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TLV-C (Threshold limit value ceiling) The maximum concentration of a chemical that should not be

exceeded even momentarily.

TLV-STEL (Threshold limit value short term exposure limit) The maximum allowable concentration of a chemical for
exposures not exceeding 15 minutes.

What can Brucellosis; ringworm and Q-fever be contracted Contracted from animals

What is asbestosis? Asbestosis is condition developed in lungs as

a result of inhalation of asbestosis fibers.

What is siderosis? Siderosis is an adverse condition developed

in lungs (similar to asbestosis) as a result
inhalation of metal fumes or dust generated
in most welding and grinding operations.
Also associated with fibrous materials, as
well as with mining and processing of iron
What is Byssinosis? It is an occupational disease that is caused as
a result of excessive exposure to cotton

What is Dermatosis? It is an occupational disease of skin as a

result of exposure to chemicals or physical
work place agents.

What is carpal tunnel syndrome? Occupational wrist injury due to repetitive

motion. Symptoms include inflammation
and pain in the wrist.

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) Caused as a result of over-exposure to

excessive noise. Temporary threshold shift
(TTS) or permanent threshold shift (PTS)
can result.

Presbycusis is loss of hearing due to natural


Melanoma Type of skin cancer caused as a result of

over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Raynaud’s syndrome Occupational disease that is caused by over
exposure of the hands to vibrating tools.

Narcosis Acute condition resulting from over-

exposure to solvents. Symptoms include
disorientation and confusion.

Leukemia Type of cancer that may be produced

within the body as a result of over-exposure
to ionizing radiation.

Various solvents are linked with leukemia-

i.e. benzene

What is ionizing radiation? It is any electromagnetic or particulate radiation capable of

producing ions either directly or indirectly as a result of
interaction with matter. The biological effects of ionizing
radiation represent the effort of the living organism to deal
with the excess energy left in it after interaction of its atoms
with an ionizing ray or particle.

What is a Curie (Ci)? A measure of the activity of the radioactive material, one
curie is equivalent of 3.7x10-10 disintegrations per second.
What is a rad? Measure of the dose of the ionizing radiation to the body in
terms of energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue.

What is a roentgen? A special unit used for measuring exposure to radiation, one
roentgen equal’s 2.58x10-4 coulomb per kilogram of air.

What is a rem? It is a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to the

body tissue in terms of its estimated biological effect relative
to the dose of one roentgen.

What are hazards of ultraviolet radiation? With skin it may give rise to condition called “erythema” that
is commonly called sunburn.

Exposure of the unprotected eye can cause inflammation of

the cornea, giving rise to conditions known as “keratitis” and

Hazards of infrared radiation? Can damage the unprotected eye or skin by releasing energy
and producing a heating effect. Over-exposure of
unprotected eyes to infrared radiation could give rise to
How are employee doses of radiation measured in the Typically measured in rems. A dose of one Roentgen due to
workplace? X-ray or gamma radiation is equivalent to one rem.

Radiation exposures that exceed prescribed regulatory limits

must be reported to OSHA within 24 hours of the incident. A
written report of the incident must be submitted no later than
30 days from the occurrence of the incident.

What is the inverse square law re: radiation? This means that the energy of radiation source is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance.

Light re: radiation? Light is also a form of radiation. It follows the inverse square
law. The quantity of illumination is measured in foot-candles.

How can employee exposure to radiation be controlled? Employee exposure to radiation can be controlled by means
of “shielding” the source, distance from the source (inverse
square law), and reducing the time of exposure.

1. Shielding for alpha rays: paper, aluminum sheets, and

even ordinary clothing.
2. Shielding for beta radiation: lead, aluminum and
3. Shielding for gamma rays: concrete, water, lead and

In ionizing radiation, what are the most penetrating and X-rays and gamma rays are the most penetrating and alpha
what are the least penetrating? particles are the least penetrating.