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(b) The characteristic equation for E follows from det (H − EI) = −E 2 (E − 5) =

0. The eigenvalues are then E = 5, and a degenerate pair with E = 0. The

normalized eigenvectors corresponding to E = 5, E = 0, and E = 0 are:

1 0 2i

1 1

√ 0 , 1 , √ 0 ,

5 2i 0 5 1

respectively. We can construct U † using the eigenvectors as the columns:

1

√

5

0 √2i5

.

U† = 0 1 0 .

2i

√

5

0 √15

along the diagonal, and is 0 elsewhere.

2. (a) Consider

[x, [H, x]] = [x, Hx − xH] = 2xHx − x2 H − Hx2 .

For the last two terms, the ground state matrix element can be written as

⟨E0 |x2 H + Hx2 |E0 ⟩ = 2E0 ⟨E0 |x2 |E0 ⟩

∑

= 2E0 ⟨E0 |x|Ej ⟩⟨Ej |x|E0 ⟩

j

∑

= 2E0 |xj0 |2 .

j

Furthermore,

∑

2⟨E0 |xHx|E0 ⟩ = 2 ⟨E0 |x|Ej ⟩⟨Ej |H|Ej ⟩⟨Ej |x|E0 ⟩

j

∑

= 2 ⟨E0 |x|Ej ⟩Ej ⟨Ej |x|E0 ⟩

j

∑

= 2 Ej |xj0 |2 .

j

Therefore

1 ∑

⟨E0 |[x, [H, x]]|E0 ⟩ = |xj0 |2 (Ej − E0 ) .

2 j

(b) Now

1 2 iℏ

[H, x] = [p , x] = − p

2m m

1 iℏ ℏ2

∴ [x, [H, x]] = − [x, p] = .

2 m 2m

1

3. For the even-parity state, for x > 0 we have the following solutions to the Schroedinger

equation in the regions x < d and x > d:

{

A (eκx + e−κx ) , 0 < x < d

ψ(x) =

e−κx , x>d

tive ψ ′ (x) is found by integrating the Schroedinger equation over an infinitesimal in-

terval d − ϵ < x < d + ϵ, giving

2maV0

ψ ′ (d + ϵ) − ψ ′ (d − ϵ) = − ψ(d).

ℏ2

Isolating the x < d from the x > d terms, we find the following two equations:

( )

A eκd + e−κd = e−κd (1)

( )

( κd −κd

) −κd 2maV0

κA e − e = e −κ + . (2)

ℏ2

2maV0

κ tanh(κd) = −κ + ,

ℏ2

which is equivalent to the required result.

For the odd parity state, for x > 0 we have

{

A (eκx − e−κx ) , 0 < x < d

ψ(x) =

e−κx , x>d

two equations:

( )

A eκd − e−κd = e−κd (3)

( )

( ) 2maV0

κA eκd + e−κd = e−κd −κ + . (4)

ℏ2

2maV0

κ coth(κd) = −κ + ,

ℏ2

as required.

2

4. (a) We have

xn0 † xn0 [ † n ]

x̂n = n/2

(â + â) n

= n/2

(â ) + (â† )n−1 â + . . . + â† ân−1 + ân ,

2 2

with all possible orderings, since â† and â don’t commute. There is only one term

with ân . We also have

√ √

â|En ⟩ = n|En−1 ⟩ . ∴ ân |En ⟩ = n!|E0 ⟩ .

For the matrix element ⟨E0 |x̂n |En ⟩ only the ân term has a non-zero matrix ele-

ment, so that

xn0

⟨E0 |x̂n |En ⟩ = n/2 ⟨E0 |ân |En ⟩

2 √

xn0 √ n!

= n/2 n! ⟨E0 |E0 ⟩ = n/2 xn0 .

2 2

(b) To show

[ ]

â, (â + â† )n = n(â + â† )n−1

we can use induction. Clearly it is true for n = 1 based on the fundamental

relation ââ† = â† â + 1. Assume it is true for some n. Then

[ ]

â, (â + â† )n+1 = â(â + â† )(â + â† )n − (â + â† )n+1 â

( )

= (â + â† )â + 1 (â + â† )n − (â + â† )n+1 â

[ ]

= â, (â + â† )n + (â + â† )n

= (n − 1)(â + â† )n + (â + â† )n

= n(â + â† )n .

Now discarding terms involving ⟨E0 |â† and â|E0 ⟩, we can manipulate the expec-

tation value

⟨E0 |(â + â† )2k |E0 ⟩ = ⟨E0 |â(â + â† )2k−1 |E0 ⟩

= (2k − 1)⟨E0 |(â + â† )2k−2 |E0 ⟩

= (2k − 1)(2k − 3) · · · (3)(1)

(2k)!

=

(2k)(2k − 2) · · · (2)

(2k)!

= .

2k k!

5. We have ââ† |E0 ⟩ = (â† â + 1)|E0 ⟩ = |E0 ⟩. Proceed by induction. Suppose

â(â† )n |E0 ⟩ = n(â† )n−1 |E0 ⟩,

which is true for n = 1. Then

â(â† )n+1 |E0 ⟩ =ââ† (â† )n |E0 ⟩

=(â† â + 1)(â† )n |E0 ⟩

=â† n(â† )n−1 |E0 ⟩ + (â† )n |E0 ⟩

=(n + 1)(â† )n |E0 ⟩

d † n+1

= (â ) |E0 ⟩.

dâ†

3

If we expand the function f (â† ) in a Taylor series

∑

∞

f (â† ) = cn (â† )n ,

n=0

then clearly

∑

∞

†

âf (â )|E0 ⟩ = cn â(â† )n |E0 ⟩

n=0

∑

∞

d † n

= cn (â ) |E0 ⟩

n=0

dâ†

d

= †

f (â† )|E0 ⟩.

dâ

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