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Testing and Extrapolation Methods
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Resistance Test

3.5.3 Speed
3.5.4 Measured quantities
2 PARAMETERS 3.6 Data Reduction and Analysis
3.6.1 Analysis of model scale
2.1 Data Reduction Equations results
2.2 Definition of Variables 3.6.2 Extrapolation to full scale
3 DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE Form factor Model-Ship correlation
3.1 Model and Installation 3.7 Documentation
3.1.1 Model 3.8 Special Considerations
3.1.2 Installation 3.8.1 Air Resistance
3.2 Measurement Systems 3.8.2 Appendage Effects
3.3 Instrumentation 3.8.3 Wetted Area Estimation
3.3.1 Resistance 3.8.4 Spray Resistance
3.3.2 Speed 3.8.5 Blockage
3.3.3 Sinkage and trim 3.8.6 Captive Resistance Tests
3.3.4 Temperature Fully captured force
3.3.5 Air cushion pressure measurements and
3.3.6 Air cushion flow rate simulation
3.4 Calibrations Partially captured force
3.4.1 General remarks measurements
3.4.2 Resistance dynamometer Automatic attitude control
3.4.3 Sinkage and trim method
3.4.4 Air cushion pressure 4 VALIDATION
3.4.5 Air cushion flow rate 4.1 Uncertainty Analysis
3.4.6 Speed 4.2 Benchmark Tests
3.5 Test Procedure and Data
Acquisition 5 REFERENCES
3.5.1 Method
3.5.2 Range and interval

Updated by Approved
Specialist Committee: Procedures for Resis-
tance, Propulsion and Propeller Open Water 23rd ITTC 2002
Tests of 23rd ITTC 2002
Date Date
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Testing and Extrapolation Methods
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Resistance Test

High Speed Marine Vehicle (HSMV)

Resistance Test

R App
SV 2
The purpose of the procedure is to ensure
consistency of methodology and the acquisition V
of correct results for the resistance tests of Froude Number Fr =
high-speed marine vehicles (HSMV). High gL
Speed Marine Vehicles are for this purpose
defined to be vessels with a design speed corre- V
sponding to a Froude number above 0.45, Depth Froude Number Frh =
and/or a speed above 3.7 ∇ 1/6 (m/s) and/or
where high trim angles are expected or for dy-
namically supported vessels.
Reynolds number Re =

2.1 Data Reduction Equations 2.2 Definition of Variables

Total resistance (N) RT

Total resistance Coefficient
Appendage resistance (N) RApp
Speed (m/s) V
Residual Resistance Coefficient
Air Speed (m/s) VA
Running sinkage (m) zv
Static trim (m) tS
Frictional Resistance Coefficient-
Running trim (m) tV
ITTC Model-Ship Correlation Line
Running (dynamic) trim angle (°) θV
Length on static waterline (m) LWL
Mean wetted length, underway (m) LM
Air Resistance Coefficient
Representative length [Normally
ρ A VA2 AV CD LWL for Fr and LM for Re] (m) L
C AA =
ρV 2 S Tank water temperature (0C) t
Depth of water (m) h
Wetted surface area (dynamic
Appendage Resistance Coefficient or static) (m2) S
Air cushion pressure (N/m ) Pc
Air cushion flow rate (m3/s) Qc
Moulded displacement volume
of the model (m3) ∇
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Testing and Extrapolation Methods
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Resistance Test

Transverse section area 3.1 Model and Installation

(for air resistance) (m2) AV
Model-ship correlation allowance (-) CA 3.1.1 Model
Air drag coefficient (-) CD
Scale ratio (-) λ The model should be manufactured accord-
Form factor (-) (1+k) ing to the ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-
Gravity constant (m/s2) g 01-01-01 Ship Models, with particular attention
Mass density of water (kg/m3 ) ρ being paid to model manufacturing tolerances,
Mass density of air (kg/m3) ρA surface finish, appendage manufacture and the
Kinematic viscosity (m2/s) ν size and positioning of turbulence stimulation.
It should be noted that compared with conven-
Subscript M signifies model scale value tional displacement ship models, many HSMVs
Subscript S signifies full scale ship require special attention to minimising the
value model weight. This is especially the case for
models that are going to be used for propulsion
tests or for models to be fitted with append-
In these cases the model should generally
The testing of resistance of HSMV is in be as large as possible for the size of the labo-
many respects very similar to testing the resis- ratory and the maximum speed of the towing
tance of conventional displacement ships. The carriage. The geosim model tests reported in
main differences are related to: the 19th ITTC, 1990, provide guidance on the
likely practical limiting features of model size.
• Dynamic lift and trim is more important
• Air resistance is more important, and the In addition to what is stated in ITTC Rec-
effects of air resistance might influence ommended Procedure 7.5-01-01-01, Ship
trim Models, it is recommended that the model be
• Scale effects on lifting surfaces and ap- equipped with a superstructure with the same
pendages can be a problem basic shape and main dimensions as that of the
ship. (The purpose and alternatives to the use
There are many different types of HSMV, of a superstructure are discussed in section
some of which require special test procedures. 3.8.1). Adequate grid reference lines must be
The primary focus of this procedure is on semi- applied for estimating dynamic wetted area.
displacement mono-hulls and catamarans as
well as planing hulls. Where possible the pro- Boundary layer turbulence stimulation is
cedure is kept general enough to suit a wider recommended when the Reynolds number is
range of vessel types, although special prob- less than 5x106 based on hull length. For mod-
lems with other types of HSMV are also con- els tested solely at higher Reynolds numbers,
sidered. turbulence stimulation might be omitted. Rey-
nolds number should be based on mean or ef-
fective wetted length. For tests where Reynolds
numbers below 5x106 are unavoidable, a turbu-
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Resistance Test

lent boundary layer should be stimulated. Refer 3.1.2 Installation

to ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-01-01-
01 Ship Models for a description of alternative The application of the tow force should be
means of turbulence stimulation. The use of such that it resembles the direction of the pro-
trip wires is not recommended on high speed pulsion force as closely as possible. This is in
models due to the risk of air suction. For ves- order to avoid artificial trim effects due to the
sels with significant change in running attitude tow force. The preferred way of doing this is to
with speed, great care must be taken in the tow in the elongation and the direction of the
placement of the turbulence stimulation. Test propeller shaft. If this cannot be accomplished,
runs must be carried out if there are doubts then the artificial trim moments introduced by
about the placement. the towing should be corrected for by an ap-
propriate shift in the LCG.
The resistance of appendages is often an
important and difficult question for HSMVs. The model should be attached to the meas-
This question is discussed in more detail in uring head of the resistance dynamometer by a
section 3.8.2, but the following basic approxi- connection which can transmit and measure
mate rule is offered: Appendages not used for only a horizontal tow force.
producing lift or altering the trim could be left
off the model and the computed resistance of Guides may be fitted to prevent the model
these appendages added in the extrapolation to from yawing or swaying: these should not re-
full scale. Appendages required for the propul- strain the model in any other direction of
sion test (if such a test is to be carried out) movement, nor be able to impose any force or
must be present. For small models it is advis- moment on the model which would cause it to
able to leave out appendages following the roll or heel. The arrangement of any such
above rule in order to avoid problems with guides that include sliding or rolling contacts
laminar separation. For large models it can be should be such as to introduce the least possi-
beneficial to include appendages, at least the ble friction forces. The model should be posi-
ones located in the wake affected area in the aft tioned such that it is in the centreline of the
part of the model. Turbulence stimulation is tank and parallel to the tank walls.
recommended for appendages penetrating
through the boundary layer of the model. If any instruments carried in the model are
linked to the carriage by flexible cables, great
The size of HSMV appendages is often too care should be taken to ensure that the cables
small to obtain a Reynolds number of 5x106. In do not impose any force on the model in the
such cases, turbulence stimulation on the ap- running condition; in practice the cables should
pendages might be a reasonable solution. therefore hang vertically from the carriage.
Care should also be taken to balance any in-
struments that must have attachments to both
the model and the carriage (e.g. mechanical
trim recorders).
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Resistance Test

3.2 Measurement Systems

Fig 1 shows a typical measurement system:









Figure 1 Typical measurement system

The following quantities are measured: 3.3 Instrumentation

• Model speed
• Total resistance The quoted bias accuracies are for indica-
• Sinkage fore and aft (or running trim and tive purposes only. Uncertainty analysis should
sinkage) be used to derive actual requirements.
• Dynamic wetted surface area (for models
with significant change in wetted area)
• Air cushion pressure (for models with air 3.3.1 Resistance
• Air flow rate (for models with air cushion) The resistance dynamometer should meas-
• Water temperature (for calculation of vis- ure the horizontal tow force to within 0.2% of
cosity) maximum resistance or 0.05 N, whichever is
the larger. This does not necessarily imply that
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Testing and Extrapolation Methods
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Resistance Test

the resistance itself is measured within the 3.3.4 Temperature

same tolerance of its true value.
The water temperature should be measured
3.3.2 Speed at a depth near half of the model draught using
a thermometer.
Ideally the speed of the model through the
water should be measured directly throughout
the measuring run. Since this is in general im- 3.3.5 Air cushion pressure
practical, one of the following two methods
may be employed: The air cushion pressure (if measured)
should be measured with an accuracy of 1% of
(i) the speed of the towing carriage rela- the average (designed) air cushion pressure.
tive to the ground should be measured.

(ii) the speed of the towing carriage rela- 3.3.6 Air cushion flow rate
tive to the water should be measured by
a current meter far in front of the The air cushion flow rate should be detect-
model. In this case the current meter able to within 10% of the mean (design) air
wake and waves should be minimised. flow rate. The air cushion flow rate is often
detected through the use of a calibration dia-
The speed of the model should be measured to gram from the measured pressure and fan
within 0.1% of the maximum speed or to speed.
within 3 mm/sec, whichever is the larger.

3.4 Calibrations
3.3.3 Sinkage and Trim
3.4.1 General remarks
Sinkage fore and aft may be measured with
mechanical guides, potentiometers, encoders, All devices used for data acquisition should
LDVTs or with remote (laser or ultrasonic) be calibrated regularly. For calibration, the
distance meters; the running trim is then measured quantities should be either substi-
calculated from the measured running sinkage tuted by calibrated weights and pulses or
fore and aft. Alternatively, the running trim checked by already calibrated other measuring
may be measured directly using an angular devices. The range of the calibration should
measuring device. include at least the range of values to be meas-
ured in the experiment. Calibration diagrams,
The sinkage should be measured to within where the measured quantities (output values)
1.0 mm. If the trim is measured directly, rather are plotted versus the calibration units (input
than deduced from a measurement of sinkage units), may be useful to check the calibration
fore and aft, it should be measured to an accu- itself as well as the linearity of the instruments.
racy of 0.1 deg. Calibration should generally be in accordance
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Resistance Test

with ITTC Quality Manual Standard Procedure 3.4.5 Air cushion flow rate
The calibrations of the resistance dyna- If the air flow rate in the experiment is go-
mometer and the sinkage and/or trim sensors ing to be found from measurement of cushion
should be checked immediately prior to the pressure and fan rotational speed, then calibra-
testing. The calibrations should preferably in- tion curves for the fan(s) must be determined as
clude as much of the measurement chain as part of the calibration. A calibrated flow rate
possible (e.g. amplifier, filter, A/D converter). meter is needed, or a venturi meter or orifice
If the check indicates that the required accura- type instrument must be constructed. The fan is
cies cannot be met, the calibration should be then run at different rotational speeds and the
renewed or the instrument replaced and the delivered pressure must be varied using a vari-
check repeated. Daily checking of a pulse able aperture or some other method. The deliv-
counter type speed measurement device is usu- ered flow rate is measured for each combina-
ally not required. Instead, the check on this tion of backpressure and fan rate of revolu-
device is covered by calibrations carried out at tions. Two-variable calibration curves may
regular intervals. then be constructed. The rotational speed sen-
sor on the fan should be calibrated, for instance
using a pulse counter with verified accuracy.
3.4.2 Resistance Dynamometer

The calibration of the resistance dyna- 3.4.6 Speed

mometer should be carried out by the use of
calibrated weights as an input to the instru- The calibration of the carriage speed will
ment. depend mainly on how the carriage speed is
measured. The carriage speed should be
checked regularly and respective records
3.4.3 Sinkage and Trim Transducers should be stored.

The calibration of linear measuring devices

should be performed with a calibrated ruler.
Angular measuring devices should be cali- 3.4.7 Thermometer
brated against an accurate angular scale.
Thermometers should be calibrated
according to common standards and/or
3.4.4 Air cushion pressure following the advice of the manufacturer.

The air pressure sensor should be calibrated

against a well-known pressure, either by use of
another pressure sensor that is already cali-
brated, or against a known height of water col-
umn. (A mercury column can be used, but it is
then harder to obtain an accurate reading)
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Resistance Test

3.5 Test Procedure and Data Acquisition In some cases it is necessary to modify the
LCG to correct for artificial trim effects from
3.5.1 Method resistance components that influence the trim
but do not follow the Froude scaling laws. Ex-
Before the test begins, zero readings of all amples of such resistance are air resistance,
instruments are taken. Zeros should be checked appendage resistance and viscous resistance,
between runs to ensure no drift has occurred. when the propulsion force is applied far from
The model is towed at speeds giving the same the centre of viscous resistance, such as for a
Froude numbers as for the full scale ship. vessel to be propelled by air propellers. When
the tow-point is not in the extension of the pro-
The model speed is selected and the model pulsor line of thrust, it is then also necessary to
accelerated to that speed. If the model has been modify the LCG for the trim effect of the total
held during initial acceleration, it should be model resistance.
released smoothly as soon as the selected speed
has been reached. It is recommended that the An alternative approach to correcting for ar-
data acquisition should begin not later than tificial trim effects would be to apply the tow-
after releasing the model or a steady speed has ing force in such a way that its lever also pro-
been reached. The mean values are derived duces the correct longitudinal trimming mo-
afterwards from the time series, selecting a ment.
time window with the criterion that, after the
mean measurement values have stabilised, a
period of at least five oscillations should be 3.5.2 Range and Interval
used for the average that is entered into the
result. Maximum and minimum values together The speed range should extend from at least
with mean and standard deviations should be 5% below the lowest speed at which reliable
stored for each run. This process is repeated at data is required to at least 5% above the highest
other selected speeds covering the required speed required. This range should be covered
range, avoiding continuous progression from by a suitable number of speeds. Care should be
one limit to the other. For example, runs at al- taken to ensure that there is sufficient number
ternate speeds from the lowest speed to the of speeds to define humps or hollows and other
highest followed by the highest speed to the rapidly changing features of the curve.
lowest filling in the gaps.

There should be sufficient waiting time 3.5.3 Speed

between consecutive runs to achieve similar
conditions for each of the runs and to obtain The following aspects should be noted
consistency in results. This waiting time will when measuring speed:
depend on the size and type of model, model • Attention should be paid to residual cur-
speed and test facility. The waiting time should rents in the towing tank near the surface,
be recorded. which are caused by previous tests. It is not
unusual to exclude the first run of the day if
no active artificial circulating device is
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Resistance Test

available. This has however not always ments should be recorded at the beginning and
shown to be necessary and can be tested end of each test sequence
with uncertainty analysis. For more infor-
mation see Uncertainty Analysis, Example
for Resistance test, provided in QM 7.5-02- 3.5.5 Data Reduction and Analysis
The speed, resistance, sinkage, trim, pres-
• It is essential that the speed of the model sure and other continuously recorded quantities
through the water should be constant of the test should be the mean value derived
throughout that part of the test run during from an integration of the instantaneously
which resistance is measured, and for a sig- measured values over the same measuring in-
nificant distance before measuring begins. terval, with the zero measurement being sub-
Steadiness of carriage speed is an essential tracted from the averaged values.
element in achieving steady model speed,
but is not necessarily sufficient since the Running wetted surface must normally be
rate of change of the initial acceleration and derived manually from underwater or above-
the moment and manner of release of the water photographs, video recordings, paint
model may interact with the model- smear techniques or from visual observations
dynamometer system and cause it to oscil- during the test runs as described in Section
late. 3.8.3.

• During the measuring run, the carriage Total resistance and residual resistance co-
speed should normally not vary by more efficients, together with Froude Number, are
than 0.1% of the mean speed or 3 mm/s, calculated for each speed using the data reduc-
whichever is the larger. The cyclic charac- tion equations given in Section 2.1.
teristics of the carriage speed control sys-
tem should be such as not to synchronise
with the natural frequency of the model dy- 3.5.6 Analysis of model scale results
namometer system.
Resistance RTM measured in the resistance
tests is expressed in the non-dimensional form
3.5.4 Measured quantities

During each run, the measured values of

speed, resistance, sinkage and trim should be It should be noted that the observed running
recorded continuously. wetted surface area will normally be used for
HSMVs, see Section 3.8.3. The speed should,
Water temperature should be measured at a if necessary, be corrected for blockage by
depth near half of the model draught. If there is methods such as those described in Section
a non-homogeneous temperature in the tank it 3.8.5. Values of water density and viscosity
should be recorded. Temperature measure- should be determined according to ITTC Stan-
dard Procedure 7.5-02-01-03.
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CR is the residual resistance calculated from

The residual resistance coefficient CR is calcu- the total and frictional coefficients of the
lated without the use of a form factor (1+k): model in the resistance tests.

C R = CTM − C FM − C AAM − C AppM CAA, is the air resistance

where CFM is derived from the ITTC –1957

correlation line for the model, CAAM is the The equation for air resistance coefficient
model wind resistance coefficient, and CAppM is CAA is used for both model (CAAM) and full
the model appendage resistance coefficient (if scale (CAAS). For model scale the wind velocity
appendages are present and their resistance VA might be different from the through water
scaled separately). CAppM can be found by velocity V due to carriage displacement effects.
calculation or from the difference in resistance In addition, the wind area Av and the drag
by testing with and without appendages. coefficient CD might be different in model and
full scale. However, if VA=V, and Av and CD are
The CR or CT curve is the best basis for considered to be equal in model and full scale,
judging if a sufficient number of test points then the wind resistance might be left out of the
have been obtained in order to define humps extrapolation process.
and hollows. The model resistance curve
should be faired in order to facilitate reliable CAppS is the appendage resistance coefficient
interpolation to obtain the resistance at the re- of the ship. It can be found from calculations,
quired speeds. The smoothing should be car- using the same method as for finding CAppM but
ried out with care in order not to remove at full scale Re. If CAppM is found from testing
humps and hollows. An acceptance criterion with and without appendages, then CAppS
for the test might be derived based on the scat- should be found from extrapolation of CAppM
ter in the CR or CT curve. using an acceptable friction line.

CA is the model-ship correlation allowance

3.5.7 Extrapolation to full scale
The full scale ship resistance is then
The total resistance coefficient of a HSMV
without bilge keels is RTS = 1
2 ρ S VS2 S λ2 CTS

where S is equivalent to the observed model

wetted surface area.
The following specific considerations can
CFS is the frictional coefficient of the ship be made for SWATH, Hydrofoils, SES, and
according to the ITTC-1957 model-ship ACV.
correlation line
SWATH – Separate friction coefficients are
determined for the struts and submerged hulls
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based on the Reynolds number of each compo- the wetted sidewall is used. Underwater pho-
nent. Form factors for cylindrical hulls, struts tography is recommended for estimating wet-
and control surfaces have been derived using ted surface area of the inner sidewalls. Aerody-
theoretical and experimental methods (Gran- namic resistance is best estimated from wind
ville, 1976) which may be used if no other tunnel tests. If that is not a possibility, aerody-
source is available. Correlation allowances for namic resistance can be approximated using a
SWATHs have been proposed over a wide drag coefficient of approximately 0.5 applied
range from 0.0000 to 0.0005. to the entire frontal area of the vehicle. Testing
with a superstructure covering the entire model
Hydrofoils – For hydrofoils, the hull resis- is recommended in order to model the impor-
tance should be analysed like the resistance of tant trim effect of the air lift and drag.
an ordinary HSMV without foils. The foil sys-
tem resistance should be computed for full Air Cushion Vehicles (ACV) – It is com-
scale Reynolds number, or expanded from tests mon practice to Froude scale all of the resis-
at a Reynolds number high enough to ensure tance measured on an ACV model except for
fully turbulent flow. In case the foil system was that of fully wetted appendages. Stevens and
present during the towing tests, the drag of the Prokhorov (Savitsky et al., 1981) defended this
model foil system must then be subtracted from approach with the premise that the unrealisti-
the total resistance to get the bare hull resis- cally high friction resistance of the model’s
tance. In this case it is strongly advised that the wetted skirt would be partially offset by lower
foil system resistance be measured during the spray resistance of the model. It is recom-
towing tests, as uncertainty regarding the ex- mended that fully wetted appendages should be
tent of turbulent flow on the foils in model treated the same as for other HSMVs.
scale will make it difficult to calculate the drag
in model scale. Due to lack of correlation data,
it is recommended that a correlation coefficient Form factor
of zero be used. Alternatively, if the hull is of a The use of the 1978 powering performance
type for which correlation is available, the hull procedure implies the use of a form factor
resistance can be corrected with the applicable (1 + k ) . Particular problems arise with
correlation coefficient, while the foil system
drag should be added without a correction due estimates of (1 + k ) for HSMVs in that low
to correlation. speed tests are not normally reliable or
sufficient. Many HSMVs employ transom
Surface Effect Ships (SES) – For SES craft, sterns, leading to a confused flow aft of the
it is common practice to estimate resistance transom at low speeds and wetted surface area
components due to hull friction and aerody- generally changes with speed, resulting in a
namic forces and then deduce the residual re- change in true (1 + k ) with speed. For this
sistance, which includes the friction and in- reason it is currently recommended that, for
duced drag of the seals. Froude scaling of consistency and for the time being, form
speed is based on the cushion length. For cal- factors for HSMVs continue to be assumed as
culating friction resistance it is recommended (1 + k ) = 1.0 .
that a Reynolds number based on the length of
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Resistance Test Model-Ship Correlation • For each speed, the following data should
The proposed extrapolation method re- be given as a minimum:
quires an established model-ship correlation, Resistance of the model
partly because the form factor is set to zero. It Sinkage fore and aft, or sinkage and
is not possible to give general guidance to what trim
this correlation factor should be, but is left in- Dynamic wetted surface area (if consid-
stead to each facility to establish its own corre- ered)
lation factor. The extrapolation method adopted Air cushion pressure (if applicable)
should be documented clearly in the test report. Air cushion flow rate (if applicable)

3.6 Documentation 3.7 Special Considerations

3.7.1 Air Resistance

The results from the test should be collated
in a report which should contain at least the
following information: This is an important area to address for the
• Model specification: testing of HSMVs. However, given the differ-
Identification (model number or similar) ences in physical characteristics of each facility
Loading condition it is not possible to propose a single testing
Turbulence stimulation method method that will provide identical results in
Model scale each facility. Factors such as the size of the
Main dimensions and hydrostatics, in- carriage and permeability of its structure are
cluded static wetted surface area (see difficult to quantify but can significantly affect
recommendations of ITTC Standard the flow of air above the model as the carriage
Procedure 7.5-01-01 Ship Models) travels down the tank.
• Particulars of the towing tank including
length, breadth and water depth, together The speed at which air resistance becomes
with the method of towing the model in- significant varies with the facility, towing ar-
cluding position and angle of towing force. rangement and vehicle type. If it is decided that
air resistance is insignificant for a particular
• Test date
HSMV model test, the justification for that
• Parametric data for the test:
decision should be documented in the test re-
Water temperature
Water density
Kinematic viscosity of the water
When air resistance is considered to be
Form factor (even if (1+k)=1.0 is ap-
significant, wind tunnel tests provide the best
plied, this should be stated)
source of information since the model can be
Correlation factor (even if a correlation
tested at or close to the correct Reynolds num-
factor is not applied, this should be
ber. However, for most test programmes, the
expense of wind tunnel tests can be cost pro-
Air resistance coefficients for model
hibitive. A practical alternative is to tow the
and full scale
model, fitted with a superstructure, above the
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water surface. Corrections can then be made to difference in bow-up or bow-down moment
account for Reynolds number effects based on between the model and full-scale vehicle by
the wind speed measured under the towing car- assuming centres of aerodynamic pressure and
riage and resistance contributed by the nor- hydrodynamic pressure. These forces are then
mally-submerged portion of the hull. Since balanced against the towing force and the re-
ship superstructures are in general relatively sulting moment converted to an effective shift
bluff, the Reynolds number effects on drag are in longitudinal centre of gravity.
often moderate. This would confirm that the
most straightforward way of minimising the
errors introduced by air resistance is to fit the 3.7.2 Appendage Effects
model with a modelled superstructure during
the tests. It is important to make adequate corrections
Before making air resistance corrections it for appendage effects on HSMV model test
is important to measure the actual airspeed be- results. Two methods are commonly used to
neath the carriage, in the area the model will be account for appendage effects:
tested. These measurements can be made with- (i) Testing the bare hull and then sepa-
out the model in place if the model cross sec- rately accounting for the lift and drag of
tion is small compared with the cross section of individual components using analytical
the air space housing the tank. Air speed meas- methods
urements should be made over the speed range (ii) Testing the hull with and without ap-
of interest with the carriage configured as it pendages and expanding the values
will be when tests are conducted. The air speed based on the local Reynolds number of
measurements and physical features of the each component.
above-water portion of the model should be
well documented in the test report so that users Testing both with and without appendages
of the test data can make their own estimates of has the advantage of providing more
air effects if they wish. When estimates of air information for expanding the test data using
resistance are made by staff members at the test different methods. Trim moments caused by
facility, the method used, including details such appendage forces not correctly represented in
us frontal cross section area and drag coeffi- the experiment should be accounted for using
cient should be documented in the test report. equivalent shifts in centre of gravity location
Drag coefficients typically range from 0.3- 1.0. and displacement. If these corrections are made
Since HSMVs such as planing boats are ex- after the tests are completed, the results can be
tremely sensitive to trim, estimates of the ef- obtained by interpolating between results from
fects of aerodynamic forces on trim should be tests with different centre of gravity locations.
made and documented in the same manner as A method for setting up test programmes with
for air resistance. the intent of making corrections at a later time
was proposed by Hoyt & Dipper (1989).
The recommended method of accounting
for aerodynamic effects on trim, which are not HSMVs with lift-producing appendages
properly taken into account by a modelled su- have the added complication of Reynolds num-
perstructure on the model, is to calculate the ber effects on lift. One approach for addressing
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Effective Date Revision
High Speed Marine Vehicles 2002 01
Resistance Test

scale effects of lift-producing appendages is to • visual observations from outside model

modify the section shape or angle of attack of • visual observations from inside model
the model appendage so that the lift character- • above water photography or video
istics of the model appendage better represent • underwater photography or video
those of the full-scale vehicle. Another way of • insoluble paint techniques
dealing with the problem is to adjust the • water soluble paint techniques
amount of ballast in the model to account for
• electrical wetting probes
the scale effect on lift, but then one must re-
member also to correct for error introduced to
Surface tension may have an effect on
the induced drag.
WSA, as discussed in some detail in the pro-
ceedings of the 18th ITTC (1987). Surface ten-
Also, for lift-producing appendages, there is
sion leads to a different form of spray between
the choice of either to test with the appendage,
model and full scale, the model spray appear-
correcting for scale effects on lift and drag, or
ing like a sheet of water rather than droplets as
to test without the appendage and correct for
at full scale. For this reason, separation of the
the computed (or separately tested) lift and
spray sheet at model scale is delayed and the
drag of the appendage. When a hydrofoil vessel
WSA tends to become relatively larger with
is tested without the main hydrofoil system it
decreasing model size and model speed. Mini-
will usually be most practical to test the hull
misation of scale effects due to surface tension
fixed in heave and pitch at a range of draughts
can be achieved with the use of larger models,
and trims, measuring the forces in the vertical
higher speeds, and the fitting of model spray
plane in addition to the resistance. When calcu-
rails which correctly simulate full scale rails
lating the combined resistance of hull and foils
and which can aid the correct determination of
it is then required to interpolate the results to
get the hull resistance at the draught and trim
that matches the computed (or tested) lift and
When making estimates of WSA and
drag of the foil system. A more thorough dis-
wetted length, a distinction is made between
cussion of this is given in the report of the
the area covered by spray and that covered by
Committee for Testing of HSMV of the 22nd
solid water. It is common practice to disregard
ITTC (1999). the viscous drag of spray-covered areas and to
account for only the viscous drag of the area
wetted by solid flow. This practice is
questionable but the flow in the spray region is
extremely complex and no alternative practices
3.7.3 Wetted Area Estimation
are known.
In cases where wetted surface area varies For SWATHs it is standard practice to
significantly with speed, which is quite measure wetted area separately for the hulls
frequent with HSMVs, then running wetted and struts. The appropriate Reynolds number is
surface area (WSA) should be estimated for later used to analyse the viscous resistance of
each different speed. Possible methods include: each component separately. This procedure is
also used for trimarans, where the length of the
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Testing and Extrapolation Methods
Effective Date Revision
High Speed Marine Vehicles 2002 01
Resistance Test

side hulls is different from that of the main higher speeds, blockage effects can be esti-
hull. mated using three dimensional wave resistance
Based on the need for better accuracy and calculations for the situation with the model in
representation of the correct physics, it is a tank.
recommended that running WSA should be
used for HSMVs instead of static WSA. Any For SES and ACVs blockage effects might
one of the measurement methods listed may be calculated using simple numerical methods
give good results depending on the vehicle type like those summarised by Doctors (1992).
and test facility characteristics, but the method
of measurement and likely level of accuracy For displacement and semi-displacement
should be described and defined in test reports. ships, two-dimensional wave resistance calcu-
lations might be applied. Relatively simple
computer programs for blockage and shallow
3.7.4 Spray Resistance water corrections based on thin-ship theory by
Lunde (1961) have been found useful for this
At present there is no accepted method purpose.
available to account for scale effects in resis-
tance attributable to spray.
3.7.6 Captive Resistance Tests

3.7.5 Blockage In some cases the standard way of connect-

ing the model to the carriage is not the best.
For all types of HSMV it is important to Some alternative test set-ups are described be-
avoid the situation in which the hump speed of low.
the model approaches or coincides with the
critical depth speed of the tank, i.e. Frh = 1.0. Fully Captured Force Measurements
Blockage was addressed for different types of and Simulation
HSMVs by Savitsky, Müller-Graf and others, The method is made up of force measure-
and these are summarised as follows: ments on a fully or partly captured model and a
computer simulation using the database of the
For planing hulls, Savitsky stated that wall measured hydrodynamic forces. In this method,
effects are believed to be minimal if the tank any additional forces acting on appendages and
width is at least seven times the model beam. scale effects can be taken into account. Hydro-
For semi-displacement hulls and hydrofoils, dynamic forces (drag, lift and trim moment)
Müller-Graf stated that tank depth should be acting on a fully captured model, are measured
greater than 0.8 times the model length and the by systematically changing trim, sinkage
tank width should be greater than two times the (negative) and speed. By solving the equilib-
model length. rium equation of forces using the measured
data, running attitudes and resistance of a craft
For SWATHs, van Oossanen stated that can be obtained. Multi-component load cells
blockage corrections for conventional ships can are used to measure the forces. Extrapolation to
be used at Froude numbers below 0.35. At full scale is carried out in the same way as for
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Procedures Page 16 of 17
Testing and Extrapolation Methods
Effective Date Revision
High Speed Marine Vehicles 2002 01
Resistance Test

ordinary towed models. The problem of the Automatic Attitude Control Method
scale effect on running attitude can be avoided.
A more sophisticated experimental method
The effect of appendages can be obtained as a
has been developed on the basis of the same
result of the simulation by adding hydrody-
philosophies. The experimental apparatus is
namic forces acting on them into the equilib-
composed of a force measurement system, a
rium equation. This method can easily cope
system for solving the equilibrium equation of
with design changes, such as the location of the
the forces by a computer in real time and a sys-
centre of gravity, appendages and thrust force
tem for continuously changing the running atti-
direction. The disadvantage of the method is
tude of the model, for instance by stepping mo-
that the hydrodynamic force measurements are
tors. Forces acting on a model craft are meas-
time-consuming compared with a conventional
ured and its attitude changed using these values
resistance test. Also, investigations of porpois-
to satisfy the equilibrium of forces. Additional
ing and chine walking are precluded. It is noted
forces acting on appendages and any predict-
that any standing waves in the towing tank
able scale effects can be taken into account in
should be reduced as much as possible since
the calculation.
they affect the lift force directly. It is also more
important to have well-aligned rails and a
smooth running carriage for this method than 4 VALIDATION
for towing a model free to heave and trim.
Typical practical methods together with results 4.1 Uncertainty Analysis
are described by Ikeda (1992, 1993), Yoko-
mizo (1992), and Katayama & Ikeda (1993,
1995, 1996) for planing craft and by Minsaas Uncertainty analysis should be performed
(1993) for fully submerged hydrofoils. in accordance with ‘Uncertainty Analysis in
EFD, Uncertainty Assessment Methodology’ Partially Captured Force Measurements as described in QM 4.9-03-01-01 and ‘Uncer-
tainty Analysis in EFD, Guidelines for Uncer-
To avoid the effect of water surface tainty Assessment’ as described in QM 4.9-03-
fluctuation on lift force, hydrodynamic force 01-02. In addition to the above an example
measurements in the free-to-heave condition ‘Uncertainty Analysis, Example for Resistance
have been developed. Using the measured drag Test’ is provided in QM 7.5-02-02-02.
and moment, an equilibrium equation of two
forces is solved to provide the running attitude
and resistance of a fast craft. A variation of this
method, which is used in cases where the trim 4.2 Benchmark Tests
of the ship is going to be controlled, for
instance by a forward lifting foil system, the Benchmark data are collected and described
model is fixed in the required trim without the in ‘Benchmark Database for CFD, Validation
need for any iterations. The required control for Resistance and Propulsion’, QM 7.5-03-02-
system force is then easily determined from the 02.
trim moment measurement. See also the following reference: Summary and
Conclusions of Co-operative Model Resistance
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Procedures Page 17 of 17
Testing and Extrapolation Methods
Effective Date Revision
High Speed Marine Vehicles 2002 01
Resistance Test

Experiments ( 19th ITTC 1990 pp.329-332 ),

(1) Hard Chine BTTP Model, (8) Katayama, T., and Ikeda, Y., 1995. An
(2) Semi-Displacement Geosim Models in Experimental Study on Transverse Stabil-
Japanese Towing Tanks (11-1 ) Resistance ity Loss of Planing Craft at High Speed in
Tests (19th ITTC 1990 pp.360-365) Calm Water. Jour. Kansai Soc. N. A., No.
224, Japan.

5 REFERENCES (9) Katayama, T., and Ikeda, Y., 1996. A

Study on Transverse Instability of Planing
(1) Doctors, L., 1992, The Use of Pressure Craft at High Speed in Calm Water. Proc.
Distributions to Model the Hydrodynamics KO-JAM’96, Korea.
of Air Cushion Vehicles and Surface Ef-
fect Ships. Proceedings of Intersociety (10) Katayama, T., and Ikeda, Y., 1996. A
High Performance Marine Vehicle Con- Study on Unstable Rolling Induced by
ference and Exhibit (HPMV’92) (1992). Pitching of Planing Craft at High Advance
Speed. Jour. Kansai Soc. N. A., No. 255,
(2) Hoyt, J., and Dipper, M., 1989. A Matrix Japan.
Data Base Approach to Planing Craft Re-
sistance Model Experiments, 22nd ATTC, (11) Kirkman, K., and Kloetzli, J., 1981. Scal-
St.John’s, Newfoundland. ing Problems of Model Appendages. 19th
ATTC, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
(3) Ikeda, Y., et al., 1992, Hydrodynamic
Forces Acting on a High-Speed Craft (12) Minsaas, K.J., 1993. Design and Devel-
Running with Constant Speed. Jour. of opment of Hydrofoil Catamarans in Nor-
Kansai Soc. N. A., No. 218, Japan. way. FAST’93, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 83-
(4) Ikeda, Y., 1993. Simulation of Running
Attitude and Resistance of High-Speed (13) Savitsky, D., et al., 1981. Status of
Craft Using a Database of Hydrodynamic Hydrodynamic Technology as Related to
Forces. Japan. Model Tests of High-Speed Marine
Vehicles. HSMV Panel 16th ITTC,
(5) Ikeda, Y., and Katayama, T., 1997. Stabil- DTNSRDC, Report No. 81/026, Bethesda,
ity of High Speed Craft. Proc. of 3rd Int.l MD,USA.
Workshop on Theoretical Advances in (14) Yokomizo, K, et al., 1992. Simulation of
Ship Stability and Practical Impact, Running Attitude and Resistance of a
Greece. High-Speed Craft Using Database of
Three-Component Hydrodynamic Forces.
(6) ITTC 1987, 18th International Towing Jour. of Kansai Soc. N. A., No. 218, Japan
Tank Conference.

(7) ITTC 1999, 22nd International Towing

Tank Conference