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Relationship between Leadership Styles and Organizational Silence in Educational

and Administrative Staff of Second Period Secondary Schools in Islamshahr

Tahereh Hasani1, Leila Sharifian*2, Pari Sousahabi3


1. Department of Educational Planning, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University , Islamshahr , Iran
2. Department of Educational Administration , Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University , Islamshahr , Iran
3. Department of Primary Education, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University , Islamshahr , Iran

*Corresponding author: Sharifian L. , La_sharifian@yahoo.com

Abstract
The purpose of this study is evaluating the relationship between leadership styles and organizational silence in
educational and administrative staff of second period secondary schools in Islamshahr. The present research based
on objective is practical, in terms of data is quantitative, and in terms of the variable is descriptive and correlational.
The population of this study included all educational and administrative staff of girls' second period secondary
schools in Islamshahr that is 401 female. The sample method was stratified random sampling method, to determine
sample size Morgan table used and 196 subjects selected. Instruments were used in this research two questionnaires
"organizational silence" Vakola and Bouradas (2005) and "Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Bass and
Avolio (2000). The reliability of the organizational silence questionnaire via Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was 0.83. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation,
etc.) and inferential statistics (Spearman correlation, Enter and step by step regression methods) were used. The data
obtained were analyzed by SPSS software. The results show that transformational and transactional leadership style
can explain 0.44 of the organizational silence of employees’ variance. Among the components of transformational
leadership, contingent reward and active management-by-exception can explain 0.35 of the organizational silence of
employees’ variance.
Key words: Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, organizational silence, educational and
administrative staff.

Introduction
"Leadership" is a subject that has attracted the attention of most researchers that what kind of
leadership will be helpful in the process of organizational change. Each executive director
according to the knowledge, ideas and opinions about employees, choose appropriate positions to
their style. This style is two types; the transformational and Transactional leadership styles.
Jeams Mc Krigor Bronz as the first scientist to approach transformational leadership versus
transactional leadership in 1978.
He believes that transactional leadership, speculative relationship with their subordinates, but
transformational leadership with impact insights and personal characteristics is created high
levels of need, motivation, values, and in the Spirit subordinates (Javdani, 2011).
Today's organizations need the employees who easy and free sharing steadily ideas, beliefs, their
experience and knowledge in your organization (Liu et al., 2009), but sometimes employees have
critical of the idea, but preferring not raised ideas because its lead to problems for the
organization. One of the reasons for failure management programs and one of the main barriers
of organization development is lack of information that this phenomenon has referred as
organizational silence (Morrison and Millikan, 2000). Organizational Silence is common
phenomenon in most organizations that can happen for various reasons. And makes managers do
49 Turkish Journal of Psychology,Vol 31, No 77 (2016), October 2016, PP 48-53

not contribute with collaborates to expression of ideas and resourcefulness to solve problems and
pass indifference of the problems (Zarei Matin et al. 2011).
In schools, participation and comment by the teacher can help to improving the education office.
Since the schools, due to communication with students are facing with more complex problems
than other organizations that must to solve the problem be used Comments and contribute of
every one of them (Saki, et al., 2015).
Since education organization of Islamshahr has been considered programs for employee
participation, but the staff does not show the necessary motivation for participation and not
express think in basic decisions.
Given the positive relationship between transformational leadership and direct participation in
decision-making, the question is whether a significant relationship between transformational
leadership style of principals and teachers' organizational silence? Is transformational leadership
motivation by offering bonus and negative feedback in transactional leadership can effect on
silence and participation of teachers for expression appropriate comments and thus reducing their
silence? Is it possible to predict organizational silence by the leadership styles?
Prominent leadership skills can be in five fields of "empowerment, inspiration and experience,
personal knowledge, vision and values harmony," Empowerment is a skill that leads to the
establishment of effective processes, organizational individuals in work-related share options
(Yuki, 2012).
Inspiration and experience in understanding the situation, predict environmental changes, risk-
taking, and to build confidence and trust in others with personal style leader (Roold & scloutz,
2011).
Personal knowledge is a skill that will help to leaders in understanding the strong and weak
points, to accept criticism, recycling and gaining from another for improve the capacity and
abilities opinion.
A skill perspective, is rare that only a small number of corporate leaders to achieve it.
Consistency values: related to understanding the values and beliefs of skills in organizations and
individuals (Zomorodian, 2015).
Bass (1985) is described transformational leadership in four parts:
- Idealized influence: explains charisma or idealized influence leadership that acts as a strong
model to follower. Followers are known by leaders, but they want competitive with them
(Mirmohammadi &Rajaei, 2014: 9).
Transactional leadership, his relationship to his subjects is established a series of contracts,
transactions, or a balance-of-service bonus (Yaghoubi et al., 2006).
Zhou et al (2015) this research was to study how predictors of admin misconduct mediated by
emotional exhaustion of silence followers. Data were obtained from 152 individuals in the
service industry Macau. According to the results, followers reported that due to misconduct of
their leader have preferred to remain silent. Also, changes in the number of followers worsen of
the side effects.
The aim of this study is evaluating the relationship between leadership styles and organizational
silence in educational and administrative staff of second period secondary schools in Islamshahr.

Methodology
The present research based on objective is practical, in terms of data is quantitative, and in terms
of the variable is descriptive and correlational. The study population included all educational and
administrative staff of girl’s high school of Islamshahr that is 401 female. Sample method is
50 Turkish Journal of Psychology

stratified random sampling method. Morgan table which is used to determine the sample size
was estimated of 196 samples. Instruments were used in this research two questionnaires
"organizational silence" Vakola and Bouradas (2005) (consists of 36 items) and "Multifactor
Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Bass and Avolio (2000) (consists of 15 items). The reliability
of the organizational silence questionnaire via Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and Multifactor
Leadership Questionnaire was 0.83. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (mean, standard
deviation, etc.) and inferential statistics (Spearman correlation, Enter and step by step regression
methods) were used. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS software.

Results
Table 1. statistical characteristics of the components of leadership styles
Styles components mean SD Kurtosis skewness minimum maximum
Transformational Idealized influence 30.69 6.14 0.86- 0.80 8 40
Leadership Inspirational Motivation 15.98 3.53 0.97- 1.12 4 20
Intellectual stimulation 15.30 3.57 0.74- 0.29 4 20
Personal considerations 15.03 3.82 0.66- 0.17 4 20

Transactional Contingent reward 15.97 3.41 1.03- 1.39 4 20


leadership style Management by active 14.81 3.14 0.63- 0.67 4 20
exception
management by Passive 11.23 3.13 0.16 -0.34 4 20
exception
Organizational silence Organizational silence 51.90 7.64 1.42- 4.06 15 65

The main hypothesis: A variety of leadership styles (Transformational - Transactional) predict


organizational silence.

Table 2. The correlation between leadership styles and organizational silence


2
variable R Sig R2
Transformation Styles 0.58- 0.0001 0.34
Styles Exchange 0.46- 0.0001 0.21
Laissez-faire Styles 0.11 0.79 -

To examine the prediction of organizational silence is used interaction of two styles,


transformational leadership, Transactional and laissez-faire leadership and multivariate
regression was used.
Table 3. Regression coefficient predictor of organizational silence on leadership style
Independent variable B Value Beta t Sig
Transformation Styles -0.27 -0.53 -8.04 0.0001
Styles Exchange -0.20 -0.19 -2.78 0.005
R2= 0.444 R= 0.66 F= 75.8 F= -0.0001

The correlation coefficient (R) was 0.66, which means that transformational and exchange
leadership styles are interaction with each other relational with criterion variables 0.66
(organizational silence).
51 Turkish Journal of Psychology

Hypothesis: there is a significant relationship with between the components of transformational


leadership style and organizational silence.
To examine the above question, Spearman correlation test was used.

Table 4. The correlation of transformational leadership style and organizational silence


components Sig R2
Idealized influence -0.60 0.0001 0.36
Inspirational Motivation -0.43 0.0001 0.18
Intellectual stimulation -0.47 0.0001 0.22
Personal considerations -0.46 0.0001 0.21

Table 5. Regression coefficient predictor of organizational silence on the components of development style
components vale B beta t Sig
Idealized influence -0.40 0.32- 3.57- 0.0001
Inspirational Motivation -0.26 0.12- 1.41- 0.15
Intellectual stimulation 0.22 0.10 1.12 0.26
Personal considerations -0.41 0.20 2.61- 0.01
24.0R2= 0.64 =R= 27.52=F= F=_0.0001

Table 6. Correlation of transactional leadership style and organizational silence


2
Variables R Sig R
Contingent reward 0.53- 0.0001 0.28
Management by active exception 0.31- 0.0001 0.10
management by Passive exception 0.16- 0.02 0.03

Table 7. Regression coefficient predictor of organizational silence on exchange style component


Variables B Beta t Sig
Contingent reward -1.08 -0.48 -7.45 0.0001
Management by active exception -0.36 -0.15 -2.27 0.02
management by Passive exception 0.20 0.08 1.35 0.17
R2=0.35 0.59 =R 34.55=F F=-0.0001

The correlation coefficient (R) is reported 0.59 that to mean that transactional leadership styles
interact relational with each other with criterion variables0.59 (organizational silence).

Discussion and Conclusion


Multivariate regression analysis showed that organizational silence can be predicted by
leadership style. Transformational and exchange leadership style can be predicted organizational
silence P≤0.01. And laissez-faire leadership leadership style also cannot predict organizational
silence and also the leadership styles could predict just 0.44 of the variance silence. The effect of
a change style more than the exchange style to predictions of organizational silence. A finding
that is organizational silence to help predict leadership styles is consistent with the findings of
Saki et al (2015), Zhou et al (2015). Multivariate regression analysis showed that from among
the components of transactional leadership (conditional bonuses, exception-based management
(active and passive), only contingent reward and management components based exception
(active) is entered in the equation of organizational silence and there is significant relationship
with organizational silence. Contingent reward and management components based on the
52 Turkish Journal of Psychology

exception (active) can predict the level P≤ 0.01, 35% of the variance silent and components
based on the exception (passive) is not significantly predict organizational silence.
Step by step regression results showed that from among the components of transactional
leadership (conditional bonuses, exception-based management (active and passive), only
contingent reward and management components based exception (active) is entered in the
equation of organizational silence And there is significant relationship with organizational
silence. A finding is consistent with the findings of Saki et al (2015).
Saki et al. (2015) believed that Management based on the exception (active), leader can prevent
errors and irregularities with training to subordinates to do just affairs but based Management
exception (passive) managers did not show any reaction until the problem.
The leader of the passive type uses only intervention, after the standards were not fulfilled or that
the Problems occur. These managers, passively method waiting occur deviations, mistakes, and
errors until happened, do not show a reaction.
A factor who according to attraction of scientists, the most appropriate options to reduce the gap
between developed and less developed countries the growing role in the success and competition
of organizations, has made the basic task the effective management of organizations.
Lack of insistence to control of staff and emphasis confidence to employees, this led them to
believe that they are an important part of organization can be trusted doing successful.

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