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Republic of the Philippines

Tarlac State University

College of Education
Lucinda, Campus

Research in Food
Service Management

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Advance Baking

Yeast bread

Yeast breads differ from quick breads in that they are leavened by yeast, a living organism,

rather than baking soda and baking powder and are often lower in fat and sugar. When mixed

with water and sugar, the yeast ferments to produce carbon dioxide, filling the bread dough with

tiny air bubbles.

Classification of Yeast bread

Batter breads - the dough for batter breads is not kneaded. Batter bread is coarser in shape and

texture than bread prepared with kneaded dough. It has a higher ratio of liquid to flour and other

dry ingredients; beating the batter a few minutes develops the gluten, though not as much as a

kneaded bread. The dough rises only once, in the bread pan. Batter breads generally do not rise

as high as kneaded breads.

Kneaded breads-A smoother- textured bread results from kneading yeast dough by hand, with

an electric mixer or food processor. The dough is allowed to rise before shaping, and then it is

shaped and allowed to rise again. Finally, the bread is baked. Breads prepared in electric bread

machines are also kneaded breads. Kneaded breads offer many options for bakers, especially in
regards to shaping. Examples of kneaded breads include loaf breads, baguettes, pan rolls and

crescent rolls.

Tips in preparing Yeast Bread

Yeast is the essential ingredient in bread baking. Since yeast is a living organism, having fresh

yeast and using it properly will help you be successful at baking.

Important Tips

 Yeast activity may decrease if it comes in direct contact with salt or sugar.

 Always use dry yeast at room temperature.

 Using a thermometer is the most accurate way to determine the correct liquid

temperature. Any thermometer will work as long as it measures temperatures

between75°F and 130°F.

Methods in making Yeast bread

Step One: Ingredient Selection & Scaling

Using good quality ingredients is crucial to making good bread. When choosing flour for bread

making, look for one labelled as “all-purpose flour” or as “bread flour.”

Our salt is a high quality, unrefined sea salt from Sicily. Generally, whatever salt you keep in

your pantry will work just fine, unless it is too coarse to dissolve easily. The water that comes

from your tap is also good for making bread. What’s most important about the water is its

temperature; we use the water to control the temperature of the dough. A dough will ideally

come out of the mix at around 75°F.

We measure all of our ingredients (including liquids) in grams on a scale. Scaling is much faster

and more accurate than working in volume.

Step Two: Mixing

There are two stages to the mixing process: the first is to incorporate ingredients, the second is to

develop the structure of the dough, otherwise known as the gluten network. Dough can be

kneaded by hand, or mixed in a table top mixer. When using a table top mixer, keep it to the

lower speeds to avoid damaging the motor.

Step Three: Primary Fermentation

Also referred to as rising, or proofing, this is where the yeast starts to do its work, converting

sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol and organic acids. Every dough has a different primary

fermentation time, depending on its formulation. We work with time as well as our senses to

determine when the dough is properly fermented.

Step Four: Divide and Pre-Shape

When the dough is properly fermented, it is time to divide it to the desired size and give the

divided pieces a preshape. A preshape is an intermediate shape—a loose suggestion to the dough

of where it’s headed that will make final shaping easier.

Step Five: Bench Rest

After the dough has been preshaped, it needs to rest for a short time before final shaping. Bench

rest is typically 15-20 minutes long and during that time, the gluten network, which has been

made more elastic through handling, will relax and become more extensible.

Step Six: Final Shaping

There are four basic shapes in bread making: the baguette (stick), the boule (round), the bâtard (a

football-like shape) and the pan loaf (a blunt-ended bâtard). After shaping, the dough must be set

somewhere to rest during its final fermentation. For baguettes and bâtards, we use baker’s linen

and wooden boards; for boules, we often use wooden proofing baskets. The linen and the baskets

help to hold the shape of the dough during the final fermentation.

Step Seven: Final Fermentation

After shaping, the dough must rest and continue to ferment. The length of the final fermentation

varies from dough to dough; it could be anywhere from 15 minutes to 12 or more hours. Again,

we work with time and with our “dough sense” to determine when the dough is properly


Step Eight: Scoring

Most loaves will be scored, or cut, just before they are baked. Scoring has a decorative function,

and it allows the dough to “spring” properly as the carbon dioxide gas that has accumulated

during fermentation expands in the heat of the oven. Scoring is typically done with a razor blade

or a small serrated blade.

Step Nine: Baking

Lean doughs (those like baguettes and levain breads made without fats, sugars, eggs, etc.) are

typically baked at a very high temperature, around 450-475°F. Enriched breads (brioche,

challah, sweet breads) are typically baked around 350-400°F. In most cases, a smaller loaf

should be baked at a higher temperature than a larger one, so that it will take on the right amount

of color in its baking time. There are a few different ways to determine that a loaf is properly

baked—by color, by the hollow sound you hear when you knock on the bottom of the loaf, and

by internal temperature (at least 190°F for lean breads, 165°F for enriched breads).

Step Ten: Cooling

Although it is tempting to eat hot bread right of the oven, that’s not the best way to really taste its

subtle flavors. When bread first comes out of the oven, it is still filled with excess moisture and

carbon dioxide. The bread needs time to cool so that the moisture and gas will dissipate. After

cooling, the texture, flavor and aroma of the bread will have developed into what they should be

and you will have a flavorful, palate-pleasing loaf.

Causes and Failures in making Yeast bread

1. My Loaf Didn’t Rise Very Much. You put the risen loaf in the oven and baked it but it

didn’t do very much. This is usually caused by not enough leavening power in the dough,

dough that is too old or too young or too high an oven temperature.

2. Not enough yeast. Make sure you added the proper amount of yeast to the recipe and that

the water temperature wasn’t so high that it killed the yeast. A rare occurrence is the

yeast itself is old or weak, which is most likely if you are using fresh (cake) yeast and it is

old or hasn’t been stored properly.

3. Too much salt in the recipe. Salt controls the activity of the yeast, but too much can really

slow down the yeast or kill it all off. Make sure you added the proper amount of salt to

the dough.

4. Too much sugar in the dough. Sugar ties up water, so if there is too much sugar in the

dough, it can tie up a lot of the water, leaving too little for the yeast to use. This is rare,

but make sure you didn’t use Tablespoons instead of teaspoons, or 3/4 of a cup instead of

1/4 cup when you measured out the sugar.

5. Under proofing or too short a final rise. This can cause a loaf to fail because the yeast

hasn’t produced enough gas to fill the tiny pockets that the dough has developed. How

did the punch-in test work? Did you use it?

6. Over proofing or too long a final rise time. If you leave the dough for too long, the yeast

will run out of steam and the gluten will lose its ability to support the loaf. The result is a

loaf that goes nowhere, it just puffs up a little bit and that’s it. Make sure you don’t let the

dough rise too long. Do the punch-in test. Don’t let the dough rise to more than twice the

volume it had when you set it out. N.B. Some breads require a triple on final rise.

7. If you do let the dough rise too long, there is still hope. Knead the dough all over again,

for a minute or two. this will give the yeast a chance to find some new sources of

nutrition and get rid of the gases that have built up in the dough. Then set the dough to

rise again, but for a shorter time. This is an emergency procedure and works about two

thirds of the time; it’s worth a try, but don’t get your hopes up.

8. You may have a serious instance of this problem if you are making a very wet dough that

requires a long first fermentation time. For example, there are several 73-75% hydration

breads where the recipe says to let the dough triple in fermentation. When you ferment
the dough, you may let the dough run to exhaustion and not know it. If the recipe says to

triple, be sure to mark the container where a triple will be and don’t let the dough get

above that line. In fact, you won’t hurt the final bread one bit if you take it out slightly

before it gets to the mark, just to be on the safe side.

9. The temperature where you set the dough to rise was too low. Dough needs a reasonably

warm temperature during final rise. Professional proofing boxes have both high humidity

and high temperature, 60% humidity and 80 degrees are not uncommon. If your dough

has to rise in a cooler place, make sure to do the punch-in test. Most doughs will rise in

cooler surroundings, they’ll just take longer to rise properly.

10. The loaves were put in pans that were too large for them. Make sure the dough fills the

pans to the proper level. Recipes may require the dough to be half or two-thirds of the

way up the sides. Be sure you follow the instructions.

11. Oven temperature too high. The yeast undergoes a burst of activity during the first few

minutes of baking, increasing its production of gases, which are then trapped by the

gluten network, producing the oven spring. If the oven temperature is too high, this

period can be shortened, which can reduce the time that the yeast is active, reducing the

amount of gas it produces. This is a long way of saying that the yeast dies before it can

produce enough gas to produce the desired oven spring.

12. My Loaf Expanded Too Much. At first glance, most people wouldn’t consider this a

fault, they would cheer and say “Wow! Good show!” or “Groovy, Dude!” However, if

the dough has too much oven spring, it can touch a neighbouring loaf, overflow a pan or

alter the texture of the crumb.

13. Dough baked before it had finished proofing properly. The yeast should have been

allowed to finish most of its work before the dough is baked. If it is still very active when

the loaf is baked, the resulting super activity will cause a massive oven spring. Do the

punch-in test.

14. Not enough salt in the dough. Most recipes call for salt to be around 2% of the weight of

the flour. This isn’t a hard-and-fast rule, but it is so widely used that you should note

when the proportions are different. Since salt controls yeast activity, if there isn’t enough

salt the yeast can become over-active and the loaf will expand more than it should. Taste

your dough — you may find that once in a while, you forget the salt. Nothing quite like

having a batch of bread in the oven and spotting the bowl with the salt sitting on the


15. Loaves too large for the pans. Make sure the loaves fill the pans properly. At the extreme,

this fault will result in a loaf that cascades down the side of the pan and onto the baking

surface — you’ll have baked toast.

16. My Loaf Spread Out Too Much and Didn’t Go Up. This is a tricky one. You can usually

see these mistakes either during or at the end of final rise and take action then.

17. Under kneading or under developing the dough. The dough doesn’t develop the lattice

work that it needs to support the gas-trapping cells. Since the framework isn’t there, the

cells can’t do their job and the dough just spreads out. You can take this dough, knead it a

bit and set it to rise again, giving it a shortened final rise time. This works in most cases.
18. Over proofing,leaving the dough too long in final rise. The dough structure begins to

break down so the dough just spreads out. With over proofed dough, you can try to

reclaim by kneading very briefly and then setting the dough out for a short rise period.

19. A wet dough is very prone to this flaw, since the gluten structure is fairly delicate and

easily deflated. Here the fault may be a combination of underdevelopment and over-


20. You may find that no matter what you do, some wet doughs just don’t work for you as

free-standing loaves. In that case, get a bread pan, large pie pan, loaf pan or whatever and

use that. No harm done; you’ll just have good bread in another shape.

21. My Crust is Too Dark. The most common cause of an overly dark crust is baking too

long, which will also result in a thick crust. Some breads require a dark crust and some

bakers like a darker crust, so make sure that what you have is a fault and not the desired

crust color.

22. Make sure you didn’t broil the loaf instead of bake it. James Beard has a famous recipe

for his broiled bread, which was a mistake that, it could only happen to James Beard,

turned out well.

23. Baking too long. Make sure you bake for the proper time.

24. Oven temperature too high. Check the temperature before you start to bake. If you

consistently have a dark crust, check the calibration of the oven.

25. Too much sugar in the recipe. This is applicable mainly to enriched breads. Make sure

you don’t confuse teaspoons with tablespoons.

26. If the crust is too dark on the top only, you have probably set the oven rack too close to

the top of the oven. Lower it next time.

27. If the crust is too dark on the bottom only, you probably have the rack too close to the

bottom of the oven. Raise it next time. If you check the loaf when it is half-way baked

and the top is already turning dark, you can slow the coloring by putting a sheet of

aluminum foil over the loaf. If you check the loaf when it is half-way baked and the

bottom crust is getting very dark, you can slide a cold cooking sheet under the loaf and

transfer the loaf to a higher rack in the oven.

28. My Crust is Too Pale. Instead of a dark crust, you wind up with a loaf the color of straw.

29. Oven temperature too low. As in the oven temperature too high above, this is prevented

by checking the oven temperature before you bake.

30. Dough too old. If the dough is too old, the Maillard Reaction won’t run its course and the

necessary browning won’t take place on the crust. Make sure you ferment and rise the

proper amount of time and do the windowpane and punch-in tests. You can get dough

that acts as if it’s too old by letting the dough rise in a very warm place, which will

accelerate the dough activity enough to make it seem as if it is very old.

31. The dough crust dried out during rising. In effect, there isn’t enough moisture in the crust

for activate the Maillard Reaction, so the crust stays pale. I frequently cover the rising

loaves with a tea towel and spritz the towel with water from time to time. This keeps the

dough damp, much like what happens in a proofing chamber, where the humidity is 60%

or more and the temperature is around 80F.

32. Lack of water vapor in the oven during the first few minutes of baking. Water vapor,

steam, keeps the exterior of the loaf damp, which allows good expansion, but it also helps

the browning reaction, the Maillard Reaction, to proceed properly.

33. An enriched bread may have too little sugar. Sugar helps support the browning reaction.

If the recipe called for 2 tablespoons of sugar and you used 2 teaspoons of sugar, you

may not get the crust you are expecting.

34. In essence, proper size and color depend on proper dough handling techniques, the proper

amounts of yeast and salt and the proper combination of temperature and humidity in

final rising.

35. I’ve Got a Tunnel Between the Crust and the Crumb. This is also called a “flying crust.”

Some very good professional bakeries turn out breads with this fault and get praised for

it. Go figure.

36. The dough was allowed to rise too long in a very dry environment. This is the primary

cause. Here’s what happens.

37. The dough rises properly during the first part of the rise. When the rise goes on too long,

the interior, what will be the crumb, begins to settle back a bit, since the dough is getting

weak. But since the crust has been allowed to dry out a bit, it can’t fall back with the

interior, so it stays high and dry. When the loaf is finally baked, the crumb doesn’t rise up

to meet the crust, and the tunnel stays.

38. The final rise period was too short. This is a very rare occurrence, but it can happen. Just

make sure you rise for the proper time and do the punch-in test.

39. There is another instance of this problem. Sometimes, a loaf will enter the oven looking

fine, but will collapse in the center during baking. This is a tricky problem to solve, but

review your procedures. Here are some probable causes, which may occur together.
40. You used all purpose flour when the recipe called for bread flour. Because of the lower

protein content, the yeast ran out of energy and couldn’t give the final burst of activity to

sustain the crust.

41. A wet dough. A wet dough has a crumb that is more like a lattice work than a solid. As

the yeast develops, the lattice forms. When the bread is baked, the lattice collapses in the

centre because the yeast activity can’t support it.

42. Dough that has risen too long in a moist environment. This is a tunnel crust without the

dry crust. In this case, the crust follows the crumb down.

43. Too much yeast for the protein level of the flour. The yeast runs out of nutrients and the

dough has no energy left.

These are some possible causes, either alone or in combination. Because there are so many

different causes and they can work together to foil your best efforts, the answer will probably be

a combination of a few minor changes to the recipe. When you get it right, remember to note

what you did to solve the problem so you don’t have to go through the whole process again.

44. My Crust is Too Thick. You will quite often find this fault in the same loaf that you find

a tunnel crust or a very pale crust.

45. The final rise time was too long. Since we know that an over-risen loaf will not brown

properly, the temptation is to let the loaf bake a bit longer in hopes that the crust will

*finally* brown. Alas, it doesn’t, and we are left with a baguette that could do duty as a

baseball bat.

46. The oven temperature was too high. If the oven temperature is too high, say 475 when it

was supposed to be 375, a loaf can literally burn up as the Maillard Reaction runs to
completion and the loaf continues to brown. What was a pleasing brown can become

almost charcoal.

47. Too little sugar. This applies mostly to enriched doughs. If your dough is supposed to

have sugar and you forgot it, the loaf won’t brown properly. So in your efforts to get a

nice brown crust, you bake too long, which can thicken the crust.

48. I’ve Got White Streaks in my Bread. This is usually flour that got added during kneading

or shaping. The flour gets into the dough but doesn’t get properly mixed or hydrated, so it

just sits in the dough as raw flour. The way to avoid this fault is to refrain from adding

“sprinkles of flour” during the last stages of kneading.

49. Holes Too Large in Bread. Many people wouldn’t consider this a fault, since many

people’s mantra is “I want large holes in my bread!” However, as with most things, there

is a place for large holes in bread and a place where they are a fault. Personally, I am not

a fan of very large holes or spider-web crumb in bread.

The most usual cause is over proofing of a high hydration dough. If you look at properly made

bread, you’ll notice that the texture of the loaf changes a bit from top to bottom. There are larger

holes in the crumb toward the top and smaller holes in the crumb toward the bottom. This

difference is caused by the weight of the dough squeezing the holes near the bottom while the

holes near the top have little pressing down on them. A tunnel crust is an extreme example of

this, although it’s caused by a somewhat different condition. When the dough is allowed to rise

too long, the difference becomes more pronounced. The preventative is to allow the proper time

in final rise. If you suspect you have a problem at the end of final rise, you can invert the loaves

either a few minutes before the end of final rise or as you put them in the oven. This will make

the large holes appear on the bottom and the smaller holes appear near the top. They will quite
often nearly equalize as the loaf bakes, especially if you give the doughs a few minutes to

recover before baking them.

50. Over proofing can also occur if the temperature is too high in the area where the dough is

rising. Make sure that the combination of time and temperature is correct. The above

should help you avoid or cure most of the common problems you will have with your


Yeast bread Recipe


5 cups white all-purpose flour

2 tablespoons yeast (or 2 x 7g pkts)

2 tablespoons sugar

1 teaspoon salt

2 cups warm-hot water

1⁄4 cup cooking oil

Procedure :

Put 4 cups of the flour, yeast, sugar and salt into large bowl.
Pour in hot water and oil and mix until combined- it will be sticky.

Add the remaining flour in increments until dough is no longer sticky.

Knead for about 5 minutes until dough is elastic and smooth.

Place dough back into bowl and cover with a damp tea towel and let it rise until double its

size- about 1/2 hour.

Punch it down and divide dough into two pieces.

Roll pieces long enough to fill two well oiled loaf pans and leave to rise until dough has

reached the rim of the pan.

Bake at 400F for 40 minutes.

Rub hot breads with water and wrap in a teatowel to ‘sweat' to soften the crust.


A cookie is small, flat, sweet, baked good, usually containing flour, eggs, sugar, and either

butter, cooking oil or another oil or fat. It may include other ingredients such as raisins, oats,

chocolate chips or nuts.

Classification of cookies

Bar Cookies- Somewhere in between a cookie and a cake, bar cookies are some of the quickest

and easiest cookies to make. Dough and other ingredients that are poured or pressed into the pan

with sides (instead of on a baking sheet), sometimes in multiple layers. After baking and cooling,

they are cut into shapes such as squares, rectangles, triangles, or diamonds.
Drop Cookies- Drop cookies, as the name suggests, are baked by dropping or pushing spoonfuls

of cookie dough onto the baking sheet. During baking, the mounds of dough flatten and spread.

Filled Cookies - Filled cookies are made from cookie dough stuffed with a fruit or confectionery

contents before baking. Some are like a tiny pocket or pouch, prepared similarly to dumplings, in

which the dough is encased around the filling and edges are crimped. Others are prepared as tiny

tarts in miniature muffin tins. Filled cookies have become favorites because they combine a

standard cookie (the dough) with a special filling, offering two treats in one.

Fried Cookies- Fried cookies, growing in popularity, are drop cookies or filled cookies that are

cooked in oil. Sometimes referred to as simply “fried dough,” these types of cookies they are

often dusted with powdered sugar after being cooked. They are best when served immediately. In

addition to traditional fried cookies, today’s favorite cookie recipes (like chocolate chip cookie

dough or oatmeal cookie dough) are modified by adding a bit of liquid, rolling the dough in

batter, and deep frying the dough to create a rich and crispy treat.

Molded Cookies- Molded cookies, made from stiff dough, are formed into shapes before baking.

Cookies are shaped by hand or in a mold. Cookies can be hand-shaped into wreaths, crescents,

canes, logs, and balls. Some are molded into large flattened loaves and later cut into smaller

cookies. Molded cookies can also be created by using cookie molds, mold pans, cookie stamps,

or a specialty rolling pin (Springerle rolling pin) – each created with designs to be pressed into

the dough.

No-Bake Cookies- While technically not a cookie category in their own right, no-bake cookies

are hybrid between a candy and a cookie. They are made by mixing a filler (such as cereal or

nuts) into a sticky binder. The cookies are shaped into individual treats or pressed into a pan and
cut as bars, and then cooled to harden. No-bake cookies are unique among types of cookies in

that they do not require baking time in an oven.

Pressed Cookies - Pressed cookies are made from soft dough that is placed in a cookie press

(also called a cookie gun) or pastry bag and pushed through decorative disks at the tube’s end,

forming fancy-shaped designs.

Refrigerator Cookies- Refrigerator cookies are made from dough shaped into cylinders,

refrigerated to become stiff, and then sliced and baked. The dough can also be prepared in layers,

as for pinwheel cookies, or rolled out flat, sprinkled on the surface with fillings, and rolled into a

log before chilling.

Rolled Cookies- Rolled cookies are made from stiff, chilled cookie dough which is rolled out

with a rolling pin and cut with a knife, pastry wheel, or cookie cutter. Often cookies are

decorated and then baked – or baked, cooled, and frosted.

Sandwich Cookies- Just as a regular sandwich is created with two slices of bread similar in size,

a sandwich cookie is assembled with two identically-sized cookies joined together with a sweet



Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked. In its oldest forms, cakes were

modifications of breads, but cakes now cover a wide range of preparations that can be simple or

elaborate, and that share features with other desserts such as pastries, meringues, custards, and

Typical cake ingredients are flour, sugar, eggs, butter or oil, a liquid, and leavening agents, such

as baking soda and/or baking powder. Common additional ingredients and flavourings include

dried, candied, or fresh fruit, nuts, cocoa, and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous

substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves or dessert

sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan,

piped borders, or candied fruit.

Cake is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings,

anniversaries. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some are rich and elaborate,

and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one

time considerable labor went into cake making (particularly the whisking of egg foams), baking

equipment and directions have been simplified so that even the most amateur cook may bake a


Varieties of cakes

Butter cakes are made from creamed butter, sugar, eggs, and flour. They rely on the

combination of butter and sugar beaten for an extended time to incorporate air into the batter.[10]

A classic pound cake is made with a pound each of butter, sugar, eggs, and flour. Baking powder

is in many butter cakes, such as Victoria sponge.[11] The ingredients are sometimes mixed

without creaming the butter, using recipes for simple and quick cakes.
Sponge cakes (or foam cakes) are made from whipped eggs, sugar, and flour. They rely

primarily on trapped air in a protein matrix (generally of beaten eggs) to provide leavening,

sometimes with a bit of baking powder or other chemical leaven added as insurance. Sponge

cakes are thought to be the oldest cakes made without yeast. An angel food cake is a white

sponge cake that uses only the whites of the eggs and is traditionally baked in a tube pan. The

French Génoise is a sponge cake that includes clarified butter. Highly decorated sponge cakes

with lavish toppings are sometimes called gateau; the French word for cake.

Chiffon cakes are sponge cakes with vegetable oil, which adds moistness.[12]

Chocolate cakes are butter cakes, sponge cakes, or other cakes flavored with melted chocolate

or cocoa powder.[13] German chocolate cake is a variety of chocolate cake. Fudge cakes are

chocolate cakes that contains fudge.

Coffee cake is generally thought of as a cake to serve with coffee or tea at breakfast or at a

coffee break. Some types use yeast as a leavening agent while others use baking soda and/or

baking powder. These cakes often have a crumb topping called streusel and/or a light glaze


Baked flourless cakes include baked cheesecakes and flourless chocolate cakes. Cheesecakes,

despite their name, aren't really cakes at all. Cheesecakes are in fact custard pies, with a filling

made mostly of some form of cheese (often cream cheese, mascarpone, ricotta, or the like), and

have very little flour added, although a flour-based or graham cracker crust may be used.

Cheesecakes are also very old, with evidence of honey-sweetened cakes dating back to ancient

Butter or oil layer cakes include most of the traditional cakes used as birthday cakes, etc.,

and those sold as packaged cakes. Baking powder or bicarbonate of soda are used to provide

both lift and a moist texture. Many flavorings and ingredients may be added; examples include

devil's food cake, carrot cake, and banana bread.

Yeast cakes are the oldest and are very similar to yeast breads. Such cakes are often very

traditional in form, and include such pastries as babka and stollen.

Some varieties of cake are widely available in the form of cake mixes, wherein some of the

ingredients (usually flour, sugar, flavoring, baking powder, and sometimes some form of fat) are

premixed, and the cook needs add only a few extra ingredients, usually eggs, water, and

sometimes vegetable oil or butter. While the diversity of represented styles is limited, cake mixes

do provide an easy and readily available homemade option for cooks who are not accomplished


Quick bread

quick bread is any bread leavened with leavening agents other than yeast or eggs. An advantage

of quick breads is their ability to be prepared quickly and reliably, without requiring the time-

consuming skilled labor and the climate control needed for traditional yeast breads.

Quick breads include many cakes, brownies and cookies—as well as banana bread, beer bread,

biscuits, cornbread, muffins, pancakes, scones, and soda bread.

Pies and tarts


A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely

contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.

Pies are defined by their crusts. A filled pie (also single-crust or bottom-crust), has pastry lining

the baking dish, and the filling is placed on top of the pastry but left open. A top-crust pie has the

filling in the bottom of the dish and is covered with a pastry or other covering before baking. A

two-crust pie has the filling completely enclosed in the pastry shell. Shortcrust pastry is a typical

kind of pastry used for pie crusts, but many things can be used, including baking powder

biscuits, mashed potatoes, and crumbs.

Pies can be a variety of sizes, ranging from bite-size to ones designed for multiple servings


A tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry base with an open top not covered with

pastry. The pastry is usually shortcrust pastry; the filling may be sweet or savoury, though

modern tarts are usually fruit-based, sometimes with custard. Tartlet refers to a miniature tart; an

example would be egg tarts. The categories of 'tart', 'flan', 'quiche', and 'pie' overlap, with no

sharp distinctions.

Cake decorating
Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative

elements to make plain cakes more visually interesting. Alternatively, cakes can be molded and

sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons, places and things.

Cakes are decorated to mark a special celebration (such as a anniversary or wedding). They can

also mark national or religious holidays, or be used to promote commercial enterprises.

However, cakes may be baked and decorated for almost any social occasion.

Cake decorations are adornments or embellishments that are placed on top or around cakes. Cake

decorations can be made of edible material or food-safe plastics.

A fondant rose edible cake decoration

Fondant, also known as sugar paste or ready roll icing, exists in many different colors, and its

initial form is soft and easy to handle. In this form, cake decorators are able to mold fondant into

many different artistic expressions. Many of these expressions are also taught in professional

cake decorating classes. Fondant is primarily used to cover cakes, but it is also used to create

individual show pieces for cakes.

Royal icing is a sweet white icing made by whipping fresh egg whites (or powdered egg whites,

meringue powder) with icing sugar. Royal icing produces well-defined icing edges and is ideal

for piping intricate writing, borders, scrollwork and lacework on cakes. It dries very hard and
preserves indefinitely if stored in a cool, dry place, but is susceptible to soften and wilt in high


Marzipan is often used for modeling cake decorations and sometimes as a cover over cakes,

although fondant is more preferred.

A bow made from gum paste

Gum paste, also known as florist paste, is an edible, brittle material that dries quickly and can be

sculpted to make cake decorations such as flowers or molded designs.

Modeling chocolate is a chocolate paste made by melting chocolate and combining it with corn

syrup, glucose syrup, or golden syrup. The chocolate is formed into a variety of shapes and

structures that cannot be easily accomplished with other softer edible materials such as

buttercream frosting, marzipan, or fondant. Modeling chocolate can be made from white, dark,

semi-sweet, or milk chocolate.

Edible ink printing is also used in decorating cakes. After breakthroughs in nontoxic inks and

printing materials in the early 1990s,[5] it became possible to print images and photographs onto

edible sheets for use on cakes. It is the process of creating preprinted images with edible food

colors onto various confectionery products such as cookies, cakes, or pastries. Designs made
with edible ink can be created with an edible printer, a specialty device which transfers an image

onto a thin, edible paper. Edible paper is made of starches and sugars and printed on with edible

food colors. Originally introduced as a specialty service provided by bakeries, this technology

can now be used by home consumers using the specialized paper, ink and printers.

As an art

Decorating a cake usually involves covering it with some form of icing and then using decorative

sugar, candy, chocolate or icing decorations to embellish the cake. But it can also be as simple as

sprinkling a fine coat of icing sugar or drizzling a glossy blanket of glaze over the top of a cake.

Icing decorations can be made by either piping icing flowers and decorative borders or by

molding sugar paste, fondant, or marzipan flowers and figures.

This has become a form of unique artistry, and ranges from a single layered cake, decorated

simply, to a multi-layered 3-dimensional creation, that is decorated with edible ribbons made of

sugar. Early construction methods of cutting shapes out of cake and piecing them together to

create a structure have been superseded by preformed character pans, and the shaping of cakes

out of fondant and different forms of marzipan.

Using this new form of fondant artistry should be used on a heavy cake consistency. It can,

however, be used on the traditional cake mix purchased in a store. Fondant is heavier than

traditional knife spread frosting. Pre-made fondant that is available in the cake decorating section
in stores has little flavoring. A homemade fondant can be made quickly for very little cost, and

tends to have a better flavor than the pre-made store bought version.[citation needed]

Whether using icing or fondant or marzipan to cover cakes, if a cake has multiple layers then in

order to keep it from sliding it may need to be secured using dowels made from plastic straws,

bubble tea straws, wooden chopsticks or wooden do.