
1. Chromel- Alumel
2. Iron-constantan
3. Copper-constantan

1
3
 Heater with Bowl and ice flask for maximum & minimum calibration
Procedure:
1. Connected the selected thermocouple to input terminals. If copper-constantan
thermocouple is used, copper must be connected to +ve terminal and constantan
wire to –ve terminal. If iron-constantan is used iron wire to be connected to +ve
input terminal.
2. Switch on the unit.
3. Put water in bowl and ice in ice flask.
4. Switch on the heater.
5. Keep the junction of thermocouple in ice and adjust the reading of temperature
indicator to 0.
6. Keep the junction of thermocouple in boiling water and adjust the reading to 100.
Repeat the procedure for two/three times.
7. Switch off the heater and take readings at intervals of 10 0C. Simultaneously note
down the readings of mili-voltmeter.
8. Repeat this procedure for various thermocouples and plot the graphs of
temperature Vs EMF.

Table:

Temp. of Temp. of
Water by Water by
Sl. no Thermometer, Thermocouple,
o o Error
Ta C Tm C Ta – Tm

1
2
3
4
5

Observations:
1. Thermocouple output is fairly linear.
2. When the thermocouple is taken out of ice bath and immersed in boiling water, the
rise in temperature is almost instantaneous. This shows that the thermocouple has a
very good time response.
3. For various thermocouples, emf is different for the same temperature. This is
because of the see back effect. Because of this any indicator has to calibrate for a
particular thermocouple.

Precautions:
1. While connecting the thermocouple to input terminals observe polarity of the
thermocouple. If the polarity is wrong, you will get –ve readings.
2. Connect the output terminals to meter input by patch cord after ensuring that
thermocouple is connected. A broken or disconnected thermocouple will give a
violent deflection and –ve readings. It may damage the meter.

Result:
Calibrated the temperature measurement by using thermocouple.

14
EXPERIMENT – 6
CALIBRATION OF CAPACITIVE TRANSDUCER FOR
ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

Aim: Measurement of angular displacement using capacitive transducer

Apparatus: Capacitive transducer & Angular displacement indicator

Theory:
Capacitance is well known to be a function of effective area of the conductors,
separation between them, and the dielectric strength of the material in the separation.
Capacitive transducers convert the physical quantity to be measured into a change of
capacitance which is processed by the measuring circuit of the transducer. The capacitance
of a parallel plate capacitor may be changed by varying the separation between the plates,
varying the effective area of the plates or varying the dielectric.
Capacitive type transducers are used essentially for displacement or positioning
measurements. But they are more susceptible to environmental factors such as dust or
moisture in the atmosphere than inductive type transducers.
The meshing area between two stator and rotor plates of the capacitor goes on
changing as the shaft capacitor is rotated. The arrangement is used to demonstrate the
measurement of angular displacement.
The transducer is mounted on to the face of a protractor which indicates the angle of
displacement and the readout display the amount of displacement.

Procedure:
1. Connect the power card to the 230V AC mains & switch on the instrument.
2. Connect the capacitive transducer to the angular displacement indicator with proper
color codes of the pins.
3. Rotate the transducer knob to zero position. Now display shows the zero.
4. Rotate the transducer knob to any angle (Ex. 90 deg) and the reading of the display
should be same. If not, then adjust by rotating the CAL POT.
Tabular Column:

The displacement Measured displacement meter


Sl. no Deviation
protractor reading reading
1 0
2 30
3 60
4 90

15
GRAPH: Plot a graph using the true displacement on X axis & measured displacement
on Y axis.

RESULT:

Different angles are calibrated by angular displacement equipment.

16
EXPERIMENT – 7
STUDY AND CALIBRATION OF PHOTO AND MAGNETIC SPEED
PICKUPS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF SPEED

Aim: Study and calibration of photo and magnetic speed pickups for the measurement.

Apparatus: Motor, Shaft, Sensor.

Theory:
Two transducers are included in this module for measurement of speed of a motor using
non contact type pick-ups.
A) Variable Reluctance Tachometer:
The basic of variable reluctance transducer is an electro-magnetic circuit whose
reluctance varies as the shaft rotates because of periodic changes in the air gap. A variation
in the reluctance causes variations in flux. Which in turn causes induced E.M.F in the
output coil. The output voltage is fairly sinusoidal and peak to peak value is proportional
to shaft speed (n rev /min).
In this step a countered wheel is mounted on the motor shaft. The numbers of counters are
20. The wheel is ferromagnetic material. The pick-up consists of a coil wound around a
permanent magnetic. The magnetic field surrounding the coil is distorted by passing of a
counter causing a pulse of voltage in the coil. The R.P.M value of the output voltage
increases with reduction in clearance between rotor and pick- up with an increase in
counter size with an increase in rotor speed. The frequency of the output pulse is
dependent on number of counter and the rotor speed.

For this set up when the rotor runs at 1500 R.P.M. 25 revolutions per second are produced
and hence number of pulses in 500 Hz per second. When the motor runs at 1500 R.P.M.
and the number of teeth is equal to 20 the pick –up the tends to work as a self generating
and variable frequency generating transducer.

B) Photoelectric Pick- Up :
This is also one more method of speed measurement based on photoelectric effect. The
set up is designed to produce pulses proportional to R.P.M. of shaft using phototransistor
as the sensing element. A disc with 20 holes is mounted on the motor shaft and when photo
transistor and light source is properly fitted every passage of a hole across them produces a
voltage pulse of high magnitude.

Circuit Description:
The circuit includes 2 stages of A.C amplification giving a very high overall gain. The
resultant output is fed to Schmitt trigger circuit using timer. The Schmitt trigger the mono
stable. This generates constant width constant height pulses. The variable frequency pulses
are given to meter for final indication. The signal conditioning circuit is common for both
the pick- ups, i.e., magnetic and photoelectric
When the motor is running at 1500 R.P.M. The pick- up produces 500 pulses per second.

A separate signal generator with a stable frequency of 500 Hz is provided called as


calibration sources. When the output of this calibration sources is connected to input of the
amplifier stage and by using the potentiometer marked CAL. When meter reading is

1
7
adjusted to 1500 then the set –up is calibrated for 1500r.p.m. if the magnetic or
photoelectric pick –up is used then the meter will directly reads the R.P.M. of motor.

Procedure:

1) Connect the calibration source on back plate to the input socket (marked magnetic pick
–up) on front plate by the cable. Adjust the meter reading to 1500 by CAL. Now the
set up is calibrated for 1500 R.P.M.
2) Fix the magnetic pick –up in the bracket such as distance between pick- up and wheel
is 3 mm.
3) Now connect the photo electric pick- up and magnetic pick – up cables to respective
input sockets of front plate.
4) Connect the motor terminal cable to the output terminal socket on the black plate.
Ensure that the R.P.M. switch on panel. Slowly increase potentiometer is at fully
anticlockwise position. Now switch on the power supply and R.P.M. switch on panel.
Slowly increase the speed of the motor by using R.P.M. control potentiometer.
5) The motor speed in R.P.M will be induced by meter. Check speed for each pick – up.
6) If an external precision tachometer is available. Check the R.P.M. as indicated by
meter. Enter the readings in the table below.
7) Plot the graph input tachometer R.P.M. versus output reading. Find the percentage
error from this.

Table:

Meter Reading ( output)


S.no True Reading ( Input )
Photoelectric pick –up Magnetic pick – up

1
2

Observation of Waveforms:
1) At TP1 – observe the output of the phototransistor. (pulses)
2) At TP2 - observe the output of the magnetic pick – up (very low output is obtained)
(almost sinusoidal nature.)
3) At TP3 - the output after two amplifying stages is observed. ( square wave)

1
8
Observations:
1) Difference between the output of the magnetic pick –up and the photo electric
transducer. The photoelectric transducer is itself is sensor and amplifier. Hence the
output is very large.
2) If the distance of magnetic pickup is changed slightly then the output amplitude
changes considerably. With large separation at low speeds it may not possible to
measure speeds.
3) The response of the transducer system is perfectly linear.
4) It is non contact type of measurement suitable for fixed installation

Precautions:
1) Always start the motor with zero speed and operate speed regulation knob slowly.
2) Always connect the motor base to earth.

Result:
Measurement of speed of a motor is calibrated by using photo and magnetic pickup.

19
EXPERIMENT – 8
CALIBRATION OF RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR
FOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT (R.T.D)

Aim: Measure liquid temperature in different conditions

Apparatus: Thermometer, flask, thermistor.

Theory:
The principle operation of Resistance Temperature detector (R.T.D) is based on the fact
that electrical resistance of many metals increases almost directly with temperature and is
reproducible to high degree accuracy. The term used to express this characteristic is well
known as co-efficient of resistance and is defined by the approximate formula as
Rt. =Ro (1+cxt) where cxt- is the temperature coefficient of resistance
Ro-the resistance of wire at 0degree c
Rt.-they resistance at any other temperature
We may note the following as regards the R.T.D as transducer for temperature
measurement
1. The resistance of R.T.D increases as the temperature increases. The R.T.D is linearly
related over a wide temperature range
2. In general, resistance thermometers are large and less convenient to apply than
thermocouple. They are massive and hence exhibit poor time response characteristics.
3. They require bridge balance circuitry and have rather restricted upper temperature
range.
4. They are capable of higher accuracy than either thermocouple or thermistor.
5. The R.T.D supplied with this unit is made up of copper wire with nominal R=100
ohms.

Circuit Operation:
In this experiment, the R.T.D is included as a part of null balancing circuitry. In general,
the null balance systems give higher accuracy. Higher reliability in comparison with direct
indicating system. The unknown resistance, inductance or capacitance is compared with a
standard, known component which is included as a part of the bridge network. Standard
resistance and capacitances are produced more reliably than meters and associated
amplifiers. The meter is used to indicate presence of null only. hence the stability of meters
and associated amplifiers is less important.
All these reasons contribute for better accuracy of null balance system. The R.T .D is
included as one of the arms of the bridge circuit .The other two arms are complete by
stable resistance. The adjacent arm of the R.T.D includes a precision ten turn helical
potentiometer and fixed resistance.
When the R.T.D is t °0 degree the helical potentiometer is set to 0.0 positions by
adjusting the MIN control on the panel. The bridge output is given to the meter. This meter
is used to indicate null of the bridge. When the resistance of the R.T.D changes as a result
of temperature change, the resistance in adjacent arm is changed by introduction of
corresponding amount of known resistance until the balance is achieved. That is how for a
given change in temperature the change in resistance of R.T.D can be measured by noting
the counter reading of the helical potentiometer.

2
0
Procedure:
1) Connect the leads of the transducer supply to you to the binding posts on the front
panel of the instrument. Polarity is immaterial.
2) Immerse the transducer in the ice – bath; wait for 2-3 minutes so that the
temperature equilibrium takes place. Set the helical potentiometer to 0.0 Position.
Adjust the potentiometer marked MIN to get the null balance.
3) Now R.T.D may be immersed in boiling water and then bridge may be balanced by
operating helical potentiometer counter. Every one turn of knob corresponds to a
resistance change of 10 ohms as the helical potentiometer is having 100 ohms
resistance. It is possible to measure 0.1 ohm change by making use of this
arrangement.
4) Switch off the heater supply and allow the water and immersed R.T.D. to cool
down. For every 5 degree of centigrade drop in water temperature, note down the
change in R.T.D. resistance by getting the null and noting the counter readings.
5) For best results stirring of water may be done.

Enter the reading in the table below:

S .No Bath Temperature


∆T
1 98°C

2 95°C

3 90°C

4 85°C

5 80°C

6 75°C

7 70°C

8 65°C

Prepare the graph of ∆T verses ∆R for R.T.D.:

1) The ∆T, ∆R relationship is fairly linear. CXT temperature coefficient of


resistance is almost constant.
2) The setup is useful for temperature measurement also. We can co-relate the
counter readings and the temperature with the help of above graph.
3) The method is not direct reading type. For direct reading system the instrument
is calibrated, the meter reading is corresponding to the parameter being
measured.

21
Precautions:

1) Allow sufficient time for R.T.D to heat up or cool down. It is having large time
constant.
2) The gradient in temperature between the thermometer and the measuring point.
3) The faults and errors in that are present in the extension connection between the
sensor and the measurement instrument.

Result:
The temperature is measured by resistance temperature detector.

22
EXPERIMENT – 9
ROTOMETER CALIBRATION

Aim: To calibrate the roto meter by using Roto meter experimental setup

Apparatus: Roto meter setup, Stop watch, 2lts capacity collecting jar, control valve,
water circulating system etc.

Theory:

The roto meter consists of essentially a tapered metering glass tube, inside a float which is
located in the Rotometers. The tube is provided with suitable inlet and outlet connecting
the float or bob having a specific gravity higher than that of fluid to be metered. In these
devices, the falling and rising action of a float in a tapered tube provides a measure of flow
rate. Rotometers are known as gravity-type flow meters because they are based on the
opposition between the downward force of gravity and the upward force of the flowing
fluid. When the flow is constant, the float stays in one position that can be related to the
volumetric flow rate. That position is indicated on a graduated scale. Note that to keep the
full force of gravity in effect, this dynamic balancing act requires a vertical measuring
tube.

The tapered tube's gradually increasing diameter provides a related increase in the annular
area around the float, and is designed in accordance with the basic equation for volumetric
flow rate:
Q
3
To convert to liters multiply with 10

Where:

Q = volumetric flow rate, e.g., Lts per minute


k = a constant

g = force of gravity
h = pressure drop (head) across the float
(OR)

2
3
Procedure:

1. Fill the water in storage container.


2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Make sure that the rotometer is in vertical position.
4. Start the flow by operating the valve slowly.
5. As the Float moves upwards, an annular passage is opened between the walls of
tapered glass tube.
6. Now stop the valve adjustment & observe the float comes to dynamic equilibrium
position the position is reached when the annular passage is sufficient to pass all the
fluids.
7. Upward and & Downward movement of the float depends upon the rate of flow.
8. The float gives readings on a calibrated scale in terms of flow rate in .
9. Calculate theoretical discharge for the above measured flow by
Using Q =
10. Compare the theoretical flow rate with actual flow rate.
11. Plot the graph between theoretical discharge with actual discharge.

Tabulation:

Q Q
rot h t V act. Cf =
S.No.
3 3
3 Q /Q
(m /sec) (m) (sec) (m ) (m /sec) rot act.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Calculating correction factor (Cf), which is the ratio between the rotometer reading
(Qrot.) divided by the actual volume flow rate (Qact.), for each reading, and then finding the
average value of the correction factor.
Draw the calibration curve, the reading of the rotometer (on y-axis) against the measured
actual volume flow rate (on x-axis). Also, find the average correction factor from

Fig. (2) Shown below, by finding the slope of the line.

2
4
16

14

12

10
Q rot.(m3/s)

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3


0.35 0.4 0.45

3
Q act. (m /s)

Fig. (2). Calibration curve for rotometer.


Result: Thus the rotometer is calibrated with theoretical value

25
EXPERIMENT – 10
CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC PICK UP AND MEASUREMENT OF
VIBRATION
Aim: Measuring the amplitude and frequency and velocity of given equipment.

Apparatus: Vibrator, pen probe, magnetic probe.

Theory:

All machines with rotating moving parts or carrying currents vibrate. The maximum life
and performance can only be achieved by operating machines within these specified
limits.

The vibration meter is primarily intended to suit the above purpose. The regular
measurements of various machines can be taken to judge their mechanical status. It can
measure
0 to 2000microns pk-pk DISPLACEMENT
0 to 200 mm/sec peak VELOCITY in the range of 600 R.P.M. to 60,000 R.P.M.

Procedure:

1. Connect the plug of the cable provided with the probe to the instrument.
2. Put ‘ON’ the meter with the switch provided.
3. In case ‘LOW BATTERY’ message is displayed, replace the batteries (2 X 6F22)
by opening battery cover at the bottom.
4. Touch the tip of the probe to the point where vibrations are to be measured.
5. The probe can also be used with magnetic holder by removing the front stick.
6. When ‘PRESS TO READ’ button is pressed.
a) In ‘DISPLACEMENT’ mode meter will read vibrations in terms of pk –pk
DISPLACEMENT in microns.
b) In ‘VELOCITY’ mode meter will read vibrations in terms of pk velocity
mm/sec.
7. By releasing the ‘PUSH TO READ’ button the reading will be held in memory.
8. For taking next reading, again press the button.

Table:

SNO TYPE Displacement Velocity Frequency


Probe – High amplitude
1
Low amplitude
Magnetic probe-
2 High amplitude
Low amplitude

26
2
7
2
8
Precautions:

The frequency of testing should not reach 34 kHz which is the natural frequency of
accelerometer.

Result:

The vibration parameters displacement, velocity and frequency are measured by using
seismic pick up

2
9
EXPERIMENT – 11
STUDY AND CALIBRATION OF McLeod GAUGE FOR LOW
PRESSURE

Aim: measurement of Low pressure by using McLeod gauge.

Apparatus Required: McLeod gauge, vacuum chamber, vacuum pump.

Introduction:
Pressure less than 1mm of mercury are considered to be low pressure and are expressed in
either of two units, namely the torr and micron.1 torr is a pressure equivalent to 1mm
-3
Hg at standard conditions., one micron is 10 torr through common usage the term
vacuum refers to any pressure below atmosphere (760mm Hg).this pressure region is
divided into 5 segments.

Low vacuum : 760 torr to 25 torr


-3
Medium vacuum : 25 torr to 10 torr
-3 -6
High vacuum : 10 torr to 10 torr
-6 -9
Very high vacuum : 10 torr to 10 torr
-9
Ultra-high vacuum : 10 torr and beyond
The pressure measuring devices for low pressure (vacuum) measurement can be classified
into 2 groups.

Direct measurement:
Where in displacement deflection costs by the pressure is measured and correlated to the
applied pressure. This principle is incorporated in nanometers, spiral bourdon tube; flat
and corrugated diaphragms and capsules, manometers and gauges are suitable to about 0.1
torr, bourdon gauges to 10 torr and diaphragm gauges to 10-3 torr. Below these ranges,
that use of indirect vacuum gauges is resorted.

Indirect measurement:
(Inferential) gauges wherein the low pressure is detected to measurement of a pressure
controlled property such as volume, thermal conductivity etc., the inferential gauge
includes McLeod vacuum meters’ attention would be concentrated here on low pressure
measurement by the inferential gauges only.

McLeod gauge:
The unit comprises a system of glass tubing in which a known volume of gas at unknown
pressure is trapped and then isothermally compressed by raising mercury. This amplifies
the unknown pressure and allows it is measurements by conventional man metric means.

3
0
Procedure:

1. Connect the tubes (pipes) from vacuum pump to vacuum chamber and vacuum pump
to McLeod gauge.
2. Open the outlet wall before starting the vacuum pump.
3. Close the outlet wall after starting the vacuum pump.
4. Keep the McLeod gauge in horizontal position before starting the vacuum pump.
5. Switch ON the vacuum pump.
6. See the reading in McLeod pump by varying perpendicular axis and note down the
readings.

Observation Table:

S. No. McLeod Gauge Reading


1
2
3
4
5

Result: Thus Low pressure is measured by using McLeod gauge

3
1