Uniaxial Tensile Test Report done at KTH

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 0

Uniaxial Tensile Test Report done at KTH

© All Rights Reserved

- Shape Optimization of a Steering Knuckle Using SOLIDWORKS
- As 2291-2007 Metallic Materials - Tensile Testing at Elevated Temperatures
- Varco Pruden Manual
- Armor
- A Compilation of Elevated Temperature Concrete Material Property Data and Information for Use in Assessments of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Microstructural characterization and mechanical property evaluation of microalloyed steel
- Simulation Student Wb 2011 Eng
- Materials Exam2 Outline
- CE2257 SET2
- AMM.592-594.234 (1)(1)
- ll-weld-strength-Vertical Ves.xls
- soil.pdf
- The Estimation of Uncertainties in Hardness Measurements_GABAUER
- POD_W-E440 Series High Temperature Extensometer
- F468-03a
- EMSc Pracs
- Autodyn Composite Modeling
- Steel Structures Introduction
- p52
- Nbs Technologic Paper t 216

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

Hossein Shariati, Hassan Mohammed

Testing Techniques in Solid Mechanics

Department of Solid Mechanics

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Stockholm, Sweden

Introduction

The tensile test is one of the most used tests to determine the materials properties and

behavior. A specimen made of the material of interest is subjected to a tensile force. The

force and displacement are continuously recorded during the test until the specimen fails.

The extracted data is then analyzed to find the material properties. The calculated properties

can be used for material selection in different engineering applications.

Uniaxial tensile test

2. Extensometer

4. Vernier scale

1. Tool-steel specimen

Methods

Uniaxial tensile test

First of all the total length of the specimen was measured. The length (Lc) and the diameter

of the reduced cross section (a0) were measured as well [Figure 1]. Then by using the

scribing tool, five positions with equal distances from each other, were marked on the

specimen. The distance between these positions were equal to 5 mm. these measurement

are required to calculate the quantities such as Rm, A5 and Z. The specimen was made of

tool steel.

2

The specimen ends were fixed by the grips of the testing machine. In fact the grips must

provide the connection between the specimen and the testing machine. This connection

should be an axial connection. Therefore, the grips were aligned to be on the straight line.

Then two extensometers were installed on the specimen in order to record the elongation of

the specimen. The gage length of the specimen was recorded as a reference length to

calculate the strain. The testing machine and extensometers were connected to a computer

to record data during the test. The parameters which should be recorded during the test are:

time, force, piston position. In addition the extensometer information was recorded. However,

at the beginning of the test the recorded data of extensometer included negative values.

These negative values should be neglected.

The test was done by determining the amount of piston displacement at time unit (controlled

displacement) in order to prevent instability after necking. A tensile force was applied by the

machine and the specimen started to elongate. The force-elongation graph was shown on

the monitor. When the extensometers failed, the test continued with recording of piston

position and load. Therefore, the machine was stopped and the extensometers were

removed. Then the test was continued again. After necking initiated, the testing machine was

paused several times in order to measure the diameter and radius of curvature of the

smallest cross-section of the neck. This was done by using radius gage measuring tool.

Wolpert hardness tester was used for Brinell indentations. The Brinell 2.5 mm ball indenter

was installed. The Hardness selection lever was set on Brinell/Vickers indentation. Then the

specimen made of the same material as uniaxial tensile test was placed on the Specimen

table. The lamp was turned on and the specimen table was raised in order to see the

specimen surface through the ocular clearly. Then the indentation load was selected by

using load button. After that, the indentation lever was released and after several seconds,

the lever was returned to its first position. The indent diagonal length was recorded. Three

Brinell hardness indentions were done and the indentation diameters and applied loads were

recorded.

3

Symbols and Parameters

1. The tensile test

Parameter Description

P Applied load

Lext Length of extensometer

Lc Straight part of the specimen

δext Extensometer displacement

δpiston Piston displacement

The combined displacement extensometer and continuing with the

δcombined

converted piston displacement

C Equipment compliance

ao Initial specimen radius

Ao Initial specimen cross sectional area

𝜀𝑒𝑛𝑔 Engineering strain

𝜎𝑒𝑛𝑔 Engineering stress

𝜀𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑒 True strain

𝜎𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑒 True stress

𝜀𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑔𝑚𝑎𝑛 True strain according to a full Bridgman correction

𝜎𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑔𝑚𝑎𝑛 True stress according to a full Bridgman correction

a Neck radius

R Radius of curvature of the neck

E Young’s modulus

Rp0.2 The 0.2 % offset yield strength

Rm Ultimate tensile stress

Lo Total length of equal five defined segments each equal to one ao

Lf Length of the five defined segments after failure

df Neck diameter after failure

Ao Specimen cross sectional area after failure

A5 Elongation at failure

Z Reduction of area at failure

𝜎𝑦 Yield stress

H Plastic modulus

k, n Power law hardening parameters

𝜀𝑝𝑙 Plastic strain

4

2. The Brinell hardness test

Parameter Description

P Applied load in kilogram-force (kgf)

D Brinell indenter diameter

d Indentation diameter

HB Brinell hardness number

H Hardness number by using the projected area

m, k Power law hardening parameters

𝜎 Stress

𝜀 Strain

𝜎𝑅 Representative stress

𝜀𝑅 Representative strain

5

Results

1. The tensile test

At first the data was cleaned for any anomalies and clearly erroneous values, i.e. the data at

the start of the test (the test specimen caps locking into position under loading), the

extensometer removal data points and the stress relaxation data that is generated during the

pauses to measure the necking parameters.

The parameters which were used in the experiment and the recorded outputs from the

experiment are summarized in the table below:

Le 25 mm

Lc 30 mm

ao 5 mm

Lf 31.79 mm

df 3.65 mm

The following table contains the neck diameter and radius of curvature as measured during

the experiment.

Table 4: Neck diameter and radius of curvature

4.62 ∞

4.59 ∞

4.56 ∞

4.51 ∞

4.46 ∞

4.36 ∞

4.27 ∞

4.21 ∞

4.02 15

3.87 13

3.65 6

6

1. The tensile test

After cleaning the data as described previously all of the relative data points (extensometer

and piston displacements) were subtracted from a certain starting values. The test data was

plotted in Figure 3.

Figure 3: load vs. displacement for extensometer and piston displacement measured data

In order to obtain the full data from the start of the experiment using the extensometer and

continue after the extensometer failure at approximately 2.5 mm displacement; the measured

piston displacement has to be converted to remove the contribution from the equipment

compliance.

To calculate the equipment compliance, the extensometer data was used in the following

equation:

𝐿𝑐

𝛿𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 − (𝐿 ) × 𝛿𝑒𝑥𝑡

𝑒𝑥𝑡 (1)

𝐶=

𝑃

Then an average was calculated as 𝐶 = 0.0427 𝑚⁄𝑁

And then by reversing the previous equation, the piston data after stopping the extensometer

was converted according to the following equation:

𝐿𝑒𝑥𝑡

𝛿𝑒𝑥𝑡 = (𝛿𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 − 𝐶 × 𝑃) (2)

𝐿𝑐

7

Figure 4: load vs. the combined displacement

𝐴𝑜 = 𝜋 × 𝑎𝑜 2 = 19.6350 𝑚𝑚2

𝛿𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑

𝜀𝑒𝑛𝑔 = (3)

𝐿𝑐

𝑃

𝜎𝑒𝑛𝑔 = (4)

𝐴𝑜

The true strain and true stress were calculated as follows:

8

The true stress and strain were then calculated using the Bridgman correction according to

the data collected in

Table 4.

𝑎𝑜

𝜀𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑔𝑚𝑎𝑛 = 2 × ln ( ) (7)

𝑎

𝑃

𝜎𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑑𝑔𝑚𝑎𝑛 = 2𝑅 𝑎 (8)

(𝜋𝑎2 ) (1 + ) ln (1 + )

𝑎 2𝑅

The stress-strain diagrams for the engineering, true and Bridgman corrected values is plotted

in Figure 5. A second degree polynomial square fit was used to fit the Bridgman corrected

data points.

Figure 5: Stress-strain curves for the engineering, true and Bridgman corrected data

The Young’s modulus is the slope of the linear part of the engineering stress-strain curve as

in Figure 6.

To find the 0.2 % offset yield strength, a line parallel to the linear part of the engineering

stress-strain curve was made through the 0.2 % strain value. The intersection between the

line and curve defines the yield point as in Figure 6.

𝑅𝑚 = 704.0 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐸 = 214.2 𝐺𝑃𝑎

9

Figure 6: The Rm, Rp0.2 and E

𝐿𝑜 = 5 × 𝑎𝑜 = 25 𝑚𝑚 (9)

𝐿𝑓 − 𝐿𝑜

𝐴5 = ( ) × 100% = 27.16 % ( 10 )

𝐿𝑜

The cross sectional area at failure is used to calculate Z as follows:

𝜋 × 𝑑𝑓 2

𝐴𝑓 = = 10.4635 𝑚𝑚2 ( 11 )

4

𝐴𝑜 − 𝐴𝑓

𝑍=( ) × 100% = 46.71 % ( 12 )

𝐴𝑜

Two material models were used, where an evenly spaced selected number of points where

used to find the curve fitting for both models.

1. Elastic-plastic linear model

This model has a linear elastic part and linear hardening part with a plastic modulus H:

𝜎𝑦

𝜎 = 𝐸𝜀 for 𝜀 ≤ 𝐸

( 13 )

𝜎𝑦

𝜎 = 𝜎𝑦 + 𝐻𝜀𝑝𝑙 for 𝜀 ≥ ( 14 )

𝐸

𝜀𝑝𝑙 was calculated by subtracting the strains after the yield point from the elastic strain (the

strain at the yield point). The plastic stress strain points where then curve fitted with a linear

function and plotted in Figure 7. H was calculated as the slope of the stress-plastic strain

curve.

𝐻 = 694 𝑀𝑃𝑎

The yield stress, the stress where the curve changes its slope, according to this model is

684.2 MPa.

10

Figure 7: The bilinear elastic plastic material model

In this model the plastic part is modeled using the parameters n and k in equation ( 15 ). To

find these parameters linear curve fitting was done according to equation ( 16 ).

𝜎𝑦

𝜎 = 𝐸𝜀 for 𝜀 ≤ 𝐸

𝜎𝑦

𝜎 = 𝜎𝑦 (1 + 𝑘𝜀𝑝𝑙 𝑛 ) for 𝜀 ≥ 𝐸

( 15 )

𝑛 = 0.3658

parameters:

𝑘 = 1.5302 𝐺𝑃𝑎

11

Figure 8: Power law hardening model

12

2. The Brinell hardness test

D = 2.5 mm

The recorded values from the experiment are summarized in the table below:

Load (kg)

1 (mm) 2 (mm)

60 0.60 0.60

30 0.46 0.46

2𝑃

𝐻𝐵 = ( 17 )

𝜋𝐷(𝐷 − √𝐷 2 − 𝑑2 )

4𝑃 × 9.80665

𝐻= ( 18 )

𝜋𝑑2

Using equations ( 17 ) and ( 18 ) the values for Brinell and Meyer hardness are tabulated in

Table 6.

Table 6: Brinell hardness and Meyer’s hardness

100 209.5279 2.1060

60 209.1055 2.0810

30 178.9750 1.7703

𝜎 = 𝑘𝜀𝑝𝑙 𝑛 ( 19 )

𝑑 𝑚

𝐻 = 2.8 × 𝑘 (0.4 ) ( 20 )

2𝐷

A linear fit of the logarithmic version of equation ( 20 ) is used to find the hardening

parameters as in Figure 9.

𝑑

ln 𝐻 = ln(2.8𝑘) + 𝑚 × ln (0.4 ) ( 21 )

2𝐷

13

Figure 9: Brinell test curve fitting

𝑚 = 0.34

parameters:

𝑘 = 1.9889 𝐺𝑃𝑎

𝑑 𝑚

𝜎𝑅 = 𝑘 (0.4 ) ( 22 )

2𝐷

𝑑

𝜀𝑅 = 0.4 ( 23 )

2𝐷

The power law hardening model is constructed and shown in Figure 10 with the true stress-

strain curve determined from the tensile test. The representative values are shown as circles.

14

Figure 10: Brinell hardening power law model (with representative values) and true stress strain curve

15

Conclusion

1. Uniaxial tensile test

𝑅𝑚 = 704.0 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝐸 = 214.2 𝐺𝑃𝑎

𝐴5 = 27.16 %

𝑍 = 46.71 %

𝑛 = 0.3658

𝑘 = 1.5302 𝐺𝑃𝑎

𝑚 = 0.34

𝑘 = 1.9889 𝐺𝑃𝑎

16

Discussion

The uniaxial tension test can be very simple. But there are several factors which can affect

the result such as equipment, human factors, methodology and environmental conditions.

First of all, the test should be done at constant temperature, since any changes in

temperature can affect the result by changing the specimen properties. Secondly, the

method of fixing the specimen within the load frame of testing machine is very important.

There should be only axial force acting on the specimen. Any bending moment can lead to

uncertainty of results.

Another important issue during the uniaxial tensile test is measuring the properties after

necking. In order to capture the curvature radius of the smallest cross section of the

specimen, one way is to use radius gage measuring tool. But the problem with this method is

that, the machine should be halted several times after necking in order to measure the

curvature radius. Therefore, there would be some erroneous data recorded which should be

found and cleaned after the test. In addition, using the radius gage measuring tool is not very

exact. Instead, a camera can be used during the test to capture any changes in the shape of

the specimen and more data points.

As it can be seen in the graphs, the material elasticity-plasticity phase transition is very

smooth. In fact there is no unique point at which one can define the exact yield stress; the

Rp0.2 is good measure to define the yielding point. When a bilinear hardening model is used

as in Figure 7, the yield stress value is different from the Rp0.2 and it is clearly wrong. On the

other hand, the power law hardening as in Figure 8, gives a better representation of the

material model. It should be mentioned that in order to fit the power law hardening model

some points after the Rp0.2 had to be neglected in order to get the best fit.

The power law hardening model for the Brinell hardness test does not fit the experimental

data as good as the tensile test power law; the reason for this is the limited number of tests

were done (only three tests), and the strains for these tests are in a limited range. It can be

seen that the Brinell test points are close to the uniaxial tensile test points and model

diverges as the strain increases since there are no test points in that range.

17

- Shape Optimization of a Steering Knuckle Using SOLIDWORKSЗагружено:prashant
- As 2291-2007 Metallic Materials - Tensile Testing at Elevated TemperaturesЗагружено:SAI Global - APAC
- Varco Pruden ManualЗагружено:elidstone@hotmail.com
- ArmorЗагружено:cifobrien@yahoo.com
- A Compilation of Elevated Temperature Concrete Material Property Data and Information for Use in Assessments of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete StructuresЗагружено:Enformable
- Microstructural characterization and mechanical property evaluation of microalloyed steelЗагружено:Anonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Simulation Student Wb 2011 EngЗагружено:aldzjazz
- Materials Exam2 OutlineЗагружено:Harrison Schultz
- CE2257 SET2Загружено:kaliappan45490
- AMM.592-594.234 (1)(1)Загружено:athangarasu
- ll-weld-strength-Vertical Ves.xlsЗагружено:Sajal Kulshrestha
- soil.pdfЗагружено:sdsw02
- The Estimation of Uncertainties in Hardness Measurements_GABAUERЗагружено:Suta Vijaya
- POD_W-E440 Series High Temperature ExtensometerЗагружено:Fernando Romero
- F468-03aЗагружено:whoknowshimself
- EMSc PracsЗагружено:spacer7007
- Autodyn Composite ModelingЗагружено:ratko88
- Steel Structures IntroductionЗагружено:Chowdhury Priodeep
- p52Загружено:Nugraha Bintang
- Nbs Technologic Paper t 216Загружено:kelvinyeoh
- PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF NEWLY DESIGNED PUMP SEATING FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OPERATIONЗагружено:aisyah
- Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Mechanical & Microstructure Properties of Aluminium 6061 AlloysЗагружено:IJAERS JOURNAL
- Torr barЗагружено:M Husnain Mughal
- SOM 2014 BhopalЗагружено:arungp187
- Arduino TutorialЗагружено:xxx
- Comminution TestsЗагружено:Cristian Oc
- MS23-1225Загружено:BuiDucVinh
- B-3000-PC.pdfЗагружено:Gurubasavaraju T M
- 6342.pdfЗагружено:Polygrapack SA DE CV
- Data_sheet__ASTM_A572_Grade_50_2019-05-20 (1)Загружено:Wahyu Hidayat

- Boundary Value Problems Ch04Загружено:alfonxxl
- Hough TransformЗагружено:أمين سيد
- GeoRock - ServicesЗагружено:وجدي بلخيرية
- MITOCHONDRONЗагружено:Phoebe Magdurulan
- Omo Winter 13 ProbsЗагружено:bipasha2302_23716749
- Complexation EquilibriaЗагружено:Josef Hilton
- Exp 2 Three ComponentЗагружено:Nahed Yacoub
- NX270.pdfЗагружено:Wim Andre
- Echometer Shut in Reservoir PressureЗагружено:Vibhuti Bhargava
- 13 CandlelightЗагружено:Shaikh Gafar (Odisha,India)
- Frontiers SOIЗагружено:Ramakrishnan Swaminathan Thirumangalam
- Design Implementation and Test of Novel Quantum-dot Cellular AuЗагружено:anishji
- LP1.pdfЗагружено:Neil Alviar
- bok%3A978-94-017-9664-4Загружено:fivalen1_443898619
- Heat Transfer by ConvectionЗагружено:EimAnm
- 1Загружено:andualem
- Final Year Project Proposal _GanЗагружено:Muhammad Farhan
- Bridge Design Manual LRFDЗагружено:Diego Fuster
- Pilkington Suncool BrochureЗагружено:George Cretu
- Phased Array Probes - DopplerЗагружено:Nila Akter
- Mid year Physics Exam Paper Sec 3 HaisingЗагружено:Emmanuel Elijah Er
- Thin Films BriefЗагружено:Mandava Soumya
- Ben2_Ben3_Description_03.07.2015Загружено:Tomy1969
- Structure II Column (2).pptxЗагружено:Lava Himawan
- 98 Mark ViiiЗагружено:rukford1
- Chapter 1. Properties of solids.docxЗагружено:deep34
- 18_AWG_Crimp_Guidelines.pdfЗагружено:Amir Hooshang Ghadymi Mahani
- Past Present and Future Perspectives of Refrigerants in Air-conditioning Refrigeration and Heat Pump ApplicationsЗагружено:vicluc
- Deployable StructuresЗагружено:Rajib Chowdhury
- GW Flow & Well HydraulicsЗагружено:EyuelAdam

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.