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He issued an official nobility of slaves known as

THE DELHI SULTANATE Chahalgani (group of forty).


He patronized Minhaj-us-siraj, the author of
Slave dynasty (1206-1290) Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
He was died due to illness in 1236.
This dynasty is also called IIbari dynasty because
it was founded by Iibari turks and also called Raziya (1236-1240)
Mumlak dynasty
Iltumish nominated Raziya against the will of
It is called so because most of the sultans were
Chahalgani as his successor.
slaves e.g. Qutbuddin Aibak was slave of
She appointed Jalaluddin Yakut an Abyssinian
Mohammad Ghori, Iltumish was a slave of
(Euthiopian) as her officer which offended the
Qutbuddin Aibak and Balban was a slave of
nobles and theologians.
Iltumish.
Most of the governors revolted against her after
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210) his accession of throne, such as Multan,
Badaun, Hasi and Lahore.
First Turkish kingdom was founded by In Bhatinda there was a serious revolt against
Qutbuddin Aibak in northern part of india. He Raziya by Altunia . He refused to accept
has his capital in Lahore. suzerainty of Raziya.
He was also known as lakh bakhsh because he Raziya marched against Altunia with the help of
was a great donator. Yakut. Raziya was imprisoned and yakut was
Two mosques were built by him known as killed by Altunia.
Quwwat-ul-Islam and Adhai Din Ka Jhopra After some time Raziya married to Altunia and
(Ajmer). marched towards Delhi to capture it by force.
Construction of Qutub Minar was started by They were defeated by Bahram Shah’s Army.
him. He named Qutub Minar after a Sufi saint Then they were returned to Bhatinda
Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki. (Tabarhinda).
He was died while playing Chaugan (polo) after They were deserted by their troops and close to
falling from his horse. Kaithal ( Haryana), they were killed by some
robbers in 1240.
Aram Shah (1210-1211)
Minhaj-us-Siraj said “She had all the capabilities
Aram shah succeeded his father Qutbuddin ,her only fault was her being a woman”.
Aibak but killed by Iltumish.
Ghiyasuddin Balban (1265-1287)
Iltumish (1211-1236)
He was one of the member of Chahalgani.
Iltumish married to the daughter of Qutbuddin Power of Chahalgain was broken by him and he
Aibak and subsequently Qutbuddin Aibak restored the prestige of the Crown.
appointed him Governor of Badaun. He started the spy system and created a strong
He is known as the real founder of Delhi army to deal with internal disturbance.
Sultanate because be ruled from Delhi in place He was the person who claims his genealogy as
of Lahore. descent from mythical Turkish hero, Afrasiyab.
Some part of Qutub Minar was completed He assumed the title of Zill-i-IIahi (shadow of
during his time. god) and Niyabat-i-Khudai (god’s vice regent of
He issued coins as Tanka (Silver) and Jital earth).
(Copper). Sijda (prostration before the monarch) and
He introduced Iqtadari system. Head of Iqta was paibos (Kissing the feet of monarch) as the
a Muqti.
noble forms of salutation was stated by him. Alauddin khalji (1296-1316)
These are Persian etiquettes.
He also established diwan-i-arz (military Original name of Alauddin Khalji was Ali
department) and also started Nauroj (Persian Gurshap.
He ascended the throne in 1296 after
New Year).
He died in 1287 nominated Kai Khusrau, son of murdering his uncle Jalaluddin Khalji.
the deceased prince Muhammad as his Religion and politics separated first time by him
successor. But nobles set aside Kai Khusrau and and he proclaimed “Kingship knows no kinship”.
placed another grandson of Balban, Kaiqubad Deccan region was held by his slave Malik Kafur
on the throne. who defeated Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas of
Last ruler of slave dynasty is Kayumers and was Warangal, Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra and
killed by Jalaluddin Khalji in 1290. Pandyas of Madurai between (1308-1311).
Balban showed special attention to poet Amir Alauddin khalji also demolished Somnath
Temple which was rebuilt in 12th century.
Khusrau.
In his time there was some causes of rebellion.
Slave Sultans (1206-1290) Some are mentioned below.
 Inefficiency of spy system.
Qutbuddin Aibak 1206-1210  General use of liquor.
Aram Shah 1210-1211  Matrimonial alliances as well as Social
intercourse among the nobles.
Shamsuddin Iltutmish 1211-1236
 Excess wealth held by notable people.
Ruknuddin Firuz 1236 To curb such type of causes he issued some
ordinances as mentioned below.
Raziya 1236-1240
 Confiscation of the religious
Bahram shah 1240-1242 endowments and free grants of lands.
 Reorganization of spy system.
Alauddin Masud 1242-1246
 Prohibition of the use of wine.
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1246-1265  Nobles should not have social gathering
Ghiyasuddin Balban 1265-1287 and they shall not inter marry without
Alauddin’s permission.
Kaiqubad 1287-1290 Foundation of permanent standing army was
Shamsuddin Kayumars 1290 done by him.
He started descriptive roll of individual soldiers
as (Huliya or Chehra) and branding of horses
KHALJI DYNASTY (1290-1320) (Dagh).
He established a system as market control
system known as diwan-i-riyasat. He fixed
prices of food grains, cloth and other
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-1296) commodities far below the usual market rates.
The market individually looked after by
He was on the throne at the age of seventy in
Shahana-i-Mandi.
1290.
Hindus were required to pay a separate tax
He served Balban for many years as an iqtadar
known as jizya and fixed state share at 50% of
of and iqta.
the gross produce of the land .
He wants to be a pious Muslim with the desire
Measurement of land was introduced by him to
to be recognized as the Mujahid-fi-Sabillah
ascertaining the amount of land in the
(fighter in the path of god).
possession of every cultivator and actual Miftahul Futuh The military campaigns of
produce thereof. Jalaluddin khalji
He declared himself as Sikandar-i-Sani.the Ashiqa & Khizar khan Love story of Deval Rani
second Alexander.
Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan resided in his Qutbuddin Mubarak Khalji (1316-1320)
court and he was a great patron of learning fine
Arts. Literacy lights from them. Shihabuddin Umar, the Grandson of Alauddin
The perfect specimen of Turkish architecture khalji was nominated as the successor and was
was Alai Darwaza and also built fort of Siri and placed on the throne by Malik Kafur.
the Palace of Thousand Pillars called Hazar Malik Kafur was murdered by Mubarak khan
Situn. son of Alauddin Khalji and raised himself on the
 The Alai Darwaza is the main gateway throne with the title of Qutbuddin Mubarak
from southern side of the Quwwat-ul- Shah.
Islam Mosque. All the ordinances of Alauddin khalji was
 Siri fort was built to defend the city repealed by him.
from onslaught Mongols. During his time Khusrau was appointed as malik
 Hazar Situn also known as the palace of naib (prime minister).
thousand pillars. He was killed in 1320 by Khusrau.
Khusrau was killed by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
Alauddin’s Expeditions
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY
Expedition Year
Gujarat 1299 Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325)
Ranthambhor 1300-1301
Warangal 1303 and 1308 During Alauddin’s reign he seved as muqti of
Chittor 1303 Dipalpur (Punjab) for many years.
Malwa 1305 He has alien relations with Sheikh Nijamuddin
Jalor 1311 Auliya.
Amir Khusrau Under the command of his son he sent two
expeditions against the Kakatiya rulers of
He was a versatile person as a soldier, a
Warangal in (1321) and was defeated in his first
composer of poetry in Arabic, Persian, Urdu,
expeditions but in second expedition (1323) he
and a diplomat, shrewd in court matters.
managed to secure to surrender of the
He was a prolific writer which was associated
kingdom.
with more than seven rulers in Delhi sultanate
He directed towards Bengal in 1324 which was
during 1253-1325.
an independent principality since the death of
He assisted Alauddin khalji on his Chittor
Balban so annexed eastern and southern
expedition and talked about performing of
Bengal.
Jauhar by Rajput women there.
The credit of improving the system of
He was also known as Tuti-i-Hind or parrot of
communication, particularly perfecting the
India. He was a good musician.
postal system goes to him.
Amir khusrau’s literary work He laid the foundation of a bid fort called
Tughlaqabad.
Khazain-ul-Fatah Expeditions of Alauddin He was died in 1326 when a pavilion which was
(Tarikh-i-Alai) khalji erected by jauna khan for his reception fell
Tughlaqnama History of Ghiyasuddin upon him.
Tughlaq
Khamsah A collection of his five works Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351)
Muhammad bin Tughlaq is also known as Jauna He imposed separate tax known as jizya on
Khan. Brahmans. He is the first Delhi sultanate to do
He is known as most learned Delhi sultanate so.
among all Delhi sultanate but he lacked He introduced a series of canals for irrigation
practical judgment. which is the most important contribution done
During his reign he started Diwan-i-Kohi by him during his reign.
(department of agriculture). Some town Firozabad, Fatehahad, Hissar Firoza,
Some example of impractical judgments are: Jaunpur and Ferozpur were founded by him.
 He tranfered his capital from Delhi to He is the first to establish employment bureau
Devagiri (1326-1327) which was renamed as and placed an officer in charge of it.
Daulatabad. He established Dur-ul-Shifa (Charitable Hospital)
 He introduced token currency in 1329-1330. and Diwani-i-Khairat (Chariy Bureau).
 Increase of land revenue in Doab region up For the first time he separated department of
to 50% of produce. slaves which was called as Diwan-i-Bandagan.
 Qurachil (Kangra, HP) expedition in 1337-38 He patronized Ziauddin Barani and Shams-i-Siraj
He is also known as “prince of moneyers” Afif.Two important works of history, namely
because he issued maximum number of coins fatwah-i-Jahandari and Tarikh-i-Firozshahi by
among all Delhi sultanates. Barani were written during his reign.
There are two important expedition took place He wrote his autobiography as Futuhat-i-
during his reign these are important because Firozshahi. He also started to translate Sanskrit
this lead to formation of two independent work in Persian.
kingdom Vijaynagar Kingdom (1336) and He is known for his effort to decode the script
Bahmani Kingdom (1349). of Ashokan pillars.
Among all delhi sultanate he faced maximum Longest expedition was Thatta (sindh) and
number of rebellion. Gujarat during which he shows sadness for the
He completed the construction of Tughlaqabad sufferings of his soldiers and pledged never to
fort and was named as Jahanpanah by him. go for a war again and Thatta expedition was
He died in 1351 due to illness. described as most mismanaged expedition
Moroccan traveler Ibn Batuta visited delhi among Delhi sultanate.
during his reign in 1333. Expedition of Nagarkot was the most successful
Abdul Qadir Badauni said “The Sultan was freed during his reign.
from his people and the people from the He died in 1388.
sultan”.
Later Tughlaqs (1388-1414)
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)

He was cousin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.


During his reign he faced problem of imminent
breakup of Delhi sultanate. Then, he declared
his state as a Sunni Islamic state under the
influence of clergy.
He declared that whenever a noble dies, his son
should be allowed to succeed to his position
including his Iqta and if he had no son, then his
son-in-law and in his absence his slave.