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1464

Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 4, November 1992

Overvoltage Control During Restoration


A report by the Power System Restoration Working Group
Contributing authors:
M. M. Adibi R. W. Alexander B. Avramovk
IRD Corp. PP&L Co. ECC, Inc.

Abstract: This paper is one in a series presented on Transient voltages or switching surges are caused by
behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the energizing large segments of a transmission system or by
intent of focusing industry attention on power system switching capacitive elements. Switching transients,which
restoration issues. Restoration of a bulk power supply are usually highly damped and of short duration, in
system presents the operator with unique challenges not conjunction with sustained overvoltages may result in
normally encountered in daily operations. The initial, and arrester failures [2]. Transient overvoltages are not usually
even intermediate transmission system topologies are quite a significant factor at transmission voltages below 100 Kv.
different from the well integrated systems during normal At higher transmission voltages, overvoltages caused by
operation. There are several problems that pertain to switching may become significant, because arrester
these non-normal topologies that are of common concern operating voltages are relatively close to normal system
to operators and need to be addressed [l]. One of these, voltage and lines are usually long so that energy stored on
the problem of overvoltages, is the subject of this paper. the lines may be large. In most cases without sustained
traveling wave transients, surge arresters have sufficient
Keywords: switching transient, sustained overvoltage, energy absorbing capability to clamp harmful overvoltages
harmonic resonance, surge arrester, generator excitation to safe levels without permanent damage. The likelihood
and the effect of transient overvoltages are determined by
study of special system conditions [3]. Computer aided
Introduction analysis has proven to be a valuable tool in understanding
switching surge overvoltages [4,5].
During the early stages of restoring high voltage overhead
and underground transmission lines, one's concerns are Harmonic resonance voltages are oscillatory undamped or
with the following three related overvoltage areas: only weakly damped temporary overvoltages (TOVs) of
sustained power frequency overvoltages, switching long duration. They originate from switching operations
transients, and harmonic resonances. and equipment non-linearities [2]. They result from
several factors that are characteristic of networks during
Sustained power frequency overvoltages are caused by restoration: first, the natural frequency of the series
charging currents of lightly loaded transmission lines. If resonance circuit formed by the source inductance and line
excessive, these currents may cause underexcitation, or charging capacitance may, under normal operating
even selfexcitation and instability. Sustained overvoltages conditions,be a low multiple of 60Hz;second, "magnetizing
also overexcitetransformers,generate harmonic distortions inrush" caused by energizing a transformer produces many
and cause transformer overheating. harmonics; and finally, during early stages of restoration
the lines are lightly loaded, resonance therefore is lightly
damped, which in turn means the resulting resonance
voltages may be very high [6]. If transformers become
overexcited due to power frequency overvoltage, harmonic
resonance voltage will be sustained or even grow.

92 UN 107-3 PWRS A paper recommended and approved


by the IEEE Power System Engineering Committee of Transmission System Equipment Limitations
the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation
at the IEEE/PES 1992 Winter Meeting, New York, New
York, January 26 -
30, 1992. Manuscript submitted Power transformers, surge arresters and circuit breakers
August 29, 1991; made available for printing will be the equipment earliest affected by overvoltages.
December 31, 1991. Figure 1shows power frequency voltage withstand vs. time

0885-8950~W3.ooO1992 IEEE
I

1465

for typical power transformers and surge arresters as In light of the foregoing equipment voltage limitationsand
would be applied on a solidly grounded system. As can be fault contingency, it is recommended that no line be
seen, a power transformer can survive a seemingly small energized if by doing so voltage at the remote end would
overvoltage of 1.2 p.u. for only about one minute! both the raise to more than 1.2 p.u. of normal or 1.1x (transformer
surge arrester and transformer can withstand 1.4 p.u. tap or circuit breaker rated maximum voltage), whichever
voltage for 10 seconds. Above 1.4 p.u. voltage, surge is lower.
arrester failure will precede transformer damage.
In developing a power system restoration plan the above
concerns and constraintscan be addressed by analysis and
simulation as illustrated by the three sample-studies
described below.
.L
2
c
zY Sustained Overvoltages
L.
Ly

= In the following example a load flow program was used to


-.
L

i!
R
study sustained voltages of the system shown on Figure 2.
L This 23OkV system was energized by a generator
=
c
Y
connected to bus 1. The objective was to find a sustained
Y
I
Y
voltage profile as a function of the generator's terminal
L
voltage for a no load situation.
TIMI-Mllllff Figure 3 shows two voltage profiles of the 220kV System.
The upper profile shows voltages to be at an unacceptably
Fig. 1 Temporary Overvoltage (T.O.V.) Capability of high level, i.e., about 130% when the terminal voltages of
Power Transformer and Surge Arrester Generators 1& 2 is kept at l3.8 KV or 1.0 per unit. The
total charging reactive power for the system at this voltage
Any voltage above 1.1 p.u. will put the transformer into level is about 90 MVAR. The lower profile shows that, to
saturation, causing core heating and copious harmonic maintain the sustained voltages within the acceptable
current generation. Note that the per unit base for the limits, terminal voltages of Generators 1& 2 should be
transformer is the particular voltage rating on the tap kept at about 11.0 KV or 80%, with the resulting reduction
being energized. in charging reactive power to about 55 MVAR, which is
within the reactive absorbing capability of the generators.
Circuit breakers called upon to operate during periods of It is important to note, however, that the extent of the
high voltage will have reduced interrupting capability (or generator's voltage reduction is usually constrained by
none at all). At some voltage, even the ability to interrupt underexcitation of generators brought about by a number
line charging current will be lost. This point will vary of limiting factors, including generator terminal low
among specific breaker designs. Although standards voltage limit (as limited by power plant auxiliary
require circuit breakers to interrupt against larger than equipment), reactive ampere limit relay, minimum
normal recovery voltages with reduced fault currents, there excitation limit relay, and rotor core end heating limit [7].
are no overvoltage requirements for line charging current
interruption. The authors believe that most HV or EHV
circuit breakers could interrupt line charging current at Control of Sustained Overvoltages
least up to 1.2 p.u. of maximum rating.
Sustained overvoltages can be controlled by absorbing the
Slow clearing of phase - to - ground faults could aggravate large charging reactive power of the lightly loaded
an otherwise acceptable overvoltage to the point of transmission lines. This can be accomplished by:
damaging surge arresters. Even on well grounded systems
the voltage on the un-faulted phases during phase - to - e having sufficient under-excitation capability on the
ground faults can be on the order of 1.3 p.u. The longer generators,
a fault persists, the higher the likelihood of equipment
damage.
connecting reactive loads (lagging power factors) Considering the last item, e.g., 100 miles of 5OOkV line
to the underlying system including shunt reactors, with charging reactive power of 1.8 MVAR per mile
generates about 180 MVAR. A 5% voltage reduction will
removing all sources of reactive power and reduce this charging by about lo%, or about 18 MVAR!.
switching off shunt capacitors,

running generators at maximum possible reactive


power output to allow margin to adjust for large
charging reactive power when lines are switched
On,

operating parallel transformers on different taps


to increase circulating currents and reactive power
losses,

energizing only those transmission lines which


carry si&icant load and avoiding the
energization of extra lines which will generate
unwanted reactive power, and

maintaining a low voltage profile on the


transmission lines, since the charging currents are
proportional to the square of the voltage.

Inability to perform the above tasks may cause a serious


reactive power imbalance resulting in, for example,
generator self-excitation and a runaway voltage rise.
Switching Transients
I 2
Severe overvoltages resulting from switching surges may
cause flash-over and serious damage to equipment.
Switching transients are fast transients that occur in the
process of energizing transmission line and bus load
capacitances immediately after a power source is
I
connected to the network. Inductances of transmission

- 1
5 1
11
I
lines and power sources interact with capacitance to cause
very fast oscillations in the process. The main cause of
overvoltagesis ill-timed closure of the breaker; if it occurs
1
CII a*,
at the point when the instantaneous voltage of the source
goes through its maximum a large overvoltage can result.
In order to illustrate this phenomenon results of the
22OkV System study are shown in Figure 4. The 22OkV
I System of Figure 2 was energized using Generators 1and
2 at Bus 1, with no surge arresters modeled. When the
generators are running at 105% of the rated bus voltage,

I it can be seen from Figure 4 that the maximum instanta-


neous phase voltage reaches about 2 3 PU on buses 6 and
7. Typical surge arresters would limit this voltage to 2.1
PU or less while using only 5% of their energy absorbing
capability. By reducing terminal voltage on the two
generators to 80% of their nominal values, the switching
transients are kept well within the arresters ratings.
Fig. 2 The 220kV SyStlll
1467

Harmonic Resonance
Fig. 4: Switching Transients

2 : 1 1 During the reintegration phase, with a "fledglinf system,


the capacitive voltage rise due to charging currents will be
sufficient to overexcite transformers and generate
si@icant harmonics. If the combination of the system
impedance and the line capacitance is adverse, then a
harmonic resonance will result. Harmonic distortions
produced by transformer saturation will excite these
resonances, which can result in damaging overvoltages.
Even if transformers are not continuouslyoverexcited (due
to sustained overvoltage), harmonics generated by

-25
-2

0
I

4 8
I

12
I I
I
16
1
20
magnetizing inrush on energization is sufficient to excite
the resonance. To assure that resonance is damped,
sufficient load should be connected to the underlying
Time in milliseconds
system at both ends of line to damp the resonance.
-Voltage on bus 6 I -Voltage of Gen. 1&2 Analysis for a 500kV line has shown that a load of about
three megawatts per mile is adequate.

An RLC model of the network is used for this study. A major concern with energizing a transmission system is
Generators are represented as sinusoidal sources; lines the increase in harmonic overvoltages due to line and
and transformersare represented as RLC circuits, with the transformer configurations different from normal
charging capacitance concentrated at the line ends. Bus operation. The overall objective of a harmonic analysis
loads are converted to equivalent resistances and study is to determine if the line-transformer configuration
inductances (for absorbing VAR loads), or capacitances resulting from energizing of the line would result in
(for generating VAR loads). A model relating unknown excessive harmonic level.
(state) variables of the system and known parameters and
the input is obtained by observing the basic physical laws In the following example, EMIT was used to model a
of balance of current at each node and balance of voltage simple system consisting of a 500/230kV trans€ormer at
in each loop. The state variables consist of currents the sending end, a 500kV line, and a 500/230kV
through each inductor, and voltages across each capacitor. transformer at the remote end. The underlying loads were
A result is a mix of algebraic and ordinary differential modeled on both transformers. The line length was varied
equations, as given in the Appendix This set of equations to attain resonance at 3rd, 4t4 5th,6th and 7th harmonia.
is solved by a method that utilizes automatic integration Pre-switch voltage was varied from 0.9 to 1.1p.u. At these
step size adjustment [8]. resonances, switching angles were varied to produce the
maximum sustained overvoltage possible. Lower order
resonances produce higher overvoltages. Load levels on
Control of Switching Transients both the sending-end and receiving-end transformerswere
gradually increased until the resonance was controlled by
Energizing transmission lines or switching capacitive sufficient damping. Approximately, 3 MW load on the
elements causes switching surges of fast front, low energy underlying 23OkV system for every mile of 500kV line
or slow front, high energy transients. Switching transients connected will damp resonance voltages. Figure 5 shows
are not usually the limiting factor in re-energizing a the one-line diagram of the model and Figures 6 and 7
system. Generally, if the steady state voltages are less show sample wave forms.
than 1.2 per unit of their nominal values, the switching
transients can be managed by typical arresters with ease.
A notable exception is energizing transformer terminated
lines, which may result in harmonic resonance and
damaging overvoltages.
I

1468

Fig. 7 shows the effect of placing 200 MW of load on the


underlying WlkV system at the source end. The resulting
voltage is damped to a harmless 1.05 p.u.

I
5C4-230KV
350uYA

4 5m23OKV
650oUVA

Fig. 5 EMTP Model for Harmonic Rbsonance Studies

In the case shown, a 650MVA transformer is being


energized at the end of an 88 mile 500kV line. B phase
has been tuned to 18OHz (3rd harmonic). The pre-switch
voltage is 500kV and the transformer being energized is on
its 550kV tap. Switching takes place at 0.1 seconds near J
8.88 8.28
1
8.48
I
8.68
a voltage zero with no remnant magnetism in the core.
t i Seconds
The voltage shown is the sending end bus voltage. The
receiving end bus voltage is about 8kV higher. In Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Case in fig. 6 with 200MW Load on Underlying
there is no load. The voltage escalates to 2.0 p.u. and System
shows no sign of decay during the simulation. Such a
sustained resonance voltage would surely cause surge
arrester failures and create system faults. Control of Harmonic Resonance:

0 Sustained harmonic overvoltages caused by over


excitation of transformers can be controlled by
selecting a transformer tap which equals or
exceeds the power frequency voltage applied ( or
lowering system voltage to at or below the tap)
before energizing.

0 Harmonic resonances can be damped by


connecting sufficient underlying loads at the
sending end of a line, or by connecting dead load
on the transformer to be energized.

0 High source impedance can be reduced by


starting more generators and connecting
underlying loads.

0 The reactive power of a lightly loaded system can


e.ee e.ie e.ie e.be be reduced by minimizing the number of
time Seconds unloaded lines to be energized and setting the
sending-end transformers at the lowest tap
Fig. 6 Harmonic Resonance Excited by Transformer
Energization -No Load- position.
1469

Conclusions B = 1, 2,..., 8;

Power system equipment is protected against the effect of L = 1, 2, ..., 9; and


overvoltages resulting from normal operation by surge
arresters which provide a relatively low-impedance path G = 1.
for transient overvoltages. During restoration however,
certain line-transformer configurations when energized
generate a combination of sustained, transient and Inductances (in Henries), capacitances (in Farads), and
harmonic overvoltages which may cause surge arrester resistances (i Ohms) of the above model are given in the
failures and thus system faults, or the subsequent flash- following tables:
over and damage to equipment.
Line data
Switching surge overvoltages have become increasingly
more important with the design of compact transmission Line L From (i) To (i) Inductance L,, Resistance R,
lines and substation facilities. The energy stored in long
high voltage lines is large causing significant transient or 1 1 - 2 0.051457 2.6620
resonant overvoltages which must carefully be considered 2 1 - 4 0.084888 4.0656
during restoration. With the help of analytical tools such 3 1 - 5 0.14436 7.5020
as EMTP and those described in this paper it should be 4 2 - 3 0.011709 0.3872
possible to establish general procedures and restoration 5 3 - 8 0.19289 6.3888
guidelines to avoid overvoltages. 6 4 - 5 0.050532 2.4200
7 5 - 6 0.010076 0.50336
Appendix 8 5 - 8 0.082269 4.2592
9 6 - 7 0.0020182 0.09922
The subscripts and notation used in the RLC model of the
220kV System of Figure 2 are: Note: Charging capacitance is lumped at the terminal
buses
B - bus
L - line (with terminals i and j)
G - generator
Source Data
v - instantaneous bus voltage,
iL- current through line L, Bus Inductance L, Resistance R,
;G - current through generator G
1 8.0737e-4 2.4757e-3
The model can briefly be described as:
Bus Data

diL/dt = 1/L, (vi - RL iL- vj), Bus B CaDacitance CB Resistance R,

7.2673e-7
1.584e-7
cBL = (1 if B = i; -1if B = j; 0 otherwise) 5.332e-7
3.7596e-7
c, = (1 if G connected to bus B; 0 otherwise) 9.3047e-7
1.4717e-6
1.5155e-7
8.1567e-7
1470

Chairman of the Power System Restoration Working a


References: Group, Chartered Electrical Engineer, UK, and a
Professional Engineer in the State of Maryland.
Adibi, M. M. and R. J. Kafka, "Power System
Restoration Issues," IEEE Computer Application in Roy W.Alexander (M'72, sM'84) received the B.S.E'E.
Power, Vo1.4, No.2, April 1991 Issue, pp 19-24. degree (Summa Cum Laude) from the University of
Pennsylvania in 1972. Since then he has worked in the
R o w o r a , R. G.(Chairman), "Switching Surge: Part Bulk Of PeansY1v~a
-
IV Control and Reduction on AC Transmission Power and Light Company, where he now a Senior
Engineer-Consulting. His current responsibilities include
IEEE T ~ on ~power
. A~~~~~~~ and
Systems, Vol. PAS-101, N0.8, pp 26942702. insulation coordination, surge protection and transient
analysis; circuit breaker application; gas insulated
Anderson, J. G. and E. c. sakshung "Lightning and substation; high voltage capacitors; and underground
SurgeProtection: McGraw-Hill, StandardHandbook transmission
for Electrical Engineers, 11th Edition, 1978.
From 1986 to 1990 Mr. Alexander served as Chairman of
Natarajan, R. et d, "Adoption of Electromagnetic the PJM Interconnection Task Force responsible for
Transient programon personal cOmPUterS~ IEEE developing guidelines for the PJM 500kV System. He k
Trans.on Pwr. Sys., Vo1.4, N0.4, Oct. 1989, pp 1550- a member Of Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta pi and a
1554. professional Engineer in the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania.
Dommel, H. W., et al, "Transients Program User's
Manual," UBC Publication, Aug. 1988. Bozidar Avramovic (S78, M'80) received the Ph.D. degree
from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne in

Biography

M. M. Adibi (M'56, SM'70) received the B.Sc. degree with


honors in electrical engineering from the University of
Birmingham, England, in June 1950, and the M.E.E.
degree from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in January,
1960. Since 1950, he has assumed various responsibilities
in the electric utility industry; about half of which has been
at IBM Corp. He is at present a consultant with IRD
Corp., engaged in power system computer applications.

Mr. Adibi is the author of over thirty IEEE papers, a


member of the Power System Engineering Committee,