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A Guide to Research Tools Face to Face Interviews Face to Face Interviews Jason Muise
A Guide to Research Tools
A Guide to Research Tools

Face to Face Interviews

Face to Face Interviews

Jason Muise

Kenton Olson

Table of Contents

What is a Face to Face Research Interview?

1

Types of Face to Face Interviews

1

Use of Different Types of Face to Face Interviews

2

Types of Ques- tions

2

Tips in Conducting a Face to Face Interview

2

Advantages and

3

Disadvantages

Example and Ref- erences

4

What is a Face to Face research interview?

An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people that can help you gather valid and reliable data that is relevant to your research objec- tives (Kahn and Cannel, 1957). Face to face interviews allow for personal com- munication and make it possible to gather more information for your study.

The research interview is a general term for several types of interviews. Some may be highly formalized and structured or they may be informal and unstructured conversations. The following are examples of types of inter- views most commonly used in face to face re- search.

inter- views most commonly used in face to face re- search. Types of Face to Face

Types of Face to Face Interviews

SEMI-

STRUCTURED:

Usually with a semi- structured questionnaire…

These types of interviews are very loosely structured and consist of open-ended ques- tions that define the chosen topic. The interviewer/ interviewee may stray slightly from the question to pursue an idea in more detail

IN-DEPTH:

Usually with an in-depth interview questionnaire…

These types of interviews usually cover one or two issues in great detail and questions are based on what the interviewee says. The questions are the least structured of the three mentioned

STRUCTURED:

Usually with a structured questionnaire…

These types of interviews consist of administering structured questionnaires and trained interviewers ask fixed choice questions in a consistent format

Face to face

interviews

are usually

more accu-

rate than

other data

collection

methods

(Jack Rabin)

Use of Different Types of Interviews Structured Semi-structured In depth Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory   

Use of Different Types of Interviews

Structured

Semi-structured

In depth

Exploratory

Descriptive

Explanatory

 

 

 

 

= more frequent, = less frequent

These various types of interviews are potentially valuable and useful while undertaking your research project.

Types of Questions for Interviews

Open ended questions and probing questions: are generally used in in-depth and semi-structured

types of interviews.

Specific and closed questions: are generally used in structured research interviews

The key points that need to be considered while conducting an interview are the need for consistency between the research question and objectives, the strategy to be employed and the methods of data collection to be used.

Tips in Conducting a Face to Face Interview

Be organized and knowledgeable in the material presented

Ask the same question of every respondent

Ask every question in the same context

Explain the purpose of the research to respondents in the same manner

Make the effort to ensure that each question is understood in the same way

Write down the answers in a standardized form

Try to extract correct information without bias

Be aware of the impact of your behavior

These important tips will ensure reliable, credible, and unbiased results, while creating a more accurate outcome of the overall survey.

Advantages of The Face to Face Interview  Researcher can elicit more in-depth response or

Advantages of The Face to Face Interview

Researcher can elicit more in-depth response or fill in information if participant does not understand the question

information if participant does not understand the question  Different data collection techniques – open-ended

Different data collection techniques open-ended questions, visual aids, etc

Certainty about who answered the questions

The ability to find the target population

Longer interviews are sometimes tolerated

Very convenient for the respondent

sometimes tolerated  Very convenient for the respondent  Extensive probing can be used to collect

Extensive probing can be used to collect detailed information

Respondents body language can guide the interviewer and be recorded to help interpret com- ments

Disadvantages of a face to face interview

Intrusive and reactive

Cost time and money

Difficult to locate respondents for call backs

Each location has it’s own characteristics, which can effect mood or attitude towards the inter-

view

Stage fright for interviewer or interviewee

Jumping from one subject to another

Giving advise during an interview

Counseling (summarizing responses too early)

 Giving advise during an interview  Counseling (summarizing responses too early) Face to Face Interviews
A Guide to Research Tools Vancouver Island University Recreation Tourism Research Institute Kenton Olson Jason
A Guide to
Research Tools
Vancouver Island
University
Recreation Tourism
Research Institute
Kenton Olson
Jason Muise
Example The management of an historical tourist attraction to explore the in the South East
Example
The management
of
an historical tourist
attraction
to explore the
in the South East wished
perceptions and opinions
of users and non-users
of
the attraction as a means of more effectively mar-
keting the attraction
on an international basis.
Semi
-structured
depth interviews were conducted with a
and home and
quota sample of users and non-users,
overseas
visitors.
The interviews
enabled
the
de-
tailed exploration of reasons for their use / non-use,
their perceptions
of
the
attraction, their
under-
significance, and an overall
standing of its historical
measure of their satisfaction.

References

Cano, V. (n.d.). questionnaire or interview? In foundation steps . Retrieved October 21, 2007, from

http://www.qmuc.ac.uk/psych/RTrek/foundation/f10.htm

Face to face interviews. (2006, December 13). Quad research. Retrieved October 21, 2007, from

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/retail/quad/methodsandtechniques/face_to_face_interviews/

Face to face interviews. (n.d.). intelligent research skopos. Retrieved October 21, 2007, from http://www.skopos.de/deEN/face-to-face-interviews

Designing structured interviews for educational research . (1997). practical assessment, research &

evaluation. Retrieved October 21, 2007, from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=12

Collecting primary data using semi-structured and in-depth interviews. (n.d.). Chapter 9 , 244-273.