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Anand Institute of Higher Technology

Kazhipattur – 603 103.

Date : 04.12.13
Department of ECE

Question Bank

Subject : Communication Theory Branch : ECE

Code :EC2252 Semester : IV
Name of the staff :S.Lakshmi Narayanan

1. Amplitude Modulation:

i. In Amplitude modulation transmitter radiates 1000 watts of unmodulated power. If

the carrier is modulated simultaneously by two tones of 40% and 60% respectively,
calculate the total power radiated. (Nov/Dec 2012)
RF power delivered if 40% tone is used Pc= Pt / (1+ma2/2)
= 1000(1+.42/2)
= 1.08kw
RF power delivered if 50% tone is used Pc= Pt / (1+ma2/2)
= 1000(1+.52/2)
= 1.125kw
ii. How many AM broadcast stations can be accommodated in a 100 kHz bandwidth if
the highest frequency modulating a carrier is 5kHz? (Nov/Dec 2011 R-2008,April/May
Soln: Given total bandwidth =100kHz
Fs = 5kHz

Any station being modulated by 5kHz will produce an upper side band frequency 5kHz
above its carrier and lower side band frequency 5kHz thereby requiring the bandwidth of 10
kHz, Thus
Number of stations accommodated = Total BW/BW per station
= 100 x 103/10x103 = 10

iii. Find the percentage of power saving when the carrier and one of the sidebands are
suppressed in an AM wave modulated to a depth of 50%? (April/May 2012)
iv. An AM DSB-FC wave with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage Ac=10V, a load
resistor RL-10Ω and the modulation index m=1. Determine the total power of the
modulated wave. (April/May 2010)
Formula: Pt= Pc(1+(m²/2))
Pc= Ac²/2R

v. Compute the bandwidth of the Amplitude Modulated Signal C(t)=23xcos(230000πt)

[1+0.8xcos(310πt)].(May/June 2009)
Fm=310/2=155 Hz
=310 Hz

vi. Draw the circuit of an envelope detector? (Nov/Dec-2006)

vii. If a 10kw amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated sinusoid ally by 50%, What
is the total RF power delivered? (Nov/Dec 2005)
RF power delivered Pc = Pt / (1+ma2/2)

= 10kw / (1 + 0.52/2) = 8.89kw

viii. A carrier of 20 MHz is amplitude modulated with a signal frequency of 3KHz and
amplitude 5v. If the ma = 0.5, sketch the spectra of the waveform?(Nov/Dec 2005)

amplitude 2.5v 2.5v

19.997M 20M 20.003 - F in Hz

2. DSB-SC:

i. A message signal given by m(t)=2cos(100∏t)+3sin(240∏t) modulates a carrier of

frequency 12 MHz. Give the time domain expression of the DSBSC wave and plot the
spectrum of the same. (Nov/Dec 2009)
Given: m(t)=2cos(100∏t)+3sin(240∏t)
carrier of frequency(fc) 12 MHz so that cos (2∏12x106t)
Formula: V(t)DSB-SC=Vm(t)Vc(t)

ii. What is meant by frequency translation? (Nov/Dec 2011 R-2008)

In the processings of signals in communication, it is often necessary to translate the

modulated wave upward or down ward in frequency, so that it occupies a new frequency
band. This is accomplished by multiplication of the signal by a locally generated sine wave
and subsequent filtering. A device which performs such a operation is known as frequency

3. SSB:

i. Give the applications of SSB SC-AM. (Nov/Dec 2008)

i) Police wireless communication
ii) SSB telegraph system
iii) Point to point radio trlrphone communication
iv) VHF and UHF communication system

ii. SSB is suitable for speech signals and not for video signals. Why? (April/May 2008)
For demodulation of SSB, carrier is reinserted at the receiver. The frequency of the
reinserted carrier must be within 15 cycles per second of the carrier frequency in case of
speech and 4 cycles per second in case of music.Such a requirement complicates the
demodulation process. Hence it becomes necessary to transmit the pilot signal or the carrier
voltage itself at a very low level for synchronizing the receiver oscillator frequency. This
signal has to be filtered out at the receiver with the use of highly selective filters. Design of
these highly selective filtes is thus involved in SSb receiver. This complexity to an addition
in cost.

4. VSB:

i. What are the advantages of vestigial Side band?(Apr/May 2011- R2008)

i)Low frequencies, near fc are transmitted without any attenuation.
ii)Bandwidth is reduced when compared to DSB.

ii. What is meant by fidelity of the receiver? (April/May 2012)

The ability of the receiver to reproduce all the range of modulating frequencies equally is
called as fidelity of the receiver. The fidelity curve shown in the figure basically represents
the frequency response of the receiver.
iii. “For television signal transmission vestigial sideband modulation is selected” Justify
your answer.(Nov/Dec 2009)
VSB modulation has become standard for the transmission of Television signals. Because
the video signals need a large transmission bandwidth if transmitted using DSB-FC or DSB-
SC techniques.

5. Comparison of Modulation systems:

i. What are the advantages of converting the low frequency signal into high frequency
signal? (May/Jun 2013)
ii. Compare bandwidth and power requirement in terms of carrier power P c for AM,
DSB-SC and SSB. (May/Jun 2013)
Compare AM, DSBSC and SSBSC?(May/June 2007)
Band Width = 2fm, Power = 1.5 times of Pc
Band Width = 2fm , Power saving = 2/3 rd of AM
Band Width = fm, Power savings = 5/6th of AM

iii. Compare low level modulation and high level modulation. (Nov/Dec 2008)

Sl.No Low level modulation High level modulation

1 Depth of modulation is less than Depth of modulation is maximum

100%. ie,100.

Low gain, low efficiency. High gain, High efficiency.

Class B amplifier used to as It does not require any amplifier after
3 amplify the modulated signal. modulation.
4 Base modulation is used Collector or emitter modulation is used.
5 Used for wireless intercom,remote Used for transmit radio and TV signals.
6. Calculate the local oscillator frequency if the incoming frequency is f1 and
translated carrier frequency is f2. (Nov/Dec 2012 & Apr/may 2011-R2008)

7. State the applications of FDM. (Nov/Dec 2010 -R2008)

FDM is used in voice transmissions. Each channel is allocated a bandwidth of 4KHz which
is enough to accommodate the audio signals from 300 Hz to 3400 Hz.

8. What are the causes of linear distortion? (April/May 2010)

(i) Phase failure
(ii)Amplitude error

9. Obtain the Hilbert transform of m(t)=4*cos(2Пf1t)+11*sin(2Пf2t).(April/May


Hilbert transform shifts the phase of positive frequency components by -90 degree And that
of negative frequency components by +90 degree.

Therefore, H[ cos(2Пft) ] =sin(2Пft) and H[ sin(2Пft) ] = - cos(2Пft)

H[ m(t) ] =H [4*cos(2Пf1t)+11*sin(2Пf2t) ] =4*sin(2Пf1t)-11*cos(2Пf2t)

10. A transmitter radiates 9 KW without modulation and 10.125 KW after

modulation. Determine depth of modulation. (Nov/Dec 2007)
Pc= 9KW
Formula: Pt= Pc(1+(m²/2))
Ans : m = 0.728

11. Define Modulation, modulation index of AM and list the needs of modulation?
(May/June 2007)
Modulation is the process of impressing information onto a high-frequency carrier
for transmission
Modulation Index of AM
Modulation index of AM is the ratio of amplitude of modulating signal to the

Em E  Emin
m or max
Ec Emax  Emin
amplitude of RF carrier signal
Reasons for modulation:
–to prevent mutual interference between stations
–to reduce the size of the antenna require

1. (i) Discuss on the frequency component present in a periodic and non periodic signal? (4)
(May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(ii) Derive the equation on an AM wave. Also draw the modulated AM wave for various
modulation index. (8) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(iii) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8 ampere when only the carrier is sent.
the current increases to 8.93 A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave.
Find the percentage of modulation (4) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)

2. (i) Draw the VSB Spectrum and explain the significance. (4) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(ii) How do you demodulate AM signal? Explain. (8) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(iii) A 1000 KHz carrier is simultaneously AM modulated with 300 Hz, 800Hz and 1.5KHz
audio sine waves. What will be the frequencies present in the output? (4) (May/Jun 2013)
3. (i) Define Amplitude modulation. How amplitude modulated signal can b generated using
a non linear modulator circuit. (8) (Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008)
(ii) What is a DSB-SC signal? Write the working of a synchronous detector used to detect
a DSB-SC signal with the output amplitude spectrum of each block. (8) (Nov/Dec 2012 –
4. (i) Discuss in details about frequency translation and frequency division multiplexing
technique with diagrams. (10) (Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008)
(ii) Compare Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Modulation. (6)(Nov/Dec 2012 –
R2008 & April/May 2010)

5. With necessary diagrams and expressions explain the generation and demodulation of
AM.(8 + 8) (Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)

6. (i) Compare the various amplitude modulation schemes. (6)

(ii) With neat block diagram, explain the transmitter and receiver section of Frequency
Division Multiplexing. (10) (Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)

7. (i) A transmitter radiates 10 KW with the carrier unmodulated and 12 KW when the
carrier is sinusodially modulated. Calculate the modulation index, percentage of
modulation. If another sine wave, corresponding to 50 percent modulation, is transmitted
simultaneously, determine the total radiated power. (8)
(ii) With a block diagram explain the generation and demodulation of a VSB signal and `
also draw its spectrum.(8) (Apr/May 2011-R2012)

8. (i) Using the message signal m(t) = 1/(1+t2) determine and sketch the modulated waves for
the following methods of modulation:
(1) Amplitude modulation with 50 percent modulation.
(2) Double sideband suppressed carrier modulation. (8)
(ii) Draw the block diagram of high level AM transmitter and explain its principle of
working. (8)
(Apr/May 2011-R2012)
9. With a help of a neat diagram, explain the operation of an envelope detector. Why does
negative peak clipping takes place.(Apr/May 2011-R2008)

10. (i)Compare the characteristics of DSBFC, DSBSC, SSBFC, SSBSC, VSB schemes.(10)
(ii) Explain the concept of FDM with a suitable block diagram.(8)
(Apr/May 2011- R2008)

11. (i)With the help of a neat diagram, explain the generation of DSB-SC using
Balanced modulator. (8)
(ii) Write about the coherent detection method in detail for DSB-SC and SSB-SC. What
happens when there i s phase mismatch?(8) (Nov/Dec 2010- R2008)

12. (i)Explain the concept of Frequency Translation. (4)

(ii) With aid of block diagram explain the principle of FDM. (8)
(iii) Illustrate the formation of Basic group and super group. (4) (Nov/Dec 2010 -R2008)

13. (i)Draw an envelope detector circuit used for demodulation of AM and explain its
operation. (10) (April/May 2010)

(ii)How SSB can be generated using Weaver's method? Illustrate with a neat block
diagram. (6) (April/May 2010)

14. (i)Discuss in detail about frequency translation and frequency division multiplexing
technique with diagrams. (10) (April/May 2010)

15. (i)A sinusoidal carrier voltage of frequency 1200 KHz is amplitude modulated by a
sinusoidal voltage of frequency 200 KHz, resulting maximum and minimum modulated
carrier amplitudes of 110V and 90V respectively, Calculate the following:
(2) The frequency of upper side band and lower side band
(3) Unmodulated carrier amplitude
(4) Modulation index
(5) Amplitude of each side band (8)

(ii)Explain the generation of Am wave using switching modulator.(8) (April/May 2010)

8. (i)Derive the time domain representation of the vestigial side band waveform and prove
that it can be generated using phase shift method. (8)
(ii)With a block diagram ,explain the operation of the superheterodne receiver (8)
(April/May 2010)

9. (i) With a block diagram ,explain the operation of the superheterodne receiver (8)
(ii)Compare the performance of amplitude modulation systems by using different
attributes. (Nov/Dec 2009)

10. (i)The efficiency η of ordinary AM is defined as the percentage of the total power carried
by the sidebands.
(1) Find η for µ=0.5(50 percent modulation) (8)
(2) Show that for a single tone AM ηmax is 33.3 percent at µ=1

(ii)The input to an envelope dectector is a single tone AM signal XAM

(t)=A(1+µcosωmt)cosωct where µ is
constant , 0<µ<1 and ωc>>ωm.Show that if the detector output is to follow the envelope of
XAM(t) it is required
that at any time to 1/RC ≥ ωm(µsin ωm to/1+µcos ωm to) (8) (Nov/Dec 2009)

11. Give the method for generation of AM,DSBSC and SSB waves.(16) (MAY/JUNE 2009)

12. .(i)Discuss the operation of Costas Loop in detail.(8)

(ii) Draw the block diagram of FDM and explain.(8) (May/June 2009)

13. (i)Explain frequency translation.

(ii)Explain time division multiplexing. ( May/June 2009,Nov/Dec 2008)

14. .(i)With a neat block diagram explain the SSB transmissions.(8)

(ii)Explain the operation of a ring modulator. Stat its advantages. (Dec 2008)

15. (i) What do you understand by carrier Synchronization?(3)

(ii)An SSB signal is generated by modulating an 800KHz carrier by the signal
m(t)=cos2000Пt+2sin1200Пt. The amplitude of the carrier is Ac=10. Obtain the
magnitude spectrum of the ower sideband SSB signal.(8)
(iii)Discuss the method of demodulation of DSBSC signal using Costas loop? (5)
(April 2008)

16. (i)Draw the filtering scheme for the generation of VSB modulated wave and explain. (6)
(ii)Explain the double side suppressed carrier modulation technique. (10)
(Nov/Dec 2007)
17. (i) Explain Frequency translation. (8)
(ii) Explain frequency division multiplexing (8) (Nov/Dec 2007)

18. (i) Draw the block diagram for the generation and demodulation of a VSB signal and
explain the principle of operation. (10)
(ii) What is frequency translation. Explain. (6) (May/June 2007)

19. (i)Explain the functions of each block in the Superheterodyne receiver. (9)
(ii) Define sensitivity ,selectivity and image frequency of a receiver system.(7)
(May/June 2007)
1. Phase and Frequency Modulation:

i. Define the modulation index of FM. (May/Jun 2013)

The modulation index is equal to the ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating
frequency. The modulation index will vary according to the frequency that is modulating the
transmitted carrier and the amount of deviation. It can be expressed as
D = (Max deviation frequency) / (Max modulation frequency)
It may also be expressed as
β = Δω / ω m

Narrow band FM is defined as the where the value of Β is small enough that the
terms in the Bessel expansion, i.e. sidebands are negligible.

β = Δω / ω m < 0.5 Often a figure of < 0.2 may be used.

Wideband FM is defined as the situation where the modulation index is above 0.5.

ii. What is the need for Pre emphasis? (May/Jun 2013)

To improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio by minimizing the adverse effects of such
phenomena as attenuation distortion or saturation of recording

iii. Illustrate the relationship between FM and PM ,with block diagrams. (Nov/Dec 2010

iv. Mention the nonlinear effects in FM systems (May/June 2012)

Nonlinearities are present in all electrical networks in one form or the other. The two basic
forms of nonlinearities are: Strong non-linearity and weak non-linearity.
1. The Strong non-linearity is introduced intentionally and in a controlled manner for
some specific application. Ex: Square-law Modulators, Limiters, and Frequency
2. The Weak non-linearity is of parasitic nature which arises due to imperfections. The
effect of this is to limit the useful signal levels in a system.
v. State the disadvantages of FM. (Dec 2008)
i)Receivers are required for everyone
ii) Receivers vary in quality and durability
iii)Receivers and transmitters must be on the same channel
iv)There must be 1 free channel between system used in close proximity.

vi. Define phase modulation.(Dec 2007)

Phase modulation can be defined as the process by which changing the phase of the carreier
signal in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal.

vii. Compare FM and PM? Compare AM and FM? (May 2007)

Comparison of FM or PM with AM
Advantages over AM:
1)better SNR, and more resistant to noise
2)less power is required to angle modulate
3)capture effect reduces mutual interference
1)much wider bandwidth is required
2)slightly more complex circuitry is needed
Relationship Between FM and Phase Modulation
a) Frequency is the derivative of phase, or, in other words, frequency is the rate
of change of phase
b) The modulation index is proportional to frequency deviation and inversely
proportional to modulating frequency

viii. Draw the phasor representation of FM noise. (Dec 2005)



1. Narrowband and Wideband FM:

i. How is the Narrow band FM converted into wideband FM? (Nov/Dec 2012)
The bandwidth of the FM signal depends on the modulation index. If the modulation index is
high, then the bandwidth is large and vice versa.

i. Distinguish between narrow band FM and wideband FM. (Apr/may 2011-R2008)

S.I Narrowband FM Wideband FM

1 Modulation index < 1 Modulation index > 10
2 Spectrum contains two sidebands and Spectrum contains infinite number of
carrier. sidebands and carrier.
3 BW=2*fm BW=2(δ+fm(max) )
4 It is used for mobile communication. It is used for broadcasting and entertainment.

ii. Draw the block diagram of a method for generating a narrowband FM signal(April/May

iii. Draw the phasor digram of narrow-band FM wave. (April/May 2010)

iv. What is narrow band FM.(Dec 2007)

Narrowband FM for which modulation index is small compared to one radian.
A 80MHz carrier is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal of 1-V amplitude and the
frequency sensitivity is 100Hz/V. Find the approximate bandwidth of the FM waveform if
the modulating signal has a frequency of 10KHz.

v. What do you mean by narrow band and wide band FM?(Nov/Dec-2006)

i. FM systems with a bandwidth < 15 kHz, are considered to be NBFM. A more restricted
definition is that their mf < 0.5. These systems are used for voice communication.
ii. Other FM systems, such as FM broadcasting and satellite TV, with wider BW and/or
higher mf are called WBFM.

2. Transmission Bandwidth:
i. A carrier is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal modulating frequency 2kHz, resulting
in a frequency deviation of 5kHz what is the bandwidth occupied by the modulated
waveform? (Nov/Dec 2012)
B  2 max  f m (max) 
= 2(5KHz + 2KHz)
= 14KHz

ii. Compare the transmission bandwidth required for Narrowband FM and Wideband FM.
(Nov/Dec 2010 -R2008)
The transmission bandwidth of narrowband FM is BW=2*fm while that of Wideband FM is
BW=2(δ+fm(max) ), where fm is the modulating frequency and δ is the modulation index.

iii. A carrier of frequency 100MHz is frequency modulated by a signal

20sin(200∏x103t).What is bandwidth of FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of the
modulation is 25KHz/Volt. (April/May 2010)
Given: Carrier frequency(fc) =100MHz
m(t)= 20sin(200∏x103t)
frequency sensitivity=25KHz/Volt
Formula: BW=2[∆f+fm]

iv. A carrier of frequency 100 MHz is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal wave of

amplitude 2 volts and frequency 100 KHz. The frequency sensitivity of the modulator is
2.5KHz/volt. Determine the bandwidth of FM signal. (Nov/Dec 2009)
Given: Carrier frequency(fc) =100MHz
Formula: BW=2[∆f+fm]

v. Obtain the bandwidth of the FM signal C(t)=10xcos[2x107πt+8cos(1000xπt)].

[MAY/JUNE 2009]
Fm=500 Hz
β= Δ f/fm
Δ f=4000
Bandwidth=2(Δ f+fm)
=9000 Hz

vi. Determine the bandwidth of a wideband FM, given that carrier signal of 100 MHz
frequency modulates a signal of 5kHz with the 50KHz as frequency deviation?
(Dec 2005)

B  2 max  f m (max) 

= 2(50KHz + 5KHz)
= 110KHz.

vii. What is the bandwidth required for an FM wave in which the modulating frequency
signal is 2kHz and the maximum frequency deviation is 12 KHz? (April 05)
= 2(12KHz + 2KHz)
B  2 max  f m (max) 
= 28 KHz.
3. Detectors:

i. What is meant by detection? Name the methods for detecting FM signals. (Apr/may
2011- R2008)
The process of extracting the message signal from the modulated signal is called detection.
Some of the FM detectors are Balanced Slope detector,Phase discriminator and ratio

ii. Distinguish between slope detector and foster Seeley discriminator. (April/May 2010)

S.N Parameter of Slope detector Foster Seely

o Comparison Discriminator
1 Alignment /Tunig Critical as three Not critical
circuits are to be
tuned at different
2 Output Primary and Primary and Secondary
Characteristics Secondary frequency phase relation
depends on relationship
3 Linearity of Poor Very good
4 Amplitude Not provided Not provided inherently
Limiting inherently
5 Amplifications Not used in practice FM radio

iii. What are the advantages of Ratio detector? (Nov/Dec 2012)

1. The radio detector provides amplitude modulation, hence additional limiting stage is not
2. Practically the circuit can be tuned to desired frequency, easily.
3. The circuit provides linearity between detected output and input frequency deviations
4. The voltage developed across large capacitor used in the circuit is proportional to average signal
amplitude and hence can be used for automatic gain control purposes.
4. List the non-linear effects in FM system. (Nov/Dec 2009)

5. What is diversity reception? (Dec 2008)

Diversity reception is a method of radio reception in which the best signal impulse is
automatically selected from among those available (as those produced by several antennas in
different locations)

6. What are the applications of PLL?And draw the block diagram of PLL? (Nov-2006),
(May 2007)
Phase-locked loops are widely used for synchronization purposes; in space communications
for coherent carrier tracking and threshold extension, bit synchronization, and symbol
synchronization. Phase-locked loops can also be used to demodulate frequency-modulated
signals. In radio transmitters, a PLL is used to synthesize new frequencies which are a
multiple of a reference frequency, with the same stability as the reference frequency.

1. (i) Explain the Armstrong method to generate FM signal. (10) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008 &
Nov/Dec 2008)
(ii) How phase and frequency modulation are related? Explain (6) (May/Jun 2013 &
Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008)
2. (i) Derive the mathematical representation of FM Wave. (10)
(ii) When the modulating frequency in an FM system is 400Hz and the modulating voltage
is 2.4V, the modulation index is 60. Calculate the maximum deviation. What is the
modulation index when the modulating frequency is reduced to 250Hz and the
modulation voltage is simultaneously raised to 3.2V? (6) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
3. (i) Derive the expression for wide band FM in terms of Bessel functions. (10)
4. Explain any two methods used for FM detection. With neat sketches. (16) (Nov/Dec 2012 –
5. (i) Define frequency modulation. Draw the FM waveform. Derive an expression for single
tone frequency modulation. (2 + 2 + 6) (Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)
(ii) Compare Narrowband and Wideband FM. (6)
6. Write about the basic principles of FM detection and explain about Ratio detector.(4 + 12)
(Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)

(Apr/May 2012-R2008)

(Apr/May 2012-R2008)
9. (i) Derive the expression for the single tone frequency modulation and draw its frequency
spectrum. (8)
(ii) An angle modulated wave i s described by the equation V (t) = 10 cos(2*106Пt+
10 cos 2000Пt). Find (1) Power of the modulated signal (2) Maximum frequency deviation
(3) Bandwidth.(8) (Apr/May 2011-R2008)

10. (i) A 100 kHz carrier i s frequency modulated to produce a peak deviation of 800 Hz.
This FM signal is passed through a 3 by 3 by 4 frequency multiplier chain, the output of
which is mixed with an oscillator signal and the difference frequency taken as the new
output. Determine the frequency taken as the new output. Determine the frequency of the
oscillator required to produce a 100 kHz FM output and the peak deviation of the output.
(ii) With necessary diagrams explain the operation of slope detector for demodulating FM
signal. (Apr/May 2011-R2008)

11. (i) Define frequency modulation. Draw the FM waveform. Derive an expression for single
tone frequency modulation.(2 + 2 + 6)
(ii) Compare Narrowband and Wideband FM. (6) (Nov/Dec 2010 -R2008)

12. (i)A 20 MHz i s frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal such that the maximum
frequency deviation i s 100 kHz. Determine the modulation index and approximate
bandwidth of the FM signal for the following modulating signal frequencies,
(1) 1 kHz (2) 100 kHz and (3) 500 kHz. (8)
(ii) Derive the time domain expressions of FM and PM signals.(8) (Nov/Dec 2010 -R2008)

13. (i)Using suitable Mathematical analysis show that FM modulation produces infinite
sideband. Also deduce an expression for the frequency modulated output and its
frequency spectrum. (10)
(ii)How can you generate an FM from PM and PM from FM?(6) (April/May 2010 R-

14. (i)A 20 MHz i s frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal such that the maximum
frequency deviation i s 100
kHz. Determine the modulation index and approximate bandwidth of the FM signal for the
following modulating signal frequencies,
(2) 1 kHz (2) 100 kHz and (3) 500 kHz. (8)
(ii) Derive the time domain expressions of FM and PM signals.(8) (April/May 2010 R-

15. (i) With block diagram, explain the direct method of generating the FM wave. (10)
(ii)Sketch the FM and PM wave for the modulating signal m(t) shown in figure for a suitable
carrier signal (6) (Apr/May 2010)
16. (i) Explain with a block diagram,how the PLL is used to demodulate the FM wave. (8)
(ii) Consider the FM wave s(t)=cos (2πfct+β1sin 2πf1t+β2sin2πf2t).Find the amplitude
spectrum of this FM wave retaining only those components whose amplitude exceed 1%
of the unmodulated carrier amplitude.(8) (April/May 2010)

17. (i) Derive the expression for spectrum of FM signal assuming single tone modulation. (12)
(ii)State the relationship between FM and PM (4) (Nov/Dec 2009)

18. (i) Explain in detail about non-linear and linear model of PLL. (10)
(ii) Write notes on FM stereo receivers(6) (Nov/Dec 2009)

19. Discuss on FM demodulation using PLL.(16) (MAY/JUNE 2009)

20. (i)Give the method of generation of FM signal.(6)

(ii) Derive an expression for the spectrum of FM signal assuming signle tone modulation.
(10) (MAY/JUNE 2009)

21. (i) What is principle of FM detection? Explain how the modulation signal is extracted
from frequency modulation wave. (10)
(ii) Compare wideband and narrowband FM. (6) (Nov/Dec 2008)

22. (ii) Explain FM stereo multiplexing. (6) (Nov/Dec 2008)

23. Describe FM demodulation using frequency discriminator in detail. (16)(April/May 2008)

24. (i) With a suitable block diagram explain a method of FM signal generation.(6)

(ii) Derive an expression for the spectrum of FM signal assuming single tone
modulation. (8)
(iii) How would you differentiate between wideband FM and narrowband FM? (4)
(April/May 2008)

25. Explain how FM wave is generated by Indirect method. (16) (Nov/Dec 2007)

26. Discuss in detail FM stereo multiplexing.(16) (Nov/Dec 2007)

27. Explain any two techniques including ratio detector, Balanced slope detector, Foster-
seeley discriminator of demodulation of FM? (May/June 2007,Nov/Dec 2006)

1. Random Process:
i. What is meant by random variable?
Define a random variable. Specify the sample space and the random variable for a
Coin tossing experiment. (Nov/Dec 2012 & Nov/Dec 2010-R2008)
In probability and statistics, a random variable or stochastic variable is a variable whose
value results from a measurement on some type of random process. A random variable is a
numerical description of the outcome of an experiment. For a coin tossing experiment the sample
space is S = { Head, Tail } and the concerned random variable x can take the values Head or Tail
with probability 1/2.

ii. Write the Rayleigh and Rician probability density functions.(Apr/May 2011 -R2008)
The Rayleigh probability density function is

for parameter σ > 0, and cumulative distribution function


Rician Distribution:
The probability density function is

where I0(z) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind with order zero. When v = 0, the
distribution reduces to a Rayleigh distribution
iii. When a random process is called deterministic? (April/May 2010, Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)
If all the future values can be predicted from past observation i.e., if X (t, s) is
Known for t≤to, then it is determined f0 t>t0, then the process is called deterministic\

iv Write down the expression for output signal to noise ratio of a DSB-SC system. (Nov/Dec

So/ No = (f2(t)/4)/ (nc2(t)/4)

= f2(t)/ nc2(t)

2. White Noise:

i. Define White Noise.

What is white noise? State its power spectral density.(Apr/May 2011-R2008)
White noise is noise whose power spectral density is uniform over entire frequency range of
interest.The term white is used in analogy with white light, which is a superposition of all
visible spectral components. Its power spectral density is given by
Gn(f)=Ƞ/2, where Ƞ is a constant.

ii. What is white noise? Give its characteristics.( Nov/Dec 2011- R2008,Nov/Dec
2009,Nov/Dec 2007)
White noise is noise whose power spectral density is uniform over entire frequency range of
interest.The term white is used in analogy with white light, which is a superposition of all
visible spectral components.
 power spectral density is uniform over entire frequency range
 signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency
 infinite-bandwidth
 uncorrelated in time

iii. Draw the Auto correlation function and power spectral density of white noise.
(April 2008)
3. Thermal Noise:

i. Calculate thermal noise voltage across the simple RC circuit shown with R=1KΩ and
C=1µF at T=270C. (Nov/Dec 2012-R2008)

ii. Define thermal noise. Give the expression for the thermal noise voltage across a resistor.
(Nov/Dec 2009)

The electrons in the conductor possess varying amounts of energy by virtue of temperature of
conductor. The small fluctuation in energy are sufficient to produce small noise voltages in the
conductor. These random fluctuations produced by the thermal agitation of the electrons are
called the thermal noise.
Thermal noise voltage is given by
where K – Boltzmann’s constant ,T – temperature in K ,B- bandwigth and r – resistance.

iii. What is thermal noise? (Dec 2008)

The electrons in the conductor possess varying amounts of energy by virtue of temperature
of conductor. The small fluctuation in energy are sufficient to produce small noise voltages
in the conductor. These random fluctuations produced by the thermal agitation of the
electrons are called the thermal noise.

iv. Find the thermal noise voltage developed across a resistor of 700ohm. The bandwidth of
the measuring instruments is 7 MHz and the ambient temperature is 27degree Celsius ?
(April 2005) (Nov-2006)
Formula used: En = (4kTBR)½

4. Shot Noise:

i. Give the characteristics of Shot Noise. [MAY/JUNE 2009]

 Shot noise has a uniform spectrum density.
 The mean square noise current depends directly on the direct component of current.
 Shot noise is dependent upon the operating conditions of the device.

ii. Define shot noise.(Dec 2007)

Shot noise is present in both vacuum tube and semiconductor devices. In vacuum tubes shot
noise occurs due to random emission of electrons from the cathode. In semiconductor
devices, this effect arises due to the random diffusion of minority carriers as well as random
generation and recombination of electron hole pairs.

5. Determine the equivalent noise temperature for a noise figure of 10dB.

(April/May 2010)
(FdB)noise figure=10dB
Relation between F and Teq is Teq=T0(F-1)
Where T0=17+273=290oK
=2610 oK

6. A receiver connected to an antenna of resistance of 50Ω has an equivalent noise resistance

of 30Ω.Find the receiver noise figure. (April/May 2010)
Antenna Resistance (Ra )=50 Ω
Equivalent noise resistance of reciver (Req )=30Ω
Formula: F=1+( Req/Ra)

7. White noise has a power spectral density of -170DBm/Hz. Calculate the

power at the output of a Band Pass Filter of center frequency 120 MHz and
bandwidth 20KHz if white noise is fed as the input. [MAY/JUNE 2009]

Its power spectral density is given by

Given, Gn(f)= -170dBm/Hz

The output noise power of the BPF with white noise as input is given by
No= Ƞ(f2-f1) = Ƞ * BW \
8. Two resistors of 20 KΩ, 50 KΩ are at room temperature (290 K). For a bandwidth of
100 KHz, calculate the thermal noise voltage generated by the two resistors in series.
(Nov/Dec 2011)

Resistors are in series Reg = (20+50) x 103 = 70 KΩ

Vn2 = 4KTBReg
Vn2 = 4 x 1.38 x 10-23 x 70 x 103 x 100 x 103 x 290 = 0.112 x 10-9
Vn = 10.585 x 10-6 = 10.585 µV

9. Define noise factor.(Dec 2008)

The noise factor of a system is the ratio of output noise power (Pno) to input noise power (Pni):

iii. Define Noise equivalent bandwidth. (April 2008,May/June 2012)

The Noise Equivalent Bandwidth is the filter bandwidth of H(f) that gives the same average
noise power as an ideal low pass filter of DC gain H(0).

The ideal low pass filter H(0) is given by

no  t   no2  No B H 2  0 --------------------------------------(1)

The Low pass filter H(f) is given by

�N o 2
no  t   no2  2
� H  f  df
0 2
� 2 -------------------------(2)
 No � H  f  df

The noise equivalent bandwidth can be obtained by equating (1) and (2)

� 2
No BH 2  0   N o �H  f  df
� 2
�H  f 
B 0

H 2  0

10. What is Gaussian White noise? (May 2007)

Gaussian Noise
Each noise types outlined before (except flicker noise) is the result of a large number
of statistically independent and random contributions. The distribution of such
random noise follow a Gaussian distribution with zero mean.


1. (i) Write notes on shot noise and thermal noise. (8) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(ii) Derive the relationship between noise figure and equivalent noise temperature. (8)
(May/June 2013 – R2008)
2. (i)Explain the following terms mean, Correlation, Covariance, and ergodicity. (10)
(ii) How do you represent narrowband noise? (6) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
3. (i) Derive the expression for shot noise voltage. (10) (Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008)
(ii) Give the properties of Autocorrelation function (6) (Nov/Dec 2012 & Nov/Dec 2011 –
4. (i) A mixer stage has a noise figure of 20 dB and this is preceded by an amplifier that has
a noise Figure of 9 dB and an available power gain of 15 dB. Calculate the overall noise
figure referred to the input. (8) (Nov/Dec 2012 & Nov/Dec 2010 – R2008)
(ii) A receiver has a noise figure of 12 dB and it is fed by a low noise amplifier that has a
gain of 50 dB and a noise temperature of 90 K. Calculate the noise temperature of the
receiver and the overall noise temperature of the receiving system. Take room
temperature as 290 K. (8) (Nov/Dec 2012 & Nov/Dec 2010 – R2008)

5. (i) When i s a random process said to be Strict Sense Stationary (SSS), Wide
Sense Stationary (WSS) and Ergodic process?(6)
6. (i) Explain Narrowband noise. Show that a narrow band noise n(t) can be represented in
terms of its inphase and quadrature phase components. (8)
(ii) Thermal noise from a resistor is measured as 4_10−17 W at a temperature of 20◦C
for a given bandwidth. What will be the Noise power when temperature is changed to 50
(8) (Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)

(Apr/May 2012-R2008)

(Apr/May 2012-R2008)
9. (i) Derive the representation of narrowband noise in terms of envelope and phase
components and list out its properties. (10)
(ii)Consider two amplifiers are connected in cascade. First stage amplifier has gain and
noise figure as 10 dB and 2 dB. Second stage has noise figure of 3 dB. Calculate total
noise figure.(6) (Apr/May 2011-R2008)

10. State and prove four properties of Gaussian process. (16) (Apr/May 2011-R2008)
11. (i) List the different types of random process and give the definitions. (10)
(ii) Write short notes on shot noise.(6) (Nov/Dec 2010-R2008)

12. (i)Give a random process, X(t) = Acos(ωt+µ), where A and ω are constants and θ i s a
uniform random variable. Show that X(t) i s ergodic in both mean and autocorrelation.
(ii)Write a short note on shot noise and also explain about power spectral
density of shot noise. (8) (April/May 2010 R-2008)

13. Write the details about narrow band noise and the properties of quadrature components
of narrowband noise. (16)(April/May 2010 R-2008)

14. (i)Calculate the noise equivalent bandwidth of LPF with the bandwidth of 2MHz. (6)
(ii) What is narrowband noise? Discuss the properties of quadrature components of a
narrowband noise.(10) (Nov/Dec 2009)

15. Define Narrow band noise. List the properties of narrow band noise and give a brief
explanation of each of them.(16) (May/June 2009)

16. Derive the expression for the Power spectral density at the output of a FM discriminator
when the received signal is corrupted by a additive white Gaussian Noise.(16) (May/June

17. (i) Derive the Friss formula. (10)

(ii)Explain noise equivalent bandwidth. (6) (Nov/Dec 2008)

18. (i)What is noise temperature? Deduce the expression for effective noise temperature for
a cascaded system. (10)

(ii)Explain narrow band noise.(6) (Nov/Dec 2008)

19. (i)Discuss the properties of the in-phase and quadrature components of narrow band
(ii)Obtain the expression for the envelope and phase of the narrowband noise.(8)
(April/May 2008)

20. (i)How sine wave plus noise is represented. Obtain the joint pdf of such noise
component. (10)
(ii)Explain the concept of noise equivalent bandwidth. (6) (Nov/Dec 2007)
21. Discuss the types , causes and effects of the various forms of noise in the receiver. (16)
(May/June 2007)
22. Discuss the following:
(i)Noise equivalent bandwidth (4)
(ii) Narrow – band noise (4)
(iii) Noise temperature (4)
(iv) Noise power spectral Density (4) (May/June 2007)
23. Write short notes on internal noise, external noise, Shot noise and Thermal noise?(DEC

1. Superheterodyne Receiver:

i. What are the advantages of superheterodyne receiver over TRF receiver?

(April/May 2010,Nov/Dec 2007)
i) No variation of bandwidth.
ii) High sensitivity and selectivity.
iii) High adjacent channel rejection

ii. In a Superheterodyne Receiver used for AM demodulation, the IF frequency is 455KHz.

If it is required to receive an AM signal centred around 1050 KHz and bandwidth
10KHz,give the characteristics of the Image rejection filter for a suitable choice of Local
Oscillator frequency? [MAYJUNE 2009]

1. Noise performance:

i. What is Carson’s rule? (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)

ii. What is coherent System? (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)

A system which uses coherent demodulation is called as coherent system. That is the
transmitter and receiver uses a synchronous carrier signal.

iii. Compare the noise performance of DSBSC receiver using coherent detection with AM
receiver using envelope detection.(Nov/Dec 2012 & Apr/May 2011-R2008)

iv. Compare the noise performance of AM and FM systems. (May 2008) , [MAY/JUNE
2009, Apr/May 2012-R2008)]
i. In the low noise case (no threshold), wideband FM has a better noise
performance than AM.
ii. The greater bandwidth, better is the noise performance.
iii. The narrowband FM obviouselly has a noise peformance equivalent to AM.
iv. Therefore in the larger noise case, AM is better than FM because sputtering
sound due to the thereshold effect in FM appears at a higher Si / Ni ratio
than AM.

2. Threshold Effect:

i. What are the methods to improve FM threshold reduction? (Apr/May 2011- R2008)
(i)FMFB Technique
(ii)Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis

ii. Define threshold effect in AM receiver. (Nov/Dec 2011- R2008)

When the carrier to noise ratio reduces below a certain value,the message information is
lost. The performance of the envelope detector deteriorates rapidly.This is called threshold

iii. What are the methods to improve FM threshold reduction? (April/May 2010)
(i)FMFB Technique
(ii)Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis

iv. What is threshold effect in FM? (MAY/JUNE 2009,May 2007, MAY/JUNE 2012)
What is meant by FM Threshold? Explain. (Nov/Dec 2011- R2008,April/May 2010,
Nov/Dec 2009,Nov/Dec 2007)
When the carrier to noise ratio is slightly less than unity, the frequency of spike generation
is small, and each spike produces individual clicking sound in the receiver. But, when the
carrier to noise ratio is further decreased so that the ratio is moderately less than unity, the
spikes are generated rapidly and the clicks merge into a sputtering sound. This phenomena
is known as therhold effect in FM. The minimum carrier to noise for which the FM noise
improvement is not deteriorated significantly as compared to the small noise case is defined
as thereshold.

3. Pre – emphasis and De-emphasis:

i. Define pre-emphasis and de-emphasis. (Nov/Dec 2012-R2008 & Nov/Dec 2011 -R2008,
Nov/Dec 2007, May/June 2007)
The premodulation filtering in the transmitter, to raise the power spectral density of the
baseband signal in its upper-frequency range ,is called preemphasis (or predistortion).
The filtering at the receiver to undo the signal preemphasis and to suppress noise is called

ii. Draw the Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis circuit? (April/May 2010)

4. Define noise figure of AM receiver. (Nov/Dec 2009)
Noise factor(F) and noise figure NF are figure of merit used to indicate how much the signal
to noise ratio deteriorates as a signal passes through a circuit.

5. Write the expression of the SNR for a synchronous detector.(Dec 2008)

{(S/N)o/(S/N)i} = {2f²(t)/(A²+f²(t))}

6. What is meant by figure of merit of a receiver? (Nov-2006)

It is the ratio between the Signal to noise ratio at the input to the signal to noise ratio at the
output of the system.
F = (SNR)i / (SNR)o
7. What is the mid frequency of IF section of AM receivers and its bandwidth?
Most common IF used in AM broadcast-band receiver is 455KHz.

8. What is the So/No for AM with square law detection? (Nov-2006)

So/No = (4/3)*m2(t) (Pc/Nm)2
1. (i) Derive the figure of merit of FM system. (10) (May/Jun 2013, Nov/Dec 2011 – R2008)
(ii) Explain FM threshold effect. (6) (May/Jun 2013)
2. (i) Draw the super heterodyne receiver and explain the operation of each block. (10)
(May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(ii) Derive the figure of merit for AM system for non coherent system with suitable
assumptions. (6) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
3. Derive an expression for SNR at input (SNRc) and output of (SNRo) of coherent
detector. (16) (Nov/Dec 2012 & April/May 2010 R-2008)
4. (i) Derive the output SNR for FM reception. (8) (Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008 & Nov/Dec
2007 – R2006)
(ii) Explain the significance of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM system. (Nov/Dec
2012, Nov/Dec 2011 , Apr/May 2011, Apr/May 2010 – R2008)

5. Explain pre-emphasis and de-emphasis with neat circuit. (6)

Obtain the expression for figure of merit of DSB-SC receiver using coherent detection.
(16) (Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)
6. (i) Derive the figure of merit for FM Receiver. (10)
(ii) What is the necessity of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used in FM System?
(Nov/Dec 2011-R2008)

(Apr/May 2012 –R2008)


(Apr/May 2012 –R2008)

9. (i) Sketch the block diagram of DSB-SC/AM system and derive the figure of merit. (8)
(ii) Using superheterodyne principle, draw the block diagram of AM radio receiver
and briefly explain it.(8) (Apr/May 2011 –R2008)

10. (i) Explain pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in detail. (10)

(ii) Compare the performances of AM and FM systems.(6) (Apr/May 2011 –R2008)

11. Derive the expression for figure of merit of a AM receiver using envelope detection.
What do you infer from the expression? (16) (Nov/Dec 2010-R2008)

12. Define and explain FM Threshold effect. With suitable diagram, explain threshold
reduction by FMFB demodulator.(16) (Nov/Dec 2010-R2008)

13. (i) Explain pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in detail. (10)

(ii) Compare the performances of AM and FM systems. (6) (April/May 2010 R-2008)

14. (i) Explain the noise effect in AM receiver’s using envelope detector.(8)
(ii)What is de-emphasis? With a circuit diagram explain the principle of operation of
pre-emphasis and de-emphasis. (8) (April/May 2010)

15. (i)Draw a FM receiver model and describe the effect of noise in FM reception. (8)
(ii)What is meant by capture effect? Compare the performance of AM and FM system.
(April/May 2010)

16. (i) Define signal to noise ratio and noise figure in a receiver. Obtain the expression for
noise figure in an amplifier.(8)
(ii) Derive the expression for output by input signal to noise ratio of a DSB-SC receiver.
(8) (April/May 2010)
17. (i) Derive an expression for the root mean square noise current in an RL circuit. (8)
(ii)Derive the expression for output by input signal to noise ratio of a SSB-SC receiver.(8)
(April/May 2010)

18. (i)Explain the noise in AM receiver using its noisy model block diagram(10).

(ii)Describe the capture effect in FM receivers,(6). (Nov/Dec 2009)

19. (i) Derive the output signal to noise ratio for a DSB-SC receiver using coherent
detection. (10)
(ii) Write short notes on noise in SSB receivers. (6) (Nov/Dec 2009)

20. (i)Explain the process of preemphasis and deemphasis by stating the need for
preemphasis. (10)
(ii)Compare the performance of AM and FM in the presence of noise.(6) (Nov/Dec

21. Give the detailed noise analysis of a SSB receiver using coherent detection. (16)
(May/June 2009)

22. (i)Discuss Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in FM.(6)

(ii)Discuss the threshold effect in an envelope detector used in an AM receiver.(10)
(May/June 2009)

23. Derive the expression for the power spectral density at the output of a FM
discriminator when the received signal is corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise.
(16) (May/June 2009)

24. (i)Discuss noise performance of square law detection.(8)

(ii)Explain how threshold extension is achieved by FMFB technique. (8)(Nov/Dec 2008)

25. Explain how threshold improvement is done through de-emphasis.(16) (Nov/Dec 2008)

26. Discuss the performance of different types of AM receivers in detail. (16)(April/May


27. (i) Draw the block diagram of Super heterodyne receiver and explain the function in
(ii)In a superheterodyne receiver the input AM signal has a center frequency of 1425
KHz and bandwidth 10 KHz.The input is down converted to 455 KHz (Single stage of
down conversion).What is the image image frequency? (2)
(iii) Draw the magnitude response of the various filters of the superheterodyne receiver
that could be used for receiving the signal specified in part (ii). (4) (Apr/May 2008)

28. What is the function of Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in FM? Draw the circuit
diagram of pre-emphasis and De-emphasis and explain its operation.(16) (April/May
2008,Nov/Dec 2006)
29. Write short notes on the following
(i)FM threshold Effect(8)
(ii)FM threshold reduction(8) (April/May 2008)

30. (ii)Compare the performance of noise in AM and FM systems.(8) (Nov/Dec 2007)

31. Describe the characteristics and advantages of super heterodyne receiver and Explain
the operation of AM super heterodyne receiver with a neat diagram?
(AU-April-2004 , April 2005,DEC 2005), (Nov-2006), (May 2007)
32. Compare the performance of AM and FM systems. (16) (May/June 2007)

33. What are pre-emphasis and de-emphasis? Explain the significance of pre-
Emphasis and de-emphasis in FM system with suitable diagram? (Nov/Dec 2006)


1. Entropy:

i. Define entropy and its properties. ( May/Jun 2013 – R2008 & Apr/may 2011 -R2008)
Entropy is a measure of the average information content per source symbol.
Entropy is given by

Properties of Entropy
1. log2M ≥ H(x) ≥ 0
2. H(X) = o if all probabilities are zero except for one, which must be unity.
3. H(X) = log2M if all the probabilities are equal so that Pk = 1/M for all k’s

ii. A source generates 3 messages with probability 0.5,0.25 and 0.25.Calculate source
entropy.(Nov/Dec 2011- R2008)

Entropy is given by

Ans: H=1.5 bits/message

iii. Define differential entropy. (April/May 2010)

iv. A discrete memoryless source with source alphabet S={S0,S1,S2} with respective
probabilities P={1/4,1/4,1/2}.Find the entropy. (April/May 2010,Nov/Dec 2009)
Entropy is given by

Ans: H=1.5 bits/message

v. Calculate the entropy of the source if the symbol set is {s1,s2,s3,s4 } and the
corresponding probability are {0.2,0.3,0.05,0.45}[MAY?JUNE 2009]
Entropy is given by

H = -0.2log2(0.2) – 0.3log2(0.3) – 0.05log2(0.05) – 0.45log2(0.45)

=1.714 bits/message
vi Calculate the Entropy of the Source with symbol probabilities 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1.
( Nov/Dec 2011 -R2008)

Entropy is given by

H = -0.6log2(0.6) – 0.3log2(0.3) – 0.1log2(0.1)

=1.295 bits/message

vi. Find the entropy of the source which emits four symbol with the following
probabilities{0.3,0.1,0.2,0.4} (May/June 2012 -R2008)

H = -0.3log2(0.3) – 0.1log2(0.1) – 0.2log2(0.2) – 0.4log2(0.4)

= 1.846 bits/message

vii. State any four properties of entropy.(Dec 2008)

i. The entropy function is functionally symmetry.
ii. H(X)=log M if all the probabilities are equal.
iii. H(X) = 0 if all the probabilities are zero except for one, which must
be unity.
iv. H(K) is continuous in the interval 0≤Pk≤1

viii. Calculate the entropy of the source with a symbol set containing 64 symbols each with
a probability pi=1/64.(April 2008)
Entropy is given by

Ans: H=6 bits/message

ix. Define information, Entropy? And entropy for a discrete memory less source ?
(AU-April-2004) (Nov-2006), (May 2007)
Definition of the term information, that the system has conveyed an amount of information is
given by,
Ik = log2 (1/pk)

Differentiate between lossless and lossy coding. (Apr/may 2011 -R2008)

Lossless and lossy coding are terms that describe whether or not all original data can be recovered
after coding. With lossless compression, every single bit of data that was originally in the message
remains after coding.All of the information is completely restored.
On the other hand, lossy coding reduces message by permanently eliminating certain information,
especially redundant information.

1. Define mutual information and channel capacity. (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)

Mutual information measures the amount of information transferred when Xj is transmitted

and Yk is received. It is denoted as I (Xj, Yk)

I (Xj Yk) = initial uncertainty – Final uncertainty

= log2 P (xj / yk) / P(xj)

2. State source coding theorem. (Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008 & Nov/Dec 2009)

Given a discrete memoryless source of entropy H, the average codeword length N for
any distortionless source encoding is bounded as N≥H

3. State Shannon’s channel capacity theorem, for a power and band limited channel.
(Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008 & Nov/Dec 2011 -R2008)

The channel capacity of a white bandlimited guassian channel is

Where B is the bandwidth , S-Signal, N - Noise

The power spectral density of guassian channel is given by

4. Define rate bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency . (Nov/Dec 2011 -R2008, April/May 2010)

Bandwidth efficiency=Channel Capacity (C)/Bandwidth (B)

5. Give the expression for channel capacity of a Gaussian channel.(Dec 2008)

C = ω log(1+ (S/N)) bits/Second

6. State Channel coding theorem. (May 2007) .(April 2008),

A discrete memory less source with a an alphabet ‘x’ with entropy H(x) and m
symbols for every Ts, seconds. Let the discrete memory less channel has the channel
capacity ‘C’ can be used for every Tc second. Then if H(x)/Ts≤C/Tc

Where , C/Tc= critical rate

There exists a coding scheme for which the source output can be transmitted over the
channel and can be reconstructed with an arbitrarily small probability of errors

7. What is channel capacity of binary Synchronous channel with error probability of 0.2? .
(Dec 2007)

8. Define information rate.(Dec 2007)

The average rate at which the information must be transferred is called Information
rate and is given by
=rH bits/sec

9. What is prefix code? (Nov-2006)

A prefix code is a code system, typically a variable-length code, with the "prefix property":
there is no valid code word in the system that is a prefix (start) of any other valid code word in
the set.

10. Define Channel capacity? And Information rate? (Nov-2006-old)

If the source of the messages generates messages at the rate r messages per second, then the
information rate is defined to be
R = rH = average number of bits of information/second

11. Write the expression for code efficiency in terms of Entropy? (Dec-2005)
Coding efficiency = H / N
Where H is the entrophy and N = summation of pk*Nk, Nk is the code length

12. State the two conditions for the applications of rate distortion theory (May/June 2012
1. (i) find Huffman coding for the probabilities
P = {0.0625, 0.25, 0.125, 0.125, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625} ad the efficiency of the code. (10)
(May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
(ii) State shanon’s theorem and explain. (6) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
2. (i) Consider the following binary sequence 11101001100010110100… use the Lempel-Ziv
algorithm to encode this sequence. Assume that the binary symbols 0 and 1 are already in
the codebook. (10)
(ii) A telephone network has a bandwidth of 3.4 KHz. calculate the information capacity of
the telephone channel for a signal to noise ratio of 30 dB. (3)
(iii) calculate the minimum signal to noise ratio required to support information
transmission through the telephone channel at the rate of 9600 bits/sec with bandwidth of
9.6KHz. (3) (May/Jun 2013 – R2008)
3. (i) A discrete memory less source emits 5 symbols whose associated probabilities are as
given below. Construct Shanon Fano code and determine the efficiency
symbols : X0 X1 X2 X3 X4
Probabilities: 0.4 0.19 0.16 0.15 0.1 (6)
(ii) consider a discrete memory less source with seven possible symbols X i =
{1,2,3,4,5,6,7} with associated probability Pr = {0.37,0.33,.016,.07,.04,.02,.01}.
Construct the huffman’s code and determine the coding efficiency and redundancy.
(10)(Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008)
4. (i) Derive the channel capacity of a continuous band limited white Gaussian noise channel.
(ii) Discuss about rate distortion theory. (6) (Nov/Dec 2012 – R2008)
5. i) Justify the need for an efficient source encoding process in order to increase
the average transmitted information per bit, if the source emitted symbols are not
equally likely, with an example. Consider a discrete memory less source probabilities are
P(m1) = 0:5; P(m2) = 0:15; P(m3) = 0:15; P(m4) = 0:08; P(m5) = 0:08; P(m6) = 0:02;
P(m7) = 0:01; and P(m8) = 0:01.
Construct the Shannon-Fano coding for each of these messages in order to increase the
average information per bit. Find the coding efficiency. (8) (Nov/Dec 2011- R2008)

6. (i) State and explain Shannon’s theorems on channel capacity. (12)

(ii) Define Mutual information. State any two properties. (4) (Nov/Dec 2011- R2008)

(Apr/May 2012-R2008)
(Apr/May 2012-R2008)
5. Using Huffman code I, encode the following symbols. (8)
S = [0.3, 0.2, 0.25, 0.12, 0.05, 0.08,]
(i) Average codeword length (3)
(ii) Entropy of the source (3)
(iii) Code e±ciency and (1)
(iv) Redundancy (1) (Apr/May 2011-R2008)

6. (i) State and prove the properties of mutual information. (10)

(ii) The channel transition matrix is given by ·
0.9 0.1
0.2 0.8

Draw the channel diagram and determine the probabilities associated with outputs
assuming equi probable inputs. (6) (Apr/May 2011-R2008)

7. (i) An Analog signal is band limited to `B' Hz and sampled at Nyquist rate.
The sampled signals are quantized into 4 levels. Each level represents one message.
The probability of occurrence of the four messages are p1=p3=1/8; p2=p4=3/8. Find
out information rate of the source. (6)
(ii) Five source messages are probable to appear as m1 = 0:4, m2 = 0:15,m3 = 0:15, m4
= 0:15, m5 = 0:15. Find coding effciency for (1) Shanon-Fano coding, (2) Huffman
coding.(10) (Nov/Dec 2010- R2008)

8. (i) Derive the channel capacity for Binary Symmetric channel. (6)
(ii) Derive the channel capacity for band limited, power limited Gaussian Channel. (10)
(Nov/Dec 2010- R2008)

9. (i)Find the code words for five symbols of the alphabet of a discrete memory-less source
with probability {0.4, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.1} using Huffman coding and determine the source
entropy and average code word length. (10)
(ii) Discuss the source coding theorem. (6) (April/May 2010 R-2008)

10. (i)Derive the channel capacity of a continuous band limited white Gaussian noise channel.
(ii)Discuss about rate distortion theory. (6) (April/May 2010 R-2008)
11. (i)Define channel capacity.Derive the expression of channel capacity for a binary Erasure
channel. (8)
(ii) Consider five messages given by the probabilities (1/2,1/4,1/8,1/16,1/16}
i. Calculate the entropy
ii. Use Huffman coding to develop an efficient code,for that code calculate
the average number of bits/message. (8) (April/May 2010)

12. (i)Find the mutual information for the channel shown in figure (8)

(ii)Explain the following

iii. Rate distortion theory
iv. Information capacity theorem (8) (April/May 2010)

13. Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual information and the
joint entropy of the channel input and channel output(Nov/Dec 2009)

14. (i)A binary symmetric channel is shown in fig. Find the rate of information transmission
over this channel when P=0.9,0.8 and 0.6.Assume that the symbol (or) bit rate is 1000
per sec.P(x-0)=1/2,P(x=1)=1.

(ii) Calculate the entropy of an unbiased dice. (Nov/Dec 2009)

15. (i)Define Differential entropy.(2)

(ii)Define Mutual Information.(2)
(iii)What is the relation between Mutual Information and Channel Capacity?(1)
(iv)Give the (Shannon-Hartly) information capacity theorem and discuss the
implication of the same in detail.(11) (May/June 2009)

16. A discrete memory less has a alphabet given below. Compute two different Huffman codes
for this source, hence for each of the two codes. Find i) The average code-word length. (ii)
The variance of the average code-word length over the ensemble of source symbol. (16)
(Nov/Dec 2008)


PROBABILITY 0.55 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.05

17. Explain (8+8)

(i) BSC
(ii) BEC (Nov/Dec 2009)
18. (i)Define entropy and discuss its properties.(5)

(ii)Define mutual information and channel capacity. (5)

(iii)Discuss the different conditional entropies.(6)(April/May 2008)

19. (i)State source coding theorem.(2)

(ii)List the properties of prefix codes and give an example (set) of prefix codes.(4)
(iii) Write a note on rate distortion theory.(10)(April/May 2008)

20. (i)What is the capacity of discrete memory less channel? (2)

(ii)A discrete memory less channel has the following alphabet with probability of
SYMBOL S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

PROBABILITY 0.125 0.0625 0.25 0.0625 0.125 0.125 0.25

Generate the Huffman code. Find average encoded length,entropy and η. (14)

(Nov/Dec 2007)

21. (i) A channel as the following matrix

P(Y/X)= 1-p p 0
0 p 1-p
Draw the channel diagram.If the source has equally likely outputs.Compute the
probability associated with the channel outputs for p=0.2.
(ii)What is entropy.(2) (Nov/Dec 2007)

22. (i)Discuss source coding theorem. (5)

(ii)Give the advantages and disadvantage of channel coding in detail. (6)
(iii)Discuss the data compaction. (5) (May/June 2007)

23. (i)Write short notes on Differential entropy. (3)

(ii)Derive the channel capacity theorem. (7)
(iii)Discuss the implication of information capacity theorem. (6) (May/June 2007)
Faculty in charge HOD