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Philippine Handbook Conversion Factors

in Chemical Engineering

CONVERSION FACTORS

Table 1. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of L (length)


Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to m cm ft in. mi km yd
 these units (meters) (centimeters (feet) (inches) (miles) (kilometer) (yards)
)
m (meters) 1 102 3.2808 3.9370  101 6.2137  10-4 10-3 1.0936
cm (centimeters) 10 -2
1 3.2808  10 -2
3.9370  10-1 6.2137  10-6 10-5 1.0936  10-2
ft (feet) 3.0480  10 -1
3.0480  10 1
1 12 1.8939  10-4 3.0480  10-4 3.3333  10-1
in. (inches) 2.5400  10-2 2.54 8.3333  10-2 1 1.5783  10-5 2.5400  10-5 2.7777  10-2
mi (miles) 1.6093  103 1.6093  105 5280 6.3360  104 1 1.6093 1760
km (kilometer) 103 105 3.2808  103 3.9370  104 6.2137  10-1 1 1.0936  103
yd (yards) 9.1440  10 -1
9.1440  10 1
3 36 5.6818  10-4 9.1440  10-4 1

Table 2. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of M (mass)


Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to kg g lbm
 these units (kilograms) (grams) (pound mass) ton (short) ton (long) ton (metric) ounces grains
kg (kilograms) 1 103 2.2046 1.1023  10-3 9.8420  10-4 10-3 3.5274  101 1.5432  104
g (grams) 10 -3
1 2.2046  10-3 1.1023  10-6 9.8420  10-7 10-6 3.5274  10-2 1.5432  101
lbm (pound mass) 4.5359  10-1 4.5359  102 1 5.0000  10-4 4.4643  10-4 4.5359  10-4 16 7000
ton (short) 9.0718  102 9.0718  105 2000 1 8.9286  10-1 9.0718  10-1 3.2000  104 1.4000  107
ton (long) 1.0160  103 1.0160  106 2240 1.12 1 1.0160 3.5840  104 1.5680  107
ton (metric) 103 106 2.2046  103 1.1023 9.8421  10-1 1 3.5274  104 1.5432  107
ounces 2.8350  10-2 2.8350  101 6.2500  10-2 3.1250  10-5 2.7902  10-5 2.8350  10-5 1 4.3750  102
grains 6.4799  10-5 6.4799  10-2 1.4286  10-4 7.1429  10-8 6.3776  10-8 6.4799  10-8 2.2857  10-3 1

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Philippine Handbook Conversion Factors
in Chemical Engineering

Table 3. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of t (time)


Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to s min. hr d
 these units (seconds) (minutes) (hours) (days)
s (seconds) 1 1.6667  10-2 2.7778  10-4 1.1574  10-5
min. (minutes) 60 1 1.6667  10-2 6.9444  10-4
hr (hours) 3600 60 1 4.1667  10-2
d (days) 86400 1440 24 1

Table 4. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of L2 (area)


Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to m2 cm2 ft2 in.2
 these units (square meters) (square (square feet) (square inches) hectares acres
centimeters)
m2 (square meters) 1 104 1.0764  101 1550.003 10-4 2.4710  10-4
2
cm (square centimeters) 10 -4
1 1.0764  10-3 1.5500  10-1 10-8 2.4710  10-8
2
ft (square feet) 9.2903  10 -2
9.2903  10 2
1 144 9.2903  10-6 2.2957  10-5
in.2 (square inches) 6.4516  10-4 6.4516 6.9444  10-3 1 6.4516  10-8 1.5942  10-7
hectares 104 108 1.0764  105 1.5500  107 1 2.4710
acres 4046.9 4.0469  107 4.3560  104 6.2726  106 4.0469  10-1 1

Table 5. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of L3 (volume)


Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to L m3 cm3 U.S. gal ft3
 these units (liters) (cubic meters) (cubic centimeters) (U.S. gallons) (cubic feet)
L (liters) 1 10-3 103 2.6417  10-1 3.5315  10-2
3
m (cubic meters) 10 3
1 106 2.6417  102 3.5315  101
3
cm (cubic centimeters) 10 -3
10 -6
1 2.6417  10-4 3.5315  10-5
U.S. gal (U.S. gallons) 3.7854 3.7854  10-3 3.7854  103 1 1.3368  10-1
ft3 (cubic feet) 2.8317  101 2.8317  10-2 3.8317  104 7.4805 1
Table 6. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of M/L3 (density)

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Philippine Handbook Conversion Factors
in Chemical Engineering
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to
 these units kg/m3 g/cm3 lbm/ft3
kg/m3 1 10-3 6.2428  10-2
g/cm3 103 1 6.2428  101
lbm/ft3 1.6018  101 1.6018  10-2 1

Table 7. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of F or ML/t2 (force)


Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to N = kg·m/s2 g·cm/s2 lbm·ft/s2
 these units (Newtons) (dynes) (poundals) lbf
N = kg·m/s2 (Newtons) 1 105 7.2330 2.2488  10-1
g·cm/s2 (dynes) 10-5 1 7.2330  10-5 2.2488  10-6
lbm·ft/s (poundals)
2
21.3826  10 -1
1.3826  10 4
1 3.1081  10-2
lbf 4.4482 4.4482  10 5
32.1740 1

Table 8. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of F/L2 or M/Lt2 (pressure, momentum flux)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value Pa
these units to convert to (N/m2) dyne/cm2 poundals/ft2 lbf/in2 atm
 these units (kg/m·s )2 2
(g/cm·s ) 2
(lbm/ft·s ) lbf/ft 2
(psia)a mm Hg in. Hg
Pa = N/m2 = kg/m·s2 1 10 6.7197  10-1 2.0886  10-2 1.4504  10-4 9.8692  10-6 7.5006  10-3 2.9530  10-4
2
dyne/cm = g/cm·s 2
10 -1
1 6.7197  10-2 2.0886  10-3 1.4504  10-5 9.8692  10-7 7.5006  10-4 2.9530  10-5
2
poundals/ft = lbm/ft·s 2
1.4882 1.4882  10 1
1 3.1081  10-2 2.1584  10-4 1.4687  10-5 1.1162  10-2 4.3945  10-4
lbf/ft 2
4.7880  10 4.7880  10
1 2
32.1740 1 6.9444  10-3 4.7254  10-4 3.5913  10-1 1.4139  10-2
lbf/in 2
6.8947  10 6.8947  10
3 4
4.6330  10 3
144 1 6.8046  10-2 5.1715  101 2.0360
atm 1.0133  105 1.0133  106 6.8087  104 2.1162  103 14.696 1 760 29.921
mm Hg 1.3332  10 1.3332  10
2 3
8.9588  10 1
2.7845 1.9337  10 -2
1.3158  10-3 1 3.9370 10-2
in. Hg 3.3864  10 1.3864  10
3 4
2.2756  10 3
7.0727  10 1
4.9116  10 -1
3.3421  10-2 25.400 1
a
This unit is preferably abbreviated “psia” (pounds per square inch absolute) or “psig” (pounds per square inch gage). Gage pressure is absolute pressure minus the prevailing barometric pressure.
Sometimes the pressure is reported in ‘bars”; to convert from bars to pascals, multiply by 105, and to convert from bars to atmospheres, multiply by 0.98692.

Table 9. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of FL or ML2/t2 (energy, work, torque)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value foot
these units to convert to J ergs poundals Btu

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Philippine Handbook Conversion Factors
in Chemical Engineering
 these units (kg·m2/s2) (g·cm2/s2) lbm/ft·s2 ft·lbf cal hp-hr kw-hr
J = kg·m2/s2 1 107 2.3730  101 7.3756  10-1 2.3901  10-1 9.4783  10-4 3.7251  10-4 2.7778  10-7
ergs = g·cm2/s2 10-7 1 2.3730  10-6 7.3756  10-8 2.3901  10-8 9.4783  10-11 3.7251  10-14 2.7778  10-14
foot poundals = lbm/ft·s2 4.2140  10-2 4.2140  105 1 3.1081  10-2 1.0072  10-2 3.9942  10-5 1.5698  10-8 1.1706  10-8
ft·lbf 1.3558 1.3558  107 32.1740 1 3.2405  10-1 1.2851  10-3 5.0505  10-7 3.7662  10-7
thermochemical caloriesa 4.1840 4.1840  107 9.9287  101 3.0860 1 3.9657  10-3 1.5586  10-6 1.1622  10-6
British thermal units 1.0550  103 1.0550  1010 2.5036  104 778.16 2.5216  102 1 3.9301  10-4 2.9307  10-4
horsepower hours 2.6845  106 2.6845  1013 6.3705  107 1.9800  106 6.4162  105 2.5445  103 1 7.4570  10-1
kilowatt hours 3.6000  106 3.6000  1013 8.5429  107 2.6552  106 8.6042  105 3.4122  103 1.3410 1
a
This unit, abbreviated “cal”, is used in some chemical thermodynamic tables. To convert quantities expressed in International Steam Table calories (abbreviated “ I.T. cal”) to this unit, multiply by
1.000654.

Table 10. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of F or ML/t3 (power, heat flow rate)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value kJ/s
these units to convert to (kg·m2/s3) hp
 these units (kilowatts) ft·lbf/s (horsepower) Btu/s cal/s
kJ/s = kg·m2/s3 kilowatts 1 7.3756  102 1.3410 9.4866  10-1 2.3906  102
ft·lbf/s 1.3558  10-3 1 1.8182  10-3 1.2862  10-3 3.2412  10-1
horsepower 7.4570  10 -1
550 1 7.0742  10-1 1.7827  102
Btu/s 1.0541 7.7748  10 2
1.4136 1 251.9958
cal/s 4.1831  10-3 3.0853 5.6096  10-3 3.9683  10-3 1

Table 11. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensionsa of M/Lt or Ft/L2 (viscosity, density times diffusivity)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to Pa·s g/cm·s lbf·s/ft2
 these units (kg/m·s) (poises) centipoises lbm/ft·s lbm/ft·hr
Pa·s = kg/m·s 1 10 10 3
6.7197  10 -1
2.4191  103 2.0886  10-2
g/cm·s = (poises) 10 -1
1 10 2
6.7197  10 -2
2.4191  102 2.0886  10-3
centipoises 10 -3
10 -2
1 6.7197  10 -4
2.4191 2.0886  10-5
lbm/ft·s 1.4882 1.4882  10 1
1.4882  10 3
1 3600 3.1081  10-2

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Philippine Handbook Conversion Factors
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lbm/ft·hr 4.1338  10-4 4.1338  10-3 4.1338  10-1 2.7778  10-4 1 8.6336  10-6
lbf·s/ft2 4.7880  101 4.7880  102 4.7880  104 32.1740 1.1583  105 1
a
When moles appear in the given and the desired units, the conversion factor is the same for the corresponding mass units.

Table 12. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of ML/t3T or F/tT (thermal conductivity)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value W/m·K g·cm/s3·K
these units to convert to or or Btu/hr·ft·F
 these units kg·m/s3·K erg/s·cm·K lbm ft/s3 F lbf /s· F cal/s·cm·K
W/m·K = kg·m/s ·K
3
1 10 3
4.0183 1.2489  10 -1
2.3901  10-3 5.7780  10-1
g·cm/s3·K 10-5 1 4.0183  10 -5
1.2489  10 -6
2.3901  10-8 5.7780  10-6
lbm ft/s3 F 2.4886  10 -1
2.4886  10 4
1 3.1081  10 -2
5.9479  10-4 1.4379  10-1
lbf /s· F 8.0068 8.0068  10 5
3.2174  10 1
1 1.9137  10-2 4.6263
cal/s·cm·K 4.1840  10 2
4.1840  10 7
1.6813  10 3
5.2256  10 1
1 2.4175  102
Btu/hr·ft·F 1.7307 1.7307  105 6.9546 2.1616  10-1 4.1365  10-3 1

Table 13. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of L2/t (momentum
diffusivity, thermal diffusivity, molecular diffusivity)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to
 these units m2/s cm2/s ft2/hr centistokes
2
m /s 1 10 4
3.8750  104 106
2 -4
cm /s 10 1 3.8750 102
2
ft /hr 2.5807  10 -5
2.5807  10 -1
1 2.5807  101
centistokes 10 -6
10 -2
3.8750  10 -2
1

Table 14. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensions of M/t3T or F/LtT (heat transfer coefficients)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value W/m2 K
these units to convert to (J/m2s·K) cal/cm2 s·K
 these units 3
kg/s K 2
W/cm K 3
g/s K 3
lbm/s F lbf/ft·s·F Btu/ft2hr·F
W/m2 K = kg/s3 K 1 10-4 103 1.2248 3.8068  10-2 2.3901  10-5 1.7611  10-1
W/cm2 K 104 1 107 1.2248  104 3.8068  102 2.3901  10-1 1.7611  103

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Philippine Handbook Conversion Factors
in Chemical Engineering
g/s3 K 10-3 10-7 1 1.2248  10-3 3.8068  10-5 2.3901  10-8 1.7611  10-4
lbm/s3 F 8.1647  10-1 8.1647  10-5 8.1647  102 1 3.1081  10-2 1.9514  10-5 1.4379  10-1
lbf/ft·s·F 2.6269  101 2.6269  10-3 2.6269  104 32.1740 1 6.2784  10-4 4.6263
cal/cm2 s·K 4.1840  104 4.1840 4.1840  107 5.1245  104 1.5928  103 1 7.3686  103
Btu/ft2hr·F 5.6782 5.6782  10-4 5.6782  103 6.9546 2.1616  10-1 1.3571  10-4 1

Table 15. Conversion Factors for Quantities Having Dimensionsa of M/Lt or Ft/L2 (mass transfer
coefficients kx or kw)
Given a Multiply by
quantity in table value
these units to convert to kg/m2s g/cm2s lbm/ft2s lbm/ft2hr lbf s/ft2
 these units
kg/m2s 1 10-1 2.0482  10-1 7.3734  102 6.3659  10-3
g/cm s 2
10 1
1 2.0482 7.3734  103 6.3659  10-2
2
lbm/ft s 4.8824 4.8824  10 -1
1 3600 3.1081  10-2
2
lbm/ft hr 1.3562  10 -3
1.3562  10 -4
2.7778  10 -4
1 8.6336  10-6
lbf s/ft 2
1.5709  10 2
1.5709  10 1
32.1740 1.1583  10 5
1
a
When moles appear in the given and the desired units, the conversion factor is the same for the corresponding mass units.