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CHM01 General Chemistry 1

1st Semester SY 2018-2019

Measurement of the Density of Solid and Liquid


Ong, Al Melvin Jr. L.1, Monteclaro, Ronn Mickael R. – Omapas, Wren Barney D. - Omoyon, Patrick R. – Uy, Madeline
Eleanor M. – Valencia, Angelika Kristi-ana T.2
1
Ong. Al Melvin Jr. L., Mapúa Senior High School Department, Mapúa University; 2 Monteclaro, Ronn Mickael R. – Omapas, Wren Barney D. - Omoyon, Patrick R. – Uy,
Madeline Eleanor M. – Valencia, Angelika Kristi-ana T., CHM01/IS108, Mapúa Senior High School Department, Mapúa University

ABSTRACT

The experiment was performed to determine the measurement of the density of the liquid and solid with the use of different methods
such as Geometric Method and Water Displacement Method. These methods are performed to show which is easier and more accurate.
In Geometric Method, it is conducted by measuring the lengths while Water Displacement Method uses water and both volumes are
solved. The relationship between mass, volume and density is important to find the desired quantities and evaluation of results will
happen. It is proven that Geometric Method gives an accurate result than the Water Displacement Method. Otherwise, Water
Displacement Method is much easier to perform. In this experiment, scientific apparatus is a great help in order to conduct the
experiment. Other than measuring the density, and determining the effectiveness of methods, this experiment helps to show the proper
way of handling the scientific apparatus such as beaker, heat exchangers, scrubber, etc. The objectives of the experiment are satisfied
because it clearly shows which is easier and accurate. At the same time, proper handling of the scientific equipment is learned. By
conducting the similar experiment, its much preferable to perform the Geometric Method because it gives an accurate result.

Keywords: Geometric, Water, Displacement, Density, Volume

INTRODUCTION

Density, with a symbol of ρ, is the ratio of a substance's volume. For this experiment, the researchers will be using
mass to its own volume, ranging from very low values for the formula V = πr2h, volume of a coin cylinder, where V is
gases to very high values for solids. Solids and Liquids are the volume, π is a constant which is equal to 3.1416, r is
typically measured in units g/cm3 and g/mL respectively, the radius, and h is the height. The radius is equal to the
while the density of gases are measured in units of g/L. It is diameter divided by 2. The density can be calculated by
an intensive property, which means it only depends only on dividing the mass by the volume. For irregularly shaped
the substance’s compositions and do not vary with size or objects, those that do not have a formula for calculating
amount. Its calculation formula is presented below: their volume, water displacement method is used. The
volume is determined by taking an initial reading of the
volume then, measuring the final volume that the solid
displaces. To do this, the solid is submerged in a liquid and
the final volume is measured. Thus, the density can be
calculated by dividing the mass to the difference of the
To measure the density of a substance, it is necessary to initial volume and final volume.
measure its mass and volume. The mass of an object is
determined by comparing its mass with the mass of a For liquids, the volume can be weighed in a container, and
standard or known object on a scale. The volume of a liquid its mass is determined. This is done by taking the difference
is measured using a graduated cylinder or some other of the mass of the empty container before and after the
volumetric apparatus. liquid has been added. The measured density is the ratio of
the measured mass to the volume indicated on the
There are two methods of how density can be calculated in container.
solids. The geometric method is used for regularly shaped
solids, calculating their density is straightforward: simply The purpose of this study was to determine the different
weighing the object and measuring its dimensions, each methods in calculating the densities of solids and liquids.
regular shaped solid has its own formula for calculating its

Experiment 01│ Group No. 4│ 09/25/18 1 of 3


CHM01 General Chemistry 1
1st Semester SY 2018-2019

II. Measurement of the Density of Liquid (water)

MATERIALS AND METHODS 1.) Weigh a clean and dry 100-mL graduated cylinder using
the platform balance or electronic balance.
Materials 2.) Place 50 mL of distilled water into the graduated
cylinder. Then, weigh again.
 Coins 3.) Determine the temperature of water in degree Celsius.
4.) Compute the density of water. The mass of the water is
equal to the mass of the graduated cylinder containing the
 Ruler
water minus the mass of the empty graduated cylinder.
Then divide the mass of water with 50mL to get the density
 100-mL Graduated Cylinder of water.
5.) Make another trial using 100 mL of water.
 Thermometer 6.) Calculate the average density of water.
7.) Compute the percent error. Get the true value from a
 Platform Balance/Electronic Balance general chemistry book.
8.) Waste Disposal: Dispose the water to the sink.
Methods
I. Measurement of the Density of Solid
A. By Geometric Method:
RESULTS
1.) Get ten one-peso coins. Put one over the other to form a
cylinder. The researchers observed the diameter of a coin (cm) and
2.) Determine the mass of the coin using platform balance the height (cm), volume (cm3) and density (g/cm3) of the
or electronic balance. stack of coins. The measurements are presents in the table
3.) Measure the height and the diameter of the coin cylinder below:
in centimeters using a ruler.
4.) Calculate the volume of the coin cylinder in cubic Geometric Method Table of Measurements
centimeters by using the equation V = πr 2h where V is the
volume, π is a constant which is equal to 3.1416, r is the
Height of stack of coins 1.3 cm
radius, and h is the height. The radius is equal to the
diameter divided by 2.
5.) Compute the density of the coin cylinder by dividing the Diameter of coin 2.3 cm
mass by the volume.
Volume of the stack 5.4 cm3
B. By Water Displacement Method:
Density of the stack 10 g/cm3
1.) Measure 50 mL of tap water using 100-mL graduated
cylinder. This will be the initial volume. Note that the density shown above is rounded down to 2
2.) Get ten one-peso coin and place them slowly inside the significant figures. Next, the researches utilized the Water
graduated cylinder. Then, read the volume. This will be the Displacement Method, measuring the initial volume of the
final volume. water, before the stack was placed in the graduated
3.) Determine the volume of the coins. The volume of the cylinder and final volume, after:
coins is equal to the difference between the final volume
and the initial volume. Water Displacement Method Table of Measurements
4.) Determine mass of the stack coins (ten one-peso coin)
using platform balance or electronic balance. Initial volume of water 50 mL
5.) Calculate the density of the coins by dividing the mass
of the stack coins by the volume. Final volume of water 56 mL
6.) Waste Disposal: Dispose the water to the sink.

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CHM01 General Chemistry 1
1st Semester SY 2018-2019

Method because of the absence of water possibly causing


3
Volume of the stack 6 cm the slight inaccuracy.

Density of the stack 9.1 g/cm3 In conclusion, the purpose of the experiment is to measure
the volume and density of the stack of coins by utilizing
The researchers also measured the density of water in two both the Geometric and Water Displacement Method to
trials, one with 50 mL and the other 100 mL of water compare their results. For future experiments, using the
involved then calculated for the average density, the true Geometric Method will provide a more accurate result.
value of that density, and the percent error. This is shown in
the table below:

Density of Liquid (Water) Measurements CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Trial 1 Trial 2 The experiment has served its purpose such that we can
now determine which method is more appropriate in
Mass of empty 100-mL graduated 97.10 g 97.10 general use for calculating the density of a certain solid.
cylinder in grams The Geometric Method is more accurate and is therefore
the recommended method for use in the general sense.
Volume of water in mL 50 mL 100 mL
REFERENCES
Mass of graduated cylinder and water 144.86 g 197.54 g
1. M.B., B. Chir., M.R.C.P. George B.Haycock, M.D.
Temperature of water 30 oC 30 oC George J. Schwartz and M.D. David H. Wisotsky (1978)
Geometric method for measuring body surface area: A
Mass of water 41.76 g 99.94 g height-weight formula validated in infants, children, and
adults, Bronx, N. Y., USA
Density of water 0.96 g/mL 1 g/mL

Average density of water 0.98 g/mL

True value of the density of water 1 g/mL

Percent error 2%

DISCUSSION

The researchers observed that they received different


results using the Water Displacement Method and the
Geometric Method, but with roughly the same
measurements. The researchers observed that their
measurements for the Water Displacement Method are
smaller compared to the measurements from the Geometric
Method. The researchers concluded that using the
Geometric Method results in a more accurate measurement
of the density of the coins than the Water Displacement

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