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IMPERIALISM  needed to provide resources for

capitalist industries and also to

 Methods employed by one nation- state to gain
create new markets for those
power over an area(s) and then to exercise
control over it.
 broad concept that describes various methods TENDED TO EXPAND
employed by one country to gain control IMPERIALISTICALLY
(sometimes through territorial conquest) of THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
another country (or geographic area) and then
 parasitic system and one that was part, and
to exercise control
reflected the decay, of capitalism.
 ”imperium” – Roman
 Empire (Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri’s)
o first associated with domination and
o the often heavy - handed, nation -
political control over one or more
based forms of imperialism described
neighboring nations
above have been replaced by a far more
 “ empire ” is derived from imperium subtle and complex network of global
o describe political forms that had political/economic/cultural processes
characteristics of Roman rule, especially that are exercising a new form of
the great power of the leader (the control that is better captured in their
Roman imperator or emperor) and the view by the idea of empire rather than
huge chasm between the power of the imperialism
ruler and the ruled (Gibbon 1998) o the decline of the importance of the
 associated with rulership over vast geographic nation- state makes it difficult to
spaces and the people who lived there continue to talk in terms of imperialism
o this characteristic that leads to the  leads to more “ decentered ”
association between imperialism and view of globalization
globalization  “new imperialism” = “capitalist imperialism”
o many of the processes discussed in this (contradictory fusion of economics and politics)
book under the heading of globalization
 There are fundamental differences between the
– trade, migration, communication, and
two (political interest in territory and capitalist
so on – existed between the imperial
interest in command, and use, of capital), but
power and the geographic areas that it
the “ t wo logics intertwine in complex and
sometimes contradictory ways
 (Germany, Italy, Belgium, Great Britain, France,
the United States) competed for control over COLONIALISM
previously undeveloped geographic areas,
 clearly related to imperialism (Williams and
especially in Africa – 19th century; where
Chrisman 1994) , and the terms are sometimes
imperialism came into widespread
used interchangeably, but colonialism has a
o Before that, Spain, Portugal and the
more specific meaning
Netherlands had been other leading
 imperialism involves a control without the
imperialist nations.
creation of colonies; Colonialism generally
 Imperialism: Highest Stage of Capitalism
involves settlers as well as much more formal
o By V ladimir Lenin ( 1917/1939), the
mechanisms of political control than those of
first leader of the Soviet Union
o economic nature of capitalism leads
 imperialism means the practice, the theory, and
capitalistic economies, and the nation-
the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan
states that are dominated by such an
centre ruling a distant territory; ‘ colonialism ’ ,
economic system, to seek out and
which is almost always a consequence of
control distant geographic areas
imperialism, is the implanting of settlements on
distant territory (Edward)
 imperialism is (following Lenin) more defi ned by  Import-substitution : Countries (usually in the
economic control (and exploitation), while South) “encouraged” to develop their
colonialism is more about political control. industries: instead of producing for export, rely
 two great and more recent ages (colonialism on imports
ancient history) o key aspect of development projects
o first, beginning in the fifteenth century,  viewed as a “ project” that predated the project of
was led by European powers, especially globalization
Spain and Portugal, and involved creating o primarily concerned with the economic
colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas development of specific nations, usually
o second, or modern, phase lasted roughly those that were not regarded as
between 1820 and the end of WW I. It sufficiently advanced economically.
involved other European powers (most  Foreign direct investment (FDI) :
importantly Great Britain, France, and o Investment by a fi rm in one nation-
Germany), as well as the US and Japan state in a firm in another nation- state
 decolonization with the intention of controlling it.
o process of revealing and dismantling  foreign aid offered by developed countries to
colonialist power in all its forms. This
those that were less developed
includes dismantling the hidden aspects
o This encompassed fi nancial assistance, as
of those institutional and cultural forces
well as aid in terms of food (for example,
that had maintained the colonialist power the US shipping its excess wheat to
and that remain even after political
developing countries).
independence is achieved
 dependency theory
o succeed with greater frequency as the
o body of work critical of development
twentieth century unfolded.
o followed by decolonization and the
o emphasizes the fact that the kinds of
achievement of political independence
programs discussed above led not so
 after the close of WW II, followed by a period of much to the development of the nation -
neo – colonialism
states of the South, but more to a decline
o efforts at control over the former
o Development of the nation- states of
colonies, and other nation - states, grew
the South contributed to a decline in
much more indirect, subtle (e.g. through
their independence; to an increase in
cultural and educational institutions), and
their dependence on the North.
focused on economic control and
exploitation.  Andre Gunder Frank ( 1969) argues that behind
the whole idea of development is the notion that
 Post – colonialism - Developments that take
the present of less developed countries resembles
place in a former colony after the colonizing
the past of the developed countries
power departs
o Thus, if the less developed countries
 Orientalism - deals with this problem in the simply follow the same path taken by
context of both overt and more subtle negative
developed countries, they too will
stereotypes developed in the West about those become developed
who live in the East
o However, the developed countries were
DEVELOPMENT never in the same position as less
developed countries today; the
 A “ project” primarily concerned with the developed countries were undeveloped
economic development of specifi c nation- while the less developed countries were
states not regarded as sufficiently developed (and are) underdeveloped.
 can be seen as a historical stage (roughly the o Frank also rejects the idea that the
1940s to the 1970s) that preceded the global age underdevelopment of a country is
(McMichael 2 008: 21). traceable to sources internal to that
 argues that it is a product of the o To overcome such a prejudice, and to
capitalist system and of the develop a far better critique of America,
relationship between developed that critique must be “ based on details
and underdeveloped countries and evidence, rather than broad
within that system. prejudices and stereotypes; from analysis,
 he rejects the idea that the not knee - jerk rejection ”
solution to underdevelopment  O ’ Connor argues that this prejudice, like all
lies in the diffusion of capital, others, (1) needs to be challenged and
institutions, values, and so on confronted; (2) needs to be seen as making clear
from the developed world the need for a more differentiated view of the US;
 World system theory and (3) needs to be viewed as being in opposition
o Replaced Dependency Theory to intelligent thought
o envisions a world divided mainly between o the challenge is how to engage with
the core and the periphery with the America without letting anti- American
nation- states associated with the latter prejudices overwhelm critique
being dependent on, and exploited by,  O’ C onnor argues that to take anti- Americanism
the core nation – states seriously, it must be based on intelligent critique
well grounded in facts rather than based on
prejudice against the US.
 related to globalization, but is not identical, or NEO - LIBERALISM
reducible, to it.
 globalisation is really another name for the  Liberal commitment to individual liberty, a
dominant role of the United States (Henry belief in the free market and opposition to
Kissinger (1999)) state intervention in it.
 the import by non - Americans of products,  Liberalism came to be called neo-liberalism
images, technologies, practices and behaviour (Fourcade- Gourinchas and Babb 2002 : 533 – 79)
that are closely associated with as a result of developments in the 1930s
America/Americans. (Richard Kuisel (1993: 96))  Neo- liberalism’ s intellectual leaders were
 fears of Americanization, or at least of US economists, especially Friedrich von Hayek and
industries, declined and were replaced by other Ludwig von Mises. An organization devoted to
ideas and fears, most of which were seen as liberal ideas – the Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) –
threatening to the US, as well. was created in 1947
o “ Japanization”  A key development in the history of neo-
o “ Asian Tigers” liberalism was the election of Salvador Allende as
 Anti - Americanism as a Global Process President of Chile in 1970
 not a homogeneous phenomenon, even if the o Marxist and the US, especially through
word itself conveys a sense of a kind of general the CIA, sponsored a coup engineered
criticism that is expressed similarly in much of the by the Chilean military (with CIA
world assistance) in September, 1973
 There are distinct forms, causes, and expressions o Allende was killed in the coup and he was
of anti- Americanism; in other words there are replaced by the general who led it,
anti- A mericanism s rather than an overarching Augusto Pinochet, who soon became
anti – Americanism President of Chile.
 encompass everything from casual and superfi cial o “ shock doctrine ” = neo-liberal ideas
criticism of the US to a deep - seated and widely  involved the view that a total
shared animosity overhaul of an economy required
 prejudice because it prejudges America, a shock (like the Chilean coup);
Americans, and American action, it offers a one- s and the economic policies put in
ided view of things American, and its view of place were designed to change
America is undifferentiated the economy dramatically and, at
least in theory, to breathe life  Neo - Liberalism: Basic Ideas
into it.  William Easterly is opposed to any form of
 basic free market premises of collectivism and state planning because it inhibits,
this economic doctrine were if not destroys, freedom.
derived from Friedman ’ s o freedom, especially economic freedom, is
teachings and writings (especially highly correlated with economic success
Capitalism and Freedom [2002] ) o permits the decentralized search for
 privatization of industry, the success that is the hallmark of free
deregulation of the economy, markets
and reductions in a nation ’ s  reasons why economic freedom is related to
spending on social welfare economic success and why central planning has
programs been an economic failure:
 Early in their administrations 1. extremely difficult to know in advance
both leaders undertook shock what will succeed and what will fail
therapy by, for example, taking 2. markets offer continuous feedback on
on, and defeating, powerful labor what is succeeding and failing; central
unions planners lack such feedback
 Such shocks were then 3. economic freedom leads to the ruthless
used as a basis for reallocation of resources to that which is
radically overhauling succeeding; central planners often have
their economies by vested interests that prevent such a
applying the neo - liberal reallocation.
ideas of the Chicago 4. economic freedom permits large and
School. rapid increases in scale by financial
 A decade later, the collapse of the Soviet Union markets and corporate organizations;
seemingly left few alternatives to neo- liberalism central planners lack the flexibility to
 shortly after the collapse of communism, Russia make large - scale changes rapidly
and other countries once in its orbit (e.g. Poland) 5. individuals and corporations are willing to
came in for shock therapy and the institution, at take great risks; central planners are risk -
least in part, of a free market economy. averse because of their personal
 Structural adjustment : Conditions of economic vulnerability if things go wrong
“ restructuring” imposed by organizations such  Great faith is placed in the free market and its
as the World Bank and the IMF on borrowing rationality
nation – states  market needs to be allowed to operate free of any
 referred to as the “ Washington Consensus” (Serra impediments, especially those imposed by the
and Stiglitz 2008 ) because of its linkage to the nation - state and other political entities.
political and economic position of the US and the  The Neo -Liberal State
physical location of such organizations in that  Many of the ideas associated with the neo- liberal
nation’ s capital (John Williamson) economy apply to the closely linked concept of
 Neo - liberalism has recently been called into the neo- liberal state
question in the developed world because of the  state in general is to be subordinated to the
meltdown in the global economy in late 2007 economy.
o The US government was led to intervene  In the neo - liberal state the focus is on those who
in the market in various ways, including gain from capital accumulation (the capitalists)
engineering a 2008 takeover of the  social democratic state the emphasis is on the
investment fi rm Bear Stearns by J.P. well - being of all, especially through maintaining
Morgan something approximating full employment.
o Such intervention would be anathema to  Free markets and free trade are linked to a
Milton Friedman who long argued for the democratic political system.
need to allow the markets to work out
such difficulties on their own
 commitment to low taxes and to tax cuts  reduce barriers to the free movement of capital
(especially for the wealthy) where taxes are across national borders and to the creation of new
deemed too high and too burdensome global markets
o Low taxes and tax cuts are believed to  neo- liberal state extols the virtues of free
stimulate the economy by encouraging competition
people to earn more and ultimately to  neo- liberalism has not made the state or
invest and to spend more. particular institutions of the state (such as the
 Tax cuts for business and industry are also courts) irrelevant
encouraged, with the idea that businesses would  Critiquing Neo -Liberalism: Karl Polanyi
use the tax savings to invest more in their  Among the problems with neo- liberalism as a
operations and infrastructure, thereby generating theory is the fact that it assumes that everyone in
more business, income, and profits. the world wants very narrow and specific types of
o Higher profits would “ trickle down” and economic well - being (to be well- off
benefit most people in society economically, if not rich) and political freedom
 Spending on welfare should be minimized and the (democracy). There are great cultural differences
safety net for the poor should be minimized. in the ways in which well- b eing (to not have to
o Such spending and such a welfare system work very hard) and freedom (to be unfettered by
are seen as hurting economic growth and the state even if it is not democratically chosen)
even as harming the poor are defined
o designed to reduce government  Another problem lies in the fact that the theory
expenditures and thereby to allow the conceals or obscures the social and material
government to cut taxes and/or to invest interests of those who push such an economic
in more “ productive” undertakings system with its associated technological, legal,
 Limited government : No government can do and institutional systems
things as well as the market and a government o not being pursued because everyone in
should not intervene in it. the world wants them or will benefi t
o no government or government agency from them, but because some, usually in
can do things as well as the market (the the North, are greatly advantaged by
failure of the Soviet Union is seen as them and therefore push them.
proof of that). 
 leaves a government that is, at least theoretically,  Contemporary Criticisms of Neo -Liberalism
less able, or unable, to intervene in the market
 less expensive government, one that would need NEO -MARXIAN THEORIES
to collect less in taxes  Transnational Capitalism
 would put more money in the hands of the public,  Empire
especially the wealthier members of society who,
in recent years, have benefi ted most from tax CHAPTER SUMMARY
 state must not only be limited, but its job is to
cooperate with open global markets.
 neo- liberal state is very interested in privatizing
various sectors (e.g. “ transportation,
telecommunications, oil and other natural
resources, utilities, social housing, education ”
[Harvey 2006 : 25]) in order to open up these
areas for business and profit- making
o seeks to be sure that those sectors that
cannot be privatized are “ cost effective ”
and “ accountable. ”