Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education 7 - 0

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-0

Chapter 7

Other Leadership Perspectives:

Upper Echelon and Leadership of

Nonprofits

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-1

Learning Objectives

Differentiate between micro and upper-echelon

leadership and describe the domain and roles of

strategic leaders

List the individual characteristics of strategic

leaders and consider the role of culture

Explain how top-level managers affect their

organization

Analyze the unique challenges of leadership in

nonprofit organizations

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-2

The Leadership Question Do you think there is a difference between leaders at different levels

The Leadership

Question

The Leadership Question Do you think there is a difference between leaders at different levels of

Do you think there is a difference between

leaders at different levels of the organization and

in different organizations? Besides size and

number of people who report to you, is

leadership fundamentally different at top and lower levels or in different organizations?

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-3

Differences Between Micro

and Strategic Leadership

Who the leader is

Scope of responsibility

Focus

Effectiveness criteria

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-4

The Domain of Strategic

Leaders

Environment Leadership Culture Technology Structure Strategy
Environment
Leadership
Culture
Technology
Structure
Strategy

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-5

Dual Role of Strategic

Leaders

Moderating factors Strategy Strategy Leader formulation implementation Performance
Moderating
factors
Strategy
Strategy
Leader
formulation
implementation
Performance

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-6

Moderators of Executive

Discretion

External factors

Uncertainty

Type of industry

Market growth

Legal constraints

Internal factors

Stability

Size and structure

Culture

Stage of

organizational

development

TMT

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-7

Characteristics of Upper

Echelon Leaders

Challenge seeking

Risk taking

Openness to

change

Willingness to

innovate

Future orientation

Need for control

Delegation

Centralization

Uniformity of

practices

Focus on process

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-8

Strategic Leadership Types

High control

Desire for control

Low control

High-control innovator Participative innovator (HCI) (PI) Challenge-seeking Challenge-seeking leader who maintains
High-control innovator
Participative innovator
(HCI)
(PI)
Challenge-seeking
Challenge-seeking
leader who maintains
tight control of the
organization
leader who delegates
control of the
organization
Status quo guardian
(SQG)
Process manager (PM)
Challenge-averse leader
Challenge-averse leader
who maintains tight
who delegates control of
the organization
control of the
organization

High

challenge

seeking

Challenge

seeking

Low

challenge

seeking

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-9

Culture and Gender

Culture

Different countries have different

implicit leadership theories

Gender

Little research on role of gender in upper echelon

Fewer women in executive leadership positions

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-10

How Executives Affect Their

Organization

How Executives Affect Their Organization Environment Strategy • Direct decisions • Allocation of resources
Environment Strategy • Direct decisions • Allocation of resources Structure • Reward systems Leader
Environment
Strategy
Direct decisions
• Allocation of resources
Structure
• Reward systems
Leader
Processes
• Selection of other
leaders
• Promotions
Culture
• Role modeling
Technology
Leadership

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-11

Direct Decisions

Vision

Mission

Strategy

Structure

Organizational culture

Selection of other leaders

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-12

Allocation of Resources and

the Reward System

Decisions regarding funding and budgets

Allocation of resources to support goals

Formal rewards such as salary and

bonuses

Informal rewards such as recognition

Promotion of other leaders and managers

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-13

Setting the Norms and Role

Modeling

Setting decision criteria and rules by

which others make decisions

Active or subtle role modeling of wanted behaviors and style

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-14

Responsibilities of Strategic

Leaders

Organizational performance

Internal health; organizational culture

Accountability to internal and external

constituents

Ethical behavior and role modeling

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-15

Determinants of Executive

Compensation

Size of the firm

Industry competition

CEO power and discretion

Internationalization

High stress and instability

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-16

Characteristics of

Nonprofits

Operate without profit

Public service mission

Voluntary board of directors

Funded through various private and

public contributions

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-17

Role of Leaders in Nonprofit Organizations

Donors Nonprofit Recipients organizations Individual Individuals donors Members Members LEADER Communities
Donors
Nonprofit
Recipients
organizations
Individual
Individuals
donors
Members
Members
LEADER
Communities
Foundations
Other
Government
organizations
grants
Other
contributors

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-18

Leadership Challenges of

Nonprofits

Leaders must rely on participatory leadership to build consensus

Strong ethical requirements

Motivating and retaining employees

Finding and training future leaders

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-19

The Leadership Question Revisited • At some level, leading is leading; you need to take

The Leadership

Question Revisited

The Leadership Question Revisited • At some level, leading is leading; you need to take care

At some level, leading is leading; you need to take care of the

task and people.

Upper echelon requires a heavier reliance on cognitive and

interpersonal skills, as well as the ability to juggle many

complex factors.

Nonprofits face another challenge of both working with

volunteers and having little access to typical rewards for their

employees.

Connecting with followers is at the heart of leadership.

Competence and knowledge of the task are essential.

Each leadership situation is unique, and being effective

requires preparation, knowledge, experience, and styles and

behaviors that fit the situation.

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-20

What Do You Do? You are fully aware that change is not your thing. You

What Do You Do?

You are fully aware that change is not your thing. You

are highly successful at creating systems and putting

effective structures in place. You like order and

predictability and have a track record to show how good

you are at your job. You join the leadership team of a

small company that is also highly successful but that

operates very loosely. Everything is decentralized and

the focus is on change and innovation. How can you

contribute? What do you do to succeed?

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

change and innovation. How can you contribute? What do you do to succeed? Copyright © 2015

7-21

Leadership Challenge • CEO involvement in nomination of board members helps assure that members with

Leadership Challenge

Leadership Challenge • CEO involvement in nomination of board members helps assure that members with the

CEO involvement in nomination of board

members helps assure that members with the right skills and expertise are selected

Those nominated by CEO may have a

conflict of interest and a positive bias toward the CEO

Creation of a balance of members

nominated by different stakeholders is

essential

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-22

Leading Change:

Public Allies

Leading Change: Public Allies • Leadership is an action (a verb) not a position (a noun)

Leadership is an action (a verb) not a

position (a noun)

Develop the next generation of community

leaders

Educate and train community members

Tied to community organizations; draws from

them and returns trained leaders to them

Create connections

Public allies are 67% people of color; 60%

women

Focus on collaboration, diversity, continuous

learning, and integrity

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-23

Leadership in Action: P&G • P&G is well established in a highly competitive global market

Leadership in Action:

P&G

P&G is well established in a highly competitive

global market

Constant need for revitalization to remain

competitive

Sudden change in leadership (rehire retiring CEO)

in spite of careful succession planning

Lafley is focused on simple lessons

Low-key, collaborative, soft-spoken, consensual

Powerful board

Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education

7-24