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Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

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Renewable Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/renene

Distribution feeder reconfiguration considering fuel cell/wind/photovoltaic power


plants
Taher Niknam a, *, Abdollah Kavousi Fard b, Alireza Seifi b
a
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
b
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper a new method based on multi-objective modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization
Received 8 December 2010 (MHBMO) algorithm is presented to investigate the DFR problem with the consideration effect of the
Accepted 13 June 2011 renewable energy sources (RESs). In the proposed algorithm, a new mating process is suggested to
Available online 20 July 2011
overcome the shortcomings which exist in the original HBMO. During the optimization process, the
proposed algorithm finds a set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions which are stored in an
Keywords:
external memory called repository. Also a fuzzy clustering technique is utilized to handle the size of the
Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization
repository in the specified limits. Moreover, a fuzzy-based decision maker is adopted to select the ‘best
(MHBMO)
Distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR)
compromised’ solution among the non-dominated optimal solutions of multi-objective optimization
Multi-objective optimization problem. In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two standard
Fuel cell distribution systems are used as case studies.
Wind energy  2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Photovoltaic (PV)

1. Introduction Generally, the structure of the distribution systems is con-


structed as radial networks so that to have appropriate and suitable
In recent years, the necessity of concentration on the air protection coordination. In addition, the radiality of the network
pollution and global warming as two of the greatest threats to the gives this benefit that it is possible to change the structure of the
health of the human beings and animals is conceived more than network by the use of automatic or manual switches in a way that
before. Energy insecurity and rising prices of conventional energy the goal of supplying all consumers, minimizing total power losses
sources are also considered as major threats to the economic and and improving power quality would be achieved satisfactorily. On
political stability [1]. Therefore in recent years, a growing trend for the other hand, the discrete nature of the switches and the radiality
finding new environmentally friendly replaceable sources of of the network are big barriers to get use of the traditional opti-
energy have been made to reduce the harmful effects of the mization methods in the multi-objective distribution feeder
conventional energy sources; that is to find alternative non- reconfiguration (MDFR) problem. In order to simplify the MDFR
traditional/renewable energies. Low emission, high efficiency, problem, traditional methods have proposed converting the multi-
compatibility with other modular subsystems and suitable power objective optimization problem to a single objective optimization
quality and reliability are some benefits of RESs [2]. In addition, in problem [5,6]. However with this method, much computational
recent years a wide range of researches have been made to inves- resources are needed to find the multiple optimal solutions.
tigate the use of different kinds of RESs like wind energy, photo- In recent years, so many attempts have been made by the
voltaic cells, biogas energy, fuel cells, combined heat and power researchers to find an appropriate approach to solve the MDFR
systems (CHP), etc. in the voltage level of distribution [3,4]. problem. In Ref. [7] a new method based on artificial neural network
Therefore it is important to study the effect of RESs on the distri- is proposed to recognize the configuration of the network corre-
bution networks, in particular on the DFR problem. sponding to different load levels. In Ref. [8], Taylor and Lubkeman
have suggested a new expert system based on heuristic methods to
reduce the entire search space effectively. In [9], Chiou et al pre-
sented a new method based on variable scaling hybrid differential
Abbreviations: MHBMO, Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization; DFR, evolution (VSHDE) to investigate the DFR problem while the total
distribution feeder reconfiguration; PV, photovoltaic; MOP, multi-objective Opti-
mization; MDFR, multi-objective DFR; RES, renewable energy source.
power losses has been considered as the objective function.
* Corresponding author. Kashem et al. have suggested a new method based on dis-
E-mail address: niknam@sutech.ac.ir (T. Niknam). tance measurement to locate the loops in the system and then

0960-1481/$ e see front matter  2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.06.017
214 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

Nomenclature Ri resistance of ith branch (U)


Ii current of ith branch (A)
X state variables vector PFC,i power of the ith FC (kW)
n number of state variables PPV,i power of the ith PV unit (kW)
NFC number of FC power units PWind,i power of the ith wind unit (kW)
NPV number of PV power units a speed reduction factor
NWind number of wind power units g random value in the range of [0,1]
Ii,br current of the ith branch F1 random value in the range of [0,1]
Psub active power production of substation (kW) F2 random value in the range of [0,1]
hi electrical efficiency of the ith FC F3 random value in the range of [0,1]
PLRi part load ratio of the ith FC prob(D) probability of adding the sperm of drone D to the
CFC,i cost of power generated by the ith FC unit ($) queen spermatheca
CPV,i cost of power generated by the ith PV unit ($) Xmut improved brood
CWind,i cost of power generated by the ith wind unit ($) Irand,SP random integer in the range [1,NSP]
NOxFC,i nitrogen oxide pollutants of the ith FC power unit (kg/ fi(X) the ith objective function
kW h) Fi(X) values of the augmented fi(X)
SO2FC,i sulphur oxide pollutants of the ith FC power unit (kg/ Neq number of equality constraints of the DFR problem
kW h) Nueq number of inequality constraints of the DFR problem
NOxPV,i nitrogen oxide pollutants of the ith PV power unit (kg/ L1 penalty factor
kW h) L2 penalty factor
SO2PV,i sulphur oxide pollutants of the ith PV power unit (kg/ Nipop number of the bees
kW h) Squeen queen speed
NOxWind,i nitrogen oxide pollutants of the ith wind power unit fmin
i lowest limit of ith objective function
(kg/kW h) fmax
i highest limit of ith objective function
SO2Wind,i sulphur oxide pollutants of the ith wind power unit D(f) absolute difference between the fitness of the drone
(kg/kW h) and the queen
NOxGrid nitrogen oxide pollutants of the grid (kg) NSP size of the queen spermatheca
SO2Grid sulphur oxide pollutants of the grid (kg) V(I)FC output voltage (current) of fuel cell
Vmax maximum voltage magnitude of ith bus (V) PtotalFC total power output of fuel cell
Vmin minimum voltage magnitude of ith bus (V) KP proportional coefficient
mfi(X) membership function of the ith objective function E0 potential of fuel cell in thermodynamic equilibrium
D drone P(Q)I-G active (reactive) power output of induction generator
Xbrood,j the jth brood VbusIG voltage of induction generator terminal bus
Sp queen spermatheca matrix s slip of induction generator speed
j a function that converts wind speed to WT power
output Subscripts
w1,2,3,max WT cut-in, rated, cut-off and maximum wind speed, FC fuel cell
respectively PV photovoltaic
Gt solar radiation br branch
Gstd solar radiation in the standard environment set as SP spermatheca
1000 W/m2 max maximum
Rc certain radiation point set as W/m2 min minimum
P(Q)in input active (reactive) power of the synchronous mut mutation
generator(equal to the output active (reactive) power rand random
of RES connected to synchronous generator) eq equality
Eq no-load voltage (constant value) ueq inequality
Xd synchronous reactance ipop initial population
VbusSY voltage of synchronous generator terminal bus Sub substation
Nb number of branches

a switching plan is utilized to improve the load balancing in the before, in this method, so much computational resources and many
corresponding loop [10]. In Ref. [11], Debaprya has proposed a new runs are needed to find the optimal solutions and consequently the
approach based on fuzzy theory to solve the MDFR problem suffi- effectiveness of the algorithm will be decreased. In Ref. [16],
ciently. In order to solve the load balancing problem, Baran and Wu Niknam has proposed a new hybrid method to solve the MDFR
have suggested a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) based method problem while the proposed method results in a single optimal
while the total power losses as the objective function is reduced solution. Thus here again, several satisfying solutions which can be
simultaneously [12]. In Ref. [13], Zhou et al. have suggested a new considered as Pareto optimal solutions are neglected.
algorithm to support the load balancing and service restoration in In fact the discrete nature of the tie and sectionalizing switches
the two feeder networks simultaneously. along with the consideration effect of the RESs make the MDFR
In Refs. [14] and [15] Niknam has proposed a new method based problem a nonlinear complex multi-objective optimization.
on evolutionary algorithms and transformation of MDFR problem Conventional and classical methods such as linear programming,
to solve a single objective optimization problem. As mentioned mixed integer programming, quadratic programming, etc., can be
T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 215

used to solve this problem; however, these methods reach local 2.2. Objective functions
minimum and some of them cannot handle the integer problems
[16]. Evolutionary methods owing to independence on the type of - Minimization of the power losses (f1): power losses objective
objectives function and constraints can be used to solve the MDFR function is evaluated as:
problem. Nevertheless, some evolutionary methods neither converge
to global minima nor have short convergence time. Recently, a new X
Nbr
f1 ðXÞ ¼ Ploss ðXÞ ¼ Ri  jIi j2 (1)
optimization algorithm based on honey bee mating has been used to
i¼1
solve difficult optimization problems [14]. The original HBMO often
converges to local optima. In order to avoid this shortcoming, where Tiei and Swi are the states of the ith tie switch and sec-
a new method is proposed to improve the mating processing. tionalizing switch respectively. Also in this paper, 0 and 1 are used
Therefore in this paper a new method based on MHBMO algo- to show the states of open and close, respectively.
rithm is proposed to investigate the MDFR problem while the
effects of the RESs are considered simultaneously. In order to - Minimization of the voltage deviation of the buses (f2):
improve the algorithm, the mating process is corrected so that to voltage deviation objective function is evaluated as:
overcome the two main shortcomings which exist in the traditional
HBMO; that is dependency of the algorithm on the initial param- f2 ðXÞ ¼ devðXÞ ¼ max½j1  Vmin j and j1  Vmax j (2)
eters and, the possibility of being trapped in local optima. During
the optimization process, the set of Pareto optimal solutions which - Minimization of the total cost (f3): the cost objective function
are found by the algorithm would be stored in an external memory is the summation of the cost of power production by the grid
called repository. In addition, to find the ‘best compromised’ solu- and the RESs. The grid cost can be evaluated as follows:
tion among the Pareto optimal solutions, a fuzzy-based mechanism
is introduced and applied to the set Pareto solutions set. Therefore
Csub ¼ price  Psub (3)
the main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) proposing
a new modification process to improve the performance of the The cost of FC power sources is evaluated by [17]:
HBMO algorithm, (2) the use of HBMO algorithm to solve the MDFR
problem for the first time and (3) the use of the idea of the non- PFC;i
dominated solutions in the MDFR optimization problem. Finally, CFC;i ¼ 0:04$=kW h 
hi
to see the feasibility and superiority of the proposed method, two Pgi
test systems are used as case studies. PLRi ¼
Pmaxi
if PLRi < 0:050hi ¼ 0:2716
if PLRi  0:050hi ¼ 0:9033 PLR5i  2:9996 PLR4i þ 3:6503 PLR3i
2. Problem formulation
2:0704 PLR2i þ 0:3747 (4)
2.1. Decision variables The cost of PV and wind units is evaluated similarly by Eq. (5).
The cost of generation of each kW h is a function of three param-
  eters [18]: (I) investment cost, (II) operation and maintenance cost,
X ¼ Tie; Sw; Pg
(III) fuel cost. Therefore the cost value is evaluated as follows [18]:

  CPV;i ¼ a þ b  PPV;i
Sw ¼ Sw1 ; Sw2 ; Sw3 .SwNSw
CWind;i ¼ a þ b  PWind;i
Capital costð$=kWÞ*CapacityðkWÞ*Gr (5)
Tie ¼ ½Tie1 ; Tie2 ; Tie3 ; .; Tietie  a ¼
Life timeðYearÞ*365*24*LF
b ¼ Fuel costð$=kWÞ þ O&M Costð$=kW hÞ
Pg ¼ ½PFC ; PPV ; PWind 
Therefore the total cost is as follows:

  X
NFC X
NPV X
Nwind
PPV ¼ PPV;1 ; PPV;2 ; .; PPV;NPV f3 ðXÞ ¼ Cost ¼ CFC;i þ CPV;i þ Cwind;i þ Csub (6)
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
 
PFC ¼ PFC;1 ; PFC;2 ; .; PFC;NFC - Minimizing the total emission produced (f4): the total
emission of the grid and the RESs is as follows [19]:
 
PWind ¼ PWind;1 ; PWind;2 ; .; PWind;NWind
P
NFC P
NPV NP
Wind
f4 ðXÞ ¼ Emission ¼ EFC; i þ EPV;i þ EWind;i þEGrid
  i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
Xqueen ¼ xq;1 ; xq;2 ; .; xq;N ; N ¼ 2*Ntie þ NFC þ NPV þ NWind  kg MW h1
EType;i ¼ NOxType;i þSO2Type;i ¼ K1Type;i þK2Type;i PType;i
   lb MW h1
Spi ¼ si;1 ; si;2 ; .; si;N ; i ¼ 1; 2; .; NSp EGrid ¼ NOxGrid þSO2Grid ¼ K1Grid þK2Grid Psub

  (7)
Xmut ¼ xmut;1 ; xmut;2 ; .; xmut;N
where Type can be: FC, PV or Wind. The related values of these
  parameters are shown in Table 2. It should be noted that the values
Xbrood ¼ xbr;1 ; xbr;2 ; .; xbr;N of K1 and K2 related to Wind and PV units are supposed to be zero in
216 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

this paper. However in some investigations, these two variables (K1 - Bus voltage constraints:
and K2) are considered to get nonzero values. In fact in these
studies, the contamination related to the process of the construc- Vmin  V  Vmax (12)
tion of the RESs is considered in the evaluations.
3. Modeling of the RESs
2.3. Limits and constraints
3.1. Fuel cell
- Limits associated with distribution lines:
Among different kinds of RESs, FC has developed into one of the
most important and influential devices in the current power
Line
Pij;min < PijLine < Pij;max
Line
(8) systems especially in the voltage level of distribution. Simple
structure and operation [8], high efficiency while having the ability
of following load variations [3,4], high reliability and cleanness
- Distribution power flow equations: [20,21] are some of the attractive characteristics of this type of
RESs. In recent years, the knowledge of construction of FCs has
improved profitably in a way that the efficiency of some kinds of
NP
bus   the FCs has become near twice that of the conventional power
Pi ¼ Vi Vj Yij cos qij  di þ dj
i¼1 plants [22].
(9)
P
Nbus  
Qi ¼ Vi Vj Yij sin qij  di þ dj
i¼1 3.2. Photovoltaic

One of the huge sources of energy which can support a big


In fact, this equation is a load flow equation which can play the part of the required energy of the human beings is solar energy.
role of an equality constraint. In order to get use of this ever lasting source of energy, PV as an
inevitable technology in the area, has attracted the attention of
- Keeping the radiality of the network: since the distribution many researchers in recent years [1]. In fact by the use of arrays
networks are assumed as radial networks, thus during the of cells which are constructed of some kinds of semiconductors
reconfiguration, this quality of the network should be that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, the solar radiation can
preserved carefully. Each loop is consisted of a sectionalizing be converted into direct current (DC) electricity sufficiently
switch and a tie switch simultaneously. Each time that a loop is [1,23].
formed in the network; one of the switches should be opened
in a way that the radiality of the network would be preserved.
3.3. Wind
- Feeder current limitation [16]:
With the developments which has happened in the technology
jIf;i j  Ifmax of the wind power generations in recent years, there has been an
;i ; i ¼ 1; 2; .; Nf (10)
increasing interest to get use of the wind farms which are con-
nected directly to the power system. Indeed, the kinetic energy
- RESs constraints on active power production are: which exists in the wind airflows can be changed into electricity
power by the use of wind farms. Especially, the importance of use
pmin;FC;i  pFC;i  pmax;FC;i ; pmin;PV;i  pPV;i  pmax;PV;i ; of this kind of energy in the regions like high altitude and open
flat areas which have more constant and regular winds is more
pmin;Wind;i  pWind;i  pmax;Wind;i ð11Þ
evident.

Fig. 1. Modeling of RESs. a) PQ model with simultaneous three-phase control. b) PQ model with independent three-phase control. c) PV model with simultaneous three-phase
control. d) PV model with independent three-phase control.
T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 217

Fig. 2. Block diagram of MHBMO algorithm.


218 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

3.4. Modeling of the RESs grid directly. In the variable speed type, firstly, by the use of
synchronous or a double-fed induction generator the wind
In order to have an appropriate model for the RESs, two subjects energy is converted to the electrical energy and then by the use
should be considered precisely: (I) the operation of the RESs, (II) the of power electronic devices, the generated electrical energy is
type of connection of the RES to the grid. changed to the grid compatible AC power [25]:
8
- Fuel cells (FCs): the connection of these chemical sources of < 0   wt  w1 or wt  w3
t
energy into the grid is done via power electronic devices based PWT ¼ j wt w1  wt  w2 t ¼ 1; 2; .; T (17)
:
on rectifier and inverter. The output power can be modeled PWT w2  wt  w3
as [24]:
With the above explanation, it can be deduced that the
connection of the RESs to the grid is done via: 1) power electronic
PFC ¼ VFC  IFC (13) devices and/or 2) synchronous/asynchronous electric machines. In
the first case (via power electronic devices), the RESs should be
Considering the inner resistance for the FC (R), the total power modeled with regard to the characteristics of the interface control
produced by the FC is as follows: circuit. In the second case (direct connection via electric machines),
the RESs should be modeled according to the operation of the
2 2
PtotalFC ¼ PFC þ RIFC ¼ VFC IFC þ RIFC (14) electric machines. These models are explained in the following:

The regulation related to the active power production of a FC is a. Power electronic interface: as mentioned above, in this case,
defined as: the RESs are modeled according to their control circuit. If the
control circuit is designed to control P and V independently, the
PtotalFC ¼ KP ðE0  VFC Þ2 (15) RESs can be modeled as a PV bus. On the other hand, when it is
designed to control P and Q independently, the model is
- Photovoltaic (PV): the connection of this type of RESs to the considered as a PQ bus.
grid is done in a similar way as FCs. The output power and the b. Induction generator model: the active and reactive powers of
solar radiation are related to each other as follows [25]: induction generators are usually supposed to be function of the
slip [26]:
8  2   
>
> Gt PIG ¼ PIG VbusIG ; s 
  >
< t (18)
Psn 0 < G < Rc QIG ¼ QIG VbusIG ; s
PPV Gt ¼ Gstd Rc t ¼ 1; 2; .; T (16)
>
> t
>
: Psn G Gt >Rc If the weak relationship between the slip and the reactive power
Gstd
is neglected and also PI-G is supposed to be constant then Eq. (18) is
Note it that in this equation, the relationship of photovoltaic cell reduced as:
temperature and PPV is neglected. 
PIG ¼ constant
  (19)
QIG ¼ f VbusIG
- Wind turbines: This kind of RES is divided into two categories
of fixed and variable speed. In the fixed speed type, the rotor of In the steady state condition which the values of the bus volt-
the squirrel cage induction generator is rotated by the propeller ages can be supposed to be near 1 p.u.; the induction generators
through gear box while the induction motor is connected to the can be modeled as PQ buses.

Fig. 3. Single line diagram of 32-bus test system before DFR.


T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 219

Table 1 where here X is the control variable of making decision. Also n is the
Specifications of RESs (test system 1). number of objective functions.
Capacity (kW) Type Location In fact in MOP, the idea of optimality is replaced with that of
RES 1 350 FC 8 Pareto optimality or non-dominated solution. This characteristic is
RES 2 350 FC 11 due to the ability of MOP in finding the set of Pareto optimal
RES 3 350 PV 18 solutions. Pareto optimal solution is the optimal solution which
RES 4 350 Wind 25
cannot be improved in one of the objective functions unless dete-
riorate the performance of the solution in at least one of the rest.
Thus X* is called a Pareto optimal solution if it is impossible to find
a solution X in U such that X dominates X* ˛ U. U is the set of all the
c. Synchronous generator model: according to the structure of
vectors (X) which observe the constraints and limitations. In defi-
the excitation system, the synchronous machines are divided
nition the solution X1 dominates X2 if the following two conditions
into the following two categories [27]:
are satisfied:
c-1- regulating excitation voltage: this type itself is divided into the
following two categories: 1Þ c j˛f1; 2; .; ng; fj ðX1 Þ  fj ðX2 Þ
 voltage control mode (constant terminal voltage); which the (23)
2Þ d k˛f1; 2; .; ng; fk ðX1 Þ < fk ðX2 Þ
RES can be modeled as PV bus.
 power factor control mode (constant power factor); which the 5. Fuzzy-based clustering
RES can be modeled as PQ bus.
c-2- fixed excitation voltage:, the reactive power for a round rotor 5.1. Keeping the size of the repository
synchronous generator can be evaluated as:
vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi As mentioned before, the set of Pareto optimal solutions which
u !
u E2 2 2
Vbus are found during the optimization process are stored in an external
t q 2
Qin ¼ Pin  SY
(20) memory (or repository). Since the repository size is constant, the
Xd Xd
number of the Pareto solutions should not exceed a specified
number. Therefore a fuzzy-based clustering technique is utilized
Considering Pin as a constant value, Eq. (20) is simplified to:
here to control the size of the repository. The membership function

Pin ¼ constant assigned to each objective function is as follows:
  (21)
Qin ¼ f VbusSY 8
>
> 1 for fi ðXÞ  f min
>
< 0 for f ðXÞ  fimax
Similarly to Eq. (19), here RES can be supposed as a PQ bus. i
Therefore the RESs can be modeled as PV or PQ buses. mfi ðXÞ ¼ f max  f ðXÞ i (24)
>
> i
On the other hand, since the division of the loads in the distri- > i
: f max  f ðXÞ fi
min
 fi ðXÞ  fimax
i i
bution networks is unbalanced, the operation and control of the RESs
can be implemented in two forms: (1) simultaneous three-phase The values of fkmin and fkmax are evaluated by single optimization
control, (2) independent three-phase control (single phase control). of the kth objective function. Finally, the Pareto solutions are sorted
Therefore according to the model of the RES and the type of control according to the following equation:
which is utilized, four models are defined for the RESs (Fig. 1) [8]: Pn  
i ¼ 1 ui  mfl Xj
Nm ðjÞ ¼ Pm Pn   (25)
i ¼ 1 ui 
PQ model with simultaneous three-phase control. j¼1 mfl Xj
PQ model with independent three-phase control.
PV model with simultaneous three-phase control. where n is the number of the objective functions and m is the
PV model with independent three-phase control. number of the Pareto solutions in the repository.

5.2. Determination of the best compromised solution


4. Multi-objective optimization
After getting Pareto optimal solutions (that is after the termi-
The process of optimization of different conflicting objective nation of the optimization process), the best compromised solution
functions when all the constraints and limitations are observed should be extracted from the repository. In order to achieve this
simultaneously is called multi-objective optimization problem goal, a fuzzy-based mechanism is utilized here. In fact this method
(MOP). The MOP can be described as [16]: offers the best satisfying solution to the decision maker. Therefore,
after the evaluation of Nm for all the Pareto solutions by Eq. (25), the
minF ¼ ½f1 ðXÞ; f2 ðXÞ; .; fn ðXÞT repository is sorted in descending order. The best compromised
s:t: (22) solution is that for which the value of Nm is maximum. Note that
gi ðXÞ < 0 i ¼ 1; 2; .; Nueq here ui is supposed to be unit so that to give equal preferences to all
hi ðXÞ ¼ 0 i ¼ 1; 2; .; Neq the objective functions.

Table 2
Emission factors related to NOx, CO2 and SO2.

Emission type Emission factors (kg/MW h)

Grid Gas turbine Micro turbine Wind PV FC Internal combustion (IC)


NOx 2.2952 0.0136 0.1995 0 0 0.52163 2.1319
CO2 921.25 488.97 723.93 0 0 502.58 6.49.54
SO2 3.5834 0.0027 0.0036 0 0 3628.7 0.2059
220 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

6. Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm Table 3


Comparison of active power losses objective functions evaluated by different
methods neglecting RESs (test system 1).
6.1. Original HBMO
Method Power loss Minimum Open switches
Honey bee as a social insect with special behaviors and [KW] voltage

instructions have been the source of inspiration for the human Goswami [31] 143.69 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
Vanderson Gomes [32] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
beings during the years. The honey bees’ society is consisted of
McDermott et al. [33] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
three groups in general: 1) the queen or female, 2) the drones or PSOeSFLA [34] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
males and 3) the workers. Each of these groups has a special task MSFLA [35] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
which should be implemented in such a way that the total condi- DPSO [14] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
tion of their society improves effectively. HBMO algorithm simu- DPSOeHBMO [14] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
PSOeACO [15] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
lates each of the phases of the natural mating process so that to give DPSOeACO [16] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
a satisfying algorithm which would be profitable in the optimiza- HBMO [29] 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
tion applications. The mating process between the queen and each Shirmohammadi [36] 140.26 0.93781964 s7, s10, s14, s32,s37
of the drones is implemented probabilistically with an annealing The proposed 139.53 0.93781964 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
function as follows [28]: algorithm


Df
probðDÞ ¼ exp  (26)
SðtÞ

xmut;j ; if 41  42
After each mating process, the queen speed decreases. If the xbrood1;j ¼
x ; otherwise
mating process is successful, the corresponding drone sperm is  queen;j
xmut;j ; if 43  42 (30)
added to the queen spermatheca, else it is discarded and the next xbrood2;j ¼
xj ; otherwise
drone is chosen for mating. The speed of the queen after each   
mating process is updated as follows: Xbrood;3 ¼ h  Xqueen þ a  Xqueen  SP Irand;SP

Now by the use of Eq. (23), the non-dominated solutions among


Sðt þ 1Þ ¼ a  SðtÞ (27) Xbrood,1, Xbrood,2, Xbrood,3 and the ith individual in the drones pop-
ulation are evaluated and stored in the repository.
For each individual in the drones’ population (Xi), the modifi-
The mating process continues until the time that the speed of
cation process, as described above, should be repeated. After that
the queen reaches to a specific value or her spermatheca become
the breeding process for all the individuals is completed, the
full (for more details see Refs. [28,29]). Now the breeding process is
repository is updated by Eq. (23).
simulated. If the position of any of the new broods is better than
In order to improve the MHBMO algorithm, the process of
that of the queen, then it will replace the queen. This process of
generating drones’ population should be amended too. In the
mating and breeding continues until the time that the best satis-
original HBMO, after that the breeding process for all the drones’
fying queen (solution) would be achieved.
population is finished then the old drones’ population is discarded
and a new generation is produced randomly. In the MHBMO algo-
6.2. Modified HBMO (MHBMO) algorithm rithm, this process is corrected as follows:
As mentioned before, for each drone in the population (Xi), three
It was mentioned before that the original HBMO suffers from new modified broods (Xbrood,1, Xbrood,2, Xbrood,3) are generated by Eq.
two main deficiencies; that is the reliance of the HBMO algorithm (30). After selection of the non-dominated solutions among the
on its parameters and the possibility of being trapped in local three generated modified broods and the ith drone, the individual
optima. These two shortcomings root from the mating process. who the summation of its membership functions is the most will
Thus in order to improve the algorithm performance, the mating replace the corresponding drone (Xi) in the drones’ population. It is
process should be corrected sufficiently. In the original HBMO, after evident that if the summation of the membership functions of Xi is
that the process of adding the drones’ sperm to the queen sper- greater than that of the others, then it will be kept in its position.
matheca is completed and the queen spermatheca is constructed, Subsequently after a complete breeding process, the old drones’
then the breeding process is implemented as follows: population is updated and utilized as the new generation of drones
satisfactorily. The complete process of MHBMO algorithm is
  depicted in Fig. 2.
Xbrood;j ¼ Xqueen þ g  Xqueen  Spi (28)

In the proposed MHBMO algorithm, the breeding process is Table 4


Comparison of voltage deviation objective functions evaluated by different methods
modified as follows:
neglecting RESs (test system 1).
After that the queen spermatheca is constructed similar to
original HBMO, then three drones k1, k2 and k3 are chosen from the Method Voltage deviation Minimum Open switches
[p.u.] voltage
queen spermatheca randomly in a way that k1 s k2 s k3 s i where
i is the ith individual in the drones’ population. Thus by the use of DPSO [14] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
PSOeACO [15] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
the queen spermatheca, a new improved brood is generated as DPSOeHBMO [14] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
follows: DPSOeACO [16] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
GA 0.06218097 0.93781902 s7,s10,s14,s32,s37
Xmut ¼ Spk1 þ b  ðSpk2  Spk3 Þ (29) PSO 0.06120031 0.93879681 s6,s9,s14,s32,s37
HBMO [29] 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
Now by the use of Xmut, Xqueen and Xi (the ith drone), three new
The proposed 0.06120031 0.93879681 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37
modified broods would be generated. The modification process is algorithm
implemented as follows:
T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 221

Table 5 one by constructing an augmented objective function as Eq. (31).


Comparison of objective functions evaluated by different methods considering RESs In order to observe all the constraints, the penalty factors L1 and
(test system 1).
L2 are used here to prevent violating the constraints.
Objective function Method Best solution States of the switches
Power losses GA 84.54971 s6,s12,s35,s17,s37
2 3
[kW] PSO 80.74696 s33,s14,s8,s31,s37 F1 ðXÞ
HBMO 82.36062 s6,s12,s11,s31,s37
6 F2 ðXÞ 7
FðXÞ ¼ 4
F ðXÞ 5
The proposed 76.98436 s7,s14,s9,s30,s37
algorithm 3
F4 ðXÞ 41
Voltage deviation GA 0.0490462 s7,s14,s11,s31,s37 3
2 !
[p.u.] PSO 0.0478782 s7,s34,s10,s31,s37
P
Neq NP
ueq
7
HBMO 0.0481048 s33,s34,s8,s31,s37 6 f1 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2
7
The proposed 0.0442284 s6,s11,s14,s31,s37 6 i¼1 i¼1 7
6 7
algorithm 6 !7
6 P
N NP 7
6 eq ueq
7
Cost [$] GA 154.79529 s6,s11,s17,s34,s37 6 f2 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2 7
6 ¼ i¼1 7
PSO 154.28952 s7,s9,s12,s32,s37 6 i 1 7
HBMO 154.38659 s6,s10,s34,s36,s37 ¼6 !7
6 P
N NP 7
The proposed 154.16894 s7,s9,s14,s32,s37 6 eq ueq
7
6 f3 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2 7
algorithm 6 i¼1 i¼1 7
6 7
Emission [kg] GA 14,624.099 s2,s21,s34,s36,s37 6 !7
6 P
N NP 7
PSO 14,206.125 s11,s12,s15,s33,s37 4 eq ueq
7
HBMO 14,399.873 s21,s24,s33,s34,s36
f4 ðXÞ þ L1 ðJi ðXÞÞ2 þL2 ðMax½0; gi ðXÞÞ2 5
i¼1 i¼1
The proposed 14,074.587 s6,s14,s11,s31,s37
41
algorithm
(31)

7. Application of the MHBMO in MDFR


L1 and L2 are supposed to be 106 in the paper.
Step 1: defining the input data.
Step 2: changing the constrained MOP to an unconstrained one: Step 3: generation of the initial population. The initial pop-
in this step, the constrained MOP is changed to an unconstrained ulation is as follows:

Fig. 4. Single line diagram of 32-bus test system after DFR. a) Single optimization of f1 evaluated by the proposed method considering RESs. b) Single optimization of f2 evaluated by
the proposed method considering RESs. c) Single optimization of f3 evaluated by the proposed method considering RESs. d) Single optimization of f4 evaluated by the proposed
method considering RESs.
222 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

23 Step 8: breeding process. This process is implemented as


X1
6 X2 7 described in Section 6.2.
6 7
initial population ¼ 6 7 Step 9: generation of the new drones’ population. Among the ith
4 . 5 drone, Xbrood,1, Xbrood,2 and Xbrood,3 the individual who the
XNipop Nipop ðNtie þNsw þNg Þ summation of its membership functions is the most (so the
fittest individual) will replace the ith drone.
Ng ¼ NPV þ NFC þ NWind ð32Þ
Step 10: if all the drones are checked go to step 11, else return to
Step 4: evaluation of the objective functions. In this step the step 8.
values of the objective functions and their corresponding Step 11: updating the repository. In this step the repository is
membership functions are evaluated. updated so that all solutions in the repository would be Pareto
Step 5: formation of the repository. Here by the use of Eq. (23) optimal solutions.
and the membership functions evaluated in the last step, all Step 12: updating the queen. A new queen is selected from the
the Pareto solutions are evaluated and stored in the repository. updated repository randomly.
Step 6: selection of the queen. The queen is selected from the Step 13: generation of the queen speed: The queen speed will be
repository randomly. generated randomly as follows:
Step 7: formation of the queen spermatheca matrix. Firstly, the 
queen flies by her maximum speed far from the nest. Now Squeen ¼ randð$Þ  ðSmax  Smin Þ þ Smin (33)
a drone is selected from the drones’ population randomly and
mates with the queen. Therefore according to the values of the Step 14: termination criterion. If the termination criterion is
objective functions and by the use of Eq. (26), prob(D) would be achieved, finish the algorithm, else return to step 6.
evaluated. Now a value in the range of [0,1] is generated
randomly and compared to prob(D). If prob(D) is bigger than the
generated random value, then the sperm of the specified drone 8. Simulation results
is added to the queen spermatheca, else another drone is chosen
from the population randomly and the mating process is 8.1. Case study 1
repeated. The mating process continues until the time that the
queen spermatheca becomes full or her speed reduces to the The first test system is a 12.66 kV system which is consisted of
specified value. 32 buses, 5 sectionalizing switches and 5 tie switches so that to be

Fig. 5. 3-D plot of the Pareto optimal solutions considering RESs for 3-objective function (test system 1).
T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 223

Table 7
Specifications of the RESs (test system 2).

Capacity (KW) Type Location


RES 1 450 FC 6
RES 2 450 FC 21
RES 3 450 Wind 28
RES 4 450 Wind 39
RES 5 450 PV 44
RES 6 450 PV 51

optimization is done to compare the performance of the proposed


algorithm with the other works done in the area and also with
some of the famous evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic
Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm,
Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO) algorithm, etc. In Tables 3
and 4, the results of the single optimization of the power losses (f1)
and the voltage deviation (f1), neglecting RESs are shown respec-
tively. It can be seen that the proposed algorithm is capable of
finding the best solution as well as the best switching sufficiently. It
should be noted that since just f1 and f2 are investigated in the other
works mentioned in Tables 3 and 4, so the comparison of the other
two objective functions (cost (f1) and emission (f1)) are not shown
in the tables. However the complete comparison of all the objective
functions while the effect of the RESs is considered will be
described in the following. In order to see the appropriate perfor-
mance of the proposed method and also the effect of the RESs on
the network simultaneously, in Table 5, the result of the single
objective optimization by MHBMO and some of the other algo-
rithms mentioned before is shown comparatively. The simulation
results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is
much more satisfying than the other algorithms shown in Table 5.
Fig. 6. Single line diagram of 69 bus test system (tie lines are connected from node 10 In order to have a more precise look on the results, in Fig. 4, the
to 70, 12 to 20, 14 to 90, 38 to 48, and 26 to 54).
state of the network after applying single objective optimization by
the proposed method is depicted. It should be noted that, in Fig. 4,
able to form 5 branch loops. The network diagram proposed by just the states of the switches (tie switches and sectionalizing
Baran and Wu is shown in Fig. 3 [12]. The initial power losses before switches) are shown and the power production of the RESs are not
the reconfiguration is 202.67 kW. Table 1 shows the location, the revealed here. It is evident from this figure, that the switching
capacity and the type of each RES. Also the emission factors related operation has a direct relationship with the optimization of each of
to NOx, CO2 and SO2 are shown in Table 2. the objective functions individually. Nevertheless, it can be seen
Since MHBMO algorithm is used in this paper for the first time that the states of the switching corresponding to the optimization
to solve DFR problem, then first of all, a single objective of f2 and f4 are completely similar to each other. This result could be

Table 6
Some of the non-dominated solutions found for MDFR problem (test system 1). Table 8
Comparison of objective functions evaluated by different methods considering RESs
Power losses Voltage deviation Cost ($) Emission (test system 2).
(KW) (p.u.) (kg)
Objective function Method Best solution States of the switches
1 076.984 0.052854 156.923 14,081.05
2 090.550 0.049126 155.642 16,402.84 Power losses GA 88.4282 s70,s71,s11,s58,s61
3 088.137 0.048260 156.235 15,955.57 [kW] HBMO 87.2016 s70,s71,s14,s58,s61
4 085.580 0.048357 156.179 15,747.99 PSO 86.2222 s70,s71,s13,s55,s61
5 093.921 0.049159 155.364 17,287.72 The proposed 85.2230 s70,s71,s14,s56,s61
6 077.404 0.044224 156.934 14,110.31 algorithm
7 106.265 0.056111 154.964 18,512.59
Voltage deviation GA 0.0580294 s70,s71,s72,s54,s61
8 099.280 0.051258 155.403 17,260.70
[p.u.] HBMO 0.0572424 s70,s71,s72,s58,s61
9 101.437 0.056263 154.931 18,566.69
PSO 0.0572262 s70,s71,s14,s58,s61
10 101.162 0.051158 155.347 17,722.32
The proposed 0.0572147 s70,s20,s11,s58,s61
11 091.196 0.050928 156.959 15,147.87
algorithm
12 132.036 0.062519 154.405 21,312.95
13 095.416 0.060376 155.035 17,761.61 Cost [$] GA 158.21158 s42,s13,s11,s58,s61
14 134.018 0.062111 154.168 22,016.35 HBMO 157.28998 s70,s13,s11,s58,s74
15 086.276 0.051784 156.909 14,825.49 PSO 157.07320 s70,s71,s11,s58,s74
16 084.314 0.048066 156.978 14,656.03 The proposed 156.05831 s70,s71,s12,s58,s61
17 077.280 0.044228 156.941 14,074.58 algorithm
18 091.875 0.049822 156.083 15,900.95
Emission [kg] GA 7,211.096 s42,s19,s72,s58,s21
19 101.470 0.053645 155.336 17,826.48
HBMO 7,078.044 s35,s13,s72,s58,s68
20 102.815 0.056175 155.364 17,525.11
PSO 7,186.769 s40,s13,s72,s54,s62
Best compromised 084.314 0.048066 156.978 14,656.03 The proposed 7,026.466 s70,s71,s11,s58,s62
solution algorithm
224 T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225

Table 9 one. This deduction can also be inferred from Fig. 5 which shows
Some of the non-dominated solutions in four-objective DFR problem (test system 2). the 3-D plot of the objective functions with regard to each other.
Power losses Voltage deviation Cost ($) Emission However the little difference which exists in the results of the
(KW) (p.u.) (kg) single optimization of f2 and f4 separately, roots in the difference
1 085.223 0.0572319 159.3069 12,587.71 which exists in the power production of the RESs. Actually, the
2 092.913 0.0572259 161.8965 12,576.07 single optimization of f4 has selected the best operating point for
3 113.798 0.0700551 157.2814 21,293.49
the FC1 (on bus 8), FC2 (on bus 11), PV and Wind plant to be
4 088.460 0.0585779 162.2050 11,629.81
5 091.024 0.0572147 165.6285 07,029.07 350 MW equally, while the single optimization of f2 has preferred to
6 102.611 0.0586040 159.6404 16,570.59 reduce the power production of FC1 by 6MW to 344 MW. The effect
7 103.141 0.0572385 156.7690 21,598.31 of this power production management on the values of the other
8 090.412 0.0572165 164.4271 08,581.18 objective functions can be seen in Table 6. The similarity of the
9 091.337 0.0572149 165.5630 07,199.97
10 099.266 0.0572464 156.1511 22,798.47
behavior of f2 and f4 can be deduced from this table too. In Table 6,
11 093.994 0.0572356 159.7799 16,654.01 a set of the Pareto optimal solutions which are evaluated by the
12 121.537 0.0700697 157.9254 21,278.96 multi-objective optimization of the four objective functions is
13 105.148 0.0586094 156.4227 22,723.45 shown. It can be seen that the best solutions which are evaluated by
14 086.000 0.0572289 162.1507 12,608.01
single optimization in Table 5 are considered as the Pareto solutions
15 099.267 0.0572466 156.0583 22,934.94
16 119.139 0.0736479 159.4350 18,500.87 in the multi-objective optimization in Table 6. It could already be
17 088.853 0.0572158 164.7303 08,006.55 deduced too. In fact since each of these solutions are the best with
18 104.265 0.0572419 156.3078 22,889.30 regard to the corresponding objective function, thus there could
19 090.580 0.0572247 165.6108 07,026.46 not be found any solution that can dominate these solutions and
20 086.276 0.0572269 162.9434 11,393.48
therefore omit them from the repository. Each of the solutions in
Best compromised 090.412 0.0572165 164.4271 08,581.18 Table 6 can be a satisfying solution depending on the preferences of
solution
the decision maker. However in order to offer the best compro-
mised solution to the decision maker, by the use of fuzzy clustering
deduced from Table 5 too. In fact this result shows that these two technique (as explained in Section 5.2), the best compromised
objective functions have a similar behavior in decreasing and solution is evaluated and shown in the last row of Table 6. In Fig. 7,
increasing in a way that in a wide range of variation, the the 3-D plot of the Pareto optimal solutions is depicted while each
improvement of one will result in the improvement of the other figure belongs to the multi-objective optimization of three of the

Fig. 7. 3-D plot of the Pareto optimal solutions considering RESs for 3-objective function (test system 2).
T. Niknam et al. / Renewable Energy 37 (2012) 213e225 225

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