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Renewable Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/renene

plants

Taher Niknam a, *, Abdollah Kavousi Fard b, Alireza Seiﬁ b

a

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran

b

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper a new method based on multi-objective modiﬁed Honey Bee Mating Optimization

Received 8 December 2010 (MHBMO) algorithm is presented to investigate the DFR problem with the consideration effect of the

Accepted 13 June 2011 renewable energy sources (RESs). In the proposed algorithm, a new mating process is suggested to

Available online 20 July 2011

overcome the shortcomings which exist in the original HBMO. During the optimization process, the

proposed algorithm ﬁnds a set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions which are stored in an

Keywords:

external memory called repository. Also a fuzzy clustering technique is utilized to handle the size of the

Modiﬁed Honey Bee Mating Optimization

repository in the speciﬁed limits. Moreover, a fuzzy-based decision maker is adopted to select the ‘best

(MHBMO)

Distribution feeder reconﬁguration (DFR)

compromised’ solution among the non-dominated optimal solutions of multi-objective optimization

Multi-objective optimization problem. In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two standard

Fuel cell distribution systems are used as case studies.

Wind energy 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Photovoltaic (PV)

structed as radial networks so that to have appropriate and suitable

In recent years, the necessity of concentration on the air protection coordination. In addition, the radiality of the network

pollution and global warming as two of the greatest threats to the gives this beneﬁt that it is possible to change the structure of the

health of the human beings and animals is conceived more than network by the use of automatic or manual switches in a way that

before. Energy insecurity and rising prices of conventional energy the goal of supplying all consumers, minimizing total power losses

sources are also considered as major threats to the economic and and improving power quality would be achieved satisfactorily. On

political stability [1]. Therefore in recent years, a growing trend for the other hand, the discrete nature of the switches and the radiality

ﬁnding new environmentally friendly replaceable sources of of the network are big barriers to get use of the traditional opti-

energy have been made to reduce the harmful effects of the mization methods in the multi-objective distribution feeder

conventional energy sources; that is to ﬁnd alternative non- reconﬁguration (MDFR) problem. In order to simplify the MDFR

traditional/renewable energies. Low emission, high efﬁciency, problem, traditional methods have proposed converting the multi-

compatibility with other modular subsystems and suitable power objective optimization problem to a single objective optimization

quality and reliability are some beneﬁts of RESs [2]. In addition, in problem [5,6]. However with this method, much computational

recent years a wide range of researches have been made to inves- resources are needed to ﬁnd the multiple optimal solutions.

tigate the use of different kinds of RESs like wind energy, photo- In recent years, so many attempts have been made by the

voltaic cells, biogas energy, fuel cells, combined heat and power researchers to ﬁnd an appropriate approach to solve the MDFR

systems (CHP), etc. in the voltage level of distribution [3,4]. problem. In Ref. [7] a new method based on artiﬁcial neural network

Therefore it is important to study the effect of RESs on the distri- is proposed to recognize the conﬁguration of the network corre-

bution networks, in particular on the DFR problem. sponding to different load levels. In Ref. [8], Taylor and Lubkeman

have suggested a new expert system based on heuristic methods to

reduce the entire search space effectively. In [9], Chiou et al pre-

sented a new method based on variable scaling hybrid differential

Abbreviations: MHBMO, Modiﬁed Honey Bee Mating Optimization; DFR, evolution (VSHDE) to investigate the DFR problem while the total

distribution feeder reconﬁguration; PV, photovoltaic; MOP, multi-objective Opti-

mization; MDFR, multi-objective DFR; RES, renewable energy source.

power losses has been considered as the objective function.

* Corresponding author. Kashem et al. have suggested a new method based on dis-

E-mail address: niknam@sutech.ac.ir (T. Niknam). tance measurement to locate the loops in the system and then

0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.06.017

214 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

Ii current of ith branch (A)

X state variables vector PFC,i power of the ith FC (kW)

n number of state variables PPV,i power of the ith PV unit (kW)

NFC number of FC power units PWind,i power of the ith wind unit (kW)

NPV number of PV power units a speed reduction factor

NWind number of wind power units g random value in the range of [0,1]

Ii,br current of the ith branch F1 random value in the range of [0,1]

Psub active power production of substation (kW) F2 random value in the range of [0,1]

hi electrical efﬁciency of the ith FC F3 random value in the range of [0,1]

PLRi part load ratio of the ith FC prob(D) probability of adding the sperm of drone D to the

CFC,i cost of power generated by the ith FC unit ($) queen spermatheca

CPV,i cost of power generated by the ith PV unit ($) Xmut improved brood

CWind,i cost of power generated by the ith wind unit ($) Irand,SP random integer in the range [1,NSP]

NOxFC,i nitrogen oxide pollutants of the ith FC power unit (kg/ fi(X) the ith objective function

kW h) Fi(X) values of the augmented fi(X)

SO2FC,i sulphur oxide pollutants of the ith FC power unit (kg/ Neq number of equality constraints of the DFR problem

kW h) Nueq number of inequality constraints of the DFR problem

NOxPV,i nitrogen oxide pollutants of the ith PV power unit (kg/ L1 penalty factor

kW h) L2 penalty factor

SO2PV,i sulphur oxide pollutants of the ith PV power unit (kg/ Nipop number of the bees

kW h) Squeen queen speed

NOxWind,i nitrogen oxide pollutants of the ith wind power unit fmin

i lowest limit of ith objective function

(kg/kW h) fmax

i highest limit of ith objective function

SO2Wind,i sulphur oxide pollutants of the ith wind power unit D(f) absolute difference between the ﬁtness of the drone

(kg/kW h) and the queen

NOxGrid nitrogen oxide pollutants of the grid (kg) NSP size of the queen spermatheca

SO2Grid sulphur oxide pollutants of the grid (kg) V(I)FC output voltage (current) of fuel cell

Vmax maximum voltage magnitude of ith bus (V) PtotalFC total power output of fuel cell

Vmin minimum voltage magnitude of ith bus (V) KP proportional coefﬁcient

mfi(X) membership function of the ith objective function E0 potential of fuel cell in thermodynamic equilibrium

D drone P(Q)I-G active (reactive) power output of induction generator

Xbrood,j the jth brood VbusIG voltage of induction generator terminal bus

Sp queen spermatheca matrix s slip of induction generator speed

j a function that converts wind speed to WT power

output Subscripts

w1,2,3,max WT cut-in, rated, cut-off and maximum wind speed, FC fuel cell

respectively PV photovoltaic

Gt solar radiation br branch

Gstd solar radiation in the standard environment set as SP spermatheca

1000 W/m2 max maximum

Rc certain radiation point set as W/m2 min minimum

P(Q)in input active (reactive) power of the synchronous mut mutation

generator(equal to the output active (reactive) power rand random

of RES connected to synchronous generator) eq equality

Eq no-load voltage (constant value) ueq inequality

Xd synchronous reactance ipop initial population

VbusSY voltage of synchronous generator terminal bus Sub substation

Nb number of branches

a switching plan is utilized to improve the load balancing in the before, in this method, so much computational resources and many

corresponding loop [10]. In Ref. [11], Debaprya has proposed a new runs are needed to ﬁnd the optimal solutions and consequently the

approach based on fuzzy theory to solve the MDFR problem sufﬁ- effectiveness of the algorithm will be decreased. In Ref. [16],

ciently. In order to solve the load balancing problem, Baran and Wu Niknam has proposed a new hybrid method to solve the MDFR

have suggested a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) based method problem while the proposed method results in a single optimal

while the total power losses as the objective function is reduced solution. Thus here again, several satisfying solutions which can be

simultaneously [12]. In Ref. [13], Zhou et al. have suggested a new considered as Pareto optimal solutions are neglected.

algorithm to support the load balancing and service restoration in In fact the discrete nature of the tie and sectionalizing switches

the two feeder networks simultaneously. along with the consideration effect of the RESs make the MDFR

In Refs. [14] and [15] Niknam has proposed a new method based problem a nonlinear complex multi-objective optimization.

on evolutionary algorithms and transformation of MDFR problem Conventional and classical methods such as linear programming,

to solve a single objective optimization problem. As mentioned mixed integer programming, quadratic programming, etc., can be

T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 215

used to solve this problem; however, these methods reach local 2.2. Objective functions

minimum and some of them cannot handle the integer problems

[16]. Evolutionary methods owing to independence on the type of - Minimization of the power losses (f1): power losses objective

objectives function and constraints can be used to solve the MDFR function is evaluated as:

problem. Nevertheless, some evolutionary methods neither converge

to global minima nor have short convergence time. Recently, a new X

Nbr

f1 ðXÞ ¼ Ploss ðXÞ ¼ Ri jIi j2 (1)

optimization algorithm based on honey bee mating has been used to

i¼1

solve difﬁcult optimization problems [14]. The original HBMO often

converges to local optima. In order to avoid this shortcoming, where Tiei and Swi are the states of the ith tie switch and sec-

a new method is proposed to improve the mating processing. tionalizing switch respectively. Also in this paper, 0 and 1 are used

Therefore in this paper a new method based on MHBMO algo- to show the states of open and close, respectively.

rithm is proposed to investigate the MDFR problem while the

effects of the RESs are considered simultaneously. In order to - Minimization of the voltage deviation of the buses (f2):

improve the algorithm, the mating process is corrected so that to voltage deviation objective function is evaluated as:

overcome the two main shortcomings which exist in the traditional

HBMO; that is dependency of the algorithm on the initial param- f2 ðXÞ ¼ devðXÞ ¼ max½j1 Vmin j and j1 Vmax j (2)

eters and, the possibility of being trapped in local optima. During

the optimization process, the set of Pareto optimal solutions which - Minimization of the total cost (f3): the cost objective function

are found by the algorithm would be stored in an external memory is the summation of the cost of power production by the grid

called repository. In addition, to ﬁnd the ‘best compromised’ solu- and the RESs. The grid cost can be evaluated as follows:

tion among the Pareto optimal solutions, a fuzzy-based mechanism

is introduced and applied to the set Pareto solutions set. Therefore

Csub ¼ price Psub (3)

the main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) proposing

a new modiﬁcation process to improve the performance of the The cost of FC power sources is evaluated by [17]:

HBMO algorithm, (2) the use of HBMO algorithm to solve the MDFR

problem for the ﬁrst time and (3) the use of the idea of the non- PFC;i

dominated solutions in the MDFR optimization problem. Finally, CFC;i ¼ 0:04$=kW h

hi

to see the feasibility and superiority of the proposed method, two Pgi

test systems are used as case studies. PLRi ¼

Pmaxi

if PLRi < 0:050hi ¼ 0:2716

if PLRi 0:050hi ¼ 0:9033 PLR5i 2:9996 PLR4i þ 3:6503 PLR3i

2. Problem formulation

2:0704 PLR2i þ 0:3747 (4)

2.1. Decision variables The cost of PV and wind units is evaluated similarly by Eq. (5).

The cost of generation of each kW h is a function of three param-

eters [18]: (I) investment cost, (II) operation and maintenance cost,

X ¼ Tie; Sw; Pg

(III) fuel cost. Therefore the cost value is evaluated as follows [18]:

CPV;i ¼ a þ b PPV;i

Sw ¼ Sw1 ; Sw2 ; Sw3 .SwNSw

CWind;i ¼ a þ b PWind;i

Capital costð$=kWÞ*CapacityðkWÞ*Gr (5)

Tie ¼ ½Tie1 ; Tie2 ; Tie3 ; .; Tietie a ¼

Life timeðYearÞ*365*24*LF

b ¼ Fuel costð$=kWÞ þ O&M Costð$=kW hÞ

Pg ¼ ½PFC ; PPV ; PWind

Therefore the total cost is as follows:

X

NFC X

NPV X

Nwind

PPV ¼ PPV;1 ; PPV;2 ; .; PPV;NPV f3 ðXÞ ¼ Cost ¼ CFC;i þ CPV;i þ Cwind;i þ Csub (6)

i¼1 i¼1 i¼1

PFC ¼ PFC;1 ; PFC;2 ; .; PFC;NFC - Minimizing the total emission produced (f4): the total

emission of the grid and the RESs is as follows [19]:

PWind ¼ PWind;1 ; PWind;2 ; .; PWind;NWind

P

NFC P

NPV NP

Wind

f4 ðXÞ ¼ Emission ¼ EFC; i þ EPV;i þ EWind;i þEGrid

i¼1 i¼1 i¼1

Xqueen ¼ xq;1 ; xq;2 ; .; xq;N ; N ¼ 2*Ntie þ NFC þ NPV þ NWind kg MW h1

EType;i ¼ NOxType;i þSO2Type;i ¼ K1Type;i þK2Type;i PType;i

lb MW h1

Spi ¼ si;1 ; si;2 ; .; si;N ; i ¼ 1; 2; .; NSp EGrid ¼ NOxGrid þSO2Grid ¼ K1Grid þK2Grid Psub

(7)

Xmut ¼ xmut;1 ; xmut;2 ; .; xmut;N

where Type can be: FC, PV or Wind. The related values of these

parameters are shown in Table 2. It should be noted that the values

Xbrood ¼ xbr;1 ; xbr;2 ; .; xbr;N of K1 and K2 related to Wind and PV units are supposed to be zero in

216 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

this paper. However in some investigations, these two variables (K1 - Bus voltage constraints:

and K2) are considered to get nonzero values. In fact in these

studies, the contamination related to the process of the construc- Vmin V Vmax (12)

tion of the RESs is considered in the evaluations.

3. Modeling of the RESs

2.3. Limits and constraints

3.1. Fuel cell

- Limits associated with distribution lines:

Among different kinds of RESs, FC has developed into one of the

most important and inﬂuential devices in the current power

Line

Pij;min < PijLine < Pij;max

Line

(8) systems especially in the voltage level of distribution. Simple

structure and operation [8], high efﬁciency while having the ability

of following load variations [3,4], high reliability and cleanness

- Distribution power ﬂow equations: [20,21] are some of the attractive characteristics of this type of

RESs. In recent years, the knowledge of construction of FCs has

improved proﬁtably in a way that the efﬁciency of some kinds of

NP

bus the FCs has become near twice that of the conventional power

Pi ¼ Vi Vj Yij cos qij di þ dj

i¼1 plants [22].

(9)

P

Nbus

Qi ¼ Vi Vj Yij sin qij di þ dj

i¼1 3.2. Photovoltaic

In fact, this equation is a load ﬂow equation which can play the part of the required energy of the human beings is solar energy.

role of an equality constraint. In order to get use of this ever lasting source of energy, PV as an

inevitable technology in the area, has attracted the attention of

- Keeping the radiality of the network: since the distribution many researchers in recent years [1]. In fact by the use of arrays

networks are assumed as radial networks, thus during the of cells which are constructed of some kinds of semiconductors

reconﬁguration, this quality of the network should be that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, the solar radiation can

preserved carefully. Each loop is consisted of a sectionalizing be converted into direct current (DC) electricity sufﬁciently

switch and a tie switch simultaneously. Each time that a loop is [1,23].

formed in the network; one of the switches should be opened

in a way that the radiality of the network would be preserved.

3.3. Wind

- Feeder current limitation [16]:

With the developments which has happened in the technology

jIf;i j Ifmax of the wind power generations in recent years, there has been an

;i ; i ¼ 1; 2; .; Nf (10)

increasing interest to get use of the wind farms which are con-

nected directly to the power system. Indeed, the kinetic energy

- RESs constraints on active power production are: which exists in the wind airﬂows can be changed into electricity

power by the use of wind farms. Especially, the importance of use

pmin;FC;i pFC;i pmax;FC;i ; pmin;PV;i pPV;i pmax;PV;i ; of this kind of energy in the regions like high altitude and open

ﬂat areas which have more constant and regular winds is more

pmin;Wind;i pWind;i pmax;Wind;i ð11Þ

evident.

Fig. 1. Modeling of RESs. a) PQ model with simultaneous three-phase control. b) PQ model with independent three-phase control. c) PV model with simultaneous three-phase

control. d) PV model with independent three-phase control.

T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 217

218 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

3.4. Modeling of the RESs grid directly. In the variable speed type, ﬁrstly, by the use of

synchronous or a double-fed induction generator the wind

In order to have an appropriate model for the RESs, two subjects energy is converted to the electrical energy and then by the use

should be considered precisely: (I) the operation of the RESs, (II) the of power electronic devices, the generated electrical energy is

type of connection of the RES to the grid. changed to the grid compatible AC power [25]:

8

- Fuel cells (FCs): the connection of these chemical sources of < 0 wt w1 or wt w3

t

energy into the grid is done via power electronic devices based PWT ¼ j wt w1 wt w2 t ¼ 1; 2; .; T (17)

:

on rectiﬁer and inverter. The output power can be modeled PWT w2 wt w3

as [24]:

With the above explanation, it can be deduced that the

connection of the RESs to the grid is done via: 1) power electronic

PFC ¼ VFC IFC (13) devices and/or 2) synchronous/asynchronous electric machines. In

the ﬁrst case (via power electronic devices), the RESs should be

Considering the inner resistance for the FC (R), the total power modeled with regard to the characteristics of the interface control

produced by the FC is as follows: circuit. In the second case (direct connection via electric machines),

the RESs should be modeled according to the operation of the

2 2

PtotalFC ¼ PFC þ RIFC ¼ VFC IFC þ RIFC (14) electric machines. These models are explained in the following:

The regulation related to the active power production of a FC is a. Power electronic interface: as mentioned above, in this case,

deﬁned as: the RESs are modeled according to their control circuit. If the

control circuit is designed to control P and V independently, the

PtotalFC ¼ KP ðE0 VFC Þ2 (15) RESs can be modeled as a PV bus. On the other hand, when it is

designed to control P and Q independently, the model is

- Photovoltaic (PV): the connection of this type of RESs to the considered as a PQ bus.

grid is done in a similar way as FCs. The output power and the b. Induction generator model: the active and reactive powers of

solar radiation are related to each other as follows [25]: induction generators are usually supposed to be function of the

slip [26]:

8 2

>

> Gt PIG ¼ PIG VbusIG ; s

>

< t (18)

Psn 0 < G < Rc QIG ¼ QIG VbusIG ; s

PPV Gt ¼ Gstd Rc t ¼ 1; 2; .; T (16)

>

> t

>

: Psn G Gt >Rc If the weak relationship between the slip and the reactive power

Gstd

is neglected and also PI-G is supposed to be constant then Eq. (18) is

Note it that in this equation, the relationship of photovoltaic cell reduced as:

temperature and PPV is neglected.

PIG ¼ constant

(19)

QIG ¼ f VbusIG

- Wind turbines: This kind of RES is divided into two categories

of ﬁxed and variable speed. In the ﬁxed speed type, the rotor of In the steady state condition which the values of the bus volt-

the squirrel cage induction generator is rotated by the propeller ages can be supposed to be near 1 p.u.; the induction generators

through gear box while the induction motor is connected to the can be modeled as PQ buses.

T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 219

Table 1 where here X is the control variable of making decision. Also n is the

Speciﬁcations of RESs (test system 1). number of objective functions.

Capacity (kW) Type Location In fact in MOP, the idea of optimality is replaced with that of

RES 1 350 FC 8 Pareto optimality or non-dominated solution. This characteristic is

RES 2 350 FC 11 due to the ability of MOP in ﬁnding the set of Pareto optimal

RES 3 350 PV 18 solutions. Pareto optimal solution is the optimal solution which

RES 4 350 Wind 25

cannot be improved in one of the objective functions unless dete-

riorate the performance of the solution in at least one of the rest.

Thus X* is called a Pareto optimal solution if it is impossible to ﬁnd

a solution X in U such that X dominates X* ˛ U. U is the set of all the

c. Synchronous generator model: according to the structure of

vectors (X) which observe the constraints and limitations. In deﬁ-

the excitation system, the synchronous machines are divided

nition the solution X1 dominates X2 if the following two conditions

into the following two categories [27]:

are satisﬁed:

c-1- regulating excitation voltage: this type itself is divided into the

following two categories: 1Þ c j˛f1; 2; .; ng; fj ðX1 Þ fj ðX2 Þ

voltage control mode (constant terminal voltage); which the (23)

2Þ d k˛f1; 2; .; ng; fk ðX1 Þ < fk ðX2 Þ

RES can be modeled as PV bus.

power factor control mode (constant power factor); which the 5. Fuzzy-based clustering

RES can be modeled as PQ bus.

c-2- ﬁxed excitation voltage:, the reactive power for a round rotor 5.1. Keeping the size of the repository

synchronous generator can be evaluated as:

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ As mentioned before, the set of Pareto optimal solutions which

u !

u E2 2 2

Vbus are found during the optimization process are stored in an external

t q 2

Qin ¼ Pin SY

(20) memory (or repository). Since the repository size is constant, the

Xd Xd

number of the Pareto solutions should not exceed a speciﬁed

number. Therefore a fuzzy-based clustering technique is utilized

Considering Pin as a constant value, Eq. (20) is simpliﬁed to:

here to control the size of the repository. The membership function

Pin ¼ constant assigned to each objective function is as follows:

(21)

Qin ¼ f VbusSY 8

>

> 1 for fi ðXÞ f min

>

< 0 for f ðXÞ fimax

Similarly to Eq. (19), here RES can be supposed as a PQ bus. i

Therefore the RESs can be modeled as PV or PQ buses. mfi ðXÞ ¼ f max f ðXÞ i (24)

>

> i

On the other hand, since the division of the loads in the distri- > i

: f max f ðXÞ fi

min

fi ðXÞ fimax

i i

bution networks is unbalanced, the operation and control of the RESs

can be implemented in two forms: (1) simultaneous three-phase The values of fkmin and fkmax are evaluated by single optimization

control, (2) independent three-phase control (single phase control). of the kth objective function. Finally, the Pareto solutions are sorted

Therefore according to the model of the RES and the type of control according to the following equation:

which is utilized, four models are deﬁned for the RESs (Fig. 1) [8]: Pn

i ¼ 1 ui mfl Xj

Nm ðjÞ ¼ Pm Pn (25)

i ¼ 1 ui

PQ model with simultaneous three-phase control. j¼1 mfl Xj

PQ model with independent three-phase control.

PV model with simultaneous three-phase control. where n is the number of the objective functions and m is the

PV model with independent three-phase control. number of the Pareto solutions in the repository.

4. Multi-objective optimization

After getting Pareto optimal solutions (that is after the termi-

The process of optimization of different conﬂicting objective nation of the optimization process), the best compromised solution

functions when all the constraints and limitations are observed should be extracted from the repository. In order to achieve this

simultaneously is called multi-objective optimization problem goal, a fuzzy-based mechanism is utilized here. In fact this method

(MOP). The MOP can be described as [16]: offers the best satisfying solution to the decision maker. Therefore,

after the evaluation of Nm for all the Pareto solutions by Eq. (25), the

minF ¼ ½f1 ðXÞ; f2 ðXÞ; .; fn ðXÞT repository is sorted in descending order. The best compromised

s:t: (22) solution is that for which the value of Nm is maximum. Note that

gi ðXÞ < 0 i ¼ 1; 2; .; Nueq here ui is supposed to be unit so that to give equal preferences to all

hi ðXÞ ¼ 0 i ¼ 1; 2; .; Neq the objective functions.

Table 2

Emission factors related to NOx, CO2 and SO2.

NOx 2.2952 0.0136 0.1995 0 0 0.52163 2.1319

CO2 921.25 488.97 723.93 0 0 502.58 6.49.54

SO2 3.5834 0.0027 0.0036 0 0 3628.7 0.2059

220 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

Comparison of active power losses objective functions evaluated by different

methods neglecting RESs (test system 1).

6.1. Original HBMO

Method Power loss Minimum Open switches

Honey bee as a social insect with special behaviors and [KW] voltage

instructions have been the source of inspiration for the human Goswami [31] 143.69 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

Vanderson Gomes [32] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

beings during the years. The honey bees’ society is consisted of

McDermott et al. [33] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

three groups in general: 1) the queen or female, 2) the drones or PSOeSFLA [34] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

males and 3) the workers. Each of these groups has a special task MSFLA [35] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

which should be implemented in such a way that the total condi- DPSO [14] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

tion of their society improves effectively. HBMO algorithm simu- DPSOeHBMO [14] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

PSOeACO [15] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

lates each of the phases of the natural mating process so that to give DPSOeACO [16] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

a satisfying algorithm which would be proﬁtable in the optimiza- HBMO [29] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

tion applications. The mating process between the queen and each Shirmohammadi [36] 140.26 0.93781964 s7, s10, s14, s32,s37

of the drones is implemented probabilistically with an annealing The proposed 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

function as follows [28]: algorithm

Df

probðDÞ ¼ exp (26)

SðtÞ

xmut;j ; if 41 42

After each mating process, the queen speed decreases. If the xbrood1;j ¼

x ; otherwise

mating process is successful, the corresponding drone sperm is queen;j

xmut;j ; if 43 42 (30)

added to the queen spermatheca, else it is discarded and the next xbrood2;j ¼

xj ; otherwise

drone is chosen for mating. The speed of the queen after each

mating process is updated as follows: Xbrood;3 ¼ h Xqueen þ a Xqueen SP Irand;SP

Sðt þ 1Þ ¼ a SðtÞ (27) Xbrood,1, Xbrood,2, Xbrood,3 and the ith individual in the drones pop-

ulation are evaluated and stored in the repository.

For each individual in the drones’ population (Xi), the modiﬁ-

The mating process continues until the time that the speed of

cation process, as described above, should be repeated. After that

the queen reaches to a speciﬁc value or her spermatheca become

the breeding process for all the individuals is completed, the

full (for more details see Refs. [28,29]). Now the breeding process is

repository is updated by Eq. (23).

simulated. If the position of any of the new broods is better than

In order to improve the MHBMO algorithm, the process of

that of the queen, then it will replace the queen. This process of

generating drones’ population should be amended too. In the

mating and breeding continues until the time that the best satis-

original HBMO, after that the breeding process for all the drones’

fying queen (solution) would be achieved.

population is ﬁnished then the old drones’ population is discarded

and a new generation is produced randomly. In the MHBMO algo-

6.2. Modiﬁed HBMO (MHBMO) algorithm rithm, this process is corrected as follows:

As mentioned before, for each drone in the population (Xi), three

It was mentioned before that the original HBMO suffers from new modiﬁed broods (Xbrood,1, Xbrood,2, Xbrood,3) are generated by Eq.

two main deﬁciencies; that is the reliance of the HBMO algorithm (30). After selection of the non-dominated solutions among the

on its parameters and the possibility of being trapped in local three generated modiﬁed broods and the ith drone, the individual

optima. These two shortcomings root from the mating process. who the summation of its membership functions is the most will

Thus in order to improve the algorithm performance, the mating replace the corresponding drone (Xi) in the drones’ population. It is

process should be corrected sufﬁciently. In the original HBMO, after evident that if the summation of the membership functions of Xi is

that the process of adding the drones’ sperm to the queen sper- greater than that of the others, then it will be kept in its position.

matheca is completed and the queen spermatheca is constructed, Subsequently after a complete breeding process, the old drones’

then the breeding process is implemented as follows: population is updated and utilized as the new generation of drones

satisfactorily. The complete process of MHBMO algorithm is

depicted in Fig. 2.

Xbrood;j ¼ Xqueen þ g Xqueen Spi (28)

Comparison of voltage deviation objective functions evaluated by different methods

modiﬁed as follows:

neglecting RESs (test system 1).

After that the queen spermatheca is constructed similar to

original HBMO, then three drones k1, k2 and k3 are chosen from the Method Voltage deviation Minimum Open switches

[p.u.] voltage

queen spermatheca randomly in a way that k1 s k2 s k3 s i where

i is the ith individual in the drones’ population. Thus by the use of DPSO [14] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

PSOeACO [15] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

the queen spermatheca, a new improved brood is generated as DPSOeHBMO [14] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

follows: DPSOeACO [16] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

GA 0.06218097 0.93781902 s7,s10,s14,s32,s37

Xmut ¼ Spk1 þ b ðSpk2 Spk3 Þ (29) PSO 0.06120031 0.93879681 s6,s9,s14,s32,s37

HBMO [29] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

Now by the use of Xmut, Xqueen and Xi (the ith drone), three new

The proposed 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37

modiﬁed broods would be generated. The modiﬁcation process is algorithm

implemented as follows:

T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 221

Comparison of objective functions evaluated by different methods considering RESs In order to observe all the constraints, the penalty factors L1 and

(test system 1).

L2 are used here to prevent violating the constraints.

Objective function Method Best solution States of the switches

Power losses GA 84.54971 s6,s12,s35,s17,s37

2 3

[kW] PSO 80.74696 s33,s14,s8,s31,s37 F1 ðXÞ

HBMO 82.36062 s6,s12,s11,s31,s37

6 F2 ðXÞ 7

FðXÞ ¼ 4

F ðXÞ 5

The proposed 76.98436 s7,s14,s9,s30,s37

algorithm 3

F4 ðXÞ 41

Voltage deviation GA 0.0490462 s7,s14,s11,s31,s37 3

2 !

[p.u.] PSO 0.0478782 s7,s34,s10,s31,s37

P

Neq NP

ueq

7

HBMO 0.0481048 s33,s34,s8,s31,s37 6 f1 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2

7

The proposed 0.0442284 s6,s11,s14,s31,s37 6 i¼1 i¼1 7

6 7

algorithm 6 !7

6 P

N NP 7

6 eq ueq

7

Cost [$] GA 154.79529 s6,s11,s17,s34,s37 6 f2 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2 7

6 ¼ i¼1 7

PSO 154.28952 s7,s9,s12,s32,s37 6 i 1 7

HBMO 154.38659 s6,s10,s34,s36,s37 ¼6 !7

6 P

N NP 7

The proposed 154.16894 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37 6 eq ueq

7

6 f3 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2 7

algorithm 6 i¼1 i¼1 7

6 7

Emission [kg] GA 14,624.099 s2,s21,s34,s36,s37 6 !7

6 P

N NP 7

PSO 14,206.125 s11,s12,s15,s33,s37 4 eq ueq

7

HBMO 14,399.873 s21,s24,s33,s34,s36

f4 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2 5

i¼1 i¼1

The proposed 14,074.587 s6,s14,s11,s31,s37

41

algorithm

(31)

L1 and L2 are supposed to be 106 in the paper.

Step 1: deﬁning the input data.

Step 2: changing the constrained MOP to an unconstrained one: Step 3: generation of the initial population. The initial pop-

in this step, the constrained MOP is changed to an unconstrained ulation is as follows:

Fig. 4. Single line diagram of 32-bus test system after DFR. a) Single optimization of f1 evaluated by the proposed method considering RESs. b) Single optimization of f2 evaluated by

the proposed method considering RESs. c) Single optimization of f3 evaluated by the proposed method considering RESs. d) Single optimization of f4 evaluated by the proposed

method considering RESs.

222 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

X1

6 X2 7 described in Section 6.2.

6 7

initial population ¼ 6 7 Step 9: generation of the new drones’ population. Among the ith

4 . 5 drone, Xbrood,1, Xbrood,2 and Xbrood,3 the individual who the

XNipop Nipop ðNtie þNsw þNg Þ summation of its membership functions is the most (so the

ﬁttest individual) will replace the ith drone.

Ng ¼ NPV þ NFC þ NWind ð32Þ

Step 10: if all the drones are checked go to step 11, else return to

Step 4: evaluation of the objective functions. In this step the step 8.

values of the objective functions and their corresponding Step 11: updating the repository. In this step the repository is

membership functions are evaluated. updated so that all solutions in the repository would be Pareto

Step 5: formation of the repository. Here by the use of Eq. (23) optimal solutions.

and the membership functions evaluated in the last step, all Step 12: updating the queen. A new queen is selected from the

the Pareto solutions are evaluated and stored in the repository. updated repository randomly.

Step 6: selection of the queen. The queen is selected from the Step 13: generation of the queen speed: The queen speed will be

repository randomly. generated randomly as follows:

Step 7: formation of the queen spermatheca matrix. Firstly, the

queen ﬂies by her maximum speed far from the nest. Now Squeen ¼ randð$Þ ðSmax Smin Þ þ Smin (33)

a drone is selected from the drones’ population randomly and

mates with the queen. Therefore according to the values of the Step 14: termination criterion. If the termination criterion is

objective functions and by the use of Eq. (26), prob(D) would be achieved, ﬁnish the algorithm, else return to step 6.

evaluated. Now a value in the range of [0,1] is generated

randomly and compared to prob(D). If prob(D) is bigger than the

generated random value, then the sperm of the speciﬁed drone 8. Simulation results

is added to the queen spermatheca, else another drone is chosen

from the population randomly and the mating process is 8.1. Case study 1

repeated. The mating process continues until the time that the

queen spermatheca becomes full or her speed reduces to the The ﬁrst test system is a 12.66 kV system which is consisted of

speciﬁed value. 32 buses, 5 sectionalizing switches and 5 tie switches so that to be

Fig. 5. 3-D plot of the Pareto optimal solutions considering RESs for 3-objective function (test system 1).

T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 223

Table 7

Speciﬁcations of the RESs (test system 2).

RES 1 450 FC 6

RES 2 450 FC 21

RES 3 450 Wind 28

RES 4 450 Wind 39

RES 5 450 PV 44

RES 6 450 PV 51

algorithm with the other works done in the area and also with

some of the famous evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic

Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm,

Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO) algorithm, etc. In Tables 3

and 4, the results of the single optimization of the power losses (f1)

and the voltage deviation (f1), neglecting RESs are shown respec-

tively. It can be seen that the proposed algorithm is capable of

ﬁnding the best solution as well as the best switching sufﬁciently. It

should be noted that since just f1 and f2 are investigated in the other

works mentioned in Tables 3 and 4, so the comparison of the other

two objective functions (cost (f1) and emission (f1)) are not shown

in the tables. However the complete comparison of all the objective

functions while the effect of the RESs is considered will be

described in the following. In order to see the appropriate perfor-

mance of the proposed method and also the effect of the RESs on

the network simultaneously, in Table 5, the result of the single

objective optimization by MHBMO and some of the other algo-

rithms mentioned before is shown comparatively. The simulation

results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is

much more satisfying than the other algorithms shown in Table 5.

Fig. 6. Single line diagram of 69 bus test system (tie lines are connected from node 10 In order to have a more precise look on the results, in Fig. 4, the

to 70, 12 to 20, 14 to 90, 38 to 48, and 26 to 54).

state of the network after applying single objective optimization by

the proposed method is depicted. It should be noted that, in Fig. 4,

able to form 5 branch loops. The network diagram proposed by just the states of the switches (tie switches and sectionalizing

Baran and Wu is shown in Fig. 3 [12]. The initial power losses before switches) are shown and the power production of the RESs are not

the reconﬁguration is 202.67 kW. Table 1 shows the location, the revealed here. It is evident from this ﬁgure, that the switching

capacity and the type of each RES. Also the emission factors related operation has a direct relationship with the optimization of each of

to NOx, CO2 and SO2 are shown in Table 2. the objective functions individually. Nevertheless, it can be seen

Since MHBMO algorithm is used in this paper for the ﬁrst time that the states of the switching corresponding to the optimization

to solve DFR problem, then ﬁrst of all, a single objective of f2 and f4 are completely similar to each other. This result could be

Table 6

Some of the non-dominated solutions found for MDFR problem (test system 1). Table 8

Comparison of objective functions evaluated by different methods considering RESs

Power losses Voltage deviation Cost ($) Emission (test system 2).

(KW) (p.u.) (kg)

Objective function Method Best solution States of the switches

1 076.984 0.052854 156.923 14,081.05

2 090.550 0.049126 155.642 16,402.84 Power losses GA 88.4282 s70,s71,s11,s58,s61

3 088.137 0.048260 156.235 15,955.57 [kW] HBMO 87.2016 s70,s71,s14,s58,s61

4 085.580 0.048357 156.179 15,747.99 PSO 86.2222 s70,s71,s13,s55,s61

5 093.921 0.049159 155.364 17,287.72 The proposed 85.2230 s70,s71,s14,s56,s61

6 077.404 0.044224 156.934 14,110.31 algorithm

7 106.265 0.056111 154.964 18,512.59

Voltage deviation GA 0.0580294 s70,s71,s72,s54,s61

8 099.280 0.051258 155.403 17,260.70

[p.u.] HBMO 0.0572424 s70,s71,s72,s58,s61

9 101.437 0.056263 154.931 18,566.69

PSO 0.0572262 s70,s71,s14,s58,s61

10 101.162 0.051158 155.347 17,722.32

The proposed 0.0572147 s70,s20,s11,s58,s61

11 091.196 0.050928 156.959 15,147.87

algorithm

12 132.036 0.062519 154.405 21,312.95

13 095.416 0.060376 155.035 17,761.61 Cost [$] GA 158.21158 s42,s13,s11,s58,s61

14 134.018 0.062111 154.168 22,016.35 HBMO 157.28998 s70,s13,s11,s58,s74

15 086.276 0.051784 156.909 14,825.49 PSO 157.07320 s70,s71,s11,s58,s74

16 084.314 0.048066 156.978 14,656.03 The proposed 156.05831 s70,s71,s12,s58,s61

17 077.280 0.044228 156.941 14,074.58 algorithm

18 091.875 0.049822 156.083 15,900.95

Emission [kg] GA 7,211.096 s42,s19,s72,s58,s21

19 101.470 0.053645 155.336 17,826.48

HBMO 7,078.044 s35,s13,s72,s58,s68

20 102.815 0.056175 155.364 17,525.11

PSO 7,186.769 s40,s13,s72,s54,s62

Best compromised 084.314 0.048066 156.978 14,656.03 The proposed 7,026.466 s70,s71,s11,s58,s62

solution algorithm

224 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

Table 9 one. This deduction can also be inferred from Fig. 5 which shows

Some of the non-dominated solutions in four-objective DFR problem (test system 2). the 3-D plot of the objective functions with regard to each other.

Power losses Voltage deviation Cost ($) Emission However the little difference which exists in the results of the

(KW) (p.u.) (kg) single optimization of f2 and f4 separately, roots in the difference

1 085.223 0.0572319 159.3069 12,587.71 which exists in the power production of the RESs. Actually, the

2 092.913 0.0572259 161.8965 12,576.07 single optimization of f4 has selected the best operating point for

3 113.798 0.0700551 157.2814 21,293.49

the FC1 (on bus 8), FC2 (on bus 11), PV and Wind plant to be

4 088.460 0.0585779 162.2050 11,629.81

5 091.024 0.0572147 165.6285 07,029.07 350 MW equally, while the single optimization of f2 has preferred to

6 102.611 0.0586040 159.6404 16,570.59 reduce the power production of FC1 by 6MW to 344 MW. The effect

7 103.141 0.0572385 156.7690 21,598.31 of this power production management on the values of the other

8 090.412 0.0572165 164.4271 08,581.18 objective functions can be seen in Table 6. The similarity of the

9 091.337 0.0572149 165.5630 07,199.97

10 099.266 0.0572464 156.1511 22,798.47

behavior of f2 and f4 can be deduced from this table too. In Table 6,

11 093.994 0.0572356 159.7799 16,654.01 a set of the Pareto optimal solutions which are evaluated by the

12 121.537 0.0700697 157.9254 21,278.96 multi-objective optimization of the four objective functions is

13 105.148 0.0586094 156.4227 22,723.45 shown. It can be seen that the best solutions which are evaluated by

14 086.000 0.0572289 162.1507 12,608.01

single optimization in Table 5 are considered as the Pareto solutions

15 099.267 0.0572466 156.0583 22,934.94

16 119.139 0.0736479 159.4350 18,500.87 in the multi-objective optimization in Table 6. It could already be

17 088.853 0.0572158 164.7303 08,006.55 deduced too. In fact since each of these solutions are the best with

18 104.265 0.0572419 156.3078 22,889.30 regard to the corresponding objective function, thus there could

19 090.580 0.0572247 165.6108 07,026.46 not be found any solution that can dominate these solutions and

20 086.276 0.0572269 162.9434 11,393.48

therefore omit them from the repository. Each of the solutions in

Best compromised 090.412 0.0572165 164.4271 08,581.18 Table 6 can be a satisfying solution depending on the preferences of

solution

the decision maker. However in order to offer the best compro-

mised solution to the decision maker, by the use of fuzzy clustering

deduced from Table 5 too. In fact this result shows that these two technique (as explained in Section 5.2), the best compromised

objective functions have a similar behavior in decreasing and solution is evaluated and shown in the last row of Table 6. In Fig. 7,

increasing in a way that in a wide range of variation, the the 3-D plot of the Pareto optimal solutions is depicted while each

improvement of one will result in the improvement of the other ﬁgure belongs to the multi-objective optimization of three of the

Fig. 7. 3-D plot of the Pareto optimal solutions considering RESs for 3-objective function (test system 2).

T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 225

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